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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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The web tier. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. and sends it back to the client program. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. processes it (if necessary). Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. processes it (if necessary). like HTML pages.7 business components Business code.2 Server communication 1. enterprise edition Figure 1. 5 . Figure 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. or finance.java platform.1 . is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. 1. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. retail. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. like the client tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. are not considered web components.

the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. 1. 1. enterprise bean. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.1 . database systems. Business and EIS Tiers 1. and other legacy information systems.9 java EE Containers Normally. Before a web. 6 . resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). multithreading.3 Web. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.java platform. and other complex low-level details. In addition. or application client component can be executed. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. For example. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.9.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. mainframe transaction processing. enterprise edition Figure 1.

The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. After an enterprise bean is created.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. 7 . and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 1.java platform. For example. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. transaction management. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. including services such as security. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.9. data persistence. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.1 .4. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. database connection resource pooling.

A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. enterprise edition Figure 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. develop. extensible. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.manages the execution of application client components. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.manages the execution of applets. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. For example. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Applet container . 1. Web container . Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. Application clients and their container run on the client.10.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. XML data. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.java platform. 8 . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. test. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.1 . or for document-oriented web services. 1. program files. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. When XML data is exchanged between parties.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. maps. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. text-based standard for representing data. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. video.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Application client container .

3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.10. enterprise edition 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.java platform. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. such as Universal Description. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).1 .2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. the location of the service.10. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.10. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. and ways to communicate with the service. The description includes the name of the service. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. 1.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. 9 .

enterprise edition Figure 1. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. the session bean and its data are gone.11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.11. In Java EE 5. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. 1. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. 1. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. or if the server shuts down. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single. If the client terminates. When the client finishes executing.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. and XML) and JSP elements. WML. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. or enterprise bean.1 . Commonly. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.java platform.11. standard set of tags. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . a module. it is ready to be deployed. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. JSP page. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. module. and JNDI 1. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. SAAJ.java platform. Once deployed on a local platform.ear extension. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. 15 . a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . the application is ready to run. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. servlet. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. such as better performance. or component accordingly.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. No extra coding is needed. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. better tools. or better customer support. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. JTA.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete.1 . Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. or a component. At runtime.

xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. such as caching directives. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. supporting class files.war (Web ARchive) extension. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. which contain servlet class files. which contain all Java interfaces. and a web application deployment descriptor.java platform. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.jar extension. enterprise edition Figure 1. Resource adapter modules. • • 16 . the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. and other documentation.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Together. Web modules. Application client modules. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . classes. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.1 . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. For example. GIF and HTML files. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. native libraries.jar extension. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. for example. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files.

jmarshall. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. an initial line 2. POST. as follows: 1. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).. As a site for understanding how HTTP works..3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .w3.HTTP 2.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.org/Protocols . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.com/easy/http. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. but they also have some common structural elements. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. namely HTTP 1. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.html). so far) version.1. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).HTTP 2 .0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. RFC 2616 (06/99)..2 .. .org/rfc/rfc1945. 2. we recommend www. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . These messages may have different contents. was the object of several RFCs. zero or more header lines 3. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.ietf. The second (and last. The client sends a request message to the server.apps. The server answers with a response message. HEAD. check the official HTTP site – www.

unless that text happens to be the output of the process. HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. POST 4.html HTTP/1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.Annotation of existing resources.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. DELETE 6. 18 . newsgroup.1 specification. mailing list. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. but lack of support makes them obsolete. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. in the HTTP 1.0).Posting a message to a bulletin board. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. CONNECT 5. GET /path/to/the/file/index. TRACE Three other commands are listed. HEAD 3.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. PUT 8. Here is their list: 1. OPTIONS 7. GET 2. as well.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. 2.2 . .1. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.

a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. or ordering a product. to a data-handling process.HTTP or similar group of articles. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. 3. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).” On the other side. 2.Providing a block of data.2 .0 404 Not Found 2. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. When used for form data submission. In this case. . or a record is subordinate to a database. .8 the status code A three-digit integer. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data).7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.Extending a database through an append operation.6 differences between GET and POST 1. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. separated by the character “&” or “. or sending E-mail 2. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. after the “?” character. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . like storing or updating data. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. such as the result of submitting a form. while POST may involve anything. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. or in the message body.

an unexpected server error. fails. separated a semicolon. and the resulting resource (e. such as text/html or image/jpg. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.1 version specifies 46 of them. one (Host) is mandatory.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. and section 10 for HTTP 1. or otherwise can't run correctly. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. In particular. 20 . that is. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. The HTTP 1. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. 404 Not Found .1).HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . while the HTTP 1. If an HTTP message includes a body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. file or script output) is returned in the message body.the requested resource doesn't exist. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. header name and header value. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.0. 2.g. 2. out of which. 500 Server Error .1 only) . the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.2 .the request succeeded. none of them mandatory. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. header values are. where the requested resource is returned to the client. In a request. Although the header names are not case sensitive.0 version specifies 16 headers. The most common use of the message body is in a response.

org/rfc/rfc1521. with subtypes jpeg.html HTTP/1. message. audio.0 From: someuser@yahoo.apps. with subtype mpeg 2.info. parallel 3.ietf.ro/path/file. text.uvt. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes rfc822. multipart. . digest. image.2 . gif 6. with subtype basic 7. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtype plain 2.uvt. partial. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. application. 1. RFC 1521 (www. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. external-body 4. 21 .html first open a socket to the host web. video.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.info. with subtypes octet-stream. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. alternative. with subtypes mixed. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. postscript 5.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.HTTP 2.0 200 OK Date: Fri. Then.ro.

HTTP .2 . the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .

All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. As a practical reference site use – www.01) can be found at this address: http://www.html. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. Originally named Web Applications 1.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0 .HTML 3.01.2 (3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.jmarshall.0. Since it fits in a couple of pages.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. However.w3.com/indexdot/html .ietf. The XHTML 1. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. The newest version of HTML is 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.com/easy/html .HTML 3 . images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.0) dates from 08.0. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.com/tutors. 3. The first official version – HTML 2. check the official HTML site – www.3 . namely HTML 1.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.org/Markup .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. a working draft for the next major revision. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The latest version (XHTML 2. It is a revision of 4. HTML 3. Other helpful sites .apps.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.99. HTML describes how text.html) and was widely supported.0 draft was released in 01. Version 4. A newer standard. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.blooberry. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.www. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0 and was accepted in December 1997.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. The first version of HTML.w3c.org/rfc/rfc1866. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.htmlgoodies. From 1999 on. Mosaic. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.

implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".

This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. three DTDs (HTML 4. …. like ALIGN. This section deals with some of the most common elements. HTML 4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. "&#x6C34. look at these examples: “&lt”. BORDER. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references." (in hexadecimal) .3 .w3. VSAPCE are omitted. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.and end at the first occurrence of -->. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. 4. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Check the address http://www. “&quot”. CONTROLS.0 contains an SGML declaration. HTML 4. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.acesta este un comentariu.01 specification. If you wonder what a character reference is. You get the point. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. DYNSRC.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.the chinese character for water.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Transitional DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. <><> --> 25 .0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. Overall. 3. An example: <!-.0 Strict DTD. 3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. the specification of HTML 4. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. though.

Example: <A HREF=”http://web.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.ro/webmail/src/login.3. etc.uvt.info.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. NAME.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.5 tables 26 .3 . indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.HTML 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.

Usually. <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3.3 .6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. its rows.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. headers and cells are <TABLE>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Here is their description and attributes. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>. columns. <TH> and <TD>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.

required.7 forms A form is a basic component container. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 .

allows multiple selections from the choice list. • 3.sends the form values in a single transmission. 3.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "text/plain" • • 3. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.required.if specified.8 form related elements 3.8.uvt. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.8. "GET" . SIZE . Example: http://web.3 . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.the default value. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "reset". "radio". NAME .?.required. specifies how data will be sent to the server. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.8.HTML • METHOD . "checkbox".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.required.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.maximum number of options visible to the user.info.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. "button". "image". specifies the parameter name. however. may have the values GET or POST. the browser appends the values to the URL. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.:. "submit". after a quotation mark . "hidden". "file". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . Main attributes: 29 . Main attributes: • TYPE . "password". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

. Java bytecode – a file with extension . The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. The current version (as of 10.4 . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Example: Edit the file prog1.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. Java source – a file with extension . 4.2 version.class file.95.class 3. -g : generate all debugging info.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. project started in 12.90. To overcome this significant shortage. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.95. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .JAVA PRIMER 4.java.java 2.class. The current version (as of 10. the compilation process occurs. but next time execution is much faster. In terms of execution time.2 java the interpreter.JAVA PRIMER 4 .2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. The first time a class is loaded.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.4. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.java One example of command line compilation: 4. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. jit From source to execution. javac -classpath . Early versions of Java were released in 12. Inc.C:\TW\mySource.class file.) in 08.3 java applications 31 . a tool named Just In Time compiler.0.

