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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


1. are not considered web components. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.7 business components Business code. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. and sends it back to the client program.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. Figure 1. like HTML pages. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. The web tier. processes it (if necessary). enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. retail. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.2 Server communication 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs.1 . or finance. 5 . processes it (if necessary). might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. like the client tier.

enterprise edition Figure 1. multithreading. enterprise bean. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. and other legacy information systems. mainframe transaction processing.9 java EE Containers Normally.1 . thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. 6 .3 Web. In addition. database systems. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. For example. Business and EIS Tiers 1. Before a web. and other complex low-level details. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. or application client component can be executed. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. 1.java platform. 1. resource pooling.9.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.

and access to the Java EE platform APIs. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. For example. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. including services such as security. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.9.1 . The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. 7 . The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. transaction management.java platform.4. database connection resource pooling. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. After an enterprise bean is created. and remote connectivity. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. 1. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. data persistence.

1. Application clients and their container run on the client. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. When XML data is exchanged between parties. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. extensible. XML data. 1. maps. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Web container .java platform. For example. Application client container .manages the execution of applets. or for document-oriented web services. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. enterprise edition Figure 1. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. program files. Applet container .10. 8 . develop. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.1 . video. test. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. text-based standard for representing data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.manages the execution of application client components. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.

and the APIs used in Java EE applications.10.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 9 .1 .10. enterprise edition 1. 1.10. The description includes the name of the service. 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. such as Universal Description.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. and ways to communicate with the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.java platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). the location of the service.

standard set of tags.1 . You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. In Java EE 5.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. When the client finishes executing. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. 1. and XML) and JSP elements. 1. 1. If the client terminates. enterprise edition Figure 1. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.11. you employ a single. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. Commonly. or enterprise bean.java platform.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.11. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. the session bean and its data are gone.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. WML. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. or if the server shuts down.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Once deployed on a local platform. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. module. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or a component.java platform.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. better tools. or better customer support. JSP page. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . it is ready to be deployed. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. such as better performance. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or component accordingly. a module. JTA. 15 . or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. the application is ready to run. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. and JNDI 1. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. servlet.1 . An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.ear extension. At runtime. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. SAAJ. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. No extra coding is needed.

GIF and HTML files. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.1 . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Resource adapter modules. for example. • • 16 . For example. classes. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain servlet class files.war (Web ARchive) extension. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Web modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. supporting class files. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. such as caching directives.jar extension. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and a web application deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. enterprise edition Figure 1. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Application client modules. and other documentation. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Together. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.jar extension. JSP files. which contain all Java interfaces. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . native libraries.java platform. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.rar (resource adapter archive) extension.

a blank line (CR/LF) 4. HEAD. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. as follows: 1.. so far) version.2 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. POST. . but they also have some common structural elements. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. check the official HTTP site – www.org/Protocols . zero or more header lines 3. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. was the object of several RFCs. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.ietf. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).1. an initial line 2.HTTP 2.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.w3.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. 2.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .com/easy/http.. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. The second (and last.org/rfc/rfc1945. These messages may have different contents.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. The client sends a request message to the server. RFC 2616 (06/99).HTTP 2 . we recommend www.. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. The server answers with a response message.html).apps. namely HTTP 1. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).jmarshall..

. POST 4. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. but lack of support makes them obsolete.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. Here is their list: 1. PUT 8. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.2 . GET 2. in the HTTP 1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. as well. newsgroup. GET /path/to/the/file/index. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.0). The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . OPTIONS 7. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. HTTP/1.Annotation of existing resources.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.1. HEAD 3.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. DELETE 6. TRACE Three other commands are listed. 2. mailing list. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.Posting a message to a bulletin board. 18 . CONNECT 5.1 specification.html HTTP/1.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.

(encoded as multipart/form-data). where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.2 . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.6 differences between GET and POST 1. separated by the character “&” or “. . to a data-handling process. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. like storing or updating data.Extending a database through an append operation. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.Providing a block of data. such as the result of submitting a form. When used for form data submission. or ordering a product. or in the message body. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.HTTP or similar group of articles. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.0 404 Not Found 2. after the “?” character. In this case. while POST may involve anything. 2. 3. or a record is subordinate to a database. . GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.8 the status code A three-digit integer. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. or sending E-mail 2.” On the other side.

out of which.1). fails. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.0 version specifies 16 headers. separated a semicolon. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.0. 2. and section 10 for HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client. and the resulting resource (e. none of them mandatory.1 only) . header name and header value. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.an unexpected server error. that is. 500 Server Error . 20 .the requested resource doesn't exist. 404 Not Found . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. In a request.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. one (Host) is mandatory. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. 2. file or script output) is returned in the message body. In particular. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .1 version specifies 46 of them.g. header values are.the request succeeded. The HTTP 1.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. while the HTTP 1. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.2 . If an HTTP message includes a body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). The most common use of the message body is in a response. Although the header names are not case sensitive. or otherwise can't run correctly. such as text/html or image/jpg. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.

12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).html first open a socket to the host web.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. 1. text. application.uvt. video.0 From: someuser@yahoo. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.uvt. Then. RFC 1521 (www.info. with subtype plain 2. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . 21 .apps. partial. . with subtypes octet-stream. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. with subtype basic 7. alternative.html HTTP/1. with subtype mpeg 2.2 .0 200 OK Date: Fri. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. parallel 3. with subtypes mixed. message. gif 6.info. audio. with subtypes rfc822. postscript 5.HTTP 2. with subtypes jpeg. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. multipart. digest.ro. external-body 4. image.ro/path/file.org/rfc/rfc1521.ietf.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. Here is the list of the seven types.

the server closes the socket. 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP .2 .

w3c. HTML 3.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.html) and was widely supported. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. check the official HTML site – www. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. It is a revision of 4. HTML describes how text. However.www. 3. A newer standard.99. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.HTML 3.0. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).ietf.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. As a practical reference site use – www. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.0 and was accepted in December 1997.01. Mosaic.w3. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .3 . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. www. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. a working draft for the next major revision.blooberry.com/indexdot/html .com/easy/html . Originally named Web Applications 1. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. namely HTML 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.apps. The first version of HTML. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0.HTML 3 . The newest version of HTML is 4.org/Markup .0 draft was released in 01. From 1999 on.0) dates from 08.0 .org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.org/rfc/rfc1866.htmlgoodies.01) can be found at this address: http://www.com/tutors. The first official version – HTML 2.jmarshall.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.2 (3. The XHTML 1. The latest version (XHTML 2. Since it fits in a couple of pages.html. Version 4. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. Other helpful sites .

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.-_:" ".SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. like ALIGN.01 specification.and end at the first occurrence of -->. "&#x6C34. CONTROLS.0 Strict DTD. DYNSRC. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4." (in hexadecimal) .acesta este un comentariu. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. “&quot”. 3. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. An example: <!-.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. If you wonder what a character reference is. though.the chinese character for water. HTML 4. <><> --> 25 . BORDER. the specification of HTML 4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. Overall. Check the address http://www.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. VSAPCE are omitted. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. You get the point. This section deals with some of the most common elements.w3. ….3 . An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.0 Transitional DTD.0 contains an SGML declaration. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. 4. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. look at these examples: “&lt”. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. 3.

specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.3 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.uvt.5 tables 26 .1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.HTML 3.info. image.3.3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.ro/webmail/src/login. etc. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. NAME.

The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. its rows. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Here is their description and attributes.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. columns. <THEAD>.3 . Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Usually. headers and cells are <TABLE>.

3 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.required.7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal.

specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. after a quotation mark . Main attributes: 29 .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .sends the form values in a single transmission.?. "checkbox". however.maximum number of options visible to the user.required. SIZE . the browser appends the values to the URL.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "GET" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.required.HTML • METHOD .8. "file".info.3 . "button". "hidden".if specified. "radio". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. NAME .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . • 3. specifies the parameter name. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.8. Main attributes: • TYPE . "password". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8 form related elements 3. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .:. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.the default value.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. specifies how data will be sent to the server. allows multiple selections from the choice list. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "text/plain" • • 3. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". "reset". "image". "submit". Example: http://web.uvt. 3.required. may have the values GET or POST.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

4. javac -classpath . The first time a class is loaded.4. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.java.class file.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. Java source – a file with extension . The current version (as of 10.class 3. following the 1.C:\TW\mySource. The current version (as of 10.90. project started in 12. To overcome this significant shortage.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.2 java the interpreter.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.JAVA PRIMER 4 .java One example of command line compilation: 4.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. the compilation process occurs. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.3 java applications 31 . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. Early versions of Java were released in 12.) in 08. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.java 2. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class.4 . Java bytecode – a file with extension .2 version. jit From source to execution. Inc.95. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. -g : generate all debugging info.0. In terms of execution time. Example: Edit the file prog1.95. but next time execution is much faster. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.JAVA PRIMER 4.class file.

