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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


5 .7 business components Business code. retail. processes it (if necessary). 1. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.1 . like HTML pages. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. enterprise edition Figure 1. Figure 1.2 Server communication 1. and sends it back to the client program. like the client tier. The web tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. are not considered web components. or finance.java platform. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. processes it (if necessary). Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.

9. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. In addition. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. resource pooling. database systems. multithreading.java platform.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). 1.3 Web. For example. and other legacy information systems. enterprise edition Figure 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.9 java EE Containers Normally. 6 . enterprise bean. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Business and EIS Tiers 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. mainframe transaction processing.1 . Before a web. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. 1. and other complex low-level details. or application client component can be executed.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.

2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.9. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.1 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. For example. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. data persistence. After an enterprise bean is created. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. including services such as security.java platform. 1.4. database connection resource pooling. transaction management. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 7 . Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.

you send documents containing the service data back and forth.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. video. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .1 . For example.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Applet container . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. 1. program files. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. When XML data is exchanged between parties. enterprise edition Figure 1. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Web container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Application clients and their container run on the client.manages the execution of application client components. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.10. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. develop. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. XML data. maps. extensible. or any kind of binary data such as audio. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .1 XML XML is a cross-platform. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. test. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.manages the execution of applets. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. or for document-oriented web services. 8 . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.java platform. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. text-based standard for representing data. 1. Application client container .

where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.1 . 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10. enterprise edition 1. 1.java platform. the location of the service.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10. such as Universal Description. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). and ways to communicate with the service. 9 . and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The description includes the name of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.

A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. 1. When the client finishes executing. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. 1. or if the server shuts down. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.11. standard set of tags.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. the session bean and its data are gone.11. and XML) and JSP elements.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. If the client terminates. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.java platform. you employ a single.11.11. WML.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.1 . Commonly. or enterprise bean. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . Although servlets can respond to any type of request. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. enterprise edition Figure 1. In Java EE 5. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. a module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. and JNDI 1. it is ready to be deployed. such as better performance.1 . Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . or better customer support. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or component accordingly. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. JSP page. or a component. JTA. Once deployed on a local platform. the application is ready to run. module. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. servlet. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. 15 .ear extension. better tools. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. No extra coding is needed. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . At runtime. SAAJ.java platform.

GIF and HTML files. Resource adapter modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.java platform. Together.jar extension. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .rar (resource adapter archive) extension. and other documentation. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. native libraries. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain all Java interfaces. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. such as caching directives. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. and a web application deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . supporting class files. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.jar extension. For example. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.war (Web ARchive) extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. which contain servlet class files. • • 16 . for example.1 . JSP files. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. enterprise edition Figure 1. classes. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. Application client modules. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Web modules.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.

check the official HTTP site – www. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. The server answers with a response message. namely HTTP 1. 2. was the object of several RFCs.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . an initial line 2..org/Protocols . Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.org/rfc/rfc1945.com/easy/http. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).html). a blank line (CR/LF) 4. HEAD. The client sends a request message to the server. we recommend www.HTTP 2. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET..ietf. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.apps.w3. These messages may have different contents.jmarshall. . so far) version. but they also have some common structural elements.HTTP 2 ..1. The second (and last. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. RFC 2616 (06/99). As a site for understanding how HTTP works.. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. zero or more header lines 3. as follows: 1. POST.2 .

4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.html HTTP/1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. mailing list.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.1 specification. CONNECT 5. Here is their list: 1.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. GET /path/to/the/file/index.Annotation of existing resources. GET 2. PUT 8. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. DELETE 6.0). as well. but lack of support makes them obsolete. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. TRACE Three other commands are listed. OPTIONS 7. HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board.1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. newsgroup. . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.2 . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. 18 . POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . 2. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. HEAD 3. POST 4. in the HTTP 1.

while POST may involve anything. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. (encoded as multipart/form-data). The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. such as the result of submitting a form. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. or in the message body. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. In this case. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.Providing a block of data. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .6 differences between GET and POST 1. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or sending E-mail 2. or a record is subordinate to a database.8 the status code A three-digit integer. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. separated by the character “&” or “. 2.0 404 Not Found 2.” On the other side. 2. or ordering a product. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. When used for form data submission. like storing or updating data. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. 3. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. .Extending a database through an append operation. after the “?” character.HTTP or similar group of articles.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. . to a data-handling process. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.2 . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.

none of them mandatory.2 .1 version specifies 46 of them. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. that is.an unexpected server error. 404 Not Found . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. separated a semicolon. In a request. and the resulting resource (e. fails.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. Although the header names are not case sensitive.1). 20 . In particular.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . header values are. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. and section 10 for HTTP 1. such as text/html or image/jpg.1 only) . The HTTP 1.0.0 version specifies 16 headers.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). or otherwise can't run correctly. 500 Server Error . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. If an HTTP message includes a body. header name and header value. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. The most common use of the message body is in a response. while the HTTP 1.the request succeeded.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.g. 2. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. out of which.the requested resource doesn't exist. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. one (Host) is mandatory. where the requested resource is returned to the client. file or script output) is returned in the message body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. 2.

ro/path/file.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.ro.info. Here is the list of the seven types. partial. 1. gif 6. postscript 5.2 . audio. with subtypes mixed.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. alternative. with subtypes octet-stream. with subtype basic 7. with subtypes jpeg. video.ietf. message. external-body 4.uvt. with subtypes rfc822.html HTTP/1. parallel 3. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). image. Then.0 From: someuser@yahoo.info.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtype mpeg 2. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.html first open a socket to the host web. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.apps. digest.HTTP 2. 21 . sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype plain 2. . multipart.uvt. application. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.org/rfc/rfc1521. text.0 200 OK Date: Fri.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . RFC 1521 (www.