4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). or that it extends A).4 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4 object oriented concepts 4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. An example: 32 .java.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.4. In general.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . Generally.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. or is derived from A. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.jar file.

1 bit char . Double.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).4. called Object.4. Short. In fact. 4. this is called method overloading.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Float. 4. providing its own implementation.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Long.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. Boolean.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Integer. Character. Therefore. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. a class can have more than one method with the same name. 33 . Therefore.4 . The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. In OO jargon. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. with the root the class Object. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. namely: Byte. a Java class can extend a single base class.

. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.http.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. no templates. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A final variable (method. anywhere abstract .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .access from any class anywhere private . has the same value for all class instances. } declares an abstract class.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.does not have any subclasses.the class is visible from any class. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.servlet.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. class .http. method .no access from outside the class itself protected . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. 34 .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). which extends the class javax.. inherited). Except for the "package" concept. A final: • • • variable .one which is defined at class level. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . • • • • no specifier .4 .one which is constant method . automatic garbage collection.servlet. 4. rather than at class instance. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.

an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. java errors . In Java. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. programmer defined exceptions 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. standard method exceptions 3.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). namely class Error and the class Exception. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .JAVA PRIMER 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. 2. 4.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.7.like invalid cast.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. as defined in the java. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. Exception categories: 1. not at execution time. 4.7.7.4 .4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. division by 0.ThreadDeath. array index out of bounds. code or data errors .7.

event ..util.servlets. import javax.support for event handling java. An example: package com.8. . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.support for data collections. catch.nio java.this can be done by providing a try.Properties. All other packages must be explicitly imported. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.1 Package names The default package has no name.by adding the key word throws.awt. import. The package containing the standard classes is java. In the example above. therefore. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). The names in a package are qualified by the package name. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.rmi java. the default package is used).util. finally construct. 4. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. don't have to import java.awt .net java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. 4.awt. followed by the import statements. As a general rule.sql java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .lang (automatically available).bank11. string analyzers.support for user interface java. the class (the ..9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.zip .4 .geom . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. date and time info java.io java.java. 4.security 36 .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.default.sql.support for java archives creation java. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .*.util .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. they have to be unique inside a package.class file.ccards.lang .

swing . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. static and final.support for event handling 4.event . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.text javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.4 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. it must be declared as abstract.accessibility javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. All variables (actually. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). 37 .swing.

However.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. other 38 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. like QtScript or ActionScript. as JavaScript. then LiveScript and finally. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . The origins of this language date back to 1995. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. Subsequently. and . This is not always what we want.depending on the browser . 5.JAVASCRIPT 5. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.javaScript 5 .HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript statement like this: document.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .5 .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.

39 . When you place a script in the head section.javaScript times when a user triggers an event..3. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3. </script> </head> 5. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.3.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. point to the . without having to write the same script on every page.js file extension. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .. 5. go in the head section.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. </script> </body> 5... or when an event is triggered. To simplify this.5 . Save the external JavaScript file with a . When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.

break. while(). else.5.1 JavaScript for.4. continue. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"..4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. 5.4. while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . namely – if . 5...4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. in loop is executed once for each element/property. in and the try .5 . switch().4. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"...... for().In statement The for.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.javaScript 5. catch constructs.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.. The code in the body of the for .

5. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement (available in IE5+.. mycars[1] = "Volvo". so you don't lose your audience.5 . The try block contains the code to be run. var mycars = new Array().catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors..catch statement The try. Mozilla 1. mycars[2] = "BMW". When users see errors.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").3 try. they often leave the Web page. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. } </script> </body> </html> 5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.5. mycars[0] = "Saab".. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. Example Using for. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. or a property of an object.0. an array element. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.....

javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.7 popup boxes 5. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. txt+="Error description: " + err. txt+="Click OK to continue. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. Also. Syntax: 42 .\n\n". alert(txt).description + "\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7.\n\n".6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). When an alert box pops up. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.5 .

When a confirm box pops up.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Syntax: prompt("sometext". the box returns false.8. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Now.7."defaultvalue") 5.. If the user clicks "Cancel". Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). in the <head> section. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. If the user clicks "OK". If the user clicks "Cancel". When a prompt box pops up.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.5 . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns true.8 functions 5. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.7.js file). A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the box returns null.

var2.9.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. var2.5 .2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.write(txt. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.9 javaScript objects 5. and will be stored in the variable called product. So.varX) { some code } var1. document.javaScript function functionname(var1. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters...9. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.. and how they are used. 5. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .8.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. 5.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. etc are variables or values passed into the function. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.length). We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.

javaScript 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. </script> 5. The other class are the language specific objects. document.toUpperCase()).5 .write(str. 45 .9. which will be specified in the next section. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".

every Link on the page is an Object.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. check the site http://www. as well). which are called Objects. For example. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. N: Netscape.com/jsref/default. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.asp 5. Properties FF: Firefox. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Even this Document itself is an Object. At its most basic level. every Image on the page is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. When an event message has been triggered. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.w3schools.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.5 . For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. or when the user interacts with a Web page.

5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. as a four-digit number. depending on the browser.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.

according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name.5 . Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to universal time. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.11. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. according to Greenwich time. N: Netscape. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. to a string.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.

5 . var myNum=new Number(number). The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.5 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.11. Syntax for creating a new Number object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.

5 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 . N: Netscape.11. Properties FF: Firefox.

x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 3. 2. 0. 0. Properties FF: Firefox. 1. 2.y) min(x. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.javaScript 5. 0.434) Returns PI (approx.y) pow(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.11. 1.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.5 .302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. N: Netscape.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .

work(). but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. skin tone. Assume that the personObj already exists .3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj.12.you can give it properties named firstname. etc. play(). sleep().lastname="Doe".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. 53 . eye color. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods.12.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. age. age. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.firstname="John".eyecolor="blue".firstname).1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. Properties are the values associated with the object. weight. personObj. document.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.12.age=30.lastname="Doe". The code above will generate the following output: John 5. etc.firstname="John".age=50.5 . 5. personObj. lastname. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. height. All persons have these properties.eyecolor="blue".write(personObj. The persons' properties include name.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. The persons' methods could be eat(). Objects also have methods. personObj. personObj.

you can create new instances of the object.newlastname=newlastname.eat=eat."green"). this.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.age. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.48.lastname=lastname.propertyName. this. this. this.50.eyecolor=eyecolor. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.lastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. } Notice that the template is just a function.age.firstname=firstname.12. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname=lastname.eyecolor) { this. this.5 . 5. myMother=new person("Sally". That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.lastname. You can also add some methods to the person object. this."Doe".age=age.lastname=new_lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. 54 ."blue")."Rally". Inside the function you need to assign things to this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. Once you have the template.age=age.

Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. now you can write: myMother.5 . 5.newlastname("Doe").. So. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.".13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. We define the events in the HTML tags. For example.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.

you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The name is then stored in a cookie.13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. For example.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . 5. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". 5. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.2 onFocus.w3schools. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. If the field values are not accepted.13. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. the submit should be cancelled.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13.5 . The function checkForm() returns either true or false. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .

parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. particularly those used in Web browsers. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.Html DOM 6 . W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.g. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. or WebAPI being among them. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. XML.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . structure. and style of a document. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. By October 1998. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. However.HTML DOM 6. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. As of January 2008. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. The W3C 58 .1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.6 . and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. SVG. Right now (oct. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. In other words. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs..defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . CSS. 2010). it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. 6. HTML. the Document Object Model activity is closed. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.

Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. As of 2005.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. 2. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Requirements. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. a new DOM Core specification.6 . and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. each of which contains required and optional modules. which further enhances the DOM 6. To claim to support a level. filtered views and events. 4. Level 2. 3. DOM Level 3 XPath. DOM Level 3 Core. and 6. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Validation. 5. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1. 6. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1.

A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). Opera.x were still widely used in 2000. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers.6 . that is. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. The Window object represents a browser window. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. support multiple browsers. along with their containing text and attributes. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. All HTML elements. 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.x and Netscape 4. Konqueror. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. By 2005. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. interoperability problems were numerous.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. and Safari.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. can be accessed through the 60 . In order to be cross-browser compatible. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.

and new elements can be created. It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM.6 . and VBScript. JavaScript. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .

6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 62 .9. the element node <title>.8.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. everything in an HTML document is a node. The tree structure is called a node-tree. However. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.Html DOM 6. <head> and <body>.6 . The <html> node has two child nodes.8. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.

getElementById('main'). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. 63 .9. • • • • • In a node tree. and new elements can be created. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. using the node relationships.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementsByTagName("p").2 node parents. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and the connections between them. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. Their contents can be modified or deleted. except the root.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. By navigating the node tree.6 .getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children. children. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. By using the getElementById() method 2. the top node is called the root Every node. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).9. child. The terms parent. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).

each node is an object. } 6.9.length. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.i<x. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).i++) { document. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.innerHTML).Html DOM for (i=0.write("<br />"). document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.write(x[i].6 .

txt=x.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .getElementById("intro").firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.nodeValue.Html DOM 6.9.5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6.6 .

A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. including window. objects and images.6 . frames.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.

also supports these methods. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). and then bubbled up. 67 . Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. as of version 1. Fires when an element is activated. DOMNodeInserted. 6.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. During the event flow.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. say "click". an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. through a mouse click or a keypress.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). for instance. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle.6 . Also.3. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Safari. When the user clicks on the inner element.

6 . Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. key pressed. mouse position. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). including information about target element. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. preventDefault 68 . Unfortunately. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.Html DOM 6. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. mouse button pressed. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.

Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. 7. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. 69 . etc. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. fields of forms.AJAX 7 . 7. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. choices of user. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. means that the response of the server will be processed when available.AJAX 7. but also to save resources. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. using web services or Php scripts. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. For example. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. The server does some processing — retrieving data. dynamic website. crunching numbers. menus. It is not a technology in itself. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. For improving sharing of resources. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast.7 .

Instead of loading a web page.7 . at the start of the session. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. waiting. the user waits some more. While the server is doing its thing. we wouldn’t make users wait around. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Once an interface is loaded. Obviously. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. 70 .AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting around for the server to do something. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. but the opposite is true.

71 . editing data in memory. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. loading additional interface code. usually using XML.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.

the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.AJAX 7.holds a Xml loaded file. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.open: create a connection. 3: answer in process.send: send a request to the server. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. It allows the interaction with the servers.holds loaded data as a string of characters. onreadystatechange .responseXml . GET or POST . 4: finished.returned by the server . .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. url.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".url: the location of the file 72 .responseText . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. boolean) .for a simple text.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.7 .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. To get data on the server. 1: connection established.200 is ok. 7. This object provides two methods: . . thanks to its methods and attributes.for a Xml file or . DOM's method allows to extract data. 404 if the page is not found . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. 2: request received. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . These events are user actions. and in this purpose.mode: type of request.

. The request below reads a document on the server. http_request.open: command GET or POST.. if (window. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.XMLHTTP").fr/somefile. for browser compatibility.xml'.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.. // Firefox. if (request.7 . true).null for a GET command 7.send: with POST only. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . Safari.open('GET'.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.send(null).xul.6 building a request. .readyState == 4) { // received.. OK } else { // wait. but two options must be tried. request.AJAX . 73 .boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . URL of the document. true for asynchronous. } else if (window.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. the data to send to the server. 'http://www. http_request.

7 examples 7. }. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). req.7. req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. else document.open("GET".status. req. else if (window.getElementsByTagName('root').ajax.status == 200) document.xml".dyn="Received:" + req.item(0).dyn="Error code " + req.7 .ajax.readyState == 4) if(req. "data. by this code: var doc = req.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().responseText. req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.AJAX 7.XMLHTTP).ajax.dyn=""Received:" + req.7.send(null).onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". if(window. true). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.responseText.responseXML. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

database connection resource pooling. 4. Others.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.)> <web-app> <!-.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. like what pages are error.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. welcome pages. 8. descriptions). data persistence.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. Servlet. After an enterprise bean is created. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. servlet classes.. 2. 5. web. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. For example. classes. Initialization of parameters for servlets.xml file: <?xml version="1. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.servlets. 3. entries related to session configuration..xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JSPs and Java Server Faces. 6. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. like: 1. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Servlet.ccards. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.bank11. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.class>com. Here is a small. MIME types used by the web application. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. but typical web.8 . application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.

1.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". it is the alias of the real servlet class. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. whose name is rather long. For example.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.ccards. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.ccards. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.bank11. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Basicly. the name of the web application.xml" file.class" and that it is part of the package "com. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" 2. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". However.xml file of the web application.bank11.servlets". In general. basicly. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.servlets.ccards. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. Unfortunately. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.xml".servlets".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Then the "EnrollServlet. for flexibility.8 . Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.bank11. Behind a very benign URL. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.

2010. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.2.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. modular design 9.2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. which extend the functionality of the web server. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.SERVLETS 9. platform independent programs. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. the HttpServlet) class.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. but at this point.SERVLETS 9 . tjws spec 2. in most cases as part of an application server. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.4. this is just a work in progress. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. 9.4. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). Web containers are implemented by various vendors. the Java Servlet 3.9 . from BEA Systems. 9. Technically speaking. As of oct. more often.0 specification. but through a web container. small footprint.5 and is in final state. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.0 specification is available for public review.

from Apple Inc.9 . Enterprise Edition. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . the javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. public void destroy() throws ServletException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet package. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. while the second one. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. 82 . from IBM 9. WebSphere.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . These packages are: • • javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. IOException.servlet package are protocol independent.servlet.servlet. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.

without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The method performs all initialization required. ServletConfig. After instantiating the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. Throwable t) 9. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. as well. More on the servlet life cycle.9 . the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). 83 . respectively. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. The servlet API provides such a specific class. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. 9. the web container calls its init() method. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. This method has two arguments. in a different section. namely the HttpServlet class.

9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.ServletException javax.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. service(). a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .9 .Exception and can be thrown by the init(). HttpServletResponse resp) 9.lang.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.servlet. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. It also extends the java.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.Exception class.

which will service all incoming requests. JSP or JSF.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. 85 . Also. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Typically. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.servlet. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. Typically.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.SingleThreadModel. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. DB connection opening. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.9 . the container calls the init() method of the servlet. After instantiation. respectively. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. etc. this method contains JDBC driver loading. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. If the servlet does not implement the javax. 9.

SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.

java" file: package com.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.9 .io. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.servlets. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. 87 . import java. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.bank11.xml file.ccards.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.*.

out. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").close().servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet.println("merge").println("</body>").SERVLETS import javax. IOException { resp. out. // output your page here out.init(config).http. out.9 . out.println("<br>").println("<head>").println("</head>"). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<html>").println("</html>").*.getWriter(). out.setContentType(“text/html”). out. import javax.println("<body>"). out.*. out. } } 88 . PrintWriter out = resp.

JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0.odbc. 89 .JDBC 10. as recognized by the DB industry. Starting with version 3.sun.jdbc. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. This solution is inefficient.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. After that.10 . The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. These drivers fall into four standard categories.sql package.sql package 2. 1997.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.JDBC 10 . the javax. 10. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0 while the current (4. Type 1. The JDBC 4.JdbcOdbcDriver . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.1. the java.