4 object oriented concepts 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.java.jar file. An example: 32 . or that it extends A).4. In general. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. 4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. or is derived from A. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4 .4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). Generally. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.

5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . with the root the class Object. Character. Integer.4 . this is called method overloading. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. 4. Therefore. called Object. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Float. 33 .4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Short. In OO jargon.4. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. Therefore. While C++ allows multiple inheritance.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. providing its own implementation. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Long. Boolean. Double. a class can have more than one method with the same name. 4. namely: Byte. In fact. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.1 bit char . a Java class can extend a single base class.

Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. } declares an abstract class. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . • • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable . automatic garbage collection. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.servlet.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. A final variable (method.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.http. no templates.one which is constant method . method .access from any class anywhere private .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. rather than at class instance. class . Except for the "package" concept. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.http.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.4 ..the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.does not have any subclasses.one which is defined at class level. 34 . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.. anywhere abstract . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . which extends the class javax.no access from outside the class itself protected . inherited). The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . 4.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.servlet.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .the class is visible from any class. has the same value for all class instances.

In Java.ThreadDeath.4 . All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. Exception categories: 1. java errors .7. 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). programmer defined exceptions 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. array index out of bounds.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .like invalid cast.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. standard method exceptions 3.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 2. division by 0. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7. as defined in the java. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. 4. code or data errors .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. 4.7.JAVA PRIMER 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.7. not at execution time.

ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. don't have to import java.by adding the key word throws. In the example above.8. therefore.sql..event .sql java.. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). 4. the class (the .1 Package names The default package has no name.class file.bank11.security 36 .support for user interface java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.awt . The package containing the standard classes is java. the default package is used). import javax.zip .awt.awt.servlets.ccards. 4. finally construct. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.lang (automatically available). followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.support for java archives creation java.*.geom . they have to be unique inside a package.nio java. . As a general rule.util . the package statement is the first one in a java source file.4 . followed by the import statements. date and time info java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.default.support for data collections.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .this can be done by providing a try.io java.rmi java.net java. string analyzers. catch. import.lang .support for event handling java.Properties.util.java. All other packages must be explicitly imported. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.util. An example: package com. 4.

it must be declared as abstract.event . All variables (actually.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.accessibility javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.text javax.4 . static and final. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.support for event handling 4. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing .swing. 37 .

A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .HTML authors are normally not programmers.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . This is not always what we want. 5.depending on the browser .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . other 38 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .JAVASCRIPT 5. However. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. The origins of this language date back to 1995. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Subsequently. like QtScript or ActionScript. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. as JavaScript.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript statement like this: document. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . and .5 .

3.. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.... you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.5 . </script> </body> 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. Save the external JavaScript file with a .javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. point to the . go in the head section. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . or when an event is triggered.3.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. To simplify this. without having to write the same script on every page. When you place a script in the head section. 39 . When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.js file extension. </script> </head> 5.3..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.

switch()... break. while() it is worth mentioning the for ...1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while(). or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"..5. 5...4..javaScript 5. continue. in loop is executed once for each element/property.1 JavaScript for.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. 5.... Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . in and the try . 5.4. The code in the body of the for .5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. namely – if . else.In statement The for.5 .4. for(). catch constructs.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.

for (x in mycars) { document.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").. mycars[1] = "Volvo"..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable..5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.. an array element. or a property of an object. } </script> </body> </html> 5. they often leave the Web page. mycars[0] = "Saab". so you don't lose your audience.catch statement (available in IE5+. var mycars = new Array(). and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.5.. Mozilla 1. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . mycars[2] = "BMW".5 .catch statement The try.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. When users see errors. The try block contains the code to be run. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".0. Example Using for.3 try.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.

} catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. When an alert box pops up. 5.\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. txt+="Click OK to continue.5 . txt+="Error description: " + err.description + "\n\n". Syntax: 42 . Also.7 popup boxes 5. alert(txt).7.\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

in the example above had not been written within a function. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the box returns null.5 . the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the box returns true."defaultvalue") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel".7. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.8.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Now. When a prompt box pops up. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. When a confirm box pops up.8 functions 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). If the user clicks "OK".javaScript alert("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel".. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.7. the box returns false. in the <head> section. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.js file).

. and will be stored in the variable called product. 5. 5.9 javaScript objects 5. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. and how they are used. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.javaScript function functionname(var1. 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.var2..8. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".5 . </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .. etc are variables or values passed into the function.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9. var2.write(txt.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.9.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.length).varX) { some code } var1. So. document.

The first class consists of browser specific objects.write(str.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.javaScript 5.toUpperCase()).9. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects. which will be specified in the next section. document.5 .10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. </script> 5. 45 .

1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Properties FF: Firefox.w3schools. every Image on the page is an Object.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . or when the user interacts with a Web page.com/jsref/default. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.asp 5. every Link on the page is an Object. N: Netscape. Even this Document itself is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.11. check the site http://www. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. which are called Objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. When an event message has been triggered. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. At its most basic level.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. as well). For example.

11.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.5 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.

depending on the browser. as a four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

Properties FF: Firefox. according to Greenwich time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .11. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. to a string. N: Netscape. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.5 . according to universal time.

11.5 .5 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 3 4 .5 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Syntax for creating a new Number object. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.

N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 .5 1 .11.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .

414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx. 2.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.5 .y) pow(x.11.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. Properties FF: Firefox.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 0.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.javaScript 5. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0. 1. 3.y) min(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.

height.firstname="John". Assume that the personObj already exists . The persons' methods could be eat().write(personObj. age.5 .propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.12.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().lastname="Doe".12. personObj. personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Objects also have methods. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.you can give it properties named firstname. 53 . etc. Properties are the values associated with the object. personObj. personObj. document. weight.lastname="Doe".eyecolor="blue". play(). skin tone. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. etc.age=30. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. lastname.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.12.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. eye color.firstname="John". age. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. 5. personObj. work().firstname). The code above will generate the following output: John 5. All persons have these properties. personObj. The persons' properties include name. with a collection of properties and methods.eyecolor="blue".age=50. sleep().

firstname=firstname.eat=eat. this.lastname.newlastname=newlastname.50."blue"). this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.eyecolor) { this.12.lastname=new_lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.48.age.5 .javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. you can create new instances of the object.lastname=lastname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear)."green").age. myMother=new person("Sally". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. 5. this. like this: myFather=new person("John". 54 . this.eyecolor=eyecolor. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.propertyName. } Notice that the template is just a function."Doe". You can also add some methods to the person object."Rally".age=age. Once you have the template.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.eyecolor) { this.lastname=lastname.age=age.lastname. this. this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.firstname=firstname.

like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. We define the events in the HTML tags. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 ..5 .13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. For example. 5.". and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.newlastname("Doe").javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. So.. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. now you can write: myMother.

For example.13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.13.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .2 onFocus.13. 5. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. 5. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The name is then stored in a cookie. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. the submit should be cancelled.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.w3schools. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.13.5 .

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. By October 1998. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. XML. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. or WebAPI being among them. SVG.HTML DOM 6..Html DOM 6 . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. Right now (oct. In other words. HTML. The W3C 58 . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).6 . structure. and style of a document.g.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. As of January 2008. the Document Object Model activity is closed. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. 6. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). particularly those used in Web browsers. CSS. However. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. 2010). The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.

an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Requirements. which further enhances the DOM 6. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. filtered views and events. and 6. DOM Level 3 Validation. a new DOM Core specification. 2. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. 3. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. DOM Level 3 XPath. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. 5.6 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. each of which contains required and optional modules. 4. 6. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Level 2.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. To claim to support a level. Level 2 XML namespace support.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . As of 2005. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1.

Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. In order to be cross-browser compatible. that is.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Opera. along with their containing text and attributes. and Safari. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. By 2005.x were still widely used in 2000. 6.x and Netscape 4. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.6 .0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. support multiple browsers. Konqueror. interoperability problems were numerous. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. can be accessed through the 60 . All HTML elements. The Window object represents a browser window. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.

The contents can be modified or deleted.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. It can be used by any programming language like Java. JavaScript. and new elements can be created. and VBScript.Html DOM DOM.

However. The <head> node holds a <title> node. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. The <html> node has two child nodes. the element node <title>.8. The tree structure is called a node-tree. 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.9.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. 62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.6 . everything in an HTML document is a node. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.8.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. <head> and <body>.Html DOM 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".

has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. child. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). By using the getElementById() method 2. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.getElementsByTagName("p").9.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Parent nodes have children. children. using the node relationships.9.6 . except the root. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementById('main').2 node parents. The terms parent. and the connections between them. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. Their contents can be modified or deleted. By navigating the node tree. and new elements can be created. • • • • • In a node tree.getElementsByTagName("p"). 63 . the top node is called the root Every node. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).

Html DOM for (i=0.9. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i<x.write("<br />"). document. each node is an object.innerHTML).4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). } 6.length.6 . The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .write(x[i]. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.

A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.nodeValue.6 .5 example .getElementById("intro").10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. txt=x. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . 6.Html DOM 6.9.

For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. objects and images. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 .

This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Fires when an element is activated. Safari. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). through a mouse click or a keypress.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). say "click". 6. 67 . Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. as of version 1. and then bubbled up.6 . Also. for instance. When the user clicks on the inner element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event.3. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. During the event flow. Mozilla. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. DOMNodeInserted. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. also supports these methods. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.

mouse position. etc. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. preventDefault 68 . key pressed. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.6 .12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Unfortunately. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. including information about target element. mouse button pressed. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.

etc. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. using web services or Php scripts. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.AJAX 7 . without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. crunching numbers. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. For example. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 7. fields of forms. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. choices of user. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. before the whole page was sent within the network. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 7. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. For improving sharing of resources. menus. but also to save resources. It is not a technology in itself. 69 . means that the response of the server will be processed when available. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.AJAX 7. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. dynamic website.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.7 . The server does some processing — retrieving data. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.

but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. the user waits some more. waiting around for the server to do something. at the start of the session. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. 70 .AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Instead of loading a web page. waiting. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. we wouldn’t make users wait around.7 . why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. And at every step in a task. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. Obviously. but the opposite is true. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. While the server is doing its thing. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Once an interface is loaded.

AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.7 . without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. usually using XML. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. editing data in memory. loading additional interface code. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.

Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .for a simple text.returned by the server . 3: answer in process. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. and in this purpose. 7. 2: request received. To get data on the server.responseText . .url: the location of the file 72 . GET or POST . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 404 if the page is not found . 1: connection established.mode: type of request. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 4: finished.open: create a connection. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. url. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. . boolean) . thanks to its methods and attributes.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. These events are user actions.send: send a request to the server.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".for a Xml file or . .7 . This object provides two methods: .responseXml .AJAX 7. onreadystatechange .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. DOM's method allows to extract data.holds a Xml loaded file. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.200 is ok.holds loaded data as a string of characters. It allows the interaction with the servers.

AJAX .open: command GET or POST. 'http://www.xul. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. // Firefox. . URL of the document. but two options must be tried..xml'. true for asynchronous. 73 ..onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. http_request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest()..fr/somefile. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. Safari. OK } else { // wait.readyState == 4) { // received. true). the data to send to the server.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . http_request.send(null). if (request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . if (window. for browser compatibility.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft..7 . } else if (window. . The request below reads a document on the server.null for a GET command 7.open('GET'.send: with POST only.6 building a request. request.XMLHTTP").

7 .status. else document.ajax. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. req.getElementsByTagName('root').open("GET". true). "data.readyState == 4) if(req.xml".onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".status == 200) document.dyn="Received:" + req.dyn="Error code " + req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. req.ajax. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. req. }.dyn=""Received:" + req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.send(null). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").7. req. if(window.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .responseXML. else if (window.7 examples 7.item(0).XMLHTTP). by this code: var doc = req.AJAX 7.responseText.responseText.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


Servlet. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. 8.class>com. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 5. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. After an enterprise bean is created. web. like: 1. but typical web. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. descriptions).8 .4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .servlets. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 4. JSPs and Java Server Faces. 6..bank11. For example. database connection resource pooling.)> <web-app> <!-. Others. Servlet. like what pages are error. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. classes. Here is a small. Initialization of parameters for servlets. entries related to session configuration. 2. data persistence.xml file: <?xml version="1. MIME types used by the web application. servlet classes.ccards. welcome pages.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed..xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. 3. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.

This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.servlets". Unfortunately. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".bank11.servlets".xml".xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. Then the "EnrollServlet. basicly. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". In general. For example.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .servlets.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.ccards. However. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".xml file of the web application.bank11. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. it is the alias of the real servlet class.class" and that it is part of the package "com. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. for flexibility. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. whose name is rather long.ccards. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" 2.xml" file. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. Basicly.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.8 . then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.bank11. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. the name of the web application. Behind a very benign URL.ccards. 1.

9. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. this is just a work in progress. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.4. the HttpServlet) class. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.SERVLETS 9. small footprint. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . from BEA Systems. more often.0 specification.5 and is in final state. As of oct.4. which extend the functionality of the web server.0 specification is available for public review. the Java Servlet 3. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). but through a web container.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . in most cases as part of an application server. platform independent programs. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. Technically speaking. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. 9. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.9 .2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. modular design 9.SERVLETS 9 . tjws spec 2.2. but at this point. 2010. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.

http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package are protocol independent. while the second one. IOException.servlet. These packages are: • • javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. from Apple Inc.servlet package. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void destroy() throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition.servlet. 82 . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . the javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. WebSphere. from IBM 9.servlet javax.9 . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public void service(ServletRequest req.

This method has two arguments.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. More on the servlet life cycle. The method performs all initialization required.9 .SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). ServletConfig. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. 9.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. as well. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Throwable t) 9. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. After instantiating the servlet. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. 83 . The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. namely the HttpServlet class. The servlet API provides such a specific class. respectively. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.

8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.ServletException javax.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.Exception class. service(). It also extends the java. 9.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.9 . a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init().9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.

Typically. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. Also. respectively.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.SingleThreadModel. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. JSP or JSF. After instantiation.9 . this method contains JDBC driver loading. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. 85 . DB connection opening.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. If the servlet does not implement the javax.servlet. Typically. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. which will service all incoming requests. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. 9. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. etc. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.

11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.

io.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. This is done in server's (container's) server.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.9 . 87 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*.java" file: package com. import java.xml file. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.servlets. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.bank11. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.ccards. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.

9 . PrintWriter out = resp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.init(config). out.println("</body>"). out. } } 88 . out. out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("<head>").SERVLETS import javax. import javax.close().println("<html>").println("<br>").getWriter().servlet.servlet.*. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<body>"). IOException { resp. out.setContentType(“text/html”).println("merge"). out. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.http.println("</head>"). // output your page here out. out.println("</html>").*.

which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. Type 1. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. the javax. This solution is inefficient. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.JDBC 10. The JDBC 4.JDBC 10 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.JdbcOdbcDriver . It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.jdbc. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.sun.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.1.10 .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. Starting with version 3. as recognized by the DB industry. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . the java.0 while the current (4.sql package 2. These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10.sql package. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.odbc. 89 . 1997. After that.

90 . These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 4. Type 3. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. because it eliminates one level of indirection.10 . The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The DB returns the result of the call to the API.JDBC Type 2. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. which in turn. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Java. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.

sql.sql.3 the java.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.Connection java.sql.sql.10 .Struct java.sql.sql.Blob java.SQLPermission java.sql.Array java.sql.0). let's remind some of the most important ones. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLInput java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.SQLXML java.Driver java.ResultSet java.0 API.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.DriverManager java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.Statement java.sql.SQLException java.sql.JDBC 10.SQLOutput java.Timestamp java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.Clob java.SQLData java.sql.Types java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.Time java.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.PreparedStatement java.Date java.sql.sql.

sql.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.0.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.CommonDataSource javax.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.ResultSet java.StatementEvent javax.SQLOutput java.NClob java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLException java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.ClientinfoStatus java.Wrapper javax.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql. querying the database 4.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Clob java.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.RowIdLifeTime java.Blob java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.Connection java.RowId java.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.Types java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql. loading a database driver 2.SQLInput java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.Statement java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql. java.sql.sql.sql package.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.10 .sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4. processing the result set 92 .SQLXML java.

db2.odbc.10 .ibm.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .sybase.OracleDriver sun.SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.driver.net.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.JDBC 10. The first one is loading a database driver.datastore.borland.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.jdbc.

*. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. 94 . String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. passwd). import java. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.*. user. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).bank11.sql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. by using the connection URL. as specified by the driver vendor. String user = "root".mysql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.Driver"). Since we just used it.printStackTrace(). the only protocol allowed in JDBC).mm. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".10 .newInstance(). but let's take it for granted: import java.gjt. try { Class.getConnection(connURL.forName("org.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.util.

The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.10 .util. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.sql package. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. "true").put("autocommit". String user.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp).JDBC 10. prp.put("create". java. 10. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Connection conn = DriverManager. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. we can use it for various purposes. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency. prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Properties prp = new Properties().getConnection(connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.

methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. respectively. Statement.JDBC 10.10 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql. 10. stmt.executeUpdate(sqlString). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .10 . Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors..9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..createStatement().".ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.

10 ResultSet characteristics By default. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. PreparedStatement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. 98 .JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. as the argument. not at 0) or the column name. and CallableStatement objects. a concurrency of read only. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


There are three types of implementations: 1.10 .DataSource object.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. a factory for creating DB connections.Time java.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.math. Basic implementation -.produces a standard Connection object 2. mins. This interface is.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.sql package.sql.produces a Connection object that will 103 . secs date.sql.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math. time. Connection pooling implementation -. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. basicly.0 optional package. It is part of the javax.

io. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).getLogger(TestDataSource.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Distributed transaction implementation -. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.class. javax. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().*. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. javax. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. 104 . private DataSource theDataSource.*.10 . javax.sql.servlets.servlet.*.naming.sql.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.getName()).servlet.*. javax.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.http. java. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".ccards.*. import import import import import import java.bank11.lookup("java:comp/env"). 3. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.

. } } 105 .10 .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).

JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.JSP 11 . The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .tagext. namely javax.jsp and javax.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.jsp.2 the java.JSP 11. The package javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. 11. The JSP specific interfaces. the servlet code is regenerated.1 and is related to the 2.servlet. The javax. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.servlet.jsp. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.11 .5 Java Servlet specification. The package javax.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. If the JSP is modified.servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.11 .. 111 . The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.. include and taglib.JSP • if the URL does not start with / .

7 scripting elements 11.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. 11. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11.11 . 11. Assigns it to available name or id. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. In Tomcat. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. this code goes to inside the service() method.JSP 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7.7.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7.

you must specify param. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.11 .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. and if so. Attributes description: • • • name .the name of a bean instance. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .

11 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. <jsp:forward>.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . <jsp:plugin> actions.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. same format as the <%@include> directive.the URL of the page. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.name of the property to be retrieved 11.13 the forward standard action 114 . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. flush .only the "true" value is supported. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.

name .the type of object the plugin will execute. as this attribute has no default value..class extension in the name following code.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. as well.a name for the Bean or applet instance.. If you do not supply a value." . You must include the .the name of a bean instance.. name="instanceName" . servlet or to a static resource.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). archive="URIToArchive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. You must specify either bean or applet.. 11.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. when we want to separate the application into different views.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .11 . depending on request. . It is used mainly.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. code="classFileName" .

provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.the initial height and width.16 scopes 1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. it has javax. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. with a protocol name. in pixels.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.represents the servlet context. request . of the image the applet or Bean displays.lang.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. optional port number.io. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . pageContext .it represents the buffered version of java. based on the servlet API. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. response .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.jsp.the amount of space.1. it has java. page . 1. Must be a small nonzero number. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. The value is a full URL. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. request . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . and domain name. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . in pixels.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. config . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. The default value is 1. objects which are automaticly available. writes to the output stream to the client. application . out .11 . session .Object type and scope page 11.PrintWriter.servlet.JspWriter type and scope page 7.1" .represents server's response to the request.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.

Object value) method 3.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.ccards. Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. application .JSP request object.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp file.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.11 . Object value) method 2.bank11. page .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.init(). if (enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. session .17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.beans. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 4.

private SimpleSubBean subBean.io.register(). %> <jsp:forward page="response.simple.mapping. The SimpleBean class is declared public. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). private int integer. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.java: package com. SimpleBean. The public constructor could have been omitted.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private int list[].18. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.devsphere.Serializable { private String string. 11. a boolean and another String).examples. private String optional.11 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . a float. private float number. private boolean flag.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private String colors[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. a software development and consulting company.string.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. an int.

} // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.11 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.colors[index]. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.integer. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag. } 119 .colors.number = value.integer = value.colors = values.flag = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.JSP this.string = value.number. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.

} // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. String value) { this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list = values. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index]. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.subBean = value. int value) { this.colors[index] = value.optional. } } 120 .11 .subBean.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list.list[index] = value.optional = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.

} } 11. private float number.11 .number = value.simple.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. SimpleSubBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.string = value.devsphere.18.string.examples.Serializable { private String string.number. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.java: package com.io.mapping.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.number]".mapping. "abc" }. 3 } }.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. error messages. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.list]". "One or more items must be selected" }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. "An option must be selected" }. The default values are defined for a String.util. SimpleBeanResources. The list of optional properties has a single element. new int[] { 2. the processing order.list]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.123) }. "One or more colors must be selected" }.java: package com.string]". a boolean and an int[]. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.integer]".11 . There are three error messages. a float. the form's name and the processor's name.examples. new Float(0.colors]".devsphere. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the list of optional properties.flag]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.18.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. new String[] { 123 .simple. new Boolean(true) }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.

} } 11. "colors".mapping.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "SimpleProc. "integer". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.11 .jsp" } }. "number".mapping. For a better understanding of this example.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.mapping. "flag".*.examples.devsphere. "list". SimpleHndl. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). com.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. If necessary. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.simple.devsphere. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.logging. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.devsphere. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. { "[PROC_NAME]". { "[FORM_NAME]".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). "subBean" } }.util. new String[] { "string".mapping.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.html" }.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . The beanToForm() method of com.devsphere.JSP "optional" } }.18. string values are converted to numbers. The formToBean() method of com. "optional".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere. "SimpleForm.

} else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getBeanResources(simpleBean.formToBean(formData. int slashIndex = basePath. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Process the valid data bean instance application. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.trim().Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.removeUserErrors(errorTable). formPath = application.io.JSP = HandlerUtils. logger).getMethod().getClass()).File(formPath)).util.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).lastIndexOf('/'). simpleBean. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).11 . // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. slashIndex+1) : "".getServletPath().trim().getDocument(). 125 .getRealPath(formPath).substring(0.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). response).forward(request. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getString("[FORM_NAME]").getTemplate(new java.equals("POST").

length.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.send(out). i < list.examples.getString() %> <P> subBean.JSP elements logger).11 .number = <%= simpleBean. strbuf. for (int i = 0.devsphere.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. document.append("{ "). i++) 126 .string = <%= simpleBean.18.simple. errorTable.getSubBean(). if (list. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. // Send the form document document.getSubBean().length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. } %> 11.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.length == 0) return "".beanToForm(simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping. SimpleProc.

length.append("{ "). strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append(" ").devsphere.append(" ").11 .6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.mapping. i++) { strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(list[i]).jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. if (list.length == 0) return "".jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. ComplexHndl. In addition. return strbuf. } strbuf. } strbuf.toString(). for (int i = 0. making the testing and the debugging easier. return strbuf. A single call to FormUtils. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.jsp files. i < list.toString(list[0]).append("}").Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.append("}"). strbuf. In addition.append(list[i]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.formToBean() call. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().length == 1) return Integer.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.util. ComplexForm. The localization of the Complex*.18. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. } %> 11. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.toString(). Using the framework. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. strbuf.examples.simple.

j < colors. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.11 .length. i++) { int value = i+1. "Green".length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < colorValues. "green".length. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. "Option 3" }. i < integerLabels. j++) if (colors[j]. 128 . for (int i = 0. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". "blue" }.getInteger() == value.getColors(). for (int i = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red".

getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .getList().simple. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getSubBean().getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.length. "Item 3" }. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.devsphere. break.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. "subBean. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.SimpleSubBean()).setSubBean( new com. boolean selected = false. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.mapping.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.examples.JSP break. "Item 2". i < listItems.11 .length. i++) { int value = i+1. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. j < list.

JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getMethod(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.examples.getString().mapping.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.get(property).setString("abc").setSubBean(simpleSubBean).Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl.util.examples.Hashtable errorTable.getSubBean(). "subBean. 130 . if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.equals("POST").getString() == null || simpleBean.simple.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. if (message == null) message = "".devsphere. return message.mapping.11 .length() == 0) { simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. boolean isPostMethod = request.

123f).setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null. "number". "Must be a number"). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean. "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setFlag(flagValue != null). "An option must be selected").getParameter("number").trim(). } simpleBean. if (flagValue.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.length() != 0) simpleBean.getParameter("flag").floatValue()). "string".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.getColors().11 . } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "number". "integer". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . else { simpleBean.

floatValue()).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2.length == 0) { simpleBean. "subBean. "list". "Must be } //* subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "One or more colors must be selected"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.setString(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable.number").getString() == null || simpleSubBean. 3 }).number". //* subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString().length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getList().string". } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").setOptional(""). "subBean. "Must be filled"). 132 .getParameter("subBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).11 .getOptional() == null) simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "colors".

\ 133 .put(property.setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }).number".initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.properties or web.xml: SimpleHndl.code=com.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.helpers. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. String property. simpleBean.mapping.SimpleBean.JSP filled"). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.simple.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.18. "Must be a number").setNumber(0.setFlag(true).jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. } %> 11.123f).jsp. simpleSubBean. "subBean.setString("abc"). simpleBean.devsphere. simpleBean.setOptional("").helpers.examples. errorTable. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. } } else { simpleBean. The com.util.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.devsphere. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.11 .mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.setString("").BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.Hashtable errorTable.devsphere. simpleBean.mapping.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. message). which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.

BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . a servlet is identified with its class. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. In many cases.host.devsphere.devsphere. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.properties: AnotherHndl. 11. If you have another bean-form pair.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.another.devsphere.mapping.properties (or web.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.helpers.host.devsphere.18.helpers. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.mapping. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.simple.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.code=com. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.examples.code=com. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.company.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.examples. A servlet can be made bean-independent.AnotherBean.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.xml) file: ServletName.host.11 . you could add a few other lines to servlets.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.

11 .JSP 135 .

namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Version 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. This technology includes: 1.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0 supersedes version 1.0. like input fields. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. 12.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.12 .2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.javaserver faces 12 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. builds a component tree. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. processes events.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.JAVASERVER FACES 12. which loads the appropriate view template. buttons. 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.

here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.12 .2 of the JFS specification.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.javaserver faces 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. 12. As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.

Common formatting techniques.4.12 . The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. 12.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. see the column tag documentation. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. columns and rows. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. respectively. footers. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.

binding request parameters to backing bean properties.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.checkout}" /> 139 . If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. your options include using plain HTML forms. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.12 .4. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.4.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.

user.user. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". red for error.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.12 .4." /> 12.4.</span> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().

For example. 12. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .5. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 .

12.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Any component that receives user input. validateLength. can publish value change events.mycompany.javaserver faces 12. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.customer.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. Without this JavaScript event.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.12 . but only if the new input is validated successfully.5. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. The body content of this tag must be empty. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.

the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If you have not specified a default locale. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.mycompany. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.12 . including images and styles.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. Example: welcome_en. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. myJSFapp 143 . Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. for each locale you wish to support.5.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.mycompany.javaserver faces 12.

7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create JSP pages 2. jsf-api.12 .xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.html.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Create properties files 144 .jar faces-config. It has a deployment descriptor. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.javaserver faces /ant build. Define navigation rules 3. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Create managed beans 4.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.xml – the JSF configuration file. and so on.xml web.jar – files included in the /lib directory. mandatory for any JSF application web. JSP pages. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. static resources.contains libraries required by the application.jar.jar jsf-api. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.exadel.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. custom tag libraries.

We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp. Compile the application 8. And that's all there is to this.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . we can create a navigation rule.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Create an index. The directory structure already exists. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.javaserver faces 5. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. we just want to go from inputname. These files will act as place holders for now.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. As a diagram.7.12 . In our application. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp to greeting.7. You just need to create its contents.jsp and greeting. 12. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.xml file.jsp is greeting.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp file 7. Now that we have the two JSP pages.

PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. This class is straight-forward.PersonBean.7. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.1 PersonBean.xml file should look like this: 146 .) 12.3. The next line is the full class name.12 . <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. the second part of faces-config.7. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7.3 faces-config. 12.3. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.javaserver faces This is. 12. we will create a PersonBean.3.7.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.xml Now.xml Your final faces-config. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. public class PersonBean { String personName.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. To read more about navigation rules. a very simple navigation rule. You can easily create more complex ones.java file. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. Inside this myJFSapp folder. request sets the bean scope in the application. myJFSapp. of course.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.

jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. 12.1//EN" "http://java.sun. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. Inc.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.properties file in the bundle folder.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.4. 12.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. 12.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.sun.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.5. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.1 inputname. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.12 .7.1 messages.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.

prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. Then.sun. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .bundle.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle.

7.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The second line will access a Java bean.javaserver faces Line 1. Line 2. Creates an HTML input text box.jsp page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. 12.</h3> tags. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Line 6. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. name! 12. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button..sun. The first three lines are identical to our first page.12 .6 creating the index. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. and also print its contents on the page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Create the index.2 greeting.5.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.xml file.. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. specifically the bean attribute personName. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.greeting_text}" />. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Lines 3-5.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Having an index. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.sun.

To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.7.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. We are almost done with this example. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. we need to deploy it. When Tomcat is done loading.html . start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. might possibly be different).8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsp.7. To do this.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.8. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 150 . 12. 12. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.xml file.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).xml file for the application *. To build the application run the build. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. you'll notice the file suffix is . verifies the information.sourceforge. 12. because in the web. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. This is a "login" application. Your setup. 12.9 Running Next. This is used here.jsf and not .jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. which asks an user for an ID and password.javaserver faces Now.12 . and forwards the user to a success or error page. though.7. Of course.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.

Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click Next d. 10. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. 2.. see Installing & Uninstalling.. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. name the folder webroot 5. say. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. 1. Select Java Project. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.src | +-. 7. Enter project name. 3. a. c. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).12 . click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. your mileage may vary. The New Project wizard appears. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.... from the menubar select File/New/Other.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.xml Editor (see faces-config. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. click Next. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. click Next. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Yes through messages that appear. select the Source tab. in the Add JSF Support page. click Add Folder. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Select the Amateras node.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. 12. and to add JSF libraries to the project. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. 9. 6. in the wizard that appears. click Finish 4. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder..webroot | +-.WEB-INF 151 . name the folder pages. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.8. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. and set up folders for a web application.. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. make sure all checkboxes are checked. jsf-login. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config..

for name enter mgr. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. for class enter login. 2. The Java code editor opens. Click Finish. in the Name field enter LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.java package login. 3. from its context menu select New/Class. } return action. In Package Explorer select the src folder.xml Editor. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.LoginManager. We then configure it to be a managed bean. for scope select 152 . enter login. In the Package field. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. else action = "loginFail".xml. a. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".8. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. 1. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.pages 12. input widgets appear d. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. private String _pwd = "". if ( _uid. } 4.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". The New Java Class wizard appears. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. click Managed Bean. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.lib | +-. b.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Add.xml editor opens. c.javaserver faces | | | +-.12 . The faces-config. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.

jsp: a. Create error. Create success.javaserver faces session. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp and error. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. 1.webroot/pages/error. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. the JSP Editor opens. b.jsp. Then we create login.jsp: create this file similarly to index. index. Enter the following code: <!-. then close the editor 12. </body> Please try 153 . again. in Package Explorer select webroot. Enter the following code: <!-. All pages except login. click Finish.jsp).jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. enter the following code.jsp. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. but in webroot/pages. from its context menu select New/File.jsp. so we create them first.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. save the file and close the editor. from the menubar select File/Save.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. <!-. Create index.jsp. e.webroot/pages/success. and 3 content pages (login.12 . c. but in webroot/pages.8.jsp).jsp: create this file similarly to index. success. the New File wizard appears. for File name enter index.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp are simple pages with static content. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.webroot/index.jsp is placed directly in webroot.