2 . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket. 22 .HTTP .

was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. www. The first official version – HTML 2. The first version of HTML. The newest version of HTML is 4. Mosaic. a working draft for the next major revision.org/rfc/rfc1866. It is a revision of 4.w3c. namely HTML 1.01. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. HTML 3. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.2 (3. The latest version (XHTML 2.com/easy/html .htmlgoodies. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.01) can be found at this address: http://www. Version 4. Other helpful sites . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. As a practical reference site use – www.html) and was widely supported.com/tutors. HTML describes how text. However.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. check the official HTML site – www.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.0.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.html.com/indexdot/html . Originally named Web Applications 1. 3.99.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .3 .0 .0) dates from 08.org/Markup . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. Since it fits in a couple of pages. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. The XHTML 1. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. From 1999 on.HTML 3 . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.0. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.apps.ietf. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.www. A newer standard.0 draft was released in 01.blooberry.w3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.HTML 3.0 and was accepted in December 1997.jmarshall.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.

SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".3 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.

3 .HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.acesta este un comentariu. An example: <!-." (in hexadecimal) .html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. <><> --> 25 . Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. You get the point.and end at the first occurrence of -->. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. VSAPCE are omitted. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. If you wonder what a character reference is.0 Transitional DTD. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. 3. Check the address http://www. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.01 specification. "&#x6C34. though. 3. DYNSRC. This section deals with some of the most common elements.the chinese character for water.0 Strict DTD. “&quot”. the specification of HTML 4. CONTROLS. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. BORDER. like ALIGN. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. HTML 4. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. 4. three DTDs (HTML 4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. …. Overall. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.w3. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. HTML 4.

Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.info. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.5 tables 26 .3.HTML 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. image.3.ro/webmail/src/login.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.3 . NAME. etc.uvt.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.

HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. its rows. Usually. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.3 . headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is their description and attributes. columns.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.required. allowing user input and parameter submittal.3 .

"submit". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .info. allows multiple selections from the choice list. "radio".required. however.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "file".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "reset". the browser appends the values to the URL. Main attributes: 29 . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". after a quotation mark . • 3.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "text/plain" • • 3.3 .uvt.required.maximum number of options visible to the user.if specified. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". SIZE . "checkbox". specifies how data will be sent to the server. "GET" . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . "hidden". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "image".the default value.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. 3. "button".:. NAME .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.required. may have the values GET or POST.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. Main attributes: • TYPE . specifies the parameter name.8 form related elements 3. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "password". Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.HTML • METHOD . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Example: http://web.8.sends the form values in a single transmission.?.8. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.8.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Java source – a file with extension .java. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. Example: Edit the file prog1.2 version. -g : generate all debugging info. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . In terms of execution time.class file. The first time a class is loaded.3 java applications 31 .JAVA PRIMER 4. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.) in 08.class 3.class.2 java the interpreter. the compilation process occurs. To overcome this significant shortage.4 .C:\TW\mySource. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. a tool named Just In Time compiler..2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. The current version (as of 10. Early versions of Java were released in 12.0. project started in 12. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. Inc. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. 4. following the 1.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.95. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.java 2.java One example of command line compilation: 4. jit From source to execution. The current version (as of 10.90. but next time execution is much faster. Java bytecode – a file with extension .class file.95.4.JAVA PRIMER 4 . javac -classpath . A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.

java. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. or is derived from A. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. 4.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. In general. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.jar file. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. Generally. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. An example: 32 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4.4 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). or that it extends A).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4 object oriented concepts 4.4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.

Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. with the root the class Object. Double. In fact.1 bit char . The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. In OO jargon. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Therefore. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Short. 33 . all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Therefore.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Integer. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. providing its own implementation. namely: Byte. Float. this is called method overloading. 4. Character. called Object. Boolean. 4. Long. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. 4.4 .4.4. a Java class can extend a single base class.

The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.one which is defined at class level. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.the class is visible from any class. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable ..JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references)..the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . which extends the class javax. A final: • • • variable .does not have any subclasses.no access from outside the class itself protected .servlet. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.4 . method . A final variable (method.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. • • • • no specifier .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.http.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. has the same value for all class instances.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . class . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. inherited). automatic garbage collection.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.http. 4.one which is constant method .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . 34 . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. Except for the "package" concept. } declares an abstract class. no templates.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. anywhere abstract . rather than at class instance. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.access from any class anywhere private .

All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. code or data errors .4 .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). division by 0. not at execution time.like invalid cast.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. 4.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. 4. In Java. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . as defined in the java.ThreadDeath. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. 2.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7.7.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. java errors . array index out of bounds. programmer defined exceptions 4. standard method exceptions 3. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. namely class Error and the class Exception. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. Exception categories: 1. 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.

8. 4. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.1 Package names The default package has no name.io java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.ccards. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.util.sql java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. As a general rule.java. All other packages must be explicitly imported.support for user interface java.net java. import.. date and time info java.support for event handling java.lang . therefore.default.*. don't have to import java.zip .util. followed by the import statements. 4..this can be done by providing a try. .support for data collections. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). In the example above. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.geom . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.class file.sql. An example: package com. The package containing the standard classes is java.support for java archives creation java. the default package is used). catch. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. they have to be unique inside a package.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .security 36 .util .awt.awt . the class (the .lang (automatically available).awt. string analyzers. import javax. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.bank11.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.Properties.servlets.event . 4.nio java. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . finally construct.by adding the key word throws.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.rmi java.4 .

4 .accessibility javax.support for event handling 4.event .swing. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All variables (actually.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. static and final. it must be declared as abstract.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. 37 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing .text javax.

the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . The origins of this language date back to 1995. and .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. other 38 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.depending on the browser .JAVASCRIPT 5. 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .5 . However.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .A JavaScript statement like this: document.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Subsequently. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . then LiveScript and finally. as JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . like QtScript or ActionScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. This is not always what we want.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .

you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. point to the .javaScript times when a user triggers an event. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js file extension. To simplify this. 39 . </script> </head> 5..3.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. go in the head section.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.. </script> </body> 5.3. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3.5 . When you place a script in the head section.. 5.. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . or when an event is triggered..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. without having to write the same script on every page.

switch(). in and the try .. The code in the body of the for . in loop is executed once for each element/property.1 JavaScript for. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . 5....4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. namely – if .5 . break..2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4..4. 5.4. for(). while().5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.javaScript 5.. else.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.5. catch constructs..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5... continue. while() it is worth mentioning the for .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..In statement The for..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".

Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. var mycars = new Array(). Example Using for. for (x in mycars) { document... mycars[1] = "Volvo". so you don't lose your audience.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. mycars[0] = "Saab". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. or a property of an object.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. When users see errors... they often leave the Web page.5 . mycars[2] = "BMW". } </script> </body> </html> 5. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors..5.catch statement (available in IE5+.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). The try block contains the code to be run.catch statement The try. an array element.5.0. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Mozilla 1.3 try.

\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. Also.\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. txt+="Click OK to continue. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. When an alert box pops up. Syntax: 42 . txt+="Error description: " + err.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). alert(txt).5 .7.description + "\n\n".7 popup boxes 5. 5.

If the user clicks "Cancel"."defaultvalue") 5. Now.7. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. in the <head> section.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. When a confirm box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". the script is not executed before the user hits the button.7. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.8 functions 5.8. the box returns false. the box returns null.. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.5 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the box returns true. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. in the example above had not been written within a function. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a prompt box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext".javaScript alert("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.js file). If the user clicks "OK". A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .

. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. 5.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language... otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.write(txt. document.. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . etc are variables or values passed into the function. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. 5.var2. So.9. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. 5. and how they are used. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. var2.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.5 .varX) { some code } var1.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.javaScript function functionname(var1.length). functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.8.9 javaScript objects 5. and will be stored in the variable called product. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".

10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document. which will be specified in the next section. The first class consists of browser specific objects. The other class are the language specific objects.9.toUpperCase()).3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.javaScript 5. </script> 5.write(str. 45 .

1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.com/jsref/default.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Link on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered.asp 5. For example. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. At its most basic level. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . check the site http://www. or when the user interacts with a Web page. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. as well). Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.5 .11 javaScript language built in objects 5.w3schools. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Properties FF: Firefox. Even this Document itself is an Object. which are called Objects. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. N: Netscape.11. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. every Image on the page is an Object. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape.5 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.

1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. depending on the browser.

to a string. N: Netscape. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.11.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to universal time. according to local time. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.5 . Properties FF: Firefox.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 .11.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 4 3 4 .5 . var myNum=new Number(number). Syntax for creating a new Number object.

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . N: Netscape.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 2.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1.5 .y) min(x. 0.javaScript 5. N: Netscape. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.11. Properties FF: Firefox.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 0.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 1. 0.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 3.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.y) pow(x.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.

firstname="John".1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. Objects also have methods. personObj. The persons' methods could be eat().5 .javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. sleep(). work().propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname).write(personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. height. play(). All persons have these properties.12.firstname="John". Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. weight. 53 .lastname="Doe". personObj. age.eyecolor="blue". age. with a collection of properties and methods. document. etc. 5.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj.12. personObj.age=30. skin tone. Assume that the personObj already exists .eyecolor="blue". Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.lastname="Doe".12. etc.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().you can give it properties named firstname. Properties are the values associated with the object.age=50. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. The persons' properties include name. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. eye color. lastname. personObj. personObj.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj.

You can also add some methods to the person object.lastname.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.eyecolor=eyecolor.age.age=age.eyecolor) { this. 5.firstname=firstname. 54 .48. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this."green").lastname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. like this: myFather=new person("John". Once you have the template.age=age.eyecolor=eyecolor.newlastname=newlastname. this.age. this.lastname=lastname. you can create new instances of the object. } Notice that the template is just a function.50. this. this. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). myMother=new person("Sally". Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname=lastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eat=eat. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."Rally"."Doe".12.5 .javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this. this.propertyName. this."blue").lastname=new_lastname.

13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.5 . 5. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . So. We define the events in the HTML tags. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.. now you can write: myMother. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. For example. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event."..newlastname("Doe").0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.

you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.13.w3schools.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . For example. 5.5 . Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. The name is then stored in a cookie.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. If the field values are not accepted.13.13. the submit should be cancelled. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.2 onFocus. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. If it returns true the form will be submitted.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .javaScript event').

SVG. or WebAPI being among them. 2010). In other words.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). However. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.6 .. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. HTML. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. As of January 2008. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.HTML DOM 6. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. particularly those used in Web browsers. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the Document Object Model activity is closed. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. The W3C 58 . parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. CSS. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Right now (oct. structure.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.g. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.Html DOM 6 . By October 1998.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. XML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. 6. and style of a document. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.

DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. To claim to support a level. 6.6 . Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. As of 2005. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Validation. and 6. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 2. Level 2 XML namespace support. HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. 5. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. each of which contains required and optional modules. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 XPath. a new DOM Core specification. which further enhances the DOM 6. 3. 4. Level 1. filtered views and events. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements).

Opera.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. In order to be cross-browser compatible. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x were still widely used in 2000. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.6 . you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. 6. Konqueror.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). can be accessed through the 60 . when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. The Window object represents a browser window. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. and Safari. All HTML elements.x and Netscape 4.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. support multiple browsers. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. interoperability problems were numerous. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. that is. By 2005. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. along with their containing text and attributes.

It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript. JavaScript. and new elements can be created.6 .

However. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". <head> and <body>.9. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8.6 . In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. everything in an HTML document is a node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. the element node <title>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8. 62 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 6. The <html> node has two child nodes.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The tree structure is called a node-tree. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.Html DOM 6.