Type 3. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. which in turn. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Part Java. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Type 4. because it eliminates one level of indirection.10 . These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.JDBC Type 2. 90 . Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.

defined in the JDBC 3.3 the java.sql.sql.Blob java. java. let's remind some of the most important ones.Driver java.0).sql.SQLXML java.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.Struct java.Time java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Array java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Statement java.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.0 API.sql.sql.sql.sql.JDBC 10. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Clob java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Date java.SQLPermission java.CallableStatement java.SQLWarning java.SQLDataException java.Timestamp java.sql.SQLData java.Connection java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.sql.SQLInput java.ResultSetMetaData java.DriverManager java.sql.10 .Types java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLOutput java.

Statement java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLWarning java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.CallableStatement java.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Connection java.sql.sql.sql. loading a database driver 2.Clob java.StatementEventListener 10. processing the result set 92 .sql package.RowId java.10 .SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.Types java. java. querying the database 4.SQLException java.0.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLOutput java.NClob java.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.ResultSet java.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.Blob java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.SQLXML java.

The first one is loading a database driver.driver.net.DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.datastore.jdbc.10 .SybDriver com.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name.sybase.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.odbc.ibm.JDBC 10.jdbc.db2.borland.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .

forName("org. Since we just used it. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.Driver"). as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. try { Class.sql. import java. but let's take it for granted: import java. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. passwd).util.mm.10 .mysql.newInstance().bank11. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).getConnection(connURL. by using the connection URL.gjt. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".printStackTrace().*.*. 94 . } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. String user = "root". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. as specified by the driver vendor. user.

Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true"). The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Connection conn = DriverManager.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.put("create". prp). "true").sql package.10 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. int resultSetConcurrency.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. 10. Properties prp = new Properties().util.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. java.JDBC 10. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. String user. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.put("autocommit".getConnection(connURL. we can use it for various purposes.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.

JDBC 10. prepared statements and stored procedures. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. respectively. namely. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.10 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. Statement.

10 .executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. stmt.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..createStatement().sql. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . 10.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.".

The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed.10 . 98 .10 ResultSet characteristics By default. PreparedStatement. a concurrency of read only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. This interface is. mins. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.math. Connection pooling implementation -.sql.sql.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.math.produces a Connection object that will 103 . The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. time. There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a standard Connection object 2.0 optional package.DataSource object.Time java.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. basicly.10 . It is part of the javax.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. Basic implementation -. secs date. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. a factory for creating DB connections.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql package.

Distributed transaction implementation -.servlet.bank11.http. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".io.getName()). javax. javax.10 .JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.naming. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. import import import import import import java. javax.sql.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.class. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. private DataSource theDataSource. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. 104 . public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.sql.*.servlet. java.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*.*. 3.ccards. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*.servlets.*. javax.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().getLogger(TestDataSource.

..10 . ServletException { . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).

HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.JSP 11.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The package javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .jsp.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.servlet. If the JSP is modified.1 and is related to the 2.5 Java Servlet specification. 11.jsp. The package javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. namely javax.JSP 11 .servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet.2 the java.servlet.jsp and javax. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp. the servlet code is regenerated.tagext.servlet. The JSP specific interfaces. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.11 .HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The javax. 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope... The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).11 .JSP • if the URL does not start with / . 111 .. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". include and taglib. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.

11. Assigns it to available name or id.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. 11.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. this code goes to inside the service() method.11 . 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7.7 scripting elements 11.7. In Tomcat. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.JSP 11.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . and if so. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . Attributes description: • • • name . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.11 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.

11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.11 . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.13 the forward standard action 114 . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions. flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .only the "true" value is supported. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.the URL of the page. <jsp:forward>. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.

the type of object the plugin will execute.class extension in the name following code.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. archive="URIToArchive. 11. It is used mainly. servlet or to a static resource.the name of a bean instance.. depending on request. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. when we want to separate the application into different views.. name="instanceName" . code="classFileName" . You must include the .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). ." . You must specify either bean or applet.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. name .a name for the Bean or applet instance. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. as this attribute has no default value. If you do not supply a value.11 .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. as well. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .

the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. request . request .1" .the initial height and width.io. it has java. out . Must be a small nonzero number. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.11 . with a protocol name. writes to the output stream to the client. application . optional port number. based on the servlet API. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.lang. The default value is 1.PrintWriter. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.Object type and scope page 11.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.represents server's response to the request. page . response . session . config . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.JspWriter type and scope page 7. in pixels.servlet. in pixels.jsp.1. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. objects which are automaticly available. 1.16 scopes 1.it represents the buffered version of java. and domain name.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.represents the servlet context. of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.the amount of space.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . The value is a full URL. pageContext . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. it has javax.

jsp file.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.11 . Object value) method 11.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 4.ccards. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. session . page . Object value) method 3.bank11.init(). Object value) method 2.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.beans.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.

has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. a float. private SimpleSubBean subBean. a software development and consulting company. private float number.register(). private int integer.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.11 . private int list[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. SimpleBean. an int. %> <jsp:forward page="response.io. private boolean flag. 11.mapping. The SimpleBean class is declared public.simple. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private String colors[].18. a boolean and another String).java: package com.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.Serializable { private String string.examples.string.devsphere. The public constructor could have been omitted. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private String optional.

} // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.integer = value.number.number = value.string = value.flag = value.colors[index]. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors. } 119 .11 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors = values.integer.JSP this.flag. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

list[index] = value.optional = value. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. String value) { this.list = values.list.optional.list[index].JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.11 . } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.subBean.colors[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.subBean = value. int value) { this.

// No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.java: package com. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.18.Serializable { private String string.examples. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). private float number. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number = value.string.11 .string = value.mapping. SimpleSubBean.simple. } } 11.io.number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .devsphere.

11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.string subBean.

11 . new int[] { 2.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. error messages. new Float(0. a boolean and an int[].number]". 3 } }.list]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the processing order.string]". No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.integer]". The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. There are three error messages.util. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. "abc" }.examples. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. new String[] { 123 . The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. the form's name and the processor's name.mapping. SimpleBeanResources. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "One or more colors must be selected" }.colors]".flag]". "One or more items must be selected" }.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.list]".123) }.devsphere. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". The default values are defined for a String. "An option must be selected" }.simple. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the list of optional properties. new Boolean(true) }. The list of optional properties has a single element. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.java: package com. a float. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.18.

mapping. "integer".devsphere.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. The formToBean() method of com. "optional".devsphere. "colors". SimpleHndl.simple. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. If necessary. "SimpleForm.examples. string values are converted to numbers. "SimpleProc. "list".devsphere. For a better understanding of this example.jsp" } }. com.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. The beanToForm() method of com.mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "number". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.logging. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.mapping. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.18.*.mapping. { "[FORM_NAME]". "subBean" } }.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.util. } } 11.devsphere.html" }.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). { "[PROC_NAME]".devsphere. new String[] { "string". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "flag".11 .JSP "optional" } }. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.

getMethod().JSP = HandlerUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getClass()). // Process the valid data bean instance application.substring(0. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).io. response).equals("POST"). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. simpleBean. errorTable = HandlerUtils.11 .Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. logger). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. slashIndex+1) : "".getServletPath().getRealPath(formPath). 125 .trim().util. int slashIndex = basePath.File(formPath)).getDocument(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. formPath = application. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.trim(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.lastIndexOf('/').getTemplate(new java.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.forward(request.getString("[FORM_NAME]").getBeanResources(simpleBean.formToBean(formData.

mapping.send(out).getString() %> <P> subBean. if (list. // Send the form document document.JSP elements logger).getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. SimpleProc.string = <%= simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. document. for (int i = 0. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().getSubBean().append("{ "). i < list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.simple. i++) 126 .examples. } %> 11.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.11 .number = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean().18.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.beanToForm(simpleBean.length == 0) return "". strbuf.length.devsphere. errorTable.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.

It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.11 .6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.examples.append("}").length == 0) return "". return strbuf. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.toString().length.toString(). for (int i = 0. Using the framework. strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } strbuf. ComplexHndl. i < list. } strbuf. A single call to FormUtils.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append("}").length == 1) return Integer. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.simple. ComplexForm.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.18.append(list[i]). i++) { strbuf.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.toString(list[0]). } %> 11.formToBean() call. In addition.util. strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp files.append(" ").jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().mapping. return strbuf.append(" "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. In addition. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. if (list. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.devsphere.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append("{ "). A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. The localization of the Complex*.append(list[i]). strbuf.

for (int i = 0.length. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j]. for (int i = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Green". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Blue" }. "Option 3" }. "blue" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". i++) { int value = i+1. i < integerLabels. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.11 . "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Option 2". 128 .length. j < colors. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i < colorValues.getColors().length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean.

i++) { int value = i+1.getSubBean(). "subBean.setSubBean( new com.length.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere.getList(). %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list.length. i < listItems. break. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .SimpleSubBean()).JSP break.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. boolean selected = false.mapping. "Item 2".examples. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "Item 3" }.simple. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.

SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.equals("POST").SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples.11 .getMethod().setSubBean(simpleSubBean).simple.devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".getString() == null || simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.util. 130 .number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("abc"). "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl.examples.devsphere.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.mapping.getString().getSubBean(). return message. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.get(property).simple. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleBean.

"An option must be selected").setFlag(flagValue != null). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be filled"). "number".length() != 0) simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.trim().length == 0) { 131 .getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "integer".getParameter("number"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null.getParameter("flag"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.floatValue()).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number").setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue.setNumber(0.11 . setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { simpleBean.getColors(). if (flagValue.123f).123f). "Must be filled"). } simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.

else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean. "subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setOptional(""). //* subBean.setString("").length == 0) { simpleBean.getString().getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "colors".getList() == null || simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean.number".setNumber(new Float(numberValue).11 .string". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.number : text try { String numberValue = request.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "list".length() != 0) simpleSubBean. 132 . } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList(). "Must be filled").floatValue()).getParameter("subBean. "One or more items must be selected"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.number"). 3 }). "One or more colors must be selected").

simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. simpleSubBean. The com.18.\ 133 . } %> 11.examples. simpleBean.helpers. simpleBean.setNumber(0. errorTable. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. "Must be a number").jsp.Hashtable errorTable. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.simple. 3 }). "subBean.devsphere.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setString("abc"). } } else { simpleBean.SimpleBean. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.JSP filled").setList(new int[] { 2.properties or web. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.helpers.setFlag(true).devsphere.devsphere.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. message).util.put(property.code=com.setString("").123f).xml: SimpleHndl.11 . String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.number".mapping. String property. simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.mapping.setOptional(""). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.

properties (or web.mapping.another.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.AnotherBean.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.host.helpers. If you have another bean-form pair.mapping.code=com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. 11. In many cases. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.examples.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.properties: AnotherHndl.18. you could add a few other lines to servlets.11 .SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. A servlet can be made bean-independent.host.code=com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.company.devsphere. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.host.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.mapping.examples. a servlet is identified with its class.helpers.devsphere.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.devsphere.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.simple.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.devsphere.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.

11 .JSP 135 .

2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. Version 2.0.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. which loads the appropriate view template. This technology includes: 1. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.12 .0 supersedes version 1. like input fields. Version 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.JAVASERVER FACES 12. 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. 12. builds a component tree. buttons. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. processes events.javaserver faces 12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .

2 of the JFS specification. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12. As of version 1.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.javaserver faces 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.12 . there are 25 HTML JSF tags.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

Common formatting techniques. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. see the column tag documentation. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. For more information about columns. such as alternating row colors. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. respectively.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.4. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. 12. footers.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. columns and rows.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .12 . These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.

checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.12 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkout}" /> 139 .4.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. your options include using plain HTML forms. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.4.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.

4.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.12 .6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.user.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.</span> 12. 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12. red for error.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .4.

5. For example. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . 12. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 .

The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Without this JavaScript event.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. validateLength. The body content of this tag must be empty. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.mycompany. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.customer.javaserver faces 12. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.5. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.5.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Any component that receives user input.12 . 12. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . can publish value change events. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.

for each locale you wish to support.mycompany. myJSFapp 143 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.5. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. Example: welcome_en.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. including images and styles.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.12 .mycompany.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.javaserver faces 12. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. If you have not specified a default locale. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.

custom tag libraries.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Create properties files 144 .jar jsf-api. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Define navigation rules 3. Create managed beans 4. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. like third party jar files jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. It has a deployment descriptor.html.contains libraries required by the application.exadel.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Create JSP pages 2.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml web. and so on.jar faces-config.12 .javaserver faces /ant build. mandatory for any JSF application web. jsf-api.jar. JSP pages.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. static resources.jar – files included in the /lib directory.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .

12 . we can create a navigation rule.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. 12.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. we just want to go from inputname.jsp to greeting.jsp is greeting.7.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .xml file.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp. Deploy and run the application 12.7. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. Compile the application 8. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. You just need to create its contents.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. You only need to create the JSP files. In our application. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp file 7.javaserver faces 5. As a diagram. The directory structure already exists. Create an index.jsp and greeting. These files will act as place holders for now. Now that we have the two JSP pages. And that's all there is to this. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.

/** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.3 faces-config. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. You can easily create more complex ones. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. Inside this myJFSapp folder.7.3. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.3. 12.7.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. The next line is the full class name.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. the second part of faces-config.7.) 12.12 . It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml Now. public class PersonBean { String personName. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.xml file should look like this: 146 .PersonBean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. To read more about navigation rules. we will create a PersonBean. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3.7.java file. 12.1 PersonBean.javaserver faces This is. of course. This class is straight-forward.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. myJFSapp.xml Your final faces-config.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. a very simple navigation rule.

5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. 12.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.1//EN" "http://java.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.12 .5.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun.properties file in the bundle folder.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.4.sun. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. Inc.1 inputname.1 messages.7.sun.

prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 . Then.bundle.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. <h:inputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .bundle.sun.sun.

The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The second line will access a Java bean.7.6 creating the index. name! 12. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Lines 3-5. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Line 2. Having an index. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Create the index. specifically the bean attribute personName. 12.7.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java..sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.sun.2 greeting.</h3> tags.12 .xml file.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .jsp file inside the WebContent folder.greeting_text}" />. Line 6.javaserver faces Line 1..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.5. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.bundle. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Creates an HTML input text box.

jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.9 Running Next. Of course.12 .7. 12.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.javaserver faces Now. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.html . and forwards the user to a success or error page. because in the web. We are almost done with this example. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. 12.xml file.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. To do this.7. To build the application run the build.7.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). 12.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsf and not . When Tomcat is done loading.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. which asks an user for an ID and password. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.sourceforge. verifies the information. This is a "login" application. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). This is used here.xml file for the application *. though.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.8.jsp. Your setup. 150 .xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. might possibly be different). we need to deploy it. you'll notice the file suffix is . start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.

make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. 7. your mileage may vary. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.xml Editor (see faces-config. name the folder pages. The New Project wizard appears.WEB-INF 151 . Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. from the menubar select File/New/Other. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 6.. 3. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.. Select the Amateras node. click Next. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). click Yes through messages that appear.. and set up folders for a web application. 12. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. select the Source tab. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Next d. see Installing & Uninstalling.. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. and to add JSF libraries to the project. in the Add JSF Support page. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.8.12 . Enter project name. 9. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. 2. say. name the folder webroot 5. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.. c. click Add Folder. 1.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. click Next. 10. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.src | +-. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. a. click Finish 4. jsf-login.. Select Java Project.webroot | +-. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. in the wizard that appears. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8..

java package login. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. for name enter mgr. from its context menu select New/Class. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.lib | +-. a.12 . Click Finish. else action = "loginFail". The Java code editor opens. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. private String _pwd = "". for scope select 152 . click Add. c. In Package Explorer select the src folder.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. We then configure it to be a managed bean. b. 3. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. for class enter login. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. In the Package field. click Managed Bean. 1.pages 12.xml Editor.javaserver faces | | | +-. in the Name field enter LoginManager.8. 2.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". if ( _uid. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.xml editor opens. enter login.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.LoginManager. input widgets appear d.xml. The faces-config. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } return action. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. } 4. The New Java Class wizard appears. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".

jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. in Package Explorer select webroot. but in webroot/pages.javaserver faces session.12 . Create success. c. index. enter the following code. and 3 content pages (login.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp. save the file and close the editor. Then we create login. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Enter the following code: <!-. Create error.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. click Finish. the New File wizard appears.jsp and error.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. the JSP Editor opens. b.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp. </body> Please try 153 . <!-.jsp).jsp are simple pages with static content. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. but in webroot/pages. again. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Enter the following code: <!-. for File name enter index. All pages except login.jsp: a. e.webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/error. 1. so we create them first.jsp is placed directly in webroot. from its context menu select New/File. then close the editor 12. success.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp).jsp.webroot/index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.8. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. Create index.

