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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


processes it (if necessary). Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. or finance. retail.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. are not considered web components. The web tier.7 business components Business code. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Figure 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. processes it (if necessary). JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.2 Server communication 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. 1. like HTML pages. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. and sends it back to the client program. like the client tier.java platform. 5 .

the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Business and EIS Tiers 1. Before a web. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. 1.3 Web. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. For example. database systems.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. mainframe transaction processing. 6 . Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. enterprise bean. and other complex low-level details. and other legacy information systems.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. multithreading. or application client component can be executed.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).9. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. In addition. resource pooling.java platform. 1.9 java EE Containers Normally. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.

enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. 7 .1 . Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. For example. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 1. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. database connection resource pooling. transaction management. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. including services such as security. data persistence.9. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and remote connectivity. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.java platform.

enterprise edition Figure 1. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. 8 . Application clients and their container run on the client. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.10. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. When XML data is exchanged between parties. extensible. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. maps. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .manages the execution of application client components. 1.manages the execution of applets. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. text-based standard for representing data. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. test.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. video. Applet container . Web container .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. Application client container . A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. program files. For example. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. or for document-oriented web services.java platform. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. or any kind of binary data such as audio.1 . and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. 1. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. develop. XML data.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.

Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The description includes the name of the service. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.java platform. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.1 .10. enterprise edition 1. and ways to communicate with the service.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.10.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. 9 . and the APIs used in Java EE applications. the location of the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). such as Universal Description.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 1.

the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. In Java EE 5. standard set of tags.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.11. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.java platform. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.1 . Commonly.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. and XML) and JSP elements. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. you employ a single. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. If the client terminates. When the client finishes executing. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. WML. or if the server shuts down.11. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. 1.11. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. or enterprise bean. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. 1.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


better tools.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. it is ready to be deployed. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . or better customer support. such as better performance. a module. Once deployed on a local platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. or a component. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . JSP page. 15 . JTA. servlet.java platform. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. and JNDI 1. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file.ear extension. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. At runtime. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. module.1 . An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. the application is ready to run. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or component accordingly. No extra coding is needed. SAAJ.

1 . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. and other documentation. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.jar extension. which contain servlet class files. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Resource adapter modules. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. enterprise edition Figure 1. GIF and HTML files.war (Web ARchive) extension. which contain all Java interfaces.jar extension. supporting class files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Web modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. native libraries. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Application client modules. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. • • 16 . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. classes. JSP files. For example. and a web application deployment descriptor. for example. such as caching directives. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.java platform. Together. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .

1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.w3. but they also have some common structural elements. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). RFC 2616 (06/99). These messages may have different contents. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). The server answers with a response message. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2..org/Protocols . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . The second (and last. 2. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . namely HTTP 1. check the official HTTP site – www. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.org/rfc/rfc1945.ietf. so far) version.jmarshall. . For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.HTTP 2 .apps. HEAD.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. we recommend www. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. was the object of several RFCs. The client sends a request message to the server.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. as follows: 1. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.html).2 . a blank line (CR/LF) 4.. POST.com/easy/http.. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.HTTP 2.. an initial line 2. zero or more header lines 3.

5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. 18 . GET 2. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.Annotation of existing resources. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.0). HEAD 3. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. POST 4. PUT 8. . but lack of support makes them obsolete. mailing list.html HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. 2. newsgroup. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. TRACE Three other commands are listed. HTTP/1. DELETE 6.1 specification. as well.1. Here is their list: 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.2 . The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. GET /path/to/the/file/index. OPTIONS 7. CONNECT 5. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. in the HTTP 1.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.

. like storing or updating data. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. 2. 2. or ordering a product. to a data-handling process. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. separated by the character “&” or “. In this case. after the “?” character. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .HTTP or similar group of articles.0 404 Not Found 2. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).8 the status code A three-digit integer. or sending E-mail 2. or a record is subordinate to a database. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. such as the result of submitting a form. or in the message body. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. (encoded as multipart/form-data). The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. When used for form data submission.2 . .6 differences between GET and POST 1. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.” On the other side. 3. while POST may involve anything.Providing a block of data.Extending a database through an append operation. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.

The most common use of the message body is in a response. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.1). Although the header names are not case sensitive.2 . header name and header value. none of them mandatory.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). separated a semicolon.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 2. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. In a request. file or script output) is returned in the message body. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. where the requested resource is returned to the client.the request succeeded.1 version specifies 46 of them. header values are.0 version specifies 16 headers.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.an unexpected server error. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.1 only) .the requested resource doesn't exist. out of which.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 20 . 500 Server Error . that is. and section 10 for HTTP 1. such as text/html or image/jpg. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.g.0. one (Host) is mandatory. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. If an HTTP message includes a body. fails. 404 Not Found . while the HTTP 1. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. or otherwise can't run correctly. The HTTP 1. In particular. 2. and the resulting resource (e.

Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.0 From: someuser@yahoo.html HTTP/1. .11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. gif 6.uvt. message. multipart. image. with subtype basic 7. video. Then. 21 . with subtypes octet-stream. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .ietf.info. RFC 1521 (www. alternative. with subtypes mixed.0 200 OK Date: Fri. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. text.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. partial. external-body 4.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.org/rfc/rfc1521. audio.ro/path/file.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtype mpeg 2. postscript 5.HTTP 2. with subtypes rfc822.2 .com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtype plain 2.apps. Here is the list of the seven types.html first open a socket to the host web. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). digest. 1. with subtypes jpeg.ro. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.uvt. parallel 3.info. application.

the server closes the socket.HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response.2 . 22 .

html. Version 4. Mosaic.ietf. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. Originally named Web Applications 1.apps.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. namely HTML 1. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.01.com/indexdot/html . The first version of HTML. a working draft for the next major revision.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. HTML describes how text.0 . we can afford to have a look at this declaration. The newest version of HTML is 4.www.2 (3.HTML 3. The XHTML 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www.3 . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). HTML 3.jmarshall. The latest version (XHTML 2.com/easy/html . -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.htmlgoodies.html) and was widely supported. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. check the official HTML site – www. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0.w3c. It is a revision of 4. 3.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.org/Markup .org/rfc/rfc1866. Since it fits in a couple of pages.99. Other helpful sites .0 and was accepted in December 1997. A newer standard.HTML 3 .w3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. As a practical reference site use – www. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.0 draft was released in 01. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.0) dates from 08.0.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. The first official version – HTML 2.blooberry. However. www. From 1999 on. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.com/tutors.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.

3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".

0 Strict DTD.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element." (in hexadecimal) . 3. HTML 4. BORDER. Overall. You get the point.0 Transitional DTD. “&quot”. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. ….acesta este un comentariu. 4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.3 .the chinese character for water. 3. VSAPCE are omitted. Check the address http://www. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.and end at the first occurrence of -->. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. though. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.w3. DYNSRC. <><> --> 25 . This section deals with some of the most common elements. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. HTML 4. three DTDs (HTML 4. "&#x6C34.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.01 specification. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. If you wonder what a character reference is. like ALIGN. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. CONTROLS. An example: <!-.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. look at these examples: “&lt”. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. the specification of HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.

image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.ro/webmail/src/login. etc.3 . An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.5 tables 26 . NAME.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.uvt.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.HTML 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.info.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.3.3.

3 .HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. its rows. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TH> and <TD>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TR>. Usually. Here is their description and attributes. headers and cells are <TABLE>. columns. <THEAD>.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.required. allowing user input and parameter submittal. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

however. "radio". "image".info.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . the browser appends the values to the URL. specifies how data will be sent to the server. NAME . Example: http://web.8. "GET" .the default value. Main attributes: • TYPE . allows multiple selections from the choice list.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.sends the form values in a single transmission. Main attributes: 29 . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .uvt.required. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "password". may have the values GET or POST.required. 3.8. • 3.?. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.if specified. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.required. "text/plain" • • 3.maximum number of options visible to the user.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "button". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. after a quotation mark .3 . "checkbox". Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . "submit". specifies the parameter name.8. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "hidden". "file". SIZE .HTML • METHOD . "reset".:.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.8 form related elements 3. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

which accounts for a pretty slow execution.95. Java source – a file with extension . Early versions of Java were released in 12.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. javac -classpath .JAVA PRIMER 4.0. project started in 12.java 2. The current version (as of 10. following the 1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. jit From source to execution. the compilation process occurs.95.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.C:\TW\mySource.class 3.java One example of command line compilation: 4. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . To overcome this significant shortage. 4.90.4.) in 08. -g : generate all debugging info.class. The first time a class is loaded.JAVA PRIMER 4 .2 version.class file. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.class file. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.4 . but next time execution is much faster.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. Inc.C:\TW\myPackages -g login..java.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. Java bytecode – a file with extension . In terms of execution time. The current version (as of 10.2 java the interpreter. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Example: Edit the file prog1.3 java applications 31 .