The node tree below shows the set of nodes. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.getElementById('main'). By using the getElementById() method 2. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. children.9. 63 . You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). child. Parent nodes have children. the top node is called the root Every node.2 node parents. and the connections between them. Their contents can be modified or deleted. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By navigating the node tree. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. using the node relationships. • • • • • In a node tree.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.9. The terms parent. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and new elements can be created.6 . and sibling are used to describe the relationships. except the root.getElementsByTagName("p").getElementsByTagName("p"). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).

write(x[i].write("<br />").4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).i++) { document. each node is an object.9.innerHTML). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.6 . Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .i<x. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.length. } 6. document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.Html DOM for (i=0.

9. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro").Html DOM 6. 6. txt=x.6 .firstChild.nodeValue.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.

objects and images. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.6 . For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including window. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. frames. For elements.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".

DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. for instance. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. through a mouse click or a keypress. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. DOMNodeInserted. When the user clicks on the inner element. 6. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. also supports these methods. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). 67 . and then bubbled up. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. say "click". Also. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Fires when an element is activated.3. as of version 1. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Safari.6 . Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. During the event flow.

key pressed. mouse position. Unfortunately. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. preventDefault 68 . mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). To cancel the event if it is cancelable. including information about target element.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. etc. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.6 . Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.

SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. before the whole page was sent within the network. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. choices of user.7 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. etc. For example. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. fields of forms.AJAX 7.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. but also to save resources. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. menus. using web services or Php scripts. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.AJAX 7 . For improving sharing of resources. 7. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7. dynamic website. crunching numbers. means that the response of the server will be processed when available.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. The server does some processing — retrieving data. 69 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. It is not a technology in itself. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.

what’s the user doing? That’s right. And at every step in a task. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. we wouldn’t make users wait around. the user waits some more. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.7 . but the opposite is true. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. 70 . Once an interface is loaded. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. at the start of the session. Instead of loading a web page. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. Obviously. waiting. While the server is doing its thing. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. waiting around for the server to do something. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense.

7 . editing data in memory. loading additional interface code. usually using XML. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. url. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. It allows the interaction with the servers. . 1: connection established. 7.holds loaded data as a string of characters. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.responseText .200 is ok.AJAX 7.holds a Xml loaded file. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .mode: type of request. GET or POST .open: create a connection. .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.returned by the server . 3: answer in process. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. DOM's method allows to extract data.send: send a request to the server. 2: request received. These events are user actions. boolean) . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. This object provides two methods: .responseXml . . onreadystatechange . 404 if the page is not found . thanks to its methods and attributes. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. To get data on the server. and in this purpose.for a simple text. 4: finished.url: the location of the file 72 .7 .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.for a Xml file or .

null for a GET command 7.open('GET'. http_request..6 building a request. http_request. 'http://www. The request below reads a document on the server.. true for asynchronous.send(null). OK } else { // wait.open: command GET or POST. if (request. } else if (window.readyState == 4) { // received. .7 .xml'.send: with POST only. request..ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. true).AJAX .boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . // Firefox. if (window. Safari. for browser compatibility.fr/somefile.XMLHTTP"). // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. 73 . the data to send to the server.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .xul. URL of the document. . but two options must be tried. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class..

if(window.7.open("GET".readyState == 4) if(req.responseText.dyn=""Received:" + req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. req. by this code: var doc = req.send(null).ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .responseText.getElementsByTagName('root'). else document.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.XMLHTTP).dyn="Received:" + req. true).7.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. req.status == 200) document.AJAX 7.7 .dyn="Error code " + req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. req.ajax.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. req. else if (window.7 examples 7.status.item(0). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.ajax.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". }.xml".responseXML.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). "data. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
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If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
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XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. but typical web. servlet classes.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. welcome pages.xml file: <?xml version="1. database connection resource pooling. Here is a small.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. web. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 8. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . For example. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 4. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. MIME types used by the web application. like: 1. data persistence. Servlet. like what pages are error. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Servlet..class>com.. classes.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.8 . entries related to session configuration. 3. descriptions). application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. 5. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.bank11.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. JSPs and Java Server Faces. 2. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.servlets. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.)> <web-app> <!-.ccards. Others. After an enterprise bean is created. Initialization of parameters for servlets. 6.

The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.xml file of the web application. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".bank11. 1. whose name is rather long. However.bank11.8 . the name of the web application. For example. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. Unfortunately.xml" 2.xml".class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Then the "EnrollServlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.servlets". Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. for flexibility. Behind a very benign URL. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. basicly.bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". Basicly.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.ccards. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards.servlets.ccards. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. it is the alias of the real servlet class. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml" file.servlets". This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). In general.

now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).0 specification. Technically speaking. the Java Servlet 3. but through a web container. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.2. this is just a work in progress. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . modular design 9. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. more often. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. 9.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. but at this point. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.9 . As of oct.5 and is in final state.0 specification is available for public review. tjws spec 2.4. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.SERVLETS 9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. small footprint.2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. in most cases as part of an application server. 2010. from BEA Systems. the HttpServlet) class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. 9.SERVLETS 9.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. platform independent programs. which extend the functionality of the web server.4.

http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet package are protocol independent. These packages are: • • javax. the javax. from IBM 9.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet. IOException. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. WebSphere. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet package. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. while the second one. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet javax. 82 . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. from Apple Inc.9 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK. public void destroy() throws ServletException.servlet.

The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. Throwable t) 9. namely the HttpServlet class. 9. as well. The method performs all initialization required. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. before the servlet processes any HTTP request.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. the web container calls its init() method. This method has two arguments. ServletConfig. 83 . ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.9 . Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. respectively. More on the servlet life cycle. After instantiating the servlet. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. in a different section. The servlet API provides such a specific class.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.servlet. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. service().lang. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. It also extends the java.ServletException javax.9 . namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.Exception class. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.Exception and can be thrown by the init().7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.

The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. After instantiation. which will service all incoming requests. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. method which performs the initialization of the servlet.servlet. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. respectively. 85 . Also.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.SingleThreadModel. JSP or JSF.9 . Typically. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. 9. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. DB connection opening. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. this method contains JDBC driver loading. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. etc. If the servlet does not implement the javax. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. Typically. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.