create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. as shown below.. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and dock it along the right..12 . place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. click Finish.. <%@ page contentType="text/html.javaserver faces </html> 4. and choose default for Template. with the following template code. the New wizard appears.completion.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. from its context menu select New/Other. a code-completion window pops up. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. and uses them for code completion as well. now we want to add attributes to this element. 154 . g.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. d. Create login. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.jsp: a.sun. for File name enter login. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. (See Show View Dialog) f. To see this in action.sun. enter jsf-login e. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. place your cursor in one of these lines. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.jsp. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. Open the JSF palette. etc. b. click Next c. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.

with bean properties available in mgr.loginAction} The final code. a code-completion window pops up.. and hit Enter.sun. enter #{mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.javaserver faces h. select userID from the code-completion window.12 .sun. insert a <h:commandButton> element. this inserts value="" at the cursor.password}" l. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. i. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. complete the expression with the closing { k. insert another <h:inputText> element. with the barest presentational formatting. set its value to Login. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.) j.

This is shown below. Select the Navigation tab 3. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. 2. Open faces-config.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.12 .xml. this inserts a page icon into the editor. using a FacesIDE editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.8. then click inside the editor window.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 1.xml Editor. it should open in the faces-config. 156 . click on Page. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.

jsp. 5. change the value of path to /index. 6. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. in the Properties view.jsp 4.jsp and then on the icon for success. add 3 more pages. Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 . then click first on the icon for login.jsp.jsp. This is shown below: 157 . and is represented by an arrow. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp and /pages/error. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). and set them to /pages/login. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. select Navigation Case. from the palette at left. /pages/success.

and you should be sent to the success page. Similarly add a forward-action from login. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. open web. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . since we have such a trivial application.xml. or leave it as-is. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml for the specifics of our application. As it turns out. so uncomment it. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.8. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and extension-based mapping is turned on.6 Editing web. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.jsp. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. The application is now complete.xml. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml Here we edit web. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. all we need do in web.javaserver faces 7.12 . Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. We want virtual path-based mapping.jsp. Once deployed browse to index. 1.jsp to error.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. 12. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).jsp.

webapp 12.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces. click Deploy 3.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces.validator javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.javaserver faces 12.faces.html javax.10 the javax. that factory is used. the Manager application should reload.application javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs..context javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces javax.convert javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 .render javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.component. as file:///. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.8.faces.. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.. scroll down to Deploy. 12.0 1. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.faces.faces.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.12 .event javax.el javax.component javax.faces. start Tomcat. For a given factory class name.model javax.lifecycle javax. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.

used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.12 .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. StateManagerWrapper .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage . If none of the above steps yield a match.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. with the last one taking precedence. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. defining page navigation. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.11 the javax. 12.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . StateManager .represents a single validation (or other) message. ViewHandler .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.faces. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. ApplicationFactory . handling events and input validation. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. ViewHandlerWrapper . and supporting internationalization and accessibility. those factories are used. FacesMessage.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.Severity . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.

faces. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.context.faces. EditableValueHolder . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.12 the javax.FacesContext. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. • • 161 .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. String. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. 12.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. or a hyperlink. • ViewExpiredException . UIComponent . ActionSource2 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. ValueHolder . when activated by the user. String) results in failure on postback. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. a menu item. Here they are: • • UIColumn . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.12 . NamingContainer .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. UICommand . UIComponentBase . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. ContextCallBack .restoreView(javax. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". StateHolder .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. it is for display purposes only. Optionally.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.faces. UIMessage .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.13 the java. UIGraphic . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. that is displayed to the user.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIForm . The user can modify the selected value.html package 162 . UISelectItem . This component has no rendering.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIPanel . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UINamingContainer .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. identified by a clientId.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.javaserver faces • UIData .component. UIMessages . Optionally. The user can modify the selected values. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. it just serves as the root of the component tree. by storing it as the value property of the component. UIOutput . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UIViewRoot . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIInput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UISelectOne . UIParameter . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that has a value.12 . UISelectBoolean . The user cannot manipulate this component.

represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.12 .renders child components in a table. HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML img element. HtmlColumn .Message".represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlMessage . HtmlOutputText . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlForm . HtmlOutputLink . used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML form element. HtmlGraphicImage .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlPanelGroup . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlCommandLink .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlPanelGrid . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML label element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputText . The checkbox will be rendered as checked. and renders the result. On a redisplay. This component must be placed inside a form.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.faces. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML textarea element. or not. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.faces.by default. HtmlCommandButton . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. The label text is specified by the component value.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlMessages . HtmlOutputFormat .by default. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlOutputLabel .

an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.14 the java. It is passed to. ResponseStream .faces. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing a single available option at a time.convert package 164 . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing a single available option at a time. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.javaserver faces property. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . HtmlSelectOneMenu . HtmlSelectManyListbox .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. FacesContext .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.12 . HtmlSelectOneRadio . ResponseWriterWrapper . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. In particular. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. and the rendering of the corresponding response. ResponseWriter . • • • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectOneListbox .15 the java. FacesContextFactory .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectManyMenu .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.

• • • • 165 .12 .javaserver faces 12. Classes: MethodBinding . ValueBinding . PropertyResolver .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. VariableResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.15.faces.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. 12.16 the java.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.

listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseEvent . FacesEvent . PhaseListener . PropertyNotFoundException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.AbortProcessingException . ReferenceSyntaxException . and event implementation classes.12 . MethodNotFoundException .faces. ValueChangeEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. 166 . ValueChangeListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. FacesListener . • • • • 12.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. • • • • • One exception . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseId .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). Interfaces: ActionListener .17 the java.

20 the java.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.12 .19 the java. Classes: ArrayDataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.faces.18 the java. DataModel .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . Renderer . • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.faces. ResultSetDataModel .faces.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. SelectItem . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. 12. SelectItemGroup . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ScalarDataModel .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.javaserver faces 12. DataModelEvent .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.

if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. • • 12. ConverterTag . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. as well.22 the java.12 . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. RenderKitFactory .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.faces. together.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.21 the java.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. including a standard servlet.validator package Interface defining the validator model.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. ResponseStateManager . markup language. LongRangeValidator .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . The package contains an exception. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. and/or user Locale. base classes for JSP custom component tags. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.faces. Typically. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. 12. AttributeTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. and concrete validator implementation classes. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. • RenderKit .

When a web server receives a request. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request).23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. ValidatorTag . the life cycle is more complicated. the JSF life cycle does not apply. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. When the model is updated. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. but basically. that need to process their tag bodies. 12. • • • • • FacesServlet . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. UIComponentTag .the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. or some other web technology. which passes the request to the page class. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. telling the model to update its data. FacetTag . the controller sends a message to the view. the controller sends a message to the model.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. In MVC. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. servlets. Likewise. the controller is the 169 . In JSF. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. When the user takes some action with the presentation. that request is passed to the container. When using JSF. or when an exception occurs. UIComponentBodyTag . telling the view to update its presentation. which has several implications. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server.12 . When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. the process includes a few more components or pages. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.a base class for all JSP custom actions. Also. related to a UIComponent.

The components are stored in a component tree. is validated at this time.12 . in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the JSF implementation must create the view. In addition. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the conversion occurs in this phase. converting a String to a Date object).javaserver faces JSF implementation. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and a piece of data failed validation. It updates only the UI components with the new data. These objects update their state with the data values. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. or from request headers. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. For a JSF-enabled application. and what happens during the processing and response. such as components that create HTML input fields. not every request will flow through all six phases. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. As with the previous phase. and the response is sent to the client. depending on the request. from cookies sent as part of the request. and the UI components are the view. Data for some components. 170 . If this is a subsequent request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. In addition. it creates UI objects for each view component. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. However. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. Data can come from input fields in a web form. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. if errors occur during any of the phases.12 . Also. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. 171 . For example.javaserver faces In the above figure.

you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. or objects typically used by computer programs. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. For example. you must supply its name.sun.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. in turn. possibly multiple. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.COM. It enables applications to access different. For example. 13.2. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. In addition. you supply it the name of the object.9. DNS. For example.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. The UNIX pathname. identifiers. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. such as addresses. A file system maps a filename (for example. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. Thus the DNS name sales. which is located in the root of the file system.13 . Using JNDI. The DNS entry Wiz. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. for example.Wiz. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. when you use an electronic mail system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. naming and directory services using a common API. and NIS(YP). 172 . Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API."). as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. 13. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. such as LDAP.COM.48. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. When using almost any computer program or system. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. NDS. /usr/hello.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.JNDI 13. c:\bin\autoexec. you are always naming one object or another. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.JNDI 13 .5). To access a file in the computer.