4. or that it extends A).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.java.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4 . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. Generally. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). or is derived from A. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. An example: 32 .jar file.4. In general. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 object oriented concepts 4. 4.

In fact. this is called method overloading.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. Boolean. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. providing its own implementation.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Character. Double.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . namely: Byte.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. 33 . While C++ allows multiple inheritance. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Therefore. Short. Float. called Object. Long.1 bit char . 4.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Therefore. Integer. a Java class can extend a single base class. with the root the class Object.4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. 4. 4.4 . In OO jargon.4. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.

.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. has the same value for all class instances. rather than at class instance.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.no access from outside the class itself protected . anywhere abstract . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. 34 . • • • • no specifier . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.servlet.servlet.http.does not have any subclasses.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). no templates. which extends the class javax. A final: • • • variable .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables..HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. A final variable (method.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .one which is constant method .one which is defined at class level. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . inherited). 4.the class is visible from any class. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. automatic garbage collection. method . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . class .http.access from any class anywhere private . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. } declares an abstract class. Except for the "package" concept.4 .

3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. code or data errors . The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. not at execution time.7. 4. as defined in the java. Exception categories: 1.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . standard method exceptions 3. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. array index out of bounds.like invalid cast.JAVA PRIMER 4. In Java.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. java errors . 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7.7.7. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. 2.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.ThreadDeath. namely class Error and the class Exception.4 . division by 0. programmer defined exceptions 4. 4.

ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . All other packages must be explicitly imported. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.rmi java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .servlets. catch.*.awt.nio java.net java.8. the default package is used). string analyzers.support for data collections. they have to be unique inside a package. 4.Properties.sql java.ccards.sql.util.support for user interface java.this can be done by providing a try.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.default. finally construct. As a general rule.util .awt .. date and time info java. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. therefore. The names in a package are qualified by the package name..1 Package names The default package has no name. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.io java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.awt. In the example above.support for event handling java.security 36 .lang . the class (the . followed by the import statements. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. 4.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.java.util.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. import.event .by adding the key word throws.geom .lang (automatically available). import javax. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).support for java archives creation java. The package containing the standard classes is java. An example: package com.bank11. don't have to import java.4 . .zip . 4.class file.

event . All variables (actually. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).swing . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing. it must be declared as abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.accessibility javax.support for event handling 4. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.text javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. static and final. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.4 .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. 37 . All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.

• • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like QtScript or ActionScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. However. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.depending on the browser . and .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . as JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .5 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. other 38 . then LiveScript and finally. This is not always what we want.A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.JAVASCRIPT 5.javaScript 5 . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. Subsequently. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. The origins of this language date back to 1995.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.HTML authors are normally not programmers.

Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. 39 ..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. </script> </head> 5.js file extension.. or when an event is triggered. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. Save the external JavaScript file with a . 5..3. point to the . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.5 . go in the head section. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . When you place a script in the head section. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3. </script> </body> 5.3.. To simplify this. without having to write the same script on every page.

...5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.4. for(). The code in the body of the for ..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.4.4. switch(). break. continue. else..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.4.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".1 JavaScript for.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.5 . Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. catch constructs.In statement The for.. in loop is executed once for each element/property. 5. 5. namely – if .. while() it is worth mentioning the for ..5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". while(). in and the try .. 5..javaScript 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.

5. mycars[2] = "BMW". we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.0.catch statement The try. mycars[1] = "Volvo". Example Using for.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. } </script> </body> </html> 5. for (x in mycars) { document.. or a property of an object.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").5 . and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.catch statement (available in IE5+.. mycars[0] = "Saab". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.. The try block contains the code to be run. they often leave the Web page.3 try..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. an array element. When users see errors. var mycars = new Array()... so you don't lose your audience.5. Mozilla 1.

7. txt+="Click OK to continue. Syntax: 42 .\n\n". When an alert box pops up. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.7 popup boxes 5. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.\n\n". 5.description + "\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. txt+="Error description: " + err. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). alert(txt).5 . Also.

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. If the user clicks "Cancel". in the example above had not been written within a function. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the box returns true. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .5 .3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.7. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .8.. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the box returns false.8 functions 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. When a confirm box pops up.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). If the user clicks "OK". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.7. Syntax: prompt("sometext". in the <head> section. the box returns null. When a prompt box pops up.js file). Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value."defaultvalue") 5.

you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. 5.9.write(txt. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .javaScript function functionname(var1. var2.varX) { some code } var1. and how they are used..8.. etc are variables or values passed into the function. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.var2.length). 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.9.. So. and will be stored in the variable called product. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.5 .. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. 5. document.9 javaScript objects 5.

45 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". which will be specified in the next section.javaScript 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.write(str. The first class consists of browser specific objects.9.5 .10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()). </script> 5. The other class are the language specific objects. document.

Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. When an event message has been triggered. Even this Document itself is an Object.w3schools. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Properties FF: Firefox.asp 5. every Image on the page is an Object.11. N: Netscape. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. check the site http://www. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. At its most basic level.5 .com/jsref/default. For example. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. which are called Objects. every Link on the page is an Object. as well).

5 . Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.11.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.

5 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string. according to local time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. N: Netscape.5 . according to local time.11. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to universal time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.

5 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. var myNum=new Number(number).4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .

11.5 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.5 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .

14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 1.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.5 .11. N: Netscape.434) Returns PI (approx. 3.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) min(x. 2. 0.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.y) pow(x. 0. 0. 2.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.javaScript 5.

age=30. height. personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. All persons have these properties.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.12. Objects also have methods.lastname="Doe". Properties are the values associated with the object.write(personObj. document. skin tone. age.5 . The persons' properties include name.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().12.eyecolor="blue".lastname="Doe". personObj. weight. with a collection of properties and methods. etc.eyecolor="blue".2 Methods An object can also contain methods. The persons' methods could be eat().age=50. age. personObj. lastname. Assume that the personObj already exists . work(). Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj.you can give it properties named firstname.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.firstname="John". and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. 53 . personObj. personObj. sleep(). eye color.firstname="John". play(). etc.12.firstname). The code above will generate the following output: John 5.

"Rally".age=age.firstname=firstname.eat=eat.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.age=age.newlastname=newlastname. this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this. Once you have the template.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.5 .12.lastname=new_lastname."Doe"."blue"). The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).firstname=firstname.lastname=lastname.50. this.age. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname=lastname. 54 .48. Inside the function you need to assign things to this. 5. this.eyecolor) { this. myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor) { this. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."green").propertyName.age.eyecolor=eyecolor. } Notice that the template is just a function.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname. this. You can also add some methods to the person object.lastname. this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. you can create new instances of the object. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.

".. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. now you can write: myMother. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. For example. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. So. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. 5. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.newlastname("Doe").. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . We define the events in the HTML tags.5 .

The name is then stored in a cookie. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. 5.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.2 onFocus. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .5 .w3schools. the submit should be cancelled. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. If the field values are not accepted.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. For example.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.13. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.

javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. By October 1998. The W3C 58 .. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . structure. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. 6. As of January 2008. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. SVG. the Document Object Model activity is closed.Html DOM 6 . after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. XML. or WebAPI being among them. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.6 . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). In other words. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.HTML DOM 6. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML.g. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. HTML. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. CSS. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. particularly those used in Web browsers. and style of a document.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. 2010). However. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. Right now (oct.

Level 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. 6. 4. To claim to support a level. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. As of 2005. each of which contains required and optional modules. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). a new DOM Core specification. and 6. Level 2 XML namespace support.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 2. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. 2. DOM Level 3 Requirements. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. filtered views and events.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 5. 3.6 . and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 XPath. which further enhances the DOM 6. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Core.

large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. that is.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.x and Netscape 4. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. support multiple browsers.6 . A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x were still widely used in 2000. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. In order to be cross-browser compatible. can be accessed through the 60 . along with their containing text and attributes. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. Konqueror. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. The Window object represents a browser window.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Opera. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. and Safari. 6. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). All HTML elements. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. interoperability problems were numerous. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. By 2005.