One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.9 . Here are the most important ones: 86 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.

String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.*. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.ccards. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. import java. This is done in server's (container's) server. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.java" file: package com.bank11. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.9 .SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.xml file. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. 87 .io.servlets. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.

getWriter(). IOException { resp. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.setContentType(“text/html”).println("</html>").servlet.println("<body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. import javax.*. // output your page here out.*.println("</body>"). } } 88 . out. out. out. PrintWriter out = resp. out.SERVLETS import javax. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("<title>Servlet</title>").init(config). out.println("<br>").servlet.println("<head>").http.9 .println("merge"). out. out.println("</head>").println("<html>").close(). out.

sun. Starting with version 3. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. After that.0 while the current (4. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. This solution is inefficient. the java. the javax. The JDBC 4. These drivers fall into four standard categories.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. 89 . The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .odbc.JDBC 10 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.JdbcOdbcDriver .0.sql package 2. 1997. Type 1.10 . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. as recognized by the DB industry.JDBC 10.sql package.1.jdbc. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. 10. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).

It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. 90 . Part Java. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 4. which in turn. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols.JDBC Type 2. Type 3. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products.10 . This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.

sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.sql.3 the java.Types java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.DriverManager java.sql.sql.0).Blob java.SQLPermission java.sql.Driver java.Clob java.SQLData java.sql.sql.sql.Date java.10 .sql.Array java.0 API.ResultSetMetaData java.SQLXML java.ResultSet java.Connection java.sql.sql.Timestamp java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.CallableStatement java.SQLWarning java.Statement java.sql.sql.sql.SQLInput java.Wrapper 91 .JDBC 10.Struct java.SQLDataException java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLOutput java.Time java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.SQLException java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification. java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.

SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.StatementEventListener 10. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.sql package.sql.10 . establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.SQLException java.SQLTimeoutException java.Statement java.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.StatementEvent javax.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.PreparedStatement java.SQLTransientException java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.NClob java.Connection java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql. querying the database 4.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql.sql. java.sql.ResultSet java. loading a database driver 2.Types java.sql. processing the result set 92 .0.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLInput java.sql.Clob java.Blob java.RowId java.sql.sql.

Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.SybDriver com.JDBC 10.OracleDriver sun.10 .DB2Driver oracle.ibm.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver.datastore.jdbc.net.odbc.borland.DataStoreDriver com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .db2.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name.sybase.jdbc.driver.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.

import java.Driver").util. 94 . but let's take it for granted: import java.10 . String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. String user = "root". Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.forName("org.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. user.printStackTrace().*. passwd). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. by using the connection URL.newInstance(). Since we just used it. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.sql.*.gjt. as specified by the driver vendor.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.mysql.bank11. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.getConnection(connURL. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. try { Class.mm.

Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.getConnection(connURL. "true").10 .put("autocommit". The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp. java. int resultSetConcurrency.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("create". we can use it for various purposes. String user. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.sql package. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.JDBC 10.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true"). 10. prp. Properties prp = new Properties().util. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Connection conn = DriverManager. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp).7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.

prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. Statement. respectively. namely. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.JDBC 10. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.10 .

The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.10 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..sql. stmt.. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .".9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. 10.executeUpdate(sqlString). Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .createStatement().JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.

The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. as the argument. not at 0) or the column name. and CallableStatement objects. 98 . and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. PreparedStatement. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql package.0 optional package.DataSource object.Time java.sql. There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a Connection object that will 103 . This interface is. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. basicly. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. mins.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.math. secs date.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql.10 . Connection pooling implementation -. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.sql.produces a standard Connection object 2. a factory for creating DB connections. It is part of the javax.math. Basic implementation -. time.

*. javax.*. javax. Distributed transaction implementation -.servlets. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().bank11.servlet.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.servlet. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. 3.getName()).getLogger(TestDataSource. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.10 . import import import import import import java.naming.*.sql.lookup("java:comp/env"). private DataSource theDataSource.class. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.sql.ccards.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. 104 .*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.http. javax. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". javax. java.*.*.io.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { .. } } 105 .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.10 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).

11 .jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.servlet. 11.jsp. The package javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The JSP specific interfaces.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . the servlet code is regenerated. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.JSP 11 .servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.2 the java.1 and is related to the 2. If the JSP is modified.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. namely javax. 11.5 Java Servlet specification.servlet.tagext.jsp and javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. The javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.servlet.jsp.JSP 11.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. The package javax.jsp.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). include and taglib. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".JSP • if the URL does not start with / . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. 111 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11... the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.11 .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.

11. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. In Tomcat. this code goes to inside the service() method.7 scripting elements 11. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7.7. 11.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7. Assigns it to available name or id.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.JSP 11.7.

11 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.the name of a bean instance. Attributes description: • • • name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . you must specify param. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.

<jsp:forward>.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 .the URL of the page. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.13 the forward standard action 114 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .only the "true" value is supported. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. flush .name of the property to be retrieved 11. same format as the <%@include> directive. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions.

servlet or to a static resource. depending on request.11 .. when we want to separate the application into different views.the type of object the plugin will execute. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.the name of a bean instance. archive="URIToArchive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . code="classFileName" . name="instanceName" . as well. It is used mainly. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used..a name for the Bean or applet instance. . You must include the ." .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . as this attribute has no default value. You must specify either bean or applet... 11.class extension in the name following code. If you do not supply a value. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .

in pixels. request .represents the servlet context. writes to the output stream to the client. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the amount of space.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.Object type and scope page 11. out . page . config .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. 1. session . pageContext .JspWriter type and scope page 7.represents server's response to the request. it has java. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . objects which are automaticly available. in pixels.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.PrintWriter. request .lang. Must be a small nonzero number.servlet. optional port number.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. The default value is 1.1" .16 scopes 1. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.it represents the buffered version of java. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the initial height and width. The value is a full URL.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. with a protocol name. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has javax.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. and domain name. response . based on the servlet API. application . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .11 .1.jsp.io.

userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.init().EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.beans.ccards. page . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. Object value) method 4. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 11. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. if (enrollBean.bank11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . application .11 . session .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 2. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 3.