A printer object. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required.").JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. such as c=us. Every context has an associated naming convention. A printer object reference. is a context.2. in the DNS domain Sun. which in turn. in the UNIX file system is a context. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. some objects cannot be stored directly. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. for example. also called a file handle. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). Finally. a DNS domain. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. delimited by the comma character (". is accessed using a file reference. In another example. might contain the state of the printer. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. an LDAP entry. For example.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. a file name is bound to a file. unbinding names. For example.c=us. Typically. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.2. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Instead. on the other hand. is a context. 13. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). might contain only information on how to reach the printer. that is. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. 13. for example. 13. its flight plan. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. For example. in a file directory /usr/bin. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. o=Sun.13 . a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. A file object. Using the reference. and its flight number and departure time. and fuel and instrument status. For example. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. such as COM. is relative to c=us. and listing bound names. while the object itself might contain more state information.2. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. a file directory.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. That is. For example. that is. A reference is information about how to access an object. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. such as /usr. For simplicity. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. 173 . relative to the entry o=Sun. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. they must be stored by reference. such as its print server name and printing protocol.COM. By contrast.

identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A naming service is accessed through its own interface. various telephone numbers. or a network. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. resolution. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. two different computer 174 . For example. to some extent. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. because we can. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. An example is the telephone company's directory service. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations.2. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. for example. For example. A directory object can be used. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. however. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to represent a printer. one context can be viewed. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number.13 .3. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a person. and even the computer itself and other computers. programs. and computer account information. Thus. postal mail address. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. For example. 13. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. and color. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). a computer. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. a name is unique 13. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. And it kind of makes sense. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. For example.

The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. 13. an organization object. for example. For example. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. such as that relating to machines. and users. adding. support the notion of searches. For example. A Java mail client program. such as the file and print services. The service is accessed through its own interface. called a directory information tree (DIT). many directories.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.3. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. 13. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The query is called a search filter. By using a directory service.113. removing.3. that is. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. Similarly. printers.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. the ability to access directory services will become essential. 175 . This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. for example. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. Many examples of directory services are possible. When you search. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. for example. When directory objects are arranged in this way. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. 13.50". Within the DIT. 13. "mail" is the attribute identifier. like any other program running on the network.com". might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.3. Alternatively. The email address. networks. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.4. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. such as those based on the LDAP.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.smith@somewhere.13 .

and even the network. 13. more coherent and manageable. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.1 and the Java 2 SDK. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. It extends the v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.3 and later releases.2. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. To use the JNDI.2.ldap 176 . Thus a variety of directories--new.naming.directory javax.naming. v1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. emerging. v1. For example.naming. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.1 and Java 2 SDK.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming javax. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. 13.event javax. v1.13 . It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. 13. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.5. The Java 2 SDK. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. 13.5. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.1 and v1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.4. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1. For example.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).

Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.String name.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. However. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. 13.print(report). Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . 13. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. and the object itself. In this case. printer.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. For example. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. for some objects in the directory.lang.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.6.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.1 context The javax.naming. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. list() is similar to listBindings(). Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. which is the core interface for looking up.naming package defines a Context interface. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. the name of the object's class. and it returns the object bound to that name. a 177 . and so on.lang. that is. Furthermore. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. comparing components. binding/unbinding. 13.6 the naming package The javax.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.6. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.6.6. The overloads that accept java.String name argument represents a composite name. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. composing them. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .13 .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. A java.JNDI • javax. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.lookup("treekiller").lang.spi 13. 13. For the methods in the Context interface.

In the simplest and most common form of usage. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. Otherwise. There are no absolute roots.7 directory package The javax. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.6.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).naming. 13. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. replace.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. 178 . A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. they should catch NamingException. Once you have an initial context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.7.6. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. 13. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.directory package extends the javax.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.13 . The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. InitialContext. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. 13. For example. 13. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. You can add. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().7. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.

there need not be a response control for each request control sent. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.9. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. and vice versa. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.9.naming. In fact.JNDI 13.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. For example.naming. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. To receive event notifications. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. 13. 13.naming. or unsolicited notifications.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.naming. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . such as "object added. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13.8 event package The javax." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. such as information about the object before and after the change.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. Once registered. that is. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. such as "object changed.13 . 13.9. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. For example.ldap package at all. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. called controls . a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.9 LDAP package The javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.directory package. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. controls." and those that do not. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.

This support is provided in the form of state factories.naming package. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.10. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13.9. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 13. implementors of Context. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. In the process of completing an operation.1 plug-In architecture The javax. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.naming. 13.Context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.10. 13.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.java. For example. It uses a service provider for the file system. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. create a file named Lookup. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context.naming. sending request controls.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. That is.naming. 180 . You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. and receiving response controls.10 service provider package The javax. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. import javax.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming.11.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.13 .2 java object support The javax. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.10. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.

11. If you are still having problems. using the capitalization shown. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.jar as an installed extension.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. If the compilation succeeds.3.put(Context. "com. 13. For this reason. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Object obj = ctx.InitialContext. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.NamingException.11.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). To compile to program. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.5 compiling the program Next.naming. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).lookup() to look up an object. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). you must have access to the JNDI classes. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.lookup(name). then the JNDI classes are already included. Otherwise. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.3 looking up an Object Next.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.13 .out.err. as follows.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory").11.naming. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.java).11.JNDI import javax. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. } 13. create an initial context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.lookup(name). v1. 13. env. If the compilation fails. 13.jndi. // Print it System.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.sun. import javax. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). 181 . use Context. } catch (NamingException e) { System.

13. you need access to the JNDI classes. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.13 .RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. Finally.class).class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). javax.directory packages. env. include the directory that contains your Lookup. "com. and your example class (Lookup. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.naming. javax.java.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. env.LdapCtxFactory").sun.PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.directory.DirContext. the file system service provider.3.fscontext.Context. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). create a file named Getattr.directory.bat If you supply a file directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. then you will see something like the following.jndi. javax.put(Context.InitialDirContext.naming. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.put(Context.naming and javax. v1. 182 .jar and providerutil. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.JNDI 13.naming. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. javax. supply the name of a file in your file system. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.naming. import import import import import javax.naming. 13.12.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.jndi.12.jar). To run the program.Attributes.NamingException.6 running the program To run the program. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.directory.11. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.sun.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.naming.ldap. create an initial directory context.

println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). For now. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. If the compilation succeeds. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.get()). Similar to the naming example. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. For this reason. If the compilation fails.get("sn").get().12.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. compile the source file using the Java compiler. ou=People"). The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.6 compiling the program Next.println("sn: " + attrs. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. } catch (NamingException e) { System. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.13 . The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get() and then from that attribute get its value. using the capitalization shown. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.java).12. 13. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get("sn"). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. } 13.12. If you are still having problems.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. ou=People"). As with the naming example. Attributes. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.out.get() on it to get its value: attrs.12.err. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). 13. 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. 183 .

this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.3. Once it has the attributes. With this configuration.jar). "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Getattr.jar and providerutil.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. v1. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.PROVIDER_URL. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.12.JNDI 13. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.class. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. then these classes are already included. ou=People". 184 . env. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). If you have any trouble running this example.7 running the program As with the naming example.13 . # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.put(Context. then see the Common Problems lesson.

An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . JMS queue . Here. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. JMS producer . JMS client .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. As the name queue suggests. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS message .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. • 14. JMS topic .a JMS client that receives messages.14 . unless it has established a durable 185 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. In this model.a JMS client that creates and sends messages.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. Enterprise Edition.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS consumer .