create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. the New wizard appears.jsp: a.jsp. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. etc. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. click Finish. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and the JSP Editor can help with code.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.javaserver faces </html> 4. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. from its context menu select New/Other. d. a code-completion window pops up. and choose default for Template. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. with the following template code. click Next c. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.. Create login. <%@ page contentType="text/html. 154 . g. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and dock it along the right.12 . as shown below. and uses them for code completion as well.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. (See Show View Dialog) f. To see this in action. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. Open the JSF palette. now we want to add attributes to this element. b. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.. enter jsf-login e. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets..completion. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. for File name enter login. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. place your cursor in one of these lines.sun.

set its value to Login. i. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.) j. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . with the barest presentational formatting. with bean properties available in mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces h. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".sun. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.password}" l. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. a code-completion window pops up. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit Enter. this inserts value="" at the cursor.12 . insert a <h:commandButton> element.sun. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. enter #{mgr.. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.loginAction} The final code. select userID from the code-completion window. insert another <h:inputText> element.

xml Editor. Open faces-config. 1.xml.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. then click inside the editor window. 2. This is shown below. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. click on Page. Select the Navigation tab 3. using a FacesIDE editor. this inserts a page icon into the editor.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.12 . 156 .8.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.

5.jsp. add 3 more pages. in the Properties view. notice that the warning triangle disappears. change the value of path to /index. and is represented by an arrow.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. /pages/success. from the palette at left.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp and /pages/error. Its properties appear in the Properties view. 6.jsp. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. and set them to /pages/login. then click first on the icon for login.jsp 4. select Navigation Case.jsp. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.jsp and then on the icon for success.12 . This is shown below: 157 .

As it turns out. any other id/password should send you to the error page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .12 . scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml Here we edit web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. The application is now complete. open web.jsp. all we need do in web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.jsp to error.xml for the specifics of our application.jsp.jsp. and extension-based mapping is turned on. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. or leave it as-is. since we have such a trivial application. so uncomment it. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. 1. We'll set some properties in web.8. and you should be sent to the success page.xml.javaserver faces 7. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. We want virtual path-based mapping.xml.6 Editing web. 12. Once deployed browse to index. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. Similarly add a forward-action from login. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).

javaserver faces 12.component.8.faces. click Deploy 3. Click on its link to launch the application.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces javax.lifecycle javax.render javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. scroll down to Deploy.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.10 the javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.validator javax.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces.faces.0 1.. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces.faces.html javax. For a given factory class name.12 . a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.el javax.component javax. the Manager application should reload.webapp 12.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.event javax.faces.. start Tomcat. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces.model javax.faces.faces.application javax.context javax. that factory is used.. 12. as file:///. for Context path enter /jsf-login. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.convert javax.

as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.represents a single validation (or other) message. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. ApplicationFactory .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. handling events and input validation. StateManager . with the last one taking precedence.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. those factories are used.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. 12.faces. ViewHandler . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. ViewHandlerWrapper .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).11 the javax. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. defining page navigation. StateManagerWrapper . FacesMessage. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.application package Contains the following classes: • Application .12 .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. If none of the above steps yield a match. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.Severity . FacesMessage . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. with the last one taking precedence.

an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.FacesContext. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". String) results in failure on postback. EditableValueHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. • ViewExpiredException .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. or a hyperlink.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. when activated by the user.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. 12. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. ActionSource2 .12 the javax. a menu item. NamingContainer . UIComponentBase .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.restoreView(javax.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. ContextCallBack .context.12 .faces.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. String. • • 161 . UIComponent . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. StateHolder . ValueHolder . Here they are: • • UIColumn . UICommand . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.

UIForm . Optionally.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that has a value. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.12 .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.13 the java. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UISelectOne .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. The user cannot manipulate this component. by storing it as the value property of the component.html package 162 . UISelectMany .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIInput . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. that is displayed to the user.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. it just serves as the root of the component tree. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. The user can modify the selected value. UIOutput .component.faces. UIPanel . The user can modify the selected values. Optionally. UIViewRoot . UIMessage .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.javaserver faces • UIData . UIGraphic . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UINamingContainer . UISelectItem . UIParameter . it is for display purposes only. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. identified by a clientId. UIMessages . This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.

faces.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlMessage . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML label element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlInputHidden .renders child components in a table. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlCommandLink . HtmlForm .represents an HTML form element. HtmlPanelGroup .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlCommandButton . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlDataTable . or not. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. but the application wishes to render more than one.faces.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlInputText . HtmlPanelGrid . HtmlOutputFormat .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.12 . and renders the result. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. On a redisplay. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.Message". used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlMessages . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML img element.by default. HtmlOutputText . HtmlColumn . HtmlGraphicImage . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlInputTextarea . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.renders the component value as text. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlInputSecret . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.by default.

context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . showing a single available option at a time.14 the java. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. and potentially modified by.faces. showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneRadio . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. • • • • • • 12.15 the java. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. ResponseWriterWrapper . FacesContextFactory .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.javaserver faces property. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. It is passed to. ResponseStream .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. In particular. ResponseWriter . HtmlSelectOneListbox .convert package 164 . HtmlSelectManyMenu . HtmlSelectManyListbox .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. • • • • 12.faces. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. FacesContext .12 .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.

to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.15.12 . ValueBinding .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. 12.javaserver faces 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.faces. VariableResolver . Classes: MethodBinding . • • • • 165 .16 the java. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. PropertyResolver .

PhaseListener .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. 166 .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. PhaseId .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). FacesEvent . ValueChangeListener .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces. PropertyNotFoundException . Interfaces: ActionListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . FacesListener . ReferenceSyntaxException . MethodNotFoundException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. and event implementation classes. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.17 the java. PhaseEvent .12 .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. • • • • • One exception .AbortProcessingException .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. • • • • 12. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ValueChangeEvent .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.

ResultSetDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.19 the java.faces.18 the java. DataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. • • • • • • • • • 12. ScalarDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.javaserver faces 12. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. 12. SelectItem .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". DataModelEvent . Renderer .faces.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.12 .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. SelectItemGroup . ResultDataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel .faces.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. ListDataModel .20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.

a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. together. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. markup language. ResponseStateManager . as well. 12. RenderKitFactory . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. and concrete validator implementation classes. LongRangeValidator .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. The package contains an exception. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. • • 12. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. Typically.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . • RenderKit .faces.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.21 the java.validator package Interface defining the validator model.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. AttributeTag . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. including a standard servlet.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.faces.22 the java. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).12 . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . ConverterTag .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags. and/or user Locale.

JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the process includes a few more components or pages. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. telling the view to update its presentation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. UIComponentTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. which has several implications. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. ValidatorTag . you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the controller is the 169 . When the model is updated. the controller sends a message to the model. When a web server receives a request. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. that request is passed to the container. but basically. telling the model to update its data. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.a base class for all JSP custom actions.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. In JSF. the JSF life cycle does not apply. or when an exception occurs. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. UIComponentBodyTag . FacetTag . you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. which passes the request to the page class. that need to process their tag bodies. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the life cycle is more complicated. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. • • • • • FacesServlet . Likewise.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. In MVC. When using JSF. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. or some other web technology. Also.12 . related to a UIComponent. 12. servlets. the controller sends a message to the view.