11 . The SimpleBean class is declared public. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .JSP <% } else { enrollBean.Serializable { private String string. SimpleBean. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.examples. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. a float.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.io. 11. a software development and consulting company. private float number. private boolean flag.simple. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private int integer. The public constructor could have been omitted. private String colors[]. %> <jsp:forward page="response.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.string. private int list[].mapping. private String optional. an int.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.java: package com. a boolean and another String).devsphere.18. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.register().

} // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag.string = value.integer = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.integer.11 .colors.flag = value.number = value.colors = values.colors[index]. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.JSP this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } 119 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.number. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.

JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list = values.subBean.list. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.optional = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } } 120 .11 . String value) { this.subBean = value.optional.list[index]. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. int value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.colors[index] = value.list[index] = value.

examples.18.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .number = value.string = value. SimpleSubBean.number.string. private float number.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.11 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.devsphere.java: package com. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.io.mapping. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } } 11.Serializable { private String string.simple. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.

string subBean.number SimpleForm.JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .

{ "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "An option must be selected" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.java: package com. the list of optional properties. "One or more items must be selected" }. SimpleBeanResources.mapping. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. new String[] { 123 .integer]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.util. the processing order. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "One or more colors must be selected" }.number]".list]".11 . The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new int[] { 2. a float. error messages. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.123) }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.devsphere.18. a boolean and an int[]. new Float(0.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "abc" }.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.colors]".examples.simple. 3 } }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.list]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. There are three error messages.flag]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. The default values are defined for a String. new Boolean(true) }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. The list of optional properties has a single element. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.string]". the form's name and the processor's name. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.

{ "[FORM_NAME]".mapping.html" }.jsp" } }. The beanToForm() method of com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere. If necessary.util.devsphere. "optional". "SimpleForm.mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. The formToBean() method of com.18.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. } } 11. string values are converted to numbers.mapping. com. "list". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "colors".mapping.JSP "optional" } }. "SimpleProc.examples. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "flag". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. "subBean" } }. { "[PROC_NAME]". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).devsphere. For a better understanding of this example. new String[] { "string".devsphere.*.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. "number". "integer".11 .jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .logging. SimpleHndl.

if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. slashIndex+1) : "".getMethod(). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.11 . logger).getServletPath().File(formPath)). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getBeanResources(simpleBean.getTemplate(new java. int slashIndex = basePath. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.lastIndexOf('/').getRequestDispatcher(procPath). 125 .util. errorTable = HandlerUtils.getRealPath(formPath). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getString("[FORM_NAME]").substring(0.JSP = HandlerUtils.forward(request. response).trim().getString("[PROC_NAME]").io.formToBean(formData.removeUserErrors(errorTable).getClass()).equals("POST"). simpleBean.getDocument(). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.trim(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. formPath = application. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Process the valid data bean instance application.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.

append("{ ").mapping. errorTable.getSubBean().getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.JSP elements logger). document. } %> 11.11 .5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. SimpleProc. i < list.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].string = <%= simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). i++) 126 . if (list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.beanToForm(simpleBean.devsphere. // Send the form document document.number = <%= simpleBean.examples. for (int i = 0.length.length == 0) return "".send(out).simple.18. strbuf.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getString() %> <P> subBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.

11 . } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. ComplexHndl.toString(). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). The localization of the Complex*. } strbuf. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. return strbuf. ComplexForm. for (int i = 0.append(" ").toString(list[0]). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp files. } %> 11.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.length.mapping.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. strbuf.append(list[i]).simple.formToBean() call.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.length == 1) return Integer. A single call to FormUtils. In addition.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.toString(). strbuf.append("}").Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append(list[i]).append(" ").length == 0) return "". i++) { strbuf.examples. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. if (list.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append("}"). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. return strbuf. In addition.devsphere. i < list.18.util.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. Using the framework.append("{ "). strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. } strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.

i++) { int value = i+1. i++) { boolean checked = false. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. for (int i = 0. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". j < colors.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. i < colorValues. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i < integerLabels.length. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Option 3" }. "Blue" }.length. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. "blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 .length.getColors().11 . j++) if (colors[j]. "green". "Option 2". "Green".JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value. boolean checked = simpleBean.

String listItems[] = { "Item 1".getList(). %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. break. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.examples. "Item 2".11 .JSP break. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. boolean selected = false.getSubBean(). i < listItems.length. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.simple.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1. for (int i = 0. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. j < list.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .setSubBean( new com.mapping.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.length. "Item 3" }.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.SimpleSubBean()). } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0].

examples. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.simple. return message.util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getString() == null || simpleBean.getMethod(). } %> ComplexHndl. boolean isPostMethod = request.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. "subBean.examples.simple.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .devsphere.mapping.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.Hashtable errorTable.setString("abc"). 130 .devsphere.get(property).Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getSubBean(). if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".util.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.mapping.getString().jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.equals("POST").

setNumber(0.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).length() == 0 || flagValue.setFlag(flagValue != null). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "An option must be selected"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getParameter("flag"). "string". if (flagValue. "Must be filled").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. else { simpleBean. "integer".floatValue()).getColors() == null || simpleBean. "number".equals("false")) flagValue = null. setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number". setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0.123f). "Must be filled"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be a number").length() != 0) simpleBean. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.length == 0) { 131 .trim(). } simpleBean.getParameter("number").getColors(). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.