The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.14 .1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. 186 .4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Depending on the type of message. On the receiving side.3 the JMS API programming model 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. 14.jms. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Using Java.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.4. In that case.

Like the connection factory.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. Depending on the connection type. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Before an application completes. 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.createConnection(). It is either a queue or a topic. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. Before your application can consume messages.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. In a J2EE application. For example. The JMS administrator creates these objects. and users discover them using JNDI. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. 14. 14.close(). Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Connections implement the Connection interface. For example.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. connection. It receives messages sent to a destination.14 .4. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must call the connection's start() method.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.4. you must close any connections that you have created. you call the stop() method. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. When you have a ConnectionFactory object.

createConsumer(myTopic). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.receive(1000).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. consumer.14 . The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. 188 . you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.createConsumer(myQueue).receive(). Message m = consumer. Message m = consumer. onMessage(). however. For example. if it needs to reply to messages. This object implements the MessageListener interface. usually expect a specific message type and format. which contains one method. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. connection. MessageConsumer consumer = session. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. After you register the message listener. You use the Session. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. 14. you are likely to miss messages.start(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. For example. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.) When message delivery begins.start(). a message listener object may be used. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. Moreover. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. In the onMessage() method. it becomes active. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.4. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. and you can use it to receive messages. A message listener does. After you have created a message consumer. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.setMessageListener(myListener). (Remember always to call the start() method. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.

A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. that is.createProducer(null). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 189 .14 .6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. map message. stream message. After you have created a message producer.send(message). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. You must first create the messages. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.receive(). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. MessageProducer producer = session.send(myQueue. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.4. and object message). message). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. 3. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). // msg_text is a String producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.4. With an unidentified producer.send(message). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. bytes message. At the consuming end. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.createProducer(myTopic). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.createTextMessage().createProducer(myQueue). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. 14. message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. anon_prod. if you created an unidentified producer. A message has three main parts: 1.setText(msg_text). Here. For example. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. to create and send a TextMessage. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. from one application to another. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.

Sessions implement the Session interface. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. If the user selects transaction support.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. } else { // Handle error } 14. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. 190 .4. then delivers the messages. Session. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. After you create a Connection object.out. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. Here. 0). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.getText()). and message consumers to receive messages. To create a transacted session. use the following code: Session session = connection. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.createSession(false. Before committing the transaction.println("Reading message: " + message.14 . the first argument means that the session is transacted.createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).

multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. On the other side. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. The component lives inside a container. container which offers services to the component.transaction management can be complex.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15. component recovery scalability portability 191 . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. Version 1.jar file into the application server.no developer coding.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . the container lives (in general) in an application server.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .logging. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.15 .DB interaction transactions . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .consistent error handling framework .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. message-driven beans The 2.0. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.object oriented representation of data in a DB.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. improved performance security . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . bundled into a single unit. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. server which provides an execution environment for containers. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .

the deployment descriptor.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. called ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file. as follows: 1.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .15 .xml 15. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the home interface of the bean 3. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.

} 15. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import java.*. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.javax. import.javax. The developer does not implement this interface. import.RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.rmi.ejb. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. String lastName.15 . int custId) throws RemoteException. import java.ejb.*. RemoteException.RemoteException.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. } 193 .

Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.jnp. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. "org. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). what methods to use (know its interface) 3. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. "localhost:1099"). the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). this can be done (for example) through SSL. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. In the case of an web application. we need to know: 1.PROVIDER_URL. prop. prop.interfaces.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. how to create or find the bean 2. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. creating them for the client application.15 .INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.NamingContextFactory".put(Context. if the client executes outside the container. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context. } 194 .

when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.Remote interface).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.15 . in fact. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. This is done through the javax. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. but for generic languages. Problem is. • if the client executes outside the container. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.narrow(homeRef. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. using the narrow() method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. to the appropriate type. that is part of CORBA standards..class). The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Why? For EJB.lookup("MyBean"). do not have the concept of casting. do implements the java. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. in fact.rmi. the client has a stub). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.rmi. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. Some languages. more specifically. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.PortableRemoteObject class and. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. 195 . this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.rmi. and this means that there are some limitations.e. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. MyBeanHome.

public class MyBean implements javax. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. call business methods on the bean myObject.ccards. 15. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.processEntry("Dumitrascu".ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome..15 . } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .. import javax.remove(). 1102).SessionContext. String lastName..SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.bank11.ejbeans.create(). Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. "Vasile". as well).ejb.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . remove the bean instance myObject. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.ejb. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).. int custId) { // method implementation .

1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. 197 . 15. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.15 .9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. namely stateful and stateless beans. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. that is.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. A stateless bean does not.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The ejbCreate method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. Figure 15. the EJB container activates the bean. for example. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.1 are invoked by the EJB container. For example.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. 198 . 15. At the end of the life cycle.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. (Typically.15 . you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. or passivate. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. is inside the bean class. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. the client invokes the remove method. All other methods in Figure 15.

The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. equals() 199 . container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().15 . The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. stored in a Database). support for concurrent access 3. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.

15 . when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. We can have more create() methods. an instance of that bean is created. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Update and Delete. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. state data is stored into data store (usually. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. methods which have the same parameters.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. 15.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. in the same order. as the parameters in the original create() method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.bank11. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). CreateException.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. all throwing RemoteException. 200 .lang.ccards.14. On the other side. Read.

the client invokes the create method. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. While in the pooled stage.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. 15. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. but the developer returns null for CMP. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. for BMPs. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.14. not null. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. left empty most of the time in CMP. but in general. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. 15. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. All instances in the pool are identical. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. After instantiation.15 . On the first path.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). On the second path. in BMP. a client can invoke the remove method. for BMP. Second. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the programmer will create actual SQL code. it's business methods can be invoked. actual SQL update code.14.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. 201 .2 read • • • ejbLoad(). it is empty. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. First. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.14.

or a Web component . If the primary key is incorrect. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. In the pooled state.an application client.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. With bean-managed persistence.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. 202 . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.getPrimaryKey(). which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. 15. Therefore. It acts as a JMS message listener. another enterprise bean.15 . an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. it does not automatically set the primary key.

15. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.16. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. When a message arrives. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. To ensure concurrency. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. message-driven bean can be used.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. max-beans-infree-pool. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . the message will be redelivered. Previously. In several respects.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. If message processing is rolled back.16. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. To avoid tying up server resources. Unlike a session or entity bean. 15.15 . only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. 203 . allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. For more information on this element see. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. an open database connection.for example. 15. The onMessage method may call helper methods. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.16. a JMS API connection. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. but not asynchronously.16.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.

See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.16.Message MessageName) {..MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. Classes. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.}. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. 2. 3.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.0 specification. finalize{}.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. methods..16. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.ejb.16.jms.15 . 15. Obtain a new bean instance. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage()..Message. As with other EJB types. 15. and it must not // accept parameters. public void ejbRemove() {. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. // An EJB constructor is required.jms. public void onMessage(javax. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs...ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.} // onMessage() is required.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. Note: These instances can be pooled.. or create a new one.

WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). See javax. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .16. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.onMessage() for more information. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16.jms.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). 15. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. 15.This is not a client context. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. For example.MessageListener. 15. getUserTransaction().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. getRollbackOnly() . However. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. 15. even in onMessage().15 . If any method throws such an exception. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.16.

both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.16. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. 15.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2.15 . Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. as required by the EJB 2.xml. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.16.16.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).14 deployment elements The EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.0 specification. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. In either case. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.

xml elements.. the weblogic-ejb-jar. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.15 .ejb20. 2. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. 15..0 specification. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 207 .message. as described in the EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . For each instance..xml deployment file. </message-driven> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.jms..4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.

session specific elements 9. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.like transaction. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. isolation level. access control entries .15 . security 208 . environment properties 6. bean home name . control descriptors . entity specific elements 10. At the end of the life cycle.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.security issues.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the home interface name 7. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the remote interface name 8.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. attributes . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. the container calls the ejbRemove method. EJB class name 5. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. 15. a message-driven bean is never passivated.

AccountHome</home> <remote>com.15 .CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.ccards.lang.ccards.bank11.ccards.bank11.ejb.ejb.bank11.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ejb.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.15 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang... </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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