When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. is validated at this time. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. depending on the request. If this is a subsequent request. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. These objects update their state with the data values. not every request will flow through all six phases. converting a String to a Date object).12 .javaserver faces JSF implementation. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the JSF implementation must create the view. and the response is sent to the client. Data for some components. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. The components are stored in a component tree. it creates UI objects for each view component. the conversion occurs in this phase. 170 . and what happens during the processing and response. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. For a JSF-enabled application. or from request headers. such as components that create HTML input fields. In addition. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. However. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. from cookies sent as part of the request. and a piece of data failed validation. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. In addition. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. As with the previous phase. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. and the UI components are the view. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example.

the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.javaserver faces In the above figure. For example. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. if errors occur during any of the phases. skipping any remaining phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. 171 . Also.12 . If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

COM. you must supply its name. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.9.JNDI 13 . which is located in the root of the file system. Thus the DNS name sales. Using JNDI.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. It enables applications to access different. The UNIX pathname.Wiz.JNDI 13. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.13 . naming and directory services using a common API. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. or objects typically used by computer programs. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. in turn. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. 13. DNS.2. possibly multiple.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. 172 . A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. you are always naming one object or another. In addition.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. c:\bin\autoexec. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.").sun.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. names a file hello in the file directory usr. For example. when you use an electronic mail system.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). such as addresses. When using almost any computer program or system. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. 13. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. identifiers. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.48. for example.COM. For example. such as LDAP. NDS. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. and NIS(YP).5). the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. The DNS entry Wiz. A file system maps a filename (for example. you supply it the name of the object. /usr/hello.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. For example. To access a file in the computer.

A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. For example. For simplicity. that is. might contain the state of the printer. they must be stored by reference. such as /usr. is relative to c=us. a file directory. and fuel and instrument status. A file object.c=us.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. A printer object. In another example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. for example. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. unbinding names. while the object itself might contain more state information.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. its flight plan. 13. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. is a context. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew.2. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. is accessed using a file reference. 13. which in turn.13 . such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. For example.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. and its flight number and departure time. o=Sun. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM.").2. some objects cannot be stored directly. By contrast. in a file directory /usr/bin. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. 13. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. in the DNS domain Sun. that is. A reference is information about how to access an object. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. a DNS domain. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. such as its print server name and printing protocol. Instead. also called a file handle. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. Using the reference. such as COM.2. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. in the UNIX file system is a context. is a context. relative to the entry o=Sun. For example. A printer object reference. 173 . this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For example. for example. Every context has an associated naming convention. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). such as c=us. That is. Typically. delimited by the comma character (". in the an LDAP entry o=sun. on the other hand. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. a file name is bound to a file. Finally. and listing bound names. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. an LDAP entry.COM. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. For example. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).

1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. For example. resolution. and even the computer itself and other computers. to some extent. For example. for example.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. For example. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. And it kind of makes sense. a person. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. For example. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). because we can. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes.3. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents.2. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). and color. a computer. or a network. a name is unique 13. to represent a printer. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. programs. various telephone numbers. For example. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. Thus. postal mail address. 13. A directory object can be used. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. one context can be viewed. two different computer 174 . A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. 13. and computer account information. however.13 . The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.

1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. for example. 175 . Many examples of directory services are possible. adding. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.13 . The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. support the notion of searches. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The email address. Within the DIT.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. When you search. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. and users. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. many directories.4. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. for example. such as that relating to machines. such as the file and print services. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. 13.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.3. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.3. The service is accessed through its own interface. For example. Alternatively. an organization object. Similarly. such as those based on the LDAP. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. A Java mail client program. like any other program running on the network.com".2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. The query is called a search filter. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. that is. 13. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.113.50". printers. the ability to access directory services will become essential.3. When directory objects are arranged in this way. networks. "mail" is the attribute identifier. for example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.smith@somewhere. By using a directory service. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. For example. 13. called a directory information tree (DIT). And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. 13. removing.

v1.1 and v1.event javax.naming. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. 13. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. For example.1 and Java 2 SDK. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. and even the network.ldap 176 .naming. 13.3 and later releases.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. v1. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. v1.4. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.13 . The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. 13.directory javax.2. 13. emerging.5. more coherent and manageable. To use the JNDI. v1. For example. Thus a variety of directories--new. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.5. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. It extends the v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.naming.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. The Java 2 SDK.2.1 and the Java 2 SDK.naming javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).

Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.1 context The javax.naming.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6.13 .String name argument represents a composite name. However. In this case. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.6.6 the naming package The javax.6.lookup("treekiller"). and so on. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.lang. For the methods in the Context interface.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. Furthermore. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. comparing components. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.lang.print(report). binding/unbinding. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . that is.JNDI • javax. and the object itself. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. 13. for some objects in the directory.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. 13. For example.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.naming package defines a Context interface. which is the core interface for looking up.lang. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. a 177 .String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. 13. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.spi 13. 13.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. printer.String name.6. and it returns the object bound to that name. The overloads that accept java. list() is similar to listBindings(). NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. the name of the object's class. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. A java. composing them.

The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. In the simplest and most common form of usage. they should catch NamingException. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.13 . For example. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. 13. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. Once you have an initial context.naming. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.6.7. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. 13. There are no absolute roots. You can add. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.7.7 directory package The javax. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). replace. Otherwise. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).6.directory package extends the javax. 13. 178 . InitialContext. 13.

Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. 13. such as information about the object before and after the change. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . For example. In fact.directory package. such as "object added.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. To receive event notifications. called controls . This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. controls.9. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming. For example. such as "object changed. or unsolicited notifications." and those that do not. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.naming. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.naming. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. 13.ldap package at all.JNDI 13.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. 13.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. and vice versa.naming. These operations are called "extended" operations. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.9.9 LDAP package The javax. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.naming. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.13 ." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. Once registered. that is. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.8 event package The javax.

13. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13. create a file named Lookup.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.10.13 .bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. This support is provided in the form of object factories. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10.naming package. 180 .4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. That is.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.9.naming. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. For example.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. This support is provided in the form of state factories. and receiving response controls.1 plug-In architecture The javax.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.11. implementors of Context.naming. if you look up a printer name from the directory.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. sending request controls. It uses a service provider for the file system. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.java. In the process of completing an operation. import javax. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.Context.naming. 13.10.10 service provider package The javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.2 java object support The javax. 13.

3.out. } catch (NamingException e) { System. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). v1.lookup() to look up an object. // Print it System.3 looking up an Object Next.java).11.11. 13. If you are still having problems.sun. To compile to program. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. If the compilation fails.jndi.fscontext.13 .put(Context. using the capitalization shown. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. } 13. import javax. "com.lookup(name).println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). as follows. If the compilation succeeds.11.naming. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. 13. 181 . you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.NamingException.lookup(name). Otherwise.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. For this reason.InitialContext.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. then the JNDI classes are already included.jar as an installed extension.5 compiling the program Next.err. Object obj = ctx. you must have access to the JNDI classes.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.JNDI import javax. create an initial context.naming. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. 13. use Context. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. env.11.RefFSContextFactory"). Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.

PROVIDER_URL.Attributes. supply the name of a file in your file system. 182 .directory packages.put(Context.ldap.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().InitialDirContext. javax.naming. javax.naming. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.DirContext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.jndi. then you will see something like the following.naming. include the directory that contains your Lookup.JNDI 13.naming.LdapCtxFactory"). the file system service provider. javax. v1.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. create an initial directory context.jndi. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. and your example class (Lookup.Context. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.naming and javax. 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").fscontext. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. 13.java.directory.directory.bat If you supply a file directory.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. create a file named Getattr.NamingException.13 . You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.sun.3. you need access to the JNDI classes.directory.sun. env.12. "com. To run the program.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. import import import import import javax. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.11.6 running the program To run the program. env. javax.class).jar).put(Context. Finally.jar and providerutil.12.naming.

getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Attributes.get() and then from that attribute get its value.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.get("sn").JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12.out.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get(). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. 13. If the compilation fails. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.6 compiling the program Next. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.12.get() on it to get its value: attrs. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). As with the naming example. 183 . If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. 13. If you are still having problems. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.println("sn: " + attrs. using the capitalization shown. Similar to the naming example. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. If the compilation succeeds. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. For now.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.13 . Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } catch (NamingException e) { System.12.get()). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. 13. For this reason. } 13.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.12. ou=People"). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).java). ou=People"). compile the source file using the Java compiler.err. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.

you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.7 running the program As with the naming example.class. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. then these classes are already included. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. With this configuration.jar and providerutil. ou=People". 184 .3.jar). then see the Common Problems lesson. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. If you have any trouble running this example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.JNDI 13. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. Once it has the attributes. Getattr. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.put(Context.13 . env. v1.12.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.PROVIDER_URL. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").