It can be used by any programming language like Java. JavaScript. and VBScript.6 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created. The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM.

However. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The <head> node holds a <title> node.9. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.8. 62 . <head> and <body>. 6.6 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. the element node <title>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.Html DOM 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree. everything in an HTML document is a node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <html> node has two child nodes. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".

By using the getElementById() method 2. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. Their contents can be modified or deleted. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.getElementsByTagName("p"). except the root. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. child. and new elements can be created. children.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children.9. using the node relationships. • • • • • In a node tree. The terms parent. By navigating the node tree.2 node parents. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).6 .getElementById('main'). The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. 63 .3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and the connections between them. the top node is called the root Every node.

innerHTML). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i++) { document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.9. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .write(x[i]. each node is an object.length.6 .Html DOM for (i=0.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. } 6.write("<br />"). document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i<x.

txt=x. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6.nodeValue.firstChild.5 example .9.getElementById("intro").6 .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.

A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. frames. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. objects and images.6 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . For elements. including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.

but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). say "click".6 . Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. 6. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla. When the user clicks on the inner element. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. and then bubbled up. During the event flow.3. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. also supports these methods. Fires when an element is activated. DOMNodeInserted. Safari. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). as of version 1. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. for instance. Also. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. 67 . This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. through a mouse click or a keypress.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.

preventDefault 68 . Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. etc. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. mouse position. key pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. including information about target element. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. mouse button pressed. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.Html DOM 6.6 . Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Unfortunately. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.

and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. It is not a technology in itself. For example. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. before the whole page was sent within the network. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.AJAX 7 . etc. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. For improving sharing of resources. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. but also to save resources. The server does some processing — retrieving data. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. choices of user.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.7 . and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. 7. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. dynamic website. 7.AJAX 7. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. 69 . menus. using web services or Php scripts. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. fields of forms. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. crunching numbers. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.

The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. Instead of loading a web page. Once an interface is loaded. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. waiting around for the server to do something. Obviously. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting. but the opposite is true. the user waits some more. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. at the start of the session. And at every step in a task. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame.7 .AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. While the server is doing its thing. 70 . we wouldn’t make users wait around.

If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . loading additional interface code. usually using XML. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. editing data in memory.7 .

open: create a connection. thanks to its methods and attributes. 4: finished. It allows the interaction with the servers. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.holds loaded data as a string of characters. . These events are user actions.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.url: the location of the file 72 .holds a Xml loaded file. boolean) . onreadystatechange . 3: answer in process.for a simple text. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 2: request received. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.7 . 404 if the page is not found . GET or POST . 1: connection established.send: send a request to the server.AJAX 7. and in this purpose.200 is ok.responseXml . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.for a Xml file or .returned by the server . DOM's method allows to extract data. This object provides two methods: . To get data on the server. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.mode: type of request. 7. .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.responseText . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. url.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . .

ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. if (window.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. } else if (window.null for a GET command 7. http_request.xml'.fr/somefile.AJAX ... true). 'http://www. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . request.xul.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. http_request. . 73 .6 building a request..send: with POST only. if (request. The request below reads a document on the server. Safari. URL of the document.open('GET'.send(null).open: command GET or POST. // Firefox.readyState == 4) { // received. .7 .XMLHTTP"). // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. but two options must be tried. OK } else { // wait. true for asynchronous. the data to send to the server. for browser compatibility.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().

xml". // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .7 .AJAX 7.dyn=""Received:" + req. by this code: var doc = req. if(window.ajax.7.dyn="Received:" + req. }.status == 200) document.dyn="Error code " + req.responseText.responseXML.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".item(0). req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. "data. req.open("GET".readyState == 4) if(req. else if (window.responseText.send(null).status.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.ajax.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().7 examples 7. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. req.ajax. true). req. else document.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.getElementsByTagName('root').XMLHTTP).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. but typical web. servlet classes. database connection resource pooling. 4. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. entries related to session configuration. classes. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 2. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 3. Servlet.ccards. 8. MIME types used by the web application. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.. For example. Servlet. descriptions). JSPs and Java Server Faces. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.8 .class>com.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. like what pages are error. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. data persistence.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . like: 1.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 6. Others. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 5.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.xml file: <?xml version="1.servlets. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. After an enterprise bean is created.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. web. Here is a small..bank11. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.)> <web-app> <!-. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Initialization of parameters for servlets.

like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.8 . whose name is rather long.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.bank11. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Then the "EnrollServlet. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. Basicly. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml" 2. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the name of the web application. for flexibility. Behind a very benign URL. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". 1.bank11. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. Unfortunately.xml file of the web application. However. it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. In general. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".ccards.bank11.servlets. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards.servlets".ccards. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.servlets".class" and that it is part of the package "com. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. basicly. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".xml" file. For example.

Technically speaking. platform independent programs. the HttpServlet) class. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 9. tjws spec 2. modular design 9. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . small footprint. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. but through a web container. the Java Servlet 3.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. 2010.5 and is in final state.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. 9.SERVLETS 9 .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. in most cases as part of an application server.4.0 specification.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . The current Java Servlet specification is 2. but at this point. As of oct. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2. more often. which extend the functionality of the web server. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.9 . a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.2.0 specification is available for public review. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). this is just a work in progress.SERVLETS 9. from BEA Systems.

from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from IBM 9.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. while the second one. the javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.servlet package. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void service(ServletRequest req.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.9 . These packages are: • • javax. public void destroy() throws ServletException.servlet package are protocol independent. from Apple Inc. WebSphere. 82 . IOException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.

9.9 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. respectively. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. namely the HttpServlet class. ServletConfig. as well. 83 .6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. the web container calls its init() method. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. This method has two arguments. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. The servlet API provides such a specific class.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). in a different section. Throwable t) 9. After instantiating the servlet. The method performs all initialization required.

Exception and can be thrown by the init().lang. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. service(). It also extends the java.servlet.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.ServletException javax. 9.servlet.Exception class.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.lang. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 . containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.

method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. If the servlet does not implement the javax. 9. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. etc. respectively. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. 85 . the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Also.servlet. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Typically. Typically. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. JSP or JSF. After instantiation.9 .SingleThreadModel. DB connection opening. which will service all incoming requests.

11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.9 .

9 . Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.java" file: package com.ccards.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. import java. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. This is done in server's (container's) server. 87 .xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.*.io. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.servlets. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.

getWriter(). import javax. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.init(config).setContentType(“text/html”).close().servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet.SERVLETS import javax. out. out. out.println("</body>"). IOException { resp. out.println("<html>"). out. out.println("</head>").*.println("merge").println("<head>").*.9 . out. } } 88 .println("<body>").println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out. PrintWriter out = resp.println("<br>"). out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. // output your page here out.http.println("</html>").

JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. Starting with version 3. This solution is inefficient. the java.jdbc.sun.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. as recognized by the DB industry.sql package 2.1.JDBC 10. Type 1.odbc. The JDBC 4. After that. the javax.0.JdbcOdbcDriver . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).10 . Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.sql package. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. 89 .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.JDBC 10 .0 while the current (4. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 1997. 10. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.

forwards them to the JDBC driver. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. which in turn. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. 90 . because it eliminates one level of indirection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).JDBC Type 2.10 . The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Type 3. Part Java. Type 4. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.

sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.DriverManager java.sql.Driver java.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.Time java.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.0 API. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.JDBC 10.sql.Struct java.0).sql.SQLOutput java.Clob java.SQLException java.Wrapper 91 .3 the java.sql.SQLData java. java.SQLXML java.sql.Array java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.Timestamp java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Statement java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.10 .Types java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Connection java.sql.Date java.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.ResultSet java.Blob java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.

SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java. querying the database 4.sql.sql.SQLException java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.NClob java.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.Types java.sql.SQLInput java.StatementEventListener 10.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql. loading a database driver 2.SQLWarning java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.Clob java.Blob java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql. java.sql.CommonDataSource javax.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.Connection java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql package.sql.RowId java.4 interaction schema in the java.0.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.10 .sql.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.Statement java.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLTransientException java.sql.SQLXML java.PreparedStatement java.sql.

jdbc.OracleDriver sun. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.JDBC 10.net.odbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.db2.borland.ibm.sybase.DB2Driver oracle. A database driver is specified by the driver name.driver.jdbc.jdbc.10 .JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .datastore.DataStoreDriver com. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.SybDriver com.jdbc.

the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. as specified by the driver vendor. by using the connection URL.*.mm.util.mysql.10 . let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. user.forName("org.printStackTrace(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. passwd). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. String user = "root". the only protocol allowed in JDBC).*. try { Class.Driver"). but let's take it for granted: import java. Since we just used it.newInstance().gjt. import java.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.sql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.bank11. 94 . as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.getConnection(connURL. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.

Properties prp = new Properties(). prp.util. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.10 .getConnection(connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true").6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Connection conn = DriverManager. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. prp.JDBC 10. we can use it for various purposes.put("create". String user. 10.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.put("autocommit". java. int resultSetConcurrency.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.

PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.10 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. respectively. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. Statement. namely.JDBC 10. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. 10.. stmt.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.".createStatement().sql. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.executeUpdate(sqlString). Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved..10 .

Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. PreparedStatement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. 98 .10 . One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. not at 0) or the column name. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. a concurrency of read only. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. and CallableStatement objects.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. a factory for creating DB connections. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. It is part of the javax. Basic implementation -.sql.sql. Connection pooling implementation -. basicly.produces a Connection object that will 103 .Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.0 optional package.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.math. time. This interface is.sql package. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. mins. secs date.produces a standard Connection object 2. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.10 .DataSource object.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Time java.Big Decimal Object float 10. There are three types of implementations: 1. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math.

JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax. javax.bank11. javax.*. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". java.io.*.*.sql.getName()).10 .http. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. 3.*.*.servlet.servlets.sql. 104 . Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.ccards.naming.servlet.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.getLogger(TestDataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. private DataSource theDataSource. javax. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. import import import import import import java.lookup("java:comp/env").*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.class.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).

ServletException { . } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource")..10 ..

servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. namely javax. the servlet code is regenerated. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.servlet. If the JSP is modified.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.2 the java.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The JSP specific interfaces.5 Java Servlet specification.servlet. 11.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.tagext. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .jsp. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JSP 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The package javax.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.JSP 11 .servlet.servlet.jsp.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp and javax.jsp.1 and is related to the 2. The javax.11 . The package javax. 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.. 111 .JSP • if the URL does not start with / .. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".. include and taglib. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .11 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.

A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. this code goes to inside the service() method. 11.JSP 11.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. In Tomcat. 11.11 . Assigns it to available name or id.7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7 scripting elements 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7.

The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .the name of a bean instance. and if so.11 .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. Attributes description: • • • name . you must specify param. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .

the URL of the page. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 . same format as the <%@include> directive. flush . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.only the "true" value is supported.13 the forward standard action 114 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. 11. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:forward>.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:plugin> actions.

the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.. code="classFileName" . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP... already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . If you do not supply a value. servlet or to a static resource. 11.the type of object the plugin will execute. as this attribute has no default value.a name for the Bean or applet instance. You must specify either bean or applet... It is used mainly. name . depending on request. when we want to separate the application into different views." . . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.class extension in the name following code.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). as well. You must include the .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.the name of a bean instance. name="instanceName" . archive="URIToArchive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.11 .

and domain name. writes to the output stream to the client. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. config . optional port number. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.Object type and scope page 11.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. out . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. The default value is 1. Must be a small nonzero number.io. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. in pixels.PrintWriter. it has javax.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .lang. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . it has java.16 scopes 1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. session .the initial height and width.represents server's response to the request.jsp.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.1" .11 .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. in pixels.JspWriter type and scope page 7. application .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. based on the servlet API. request .represents the servlet context. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. objects which are automaticly available.1. 1.it represents the buffered version of java. response . request . page . of the image the applet or Bean displays. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. with a protocol name. The value is a full URL. pageContext .servlet.the amount of space.

jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. Object value) method 4. session .ccards. page .beans.jsp file.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 2.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. if (enrollBean.11 . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. application . Object value) method 3.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.init(). Object value) method 11.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.JSP request object.

private boolean flag.string. private float number.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.register().18.11 . 11. private String optional. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).simple. an int.java: package com. a boolean and another String). private int integer. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. %> <jsp:forward page="response. The public constructor could have been omitted. a float. private int list[].io.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private SimpleSubBean subBean. The SimpleBean class is declared public.examples. private String colors[].jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. a software development and consulting company.devsphere. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. SimpleBean.Serializable { private String string.mapping. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .

colors.colors = values. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.flag = value. } 119 . } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer.number. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.JSP this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.number = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.11 . } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.string = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag.colors[index].integer = value.

optional = value.optional.colors[index] = value. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.11 . String value) { this. } } 120 .subBean = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list = values. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. int value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list.subBean.list[index]. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list[index] = value.

io.18.java: package com.examples.simple.string. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number = value.mapping.11 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.string = value.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } } 11.devsphere. private float number. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.Serializable { private String string. SimpleSubBean.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

string subBean.JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. new Float(0. The default values are defined for a String. "One or more items must be selected" }. 3 } }.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.123) }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". new String[] { 123 . the list of optional properties. "abc" }. the processing order.string]".util. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new int[] { 2. the form's name and the processor's name.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]". "An option must be selected" }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The list of optional properties has a single element.list]".mapping. SimpleBeanResources. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. There are three error messages.devsphere.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.examples.integer]".java: package com. a boolean and an int[]. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Boolean(true) }. "One or more colors must be selected" }. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.18.colors]".flag]". a float. error messages.number]".simple. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.11 . The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.

jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . "colors". { "[FORM_NAME]". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.simple. The formToBean() method of com.logging. com. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. } } 11.html" }. "SimpleProc. "integer".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.JSP "optional" } }.devsphere.11 . It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere. SimpleHndl.mapping.*. string values are converted to numbers. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). The beanToForm() method of com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".devsphere. For a better understanding of this example.devsphere.util. "SimpleForm.examples.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). If necessary. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "number".devsphere. "flag". { "[PROC_NAME]".mapping. "optional". "subBean" } }.18. "list". new String[] { "string".jsp" } }.

getTemplate(new java.11 .lastIndexOf('/').equals("POST").forward(request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. response).getRealPath(formPath).removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.getBeanResources(simpleBean. errorTable = HandlerUtils. slashIndex+1) : "". basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. formPath = application.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.trim(). // Process the valid data bean instance application.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.substring(0. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getClass()).getString("[PROC_NAME]"). 125 . logger).File(formPath)). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. simpleBean. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getServletPath().getDocument().formToBean(formData.io.getMethod(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).util. int slashIndex = basePath.JSP = HandlerUtils.trim().

11 . // Send the form document document.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.send(out). errorTable. for (int i = 0.18. if (list.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.string = <%= simpleBean. i < list.length.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. SimpleProc.JSP elements logger).getSubBean().getString() %> <P> subBean. strbuf. i++) 126 . document.beanToForm(simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.number = <%= simpleBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.mapping. } %> 11. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().getSubBean().5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].append("{ ").examples.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".devsphere.

beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. i++) { strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.toString(list[0]). i < list. if (list.length.append("{ ").jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. return strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. strbuf. } strbuf.devsphere.append(" ").length == 1) return Integer.toString().jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append("}"). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.formToBean() call. strbuf. for (int i = 0. A single call to FormUtils. In addition.11 . } strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.length == 0) return "". Using the framework.util. The localization of the Complex*. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.mapping.18.append("}"). ComplexForm.toString().6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append(list[i]).append(" ").jsp files. In addition.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.simple. } %> 11.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . return strbuf. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().examples. strbuf. ComplexHndl. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.append(list[i]).

"colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "green".length. for (int i = 0. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". 128 .getColors().JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". i < integerLabels. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "Option 3" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. i < colorValues. i++) { boolean checked = false. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j]. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. "Green". for (int i = 0. j < colors.length.11 . "Option 2".getInteger() == value. "blue" }. "Blue" }.