"One or more colors must be selected"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).number"). "colors". //* subBean. 132 . "Must be } //* subBean. "list".getList(). "subBean.getString().setList(new int[] { 2.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.11 .string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.setOptional("").length() != 0) simpleSubBean.floatValue()).setString(""). "subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. 3 }). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.number". } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.string".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean. "Must be filled").

errorTable.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.11 .BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. message). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. simpleBean.JSP filled"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. simpleBean.setNumber(0. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. } } else { simpleBean.number".helpers. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.util.simple.put(property. String property.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. 3 }). "subBean.setString(""). "Must be a number").setString("abc").initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. simpleBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. simpleSubBean. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".properties or web. } %> 11.devsphere. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. simpleBean.18.mapping. The com.xml: SimpleHndl.examples.helpers.setList(new int[] { 2.\ 133 .mapping.devsphere.setOptional("").jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.code=com.devsphere.Hashtable errorTable. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setFlag(true). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.jsp.SimpleBean.123f).7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.

SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. 11.simple.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.helpers. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.11 . You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.properties (or web.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. A servlet can be made bean-independent. a servlet is identified with its class.devsphere.code=com. If you have another bean-form pair. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.mapping. In many cases.examples.helpers.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.host.devsphere. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.properties: AnotherHndl.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.devsphere.mapping. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.18. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .host.examples.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.another. you could add a few other lines to servlets.company.mapping.host. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.AnotherBean.devsphere.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.

JSP 135 .11 .

1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. like input fields. 12. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. buttons. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. Version 2. which loads the appropriate view template. Version 2. 2.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. builds a component tree.0.JAVASERVER FACES 12. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.12 . and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. processes events. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. This technology includes: 1.javaserver faces 12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0 supersedes version 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.

As of version 1. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.2 of the JFS specification.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.12 .3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.javaserver faces 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. 12.

Common formatting techniques. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. such as alternating row colors. see the column tag documentation. For more information about columns. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . 12.4.12 . columns and rows. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. respectively. footers. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.

checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.12 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. your options include using plain HTML forms.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.

Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. 12." /> 12. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.</span> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. red for error.5.

you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. 12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. For example.5.12 .

MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Any component that receives user input.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. The body content of this tag must be empty. but only if the new input is validated successfully.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.mycompany. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.5. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. 12.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. validateLength. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. can publish value change events.customer.javaserver faces 12. Without this JavaScript event. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.

jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. for each locale you wish to support. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If you have not specified a default locale. myJSFapp 143 .12 .6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.mycompany.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.5.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. Example: welcome_en.javaserver faces 12. including images and styles. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.mycompany. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.

12 . JSP pages. static resources.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.javaserver faces /ant build.contains libraries required by the application. and so on.html. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml web. Create JSP pages 2. It has a deployment descriptor.jar faces-config.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. custom tag libraries. jsf-api.jar – files included in the /lib directory. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.jar jsf-api. Create properties files 144 . A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create managed beans 4.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .xml – the JSF configuration file. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.exadel. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.jar.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. mandatory for any JSF application web. Define navigation rules 3.

The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp is greeting. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. we can create a navigation rule.12 .7.jsp to greeting. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp and greeting. Create an index. 12. As a diagram.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. You only need to create the JSP files. Compile the application 8. Deploy and run the application 12. Now that we have the two JSP pages. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp.xml file.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. The directory structure already exists.7. In our application. we just want to go from inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. And that's all there is to this.jsp file 7. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. You just need to create its contents.javaserver faces 5. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.

java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.PersonBean. the second part of faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.3.7.7.xml file should look like this: 146 . of course. we will create a PersonBean.7.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. You can easily create more complex ones.1 PersonBean. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3 faces-config. a very simple navigation rule. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.xml Your final faces-config. To read more about navigation rules.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.javaserver faces This is.7. myJFSapp.xml Now. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.) 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. This class is straight-forward. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.12 . 12. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. 12.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. public class PersonBean { String personName.3. Inside this myJFSapp folder.java file.3. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. The next line is the full class name. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.

4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. 12.properties file in the bundle folder.sun.sun.12 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. Inc.4.1 messages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.1 inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1//EN" "http://java.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. 12.7.sun.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. 12.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.7.7.

bundle. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. <h:inputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.12 .

12 .bundle. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. The first three lines are identical to our first page.7.6 creating the index.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.xml file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.</h3> tags.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Create the index.. name! 12. The second line will access a Java bean. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.javaserver faces Line 1. Creates an HTML input text box. That's how JSF knows where to go next. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.7.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.5. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.2 greeting. specifically the bean attribute personName.greeting_text}" />.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Having an index.. Line 6.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . Lines 3-5.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. and also print its contents on the page. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. 12.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Line 2. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.sun.jsp page.

jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. might possibly be different). launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. we need to deploy it.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.jsf and not . which asks an user for an ID and password. 12. 12.javaserver faces Now.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. 12. 12.html .7.sourceforge.12 .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.8. you'll notice the file suffix is .jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.7. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). and forwards the user to a success or error page. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. This is a "login" application.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 150 . Your setup. When Tomcat is done loading.7.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.xml file for the application *. because in the web. This is used here.jsp. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. Of course. We are almost done with this example.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). though.xml file.9 Running Next.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. verifies the information. To build the application run the build. To do this.

in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). click Yes through messages that appear. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click Add Folder. Select the Amateras node. in the Add JSF Support page. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 10.WEB-INF 151 ... in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the wizard that appears. click Next d. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.. and to add JSF libraries to the project.xml Editor (see faces-config. from the menubar select File/New/Other. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog..12 . select the Source tab. 2. 7. Enter project name.. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click Next. 1. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. c. and set up folders for a web application. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. click Finish 4.. Select Java Project. 6.src | +-. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.. The New Project wizard appears. see Installing & Uninstalling. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.webroot | +-. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. 12. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 3. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. name the folder pages.8. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. name the folder webroot 5. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. say. a. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. 9. make sure all checkboxes are checked. click Next. jsf-login. your mileage may vary.