The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the messages are delivered in the order sent. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. • 14. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. As the name queue suggests. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS client . JMS consumer . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. Enterprise Edition.a JMS client that receives messages. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. Here. JMS message . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS queue .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS topic .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.14 .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. unless it has established a durable 185 . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS producer .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. In this model. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.

messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.jms. In that case. On the receiving side.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.4. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.14 . 186 . JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Using Java.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Depending on the type of message. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.3 the JMS API programming model 14. 14.

Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. Depending on the connection type. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). 14. For example. and users discover them using JNDI. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.close(). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.14 . you must call the connection's start() method. The JMS administrator creates these objects. connection. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.4.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.4. 14. 14.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). Like the connection factory.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. It receives messages sent to a destination. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Before your application can consume messages.createConnection(). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you call the stop() method. Before an application completes. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. you must close any connections that you have created. For example. In a J2EE application. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Connections implement the Connection interface. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . It is either a queue or a topic.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.) When message delivery begins. For example. After you have created a message consumer. After you register the message listener.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. This object implements the MessageListener interface.setMessageListener(myListener). (If you call start() before you register the message listener. and you can use it to receive messages. however. In the onMessage() method. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.createConsumer(myQueue). Message m = consumer. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. (Remember always to call the start() method. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. onMessage(). you are likely to miss messages.createConsumer(myTopic). Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.4. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. which contains one method.start(). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. it becomes active. 188 . which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 14. consumer.14 . A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. if it needs to reply to messages. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. MessageConsumer consumer = session. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. connection. a message listener object may be used. usually expect a specific message type and format. You use the Session. For example. A message listener does. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.receive(1000).start(). Moreover. Message m = consumer.receive().

message. A message has three main parts: 1. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. You must first create the messages. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. if you created an unidentified producer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. that is. 189 . and object message).send(myQueue. 3.createTextMessage(). to create and send a TextMessage. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.send(message). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. MessageProducer producer = session. anon_prod. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. bytes message.4. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.createProducer(myQueue). // msg_text is a String producer. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. After you have created a message producer. from one application to another. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. stream message.send(message). message). 14.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. map message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.4. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. At the consuming end.receive().createProducer(null).14 . With an unidentified producer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. For example.setText(msg_text).createProducer(myTopic). Here.

Here. Session.14 . Sessions implement the Session interface. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. After you create a Connection object. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. To create a transacted session. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. If the user selects transaction support. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. 0). the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. } else { // Handle error } 14.4.println("Reading message: " + message.getText()). and message consumers to receive messages. the first argument means that the session is transacted. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). 190 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.createSession(false.createSession(true. use the following code: Session session = connection.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. then delivers the messages. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.out. Before committing the transaction. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.

15 . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. server which provides an execution environment for containers.jar file into the application server.0. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .transaction management can be complex.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. message-driven beans The 2. 15.consistent error handling framework .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . bundled into a single unit.logging. container which offers services to the component.object oriented representation of data in a DB. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The component lives inside a container.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .DB interaction transactions . the container lives (in general) in an application server. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. improved performance security .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . On the other side. Version 1. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.

xml 15. the home interface of the bean 3.15 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. as follows: 1.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the remote interface of the bean 4. called ejb-jar. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.

RemoteException.ejb.RemoteException.ejb. import java. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. int custId) throws RemoteException. import java. } 193 . While the Remote interface declares no methods. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.RemoteException.*.rmi. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. String lastName. } 15. import.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. The developer does not implement this interface.rmi. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.javax. import. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.*.javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.15 .

we need to know: 1.interfaces.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.15 . getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.PROVIDER_URL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). prop. In the case of an web application. prop.put(Context. if the client executes outside the container.put(Context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). how to create or find the bean 2. "localhost:1099").INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.jnp. } 194 .NamingContextFactory". how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. creating them for the client application. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. this can be done (for example) through SSL. "org.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.

in fact. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.rmi.e. Some languages.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Problem is. more specifically. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do not have the concept of casting. MyBeanHome. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. 195 .narrow(homeRef.rmi. that is part of CORBA standards. Why? For EJB.lookup("MyBean"). to the appropriate type. in fact. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. This is done through the javax. using the narrow() method. and this means that there are some limitations. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. • if the client executes outside the container. do implements the java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. the client has a stub). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. but for generic languages. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.class).PortableRemoteObject class and. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. IIOP has not been designed for Java. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.Remote interface).15 . Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup..rmi.

set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).bank11. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.remove().. 15. call business methods on the bean myObject.15 .ejb. String lastName...SessionContext. remove the bean instance myObject.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ccards.ejbeans.create().ejb. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . 1102).processEntry("Dumitrascu".. public class MyBean implements javax. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. int custId) { // method implementation . "Vasile". import javax. as well).

1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. that is. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. namely stateful and stateless beans. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. A stateless bean does not. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. 197 . because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. the object is activated. 15. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.

If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. For example. 15. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. is inside the bean class. and then moves it to the ready stage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the EJB container activates the bean.15 . for example. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. 198 . Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. or passivate.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. (Typically. the client invokes the remove method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. The ejbCreate method. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. All other methods in Figure 15.

container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. equals() 199 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. support for concurrent access 3.15 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.

These methods are mandatory for entity beans. as the parameters in the original create() method.bank11.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. state data is stored into data store (usually. We can have more create() methods. all throwing RemoteException. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). Update and Delete. 200 .ccards. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. in the same order. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. methods which have the same parameters. an instance of that bean is created.lang.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. Read. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.14. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. On the other side.15 . CreateException.

the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. the programmer will create actual SQL code. First.14. for BMP. actual SQL update code. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. for BMPs.14. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. 201 . but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the client invokes the create method. All instances in the pool are identical. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. After the EJB container creates the instance. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. in BMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). 15. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. a client can invoke the remove method. not null. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Second. left empty most of the time in CMP. but the developer returns null for CMP.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. it is empty. On the second path. it's business methods can be invoked. After instantiation. 15.14. On the first path. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.15 . While in the pooled stage. but in general.

the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.15 . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. It acts as a JMS message listener. 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.getPrimaryKey(). the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. another enterprise bean. it does not automatically set the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. If the primary key is incorrect. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. the values of the instance variables are not needed. With bean-managed persistence. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Therefore. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.an application client.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. or a Web component .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. In the pooled state. In the pooled state. 202 .

a message-driven bean has only a bean class. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. the message will be redelivered. To avoid tying up server resources. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.for example. When a message arrives.16. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. For more information on this element see. an open database connection. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. Unlike a session or entity bean. If this element is set to more than one. To ensure concurrency. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 15. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.16. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. message-driven bean can be used.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. Previously. max-beans-infree-pool. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. a JMS API connection. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16. If message processing is rolled back.15 . but not asynchronously. 15.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. 203 . The onMessage method may call helper methods. In several respects. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.

See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.Message. 15. finalize{}. 3.Message MessageName) {.0 specification.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). or create a new one...16.16. 2. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. // An EJB constructor is required. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. 15. public void ejbRemove() {. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.} // onMessage() is required. Note: These instances can be pooled. As with other EJB types.16.jms.ejb. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. and it must not // accept parameters. Classes.jms.}. methods. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.15 . Obtain a new bean instance. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2..6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. public void onMessage(javax.

It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. getRollbackOnly() . or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . 15.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. See javax.15 .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. However.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.16.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16. If any method throws such an exception. 15. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.onMessage() for more information. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.This is not a client context.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. 15. For example. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. even in onMessage(). getUserTransaction().9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().MessageListener. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.jms.

16. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . as required by the EJB 2. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.xml.16. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.0 specification. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. In either case. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.0 specification. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. 15.15 . WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.16. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.

• message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. as described in the EJB 2. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 207 . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.message.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. For each instance.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.jms. the weblogic-ejb-jar. </message-driven> . It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.15 .. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. 2...xml deployment file. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.ejb20.xml elements. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.0 specification.. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.

This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. the home interface name 7. EJB class name 5. isolation level. environment properties 6.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. control descriptors . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. the remote interface name 8. security 208 . here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. session specific elements 9. At the end of the life cycle.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.security issues.like transaction. the container calls the ejbRemove method. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. attributes .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. entity specific elements 10. a message-driven bean is never passivated. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. bean home name . 15.15 . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. access control entries .

bank11.ccards.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.bank11.ejb.bank11.lang.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ccards.ccards.bank11.15 .Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.bank11.ejb.ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.

.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang.15 . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .


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