} %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP break.devsphere.length. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping.length. i++) { int value = i+1.SimpleSubBean()). "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getList(). j < list.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "subBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list != null) for (int j = 0. if (list == null) list = new int[0].getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.examples. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getSubBean().setSubBean( new com. i < listItems. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. for (int i = 0. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .simple. "Item 3" }. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". boolean selected = false. break. "Item 2".

getMethod().examples. "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl.mapping.getString(). boolean isPostMethod = request.mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.examples.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.get(property). if (message == null) message = "". return message.getSubBean(). if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). 130 .11 .SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.Hashtable errorTable.devsphere.util.length() == 0) { simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere.simple.getString() == null || simpleBean.equals("POST").util.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("abc").Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.

"number".length() != 0) simpleBean.getParameter("flag").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("number"). "Must be filled"). "Must be a number"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.trim(). if (flagValue.setNumber(0.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getColors(). "An option must be selected").length() == 0 || flagValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "number". } simpleBean.setNumber(0. "string".setFlag(flagValue != null).equals("false")) flagValue = null.length == 0) { 131 . } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. else { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.123f).floatValue()).123f).getColors() == null || simpleBean. "Must be filled").

3 }).11 . "One or more items must be selected"). "subBean. 132 .getList(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.setString("").number").getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "list". setErrorMessage(errorTable.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.string". else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean.floatValue()).number".setList(new int[] { 2. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "Must be } //* subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "Must be filled").length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "colors". } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "One or more colors must be selected"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional("").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.getParameter("subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.getString(). //* subBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() != 0) simpleSubBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "subBean.

isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.setString(""). simpleBean.setFlag(true).setOptional("").BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. String property.number".\ 133 .jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. simpleBean.helpers.123f).put(property.jsp. simpleBean. "Must be a number").JSP filled"). } } else { simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.mapping. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. } %> 11.helpers. simpleBean.examples. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.devsphere. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.Hashtable errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. simpleSubBean.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. message). The com.util.setNumber(0.devsphere. "subBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.18.SimpleBean.properties or web.xml: SimpleHndl. errorTable.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.setString("abc").code=com. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. 3 }).11 .simple.devsphere.

xml) file: ServletName.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.devsphere. A servlet can be made bean-independent. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.mapping.host.code=com.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.company.host. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.examples.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.code=com.simple.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.helpers.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. a servlet is identified with its class.devsphere. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. In many cases. you could add a few other lines to servlets.another.helpers.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.examples. If you have another bean-form pair.mapping.properties (or web.18.11 . 11.devsphere. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.AnotherBean.devsphere.

JSP 135 .11 .

javaserver faces 12 . links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. builds a component tree.0 supersedes version 1. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2.0. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. 12. 2. which loads the appropriate view template. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. This technology includes: 1. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. like input fields.12 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.JAVASERVER FACES 12. processes events. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. buttons.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Version 2.

4. As of version 1.12 .1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.javaserver faces 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.2 of the JFS specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.

For more information about columns. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. such as alternating row colors. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.4. footers. 12.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.12 . columns and rows. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. Common formatting techniques. respectively.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. see the column tag documentation.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. your options include using plain HTML forms.4.12 . and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.checkout}" /> 139 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.

4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). red for error.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.user.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user.12 . You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.5.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4.</span> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .

For example.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. 12. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.

5. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. 12. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.javaserver faces 12.customer. can publish value change events.5. Without this JavaScript event. Any component that receives user input.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.mycompany. The body content of this tag must be empty.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. validateLength. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.12 .optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.

Example: welcome_en. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.mycompany.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. including images and styles.javaserver faces 12. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. for each locale you wish to support.5.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. myJSFapp 143 .MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.mycompany. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.12 . the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.

Create properties files 144 . A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.contains libraries required by the application. Create JSP pages 2.xml – the JSF configuration file.jar – files included in the /lib directory.javaserver faces /ant build.html.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. jsf-api.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Define navigation rules 3.jar. Create managed beans 4. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.exadel. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. It has a deployment descriptor. and so on.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. JSP pages. custom tag libraries. static resources. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar faces-config. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.jar jsf-api.xml web.12 . like third party jar files jsf-impl.

it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp and greeting. we just want to go from inputname.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.xml file.jsp is greeting.jsp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Create an index.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. 12.12 . Deploy and run the application 12. And that's all there is to this. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp file 7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. As a diagram. The directory structure already exists. These files will act as place holders for now. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp. Now that we have the two JSP pages. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.7.javaserver faces 5.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Compile the application 8.7. we can create a navigation rule. In our application. You just need to create its contents. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp to greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.

You can easily create more complex ones. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. This class is straight-forward.7. The next line is the full class name.12 . } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.3.7.PersonBean.xml Now. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. request sets the bean scope in the application.3. of course. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.7. To read more about navigation rules.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. 12.7.3.xml Your final faces-config.3 faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.) 12. public class PersonBean { String personName. 12.java file.javaserver faces This is. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. Inside this myJFSapp folder. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. myJFSapp.1 PersonBean.xml file should look like this: 146 . a very simple navigation rule. we will create a PersonBean. the second part of faces-config.

properties file in the bundle folder.4.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.sun.1//EN" "http://java.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .1 messages. 12.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 inputname. 12.5.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Inc.

<%@ taglib uri="http://java. Then.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.12 .prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.sun.bundle.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.

sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Lines 3-5.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.xml file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. That's how JSF knows where to go next.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.12 . you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.7. Line 2. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. and also print its contents on the page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.6 creating the index.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. name! 12.sun. Create the index. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.. Creates an HTML input text box. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.bundle. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.jsp page. specifically the bean attribute personName. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.javaserver faces Line 1. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.sun. Line 6.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.</h3> tags.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .7. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. 12..2 greeting. The second line will access a Java bean. Having an index. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.greeting_text}" />.

insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).jsf and not . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. Your setup. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. When Tomcat is done loading. 150 . 12.12 .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. We are almost done with this example.7.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. we need to deploy it.7.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.xml file for the application *. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. 12. 12. because in the web. To do this. 12.jsp. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. which asks an user for an ID and password.html . This is used here.8. Of course. verifies the information. This is a "login" application.sourceforge.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.9 Running Next. and forwards the user to a success or error page. To build the application run the build.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). you'll notice the file suffix is . though.javaserver faces Now.7. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. might possibly be different).jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml file.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.

12 . Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 2. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. from the menubar select File/New/Other. click Finish 4. 9. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. and to add JSF libraries to the project. 12.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project..webroot | +-. click Add Folder. 7. your mileage may vary. c. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. Select Java Project. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). a. say. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node.WEB-INF 151 .Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click Next. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog..src | +-. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. and set up folders for a web application. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. jsf-login. The New Project wizard appears. 10. 1. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. name the folder webroot 5.. make sure all checkboxes are checked. click Yes through messages that appear. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. 3. see Installing & Uninstalling. click Next d.. click Next.. Enter project name. in the wizard that appears. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.8. 6.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the Add JSF Support page. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.. Select the Amateras node.xml Editor (see faces-config. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. select the Source tab. name the folder pages.. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.

click Add. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. Click Finish.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. for class enter login.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } return action. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. The New Java Class wizard appears.xml Editor. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.lib | +-. if ( _uid. We then configure it to be a managed bean. private String _pwd = "".8.xml.12 . 1. input widgets appear d. in the Name field enter LoginManager. for scope select 152 .pages 12. The Java code editor opens. c.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. from its context menu select New/Class. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. In Package Explorer select the src folder. b.LoginManager. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. 3. The faces-config. a.xml editor opens.java package login. enter login.javaserver faces | | | +-. 2.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". } String getPassword() { return _pwd. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. click Managed Bean. In the Package field. else action = "loginFail". } 4. for name enter mgr. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".

the JSP Editor opens. but in webroot/pages.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Create error. Create index. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp).jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Enter the following code: <!-. again. and 3 content pages (login. save the file and close the editor. from its context menu select New/File.jsp: a.jsp and error. enter the following code.jsp). We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. in Package Explorer select webroot.webroot/index. success. Then we create login. e. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. 1.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp. for File name enter index. but in webroot/pages. index.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. then close the editor 12.javaserver faces session.12 . click Finish. <!-. c. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp. from the menubar select File/Save. </body> Please try 153 . b. so we create them first.webroot/pages/error.jsp.jsp are simple pages with static content. Create success.jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index.8.jsp. the New File wizard appears. All pages except login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.

sun. Open the JSF palette. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.jsp.javaserver faces </html> 4. etc. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. a code-completion window pops up. 154 . d. click Next c. now we want to add attributes to this element. and the JSP Editor can help with code. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. with the following template code. g. place your cursor in one of these lines. and uses them for code completion as well.completion. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. and dock it along the right... from its context menu select New/Other. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and choose default for Template. <%@ page contentType="text/html. b. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.jsp: a. as shown below.. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. enter jsf-login e. click Finish. Create login. for File name enter login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.sun. (See Show View Dialog) f. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. the New wizard appears. To see this in action.12 . place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.

javaserver faces h.loginAction} The final code.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.) j. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.sun. complete the expression with the closing { k. with the barest presentational formatting.. with bean properties available in mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". a code-completion window pops up. i. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . set its value to Login. enter #{mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.password}" l. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.12 .sun. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. select userID from the code-completion window. insert another <h:inputText> element. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit Enter.

1. Open faces-config. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.xml. it should open in the faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. this inserts a page icon into the editor. using a FacesIDE editor.12 . then click inside the editor window. Select the Navigation tab 3. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. 2.8. 156 .xml Editor. This is shown below. click on Page.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.

jsp. change the value of path to /index.jsp.jsp. /pages/success.jsp 4. in the Properties view. and set them to /pages/login. from the palette at left. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.12 . then click first on the icon for login. and is represented by an arrow.jsp and then on the icon for success. select Navigation Case.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp and /pages/error. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. 5. add 3 more pages. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. This is shown below: 157 . This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. 6. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. notice that the warning triangle disappears.

and extension-based mapping is turned on. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and you should be sent to the success page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. 1.jsp.8.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .12 .jsp. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. 12. We want virtual path-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web. or leave it as-is. so uncomment it.xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete. As it turns out. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Once deployed browse to index. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).6 Editing web. open web. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml.jsp.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.javaserver faces 7.xml Here we edit web.xml. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.jsp to error. all we need do in web. any other id/password should send you to the error page. since we have such a trivial application. Similarly add a forward-action from login. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.

10 the javax.12 .faces. Click on its link to launch the application.html javax.faces.faces. the Manager application should reload.event javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.context javax..application javax. that factory is used.faces.convert javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2..faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. scroll down to Deploy.component javax.webapp 12.faces.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.0 1.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.javaserver faces 12. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.model javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.faces.validator javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 . for Context path enter /jsf-login.lifecycle javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.render javax. 12.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces. open its Manager application in a browser. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. For a given factory class name. start Tomcat.8. click Deploy 3. as file:///.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5..el javax.faces javax.component.faces.

ViewHandler .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. with the last one taking precedence. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . ViewHandlerWrapper .faces. ApplicationFactory . defining page navigation.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. FacesMessage. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.represents a single validation (or other) message. handling events and input validation. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. FacesMessage . those factories are used. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.Severity .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.11 the javax.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. StateManagerWrapper .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. StateManager . If none of the above steps yield a match. with the last one taking precedence. 12. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.12 .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.

including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. Here they are: • • UIColumn .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. when activated by the user.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. • • 161 . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. NamingContainer .faces. UIComponentBase .faces. or a hyperlink. a menu item. 12.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. StateHolder .FacesContext. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. • ViewExpiredException .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. ActionSource2 . UICommand . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.context. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. EditableValueHolder .restoreView(javax. ValueHolder .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. String) results in failure on postback. String.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. UIComponent .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.12 .12 the javax.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . ContextCallBack .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.

UIMessage .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.component. it just serves as the root of the component tree. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UISelectBoolean .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UINamingContainer . identified by a clientId. UIInput . Optionally.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. it is for display purposes only. UISelectOne . This component has no rendering. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UIMessages . by storing it as the value property of the component.javaserver faces • UIData . The user can modify the selected values. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). Optionally. UIParameter . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.faces. UIForm . The user cannot manipulate this component. UIViewRoot .12 .html package 162 . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UISelectItem . UISelectMany .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIGraphic .13 the java. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. it is for display purposes only. UIPanel .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a UIComponent that has a value. that is displayed to the user. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIOutput . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.

HtmlOutputLink . HtmlOutputLabel . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlInputTextarea . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputSecret .faces. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.12 . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlPanelGroup . or not.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. and renders the result. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. The label text is specified by the component value. but the application wishes to render more than one.by default. HtmlForm . HtmlOutputText .represents an HTML input element of type password. This component must be placed inside a form. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlPanelGrid .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML form element.Message".faces. HtmlInputHidden .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlMessage . On a redisplay. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlInputText . HtmlDataTable .by default. HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlMessages .renders child components in a table.represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlCommandLink . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlGraphicImage . the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML label element. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML img element. HtmlColumn .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.renders the component value as text.

each phase of the request processing lifecycle. In particular. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.14 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. ResponseWriter . showing a single available option at a time.javaserver faces property. It is passed to.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseStream . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12.convert package 164 .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. FacesContext .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. and the rendering of the corresponding response.faces. showing a single available option at a time. and potentially modified by. FacesContextFactory . ResponseWriterWrapper . HtmlSelectManyListbox . HtmlSelectOneMenu . HtmlSelectManyMenu . HtmlSelectOneListbox . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.faces.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.12 .15 the java. • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.

to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.12 . PropertyResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.16 the java.faces.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.15. ValueBinding . • • • • 165 .javaserver faces 12. Classes: MethodBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. VariableResolver . 12.

typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. • • • • • One exception .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.17 the java. FacesEvent . and event implementation classes. PropertyNotFoundException .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. ReferenceSyntaxException . PhaseEvent . PhaseListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PhaseId .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces. ValueChangeListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. FacesListener .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ValueChangeEvent . 166 . Interfaces: ActionListener .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.12 . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. MethodNotFoundException . • • • • 12.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).AbortProcessingException .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .

The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.20 the java. ListDataModel . ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". • • • • • • • • • 12. ScalarDataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.faces.12 .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. DataModel . ResultSetDataModel . SelectItem . DataModelEvent . SelectItemGroup .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.18 the java. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.19 the java.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. 12. Renderer .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .javaserver faces 12.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).

• • 12. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. The package contains an exception. Typically.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . and/or user Locale.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. RenderKitFactory .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. • RenderKit . including a standard servlet.22 the java.faces. markup language.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. ConverterTag .validator package Interface defining the validator model. and concrete validator implementation classes. AttributeTag .faces. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. ResponseStateManager . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. 12. LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.21 the java. base classes for JSP custom component tags. together. as well. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).12 .

A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. 12. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. that request is passed to the container. • • • • • FacesServlet . or some other web technology. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. the life cycle is more complicated. When the model is updated. which passes the request to the page class. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. When using JSF. In JSF. ValidatorTag . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. When the user takes some action with the presentation. In MVC. the controller sends a message to the model. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. UIComponentBodyTag . but basically. the controller is the 169 . related to a UIComponent. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. or when an exception occurs.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. which has several implications. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. UIComponentTag . telling the model to update its data.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. telling the view to update its presentation. the controller sends a message to the view. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. Also.a base class for all JSP custom actions. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. servlets.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. Likewise. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). FacetTag .23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the JSF life cycle does not apply.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the process includes a few more components or pages.12 . that need to process their tag bodies. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. When a web server receives a request. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.

The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. In addition. However. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the response is sent to the client. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Data can come from input fields in a web form. 170 . As with the previous phase. is validated at this time. In addition.javaserver faces JSF implementation. • Invoke Application: During this phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the JSF implementation must create the view. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. not every request will flow through all six phases. The components are stored in a component tree. If this is a subsequent request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. from cookies sent as part of the request. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. such as components that create HTML input fields. For a JSF-enabled application. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. the conversion occurs in this phase.12 . converting a String to a Date object). the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and a piece of data failed validation. depending on the request. it creates UI objects for each view component. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and what happens during the processing and response. These objects update their state with the data values. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. or from request headers. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. Data for some components. and the UI components are the view.

if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. 171 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. skipping any remaining phases.12 . Also. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. For example. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure.

com) to IP addresses (such as 192.13 . A file system maps a filename (for example. The DNS entry Wiz.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. c:\bin\autoexec. for example. or objects typically used by computer programs. such as LDAP. It enables applications to access different. in turn.5). When using almost any computer program or system.JNDI 13 . the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.COM. naming and directory services using a common API. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. DNS. To access a file in the computer. 13. /usr/hello.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. NDS. possibly multiple. For example. identifiers. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example. For example. Thus the DNS name sales. such as addresses. you must supply its name. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. you supply it the name of the object. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. 13."). The UNIX pathname.sun. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.48. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.2. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. Using JNDI.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. which is located in the root of the file system. you are always naming one object or another. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. names a file hello in the file directory usr. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. 172 . A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.9. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. In addition.JNDI 13. when you use an electronic mail system.COM. and NIS(YP).Wiz.

A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. A printer object reference. for example. is a context. delimited by the comma character (". A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.2. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. Instead. and its flight number and departure time. and fuel and instrument status. 13. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. is relative to c=us.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. such as /usr. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. might contain the state of the printer. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. on the other hand. such as c=us. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). a file name is bound to a file. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. For simplicity.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. that is. In another example. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. in a file directory /usr/bin.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. 13. Every context has an associated naming convention. By contrast. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. Using the reference. an LDAP entry.2.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. For example. its flight plan. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). while the object itself might contain more state information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. For example. they must be stored by reference. a DNS domain. such as its print server name and printing protocol."). For example. such as COM. which in turn. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. A reference is information about how to access an object. unbinding names. for example. A file object. some objects cannot be stored directly. A printer object. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. o=Sun. that is.13 . For example. is a context. relative to the entry o=Sun.2.COM. in the UNIX file system is a context. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. 13. 173 . That is. and listing bound names. For example. a file directory. is accessed using a file reference. in the DNS domain Sun. also called a file handle. Finally.c=us. Typically.

For example.2. various telephone numbers.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. 13. however. because we can. one context can be viewed. a person.13 . the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. or a network. and computer account information. two different computer 174 . The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. An example is the telephone company's directory service. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. for example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories.3. For example. to some extent. For example. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. postal mail address. a computer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. and color. Thus. And it kind of makes sense. programs. 13. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. and even the computer itself and other computers. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. A directory object can be used. to represent a printer. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. For example. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. a name is unique 13. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. resolution. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.

The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter.13 .4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. A Java mail client program. 13. removing. When you search.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. and users. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The service is accessed through its own interface. Similarly. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. networks. such as the file and print services.50". support the notion of searches. 13. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. called a directory information tree (DIT).com". printers. many directories.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The email address. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. for example. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. the ability to access directory services will become essential. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. By using a directory service. For example.3.smith@somewhere. The query is called a search filter.113. Within the DIT. 175 .3. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. for example. adding.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. such as those based on the LDAP. such as that relating to machines. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. that is. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. like any other program running on the network. "mail" is the attribute identifier.3. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. Alternatively. an organization object. Many examples of directory services are possible. 13. for example. 13.4. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. For example.

The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 and the Java 2 SDK. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. 13. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.3 and later releases. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.1 and v1. v1. 13. v1.2.1 and Java 2 SDK. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. The Java 2 SDK. v1. Thus a variety of directories--new. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.ldap 176 . For example. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. and even the network.naming.5.naming.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming javax. more coherent and manageable. It extends the v1. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.5. To use the JNDI.naming. 13.directory javax. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. For example.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).4.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. emerging. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.event javax.13 .2. 13.

String name. a 177 . Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. the name of the object's class. Furthermore. which is the core interface for looking up.6. printer. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. that is.lang.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. and so on.naming package defines a Context interface. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. 13. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6 the naming package The javax. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. For example. and the object itself.13 .6.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.6.print(report). it is potentially a much more expensive operation.6.String name argument represents a composite name. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. However. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. composing them.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. list() is similar to listBindings(). 13. comparing components. In this case. For the methods in the Context interface. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. for some objects in the directory. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. A java. 13.lang.lookup("treekiller"). A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.spi 13.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. 13. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . and it returns the object bound to that name.lang. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.JNDI • javax. The overloads that accept java.naming. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.1 context The javax. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. binding/unbinding.

DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().7.6. For example. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. There are no absolute roots. Once you have an initial context.directory package extends the javax. 13. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. 13. 13. replace. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. InitialContext. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. 13.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).5 the Initial context In the JNDI. Otherwise.naming. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. You can add. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. 178 . 13. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.7.13 . In the simplest and most common form of usage.7 directory package The javax. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. they should catch NamingException. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.6. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.

13.8 event package The javax. and vice versa.9. To receive event notifications. such as information about the object before and after the change. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. In fact. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace." and those that do not. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . 13.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. These operations are called "extended" operations." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.9. or unsolicited notifications.naming.9 LDAP package The javax.directory package. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. For example. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.JNDI 13.naming. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. controls.ldap package at all. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.naming. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . For example. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13.naming.9. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. such as "object changed. called controls . 13. such as "object added.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. that is. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.13 . The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.naming.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. Once registered.

13 . then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10.10 service provider package The javax.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. import javax. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13.2 java object support The javax.naming.naming package.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 180 . For example.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.Context. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.1 plug-In architecture The javax. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. sending request controls.naming. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. That is.10.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. and receiving response controls. This support is provided in the form of object factories.10. 13. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. create a file named Lookup.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.naming. It uses a service provider for the file system.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.java. 13. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.11. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. In the process of completing an operation. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. implementors of Context. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context. This support is provided in the form of state factories. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.9.naming.

lookup(name). then see the Common Problems lesson for help.11. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. To compile to program. env.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).11. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. // Print it System. For this reason. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. import javax. 181 .5 compiling the program Next.3. "com.fscontext.jar as an installed extension.naming.13 . 13.naming. using the capitalization shown.lookup(name). // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.jndi. use Context. 13. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).RefFSContextFactory"). The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). If the compilation succeeds.put(Context. v1. then the JNDI classes are already included.err. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.JNDI import javax. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).11.sun. } 13. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().11. If you are still having problems. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.out. } catch (NamingException e) { System.NamingException. as follows.java).InitialContext. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Object obj = ctx. If the compilation fails.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. Otherwise.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.3 looking up an Object Next. you must have access to the JNDI classes. 13.lookup() to look up an object. create an initial context.

1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.3. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.LdapCtxFactory").ldap. v1.Context. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.naming. the file system service provider.naming and javax. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.jndi. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.java.directory packages.fscontext. javax. you need access to the JNDI classes. To run the program. 13. then you will see something like the following. include the directory that contains your Lookup. javax.bat If you supply a file directory. create an initial directory context.jndi.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Finally.12.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.class).PROVIDER_URL.put(Context.put(Context. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.DirContext.InitialDirContext.directory.11. env. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). javax. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.sun. and your example class (Lookup. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. env. import import import import import javax.naming.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.NamingException.jar).6 running the program To run the program. "com.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. 13. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.jar and providerutil. create a file named Getattr.JNDI 13. 182 .directory.directory.12.13 .Attributes.naming.sun.naming.naming. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.naming. supply the name of a file in your file system. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.

3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. ou=People"). } catch (NamingException e) { System.get("sn").12.get()). 13. compile the source file using the Java compiler. } 13. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.java). 13. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. ou=People").JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Attributes. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). As with the naming example. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get() on it to get its value: attrs. If the compilation succeeds.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. Similar to the naming example.13 . ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs.6 compiling the program Next.12. For now.get(). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.get("sn").println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). 13. For this reason.out. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.err. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. using the capitalization shown.get() and then from that attribute get its value.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. 183 . If the compilation fails. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. If you are still having problems. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.

jar). "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). v1.PROVIDER_URL. then see the Common Problems lesson. then these classes are already included. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.class. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.put(Context. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). 184 .3. Once it has the attributes.12. If you have any trouble running this example. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. ou=People". (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. env.JNDI 13.jar and providerutil. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. With this configuration.7 running the program As with the naming example.13 . Getattr.

an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. unless it has established a durable 185 .14 . JMS queue . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.a JMS client that receives messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. JMS client . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. In this model. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS consumer . Here. As the name queue suggests. JMS topic . JMS message . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. Enterprise Edition.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS producer .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). the messages are delivered in the order sent. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. • 14. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.

4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.14 .4. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. 186 .jms. 14. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. Depending on the type of message. Using Java. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. In that case. 14. On the receiving side.3 the JMS API programming model 14.

3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. In a J2EE application. It is either a queue or a topic. For example. Before an application completes. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. 14. you must close any connections that you have created. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.createConnection().4. It receives messages sent to a destination.close(). Like the connection factory.4.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.4.14 . the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. The JMS administrator creates these objects. Depending on the connection type. 14. For example. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. Before your application can consume messages. you must call the connection's start() method. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. and users discover them using JNDI. you call the stop() method. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. connection. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.

you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. After you have created a message consumer.receive(1000). You use the Session. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.) When message delivery begins.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. Message m = consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. consumer. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. Moreover. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. which contains one method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.setMessageListener(myListener).start(). After you register the message listener. usually expect a specific message type and format. 14. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. a message listener object may be used. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. In the onMessage() method. connection. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. it becomes active. onMessage(). 188 .createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. For example. and you can use it to receive messages. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.createConsumer(myQueue).) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.4. Message m = consumer. MessageConsumer consumer = session. if it needs to reply to messages. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. For example. you are likely to miss messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.14 . // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. (Remember always to call the start() method.start(). A message listener does. however.createConsumer(myTopic).receive(). This object implements the MessageListener interface. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.

bytes message. 14. anon_prod. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.createProducer(myQueue). message. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. if you created an unidentified producer. stream message. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. MessageProducer producer = session. You must first create the messages.setText(msg_text).4.createProducer(myTopic).createProducer(null).send(message). you do not specify a destination until you send a message. A message has three main parts: 1. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.4. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.send(myQueue. After you have created a message producer.14 .7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. For example. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. from one application to another. to create and send a TextMessage. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).createTextMessage(). map message. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. message).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. Here. 189 . the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. At the consuming end. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. With an unidentified producer. and object message). 3.send(message). that is. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. // msg_text is a String producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.receive().

Sessions implement the Session interface. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. Here. and message consumers to receive messages. then delivers the messages.createSession(false.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). use the following code: Session session = connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. } else { // Handle error } 14. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.getText()). 0). If the user selects transaction support. Before committing the transaction. After you create a Connection object.out. the first argument means that the session is transacted. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. To create a transacted session.14 . A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.println("Reading message: " + message. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Session. 190 . the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.4. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.

no developer coding.0. component recovery scalability portability 191 .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . bundled into a single unit.jar file into the application server. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. server which provides an execution environment for containers. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. the container lives (in general) in an application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.15 . On the other side. message-driven beans The 2. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.object oriented representation of data in a DB.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.0.consistent error handling framework . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. 15.DB interaction transactions .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.transaction management can be complex. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). The component lives inside a container. container which offers services to the component. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . improved performance security . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. Version 1. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.

The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4. the deployment descriptor. as follows: 1. called ejb-jar. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the home interface of the bean 3.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .15 . Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. which is an xml file.xml 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.

String lastName. } 193 . int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb.RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods.*.RemoteException. import java.15 . import.javax. import. } 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.*. import java. RemoteException.ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.rmi. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.rmi. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.javax. The developer does not implement this interface. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.

what methods to use (know its interface) 3. In the case of an web application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.interfaces. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.PROVIDER_URL.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. } 194 . prop.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. how to create or find the bean 2.15 . Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). this can be done (for example) through SSL. prop.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.NamingContextFactory". Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. "localhost:1099"). if the client executes outside the container.put(Context. creating them for the client application.jnp. "org. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). we need to know: 1. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.

It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. 195 . Some languages. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. Problem is.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.narrow(homeRef. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. MyBeanHome.e.. • if the client executes outside the container. using the narrow() method. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.class).lookup("MyBean").lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").rmi. in fact.15 . do not have the concept of casting. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. and this means that there are some limitations.PortableRemoteObject class and. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. in fact.rmi. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. This is done through the javax. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. but for generic languages. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. more specifically.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.rmi. the client has a stub). to the appropriate type.Remote interface). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. that is part of CORBA standards. do implements the java. Why? For EJB.

set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejbeans.processEntry("Dumitrascu".. 15.ejb. call business methods on the bean myObject. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . remove the bean instance myObject. import javax. "Vasile". int custId) { // method implementation . the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.. as well). the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.15 .remove().7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.ccards. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. String lastName.ejb.bank11. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. public class MyBean implements javax. 1102).create().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName..SessionContext.

the object is activated. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. A stateless bean does not. namely stateful and stateless beans. 197 . When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.15 . This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15. that is.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 15.

1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. For example. and then moves it to the ready stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. The ejbCreate method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. for example. Figure 15. 198 . calls the bean's ejbActivate method.1 are invoked by the EJB container. is inside the bean class. the client invokes the remove method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. the EJB container activates the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. All other methods in Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. 15. (Typically. or passivate.15 . the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.

• • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. stored in a Database). For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. support for concurrent access 3. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.15 . The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.

as the parameters in the original create() method. CreateException.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.lang. 15.bank11.ccards. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. Update and Delete.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. an instance of that bean is created. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. 200 . Read.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. all throwing RemoteException. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.15 . state data is stored into data store (usually. On the other side. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. We can have more create() methods. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). in the same order.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. methods which have the same parameters.14.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.

the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. left empty most of the time in CMP. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. On the first path. for BMP. a client can invoke the remove method. First. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. but the developer returns null for CMP. 15.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). 201 .14. After the EJB container creates the instance. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. it is empty. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. but in general. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. Second.14.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. not null. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. On the second path. While in the pooled stage. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. While an entity bean is in the ready stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. actual SQL update code. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. in BMP. it's business methods can be invoked. the client invokes the create method. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.15 .3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. for BMPs.14. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. All instances in the pool are identical. 15. After instantiation.

or a Web component . It acts as a JMS message listener.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. Therefore. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.an application client. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.getPrimaryKey(). 202 . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. If the primary key is incorrect.15 . it does not automatically set the primary key. another enterprise bean. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. In the pooled state. With bean-managed persistence. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . 15. In the pooled state. the values of the instance variables are not needed.

by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.16. 203 .16. but not asynchronously. Unlike a session or entity bean. 15. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a JMS API connection. an open database connection. In several respects. To ensure concurrency. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. 15. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.16. the message will be redelivered.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. max-beans-infree-pool. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.15 . The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. When a message arrives. If message processing is rolled back. To avoid tying up server resources. If this element is set to more than one.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.16. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. For more information on this element see. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. The onMessage method may call helper methods. Previously. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. 15. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. message-driven bean can be used.for example. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.

ejb.Message MessageName) {.16.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and it must not // accept parameters. 15.. Classes. 15.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. public void onMessage(javax. methods. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. As with other EJB types. 3. finalize{}.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.15 . The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.16.jms.. public void ejbRemove() {.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Note: These instances can be pooled. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 2. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.16.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.0 specification.. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().Message. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. or create a new one. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.} // onMessage() is required.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.}. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance. // An EJB constructor is required.jms..

16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.15 . whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). 15. even in onMessage(). 15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.onMessage() for more information.This is not a client context. If any method throws such an exception.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. However. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). For example. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().16.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .MessageListener. 15. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). See javax. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. getUserTransaction(). from the client perspective the EJB still exists. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.jms.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. getRollbackOnly() . 15. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.

15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.16. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. In either case. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.15 . For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). as required by the EJB 2. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.xml. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.0 specification. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.0 specification.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.

..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.ejb20.. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.jms. as described in the EJB 2.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. 2. 207 . the weblogic-ejb-jar..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.xml deployment file. </message-driven> . The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 15.0 specification.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. For each instance.xml elements.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.message. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.15 . jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.

name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.15 . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. control descriptors . the home interface name 7. bean home name . entity specific elements 10. access control entries .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. isolation level. attributes .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. environment properties 6. EJB class name 5.like transaction. session specific elements 9. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. security 208 .security issues.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. a message-driven bean is never passivated.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. 15. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. the remote interface name 8. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. the container calls the ejbRemove method. At the end of the life cycle. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.

ejb.15 .bank11.ccards.bank11.ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.lang.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.bank11.ccards.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.bank11.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.lang...15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.


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