for name enter mgr.xml Editor. } 4. 2.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. Click Finish. We then configure it to be a managed bean. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. private String _pwd = "".javaserver faces | | | +-. } return action. if ( _uid.8. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. The New Java Class wizard appears. The faces-config.xml editor opens. c. for class enter login. else action = "loginFail". 3.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Managed Bean.12 .pages 12. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". input widgets appear d.lib | +-. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. from its context menu select New/Class. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. click Add. in the Name field enter LoginManager. In the Package field. In Package Explorer select the src folder.xml. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". for scope select 152 . The Java code editor opens. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. 1. b. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.java package login.LoginManager. enter login. a.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.

for File name enter index. </body> Please try 153 .jsp). so we create them first. again.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Then we create login. success. but in webroot/pages. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp). 1. the New File wizard appears. then close the editor 12. enter the following code. save the file and close the editor. click Finish. Enter the following code: <!-.webroot/pages/error. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.javaserver faces session.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. Enter the following code: <!-. Create success.webroot/index.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index.8.jsp and error. Create index. b.jsp is placed directly in webroot. <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. the JSP Editor opens.jsp. e.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from the menubar select File/Save. c.jsp.12 . index. but in webroot/pages. All pages except login.webroot/pages/success.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp: a. from its context menu select New/File. in Package Explorer select webroot. Create error. and 3 content pages (login.

from its context menu select New/Other. and uses them for code completion as well. etc.. g. <%@ page contentType="text/html. enter jsf-login e. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. (See Show View Dialog) f. Open the JSF palette. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. Create login. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. To see this in action.12 . in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. now we want to add attributes to this element.sun.sun. and dock it along the right. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.javaserver faces </html> 4.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. for File name enter login. and the JSP Editor can help with code.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.completion.. a code-completion window pops up. place your cursor in one of these lines. 154 .jsp: a. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.jsp. with the following template code. the New wizard appears. b. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. click Finish. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and choose default for Template. d. click Next c. as shown below.

javaserver faces h. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. i.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . complete the expression with the closing { k.sun. this inserts value="" at the cursor. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. with bean properties available in mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. a code-completion window pops up.loginAction} The final code. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".) j. set its value to Login.. enter #{mgr.12 .sun. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. and hit Enter. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. with the barest presentational formatting. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.password}" l.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. insert another <h:inputText> element. insert a <h:commandButton> element.

This is shown below. 2. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. this inserts a page icon into the editor. 1.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Select the Navigation tab 3.xml. Open faces-config.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.12 . click on Page.8. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. using a FacesIDE editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. then click inside the editor window. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. 156 .xml Editor.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.

then click first on the icon for login. Its properties appear in the Properties view. notice that the warning triangle disappears. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. 6.jsp 4.jsp. This is shown below: 157 . and set them to /pages/login.12 . in the Properties view. select Navigation Case. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. and is represented by an arrow. /pages/success. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. 5.jsp.jsp.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp. change the value of path to /index. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp and then on the icon for success. from the palette at left. add 3 more pages.jsp and /pages/error.

scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. 1. Once deployed browse to index.8.xml Here we edit web. so uncomment it. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.jsp.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. The application is now complete. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). Similarly add a forward-action from login.xml.jsp to error. open web. We want virtual path-based mapping. 12. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. any other id/password should send you to the error page. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. since we have such a trivial application. and you should be sent to the success page.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.12 . and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and extension-based mapping is turned on. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.javaserver faces 7. all we need do in web.jsp.6 Editing web. As it turns out. or leave it as-is. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web.xml for the specifics of our application.

faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.javaserver faces 12.faces.html javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 . and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.el javax. open its Manager application in a browser. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.12 .lifecycle javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.model javax. For a given factory class name. Click on its link to launch the application.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces.validator javax.render javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.webapp 12. the Manager application should reload.context javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. click Deploy 3. as file:///..component.faces.faces.component javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. that factory is used.faces.faces.8.10 the javax.faces.. scroll down to Deploy.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.application javax. 12. start Tomcat. for Context path enter /jsf-login.convert javax.faces..0 1.faces.faces javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.event javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.faces.

represents a single validation (or other) message. 12.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. with the last one taking precedence.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.Severity . FacesMessage . FacesMessage. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. ViewHandler . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . StateManager . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. those factories are used. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. ViewHandlerWrapper . handling events and input validation.11 the javax. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. with the last one taking precedence.faces. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . ApplicationFactory . StateManagerWrapper . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. defining page navigation. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. If none of the above steps yield a match. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.12 .

extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. NamingContainer . when activated by the user. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . EditableValueHolder . StateHolder . a menu item. String. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. • • 161 . String) results in failure on postback. UIComponent . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. ContextCallBack .context. UIComponentBase . Here they are: • • UIColumn . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. ActionSource2 .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.12 the javax. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.restoreView(javax. UICommand .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".12 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. • ViewExpiredException . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.FacesContext. ValueHolder .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.faces.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. or a hyperlink. 12.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.

a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIMessage .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. This component has no rendering. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.html package 162 . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.faces. by storing it as the value property of the component. UISelectBoolean . UIInput .a UIComponent that has a value. The user can modify the selected value.component. that is displayed to the user.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. it is for display purposes only. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UIGraphic . UISelectItem .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UISelectOne .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIForm . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIParameter . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. Optionally.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.13 the java. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. The user can modify the selected values. UIPanel . identified by a clientId. UIViewRoot .javaserver faces • UIData . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UIMessages .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. The user cannot manipulate this component. UINamingContainer . it just serves as the root of the component tree.12 . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.

HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlPanelGroup . and renders the result. HtmlForm . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlColumn . On a redisplay.represents an HTML input element of type password. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.by default.represents an HTML img element. HtmlInputTextarea . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlMessage . HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlInputText .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlPanelGrid .faces.by default.faces. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlCommandButton .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type text. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. or not. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML label element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .renders child components in a table.12 . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.Message". optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlOutputLabel .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlDataTable . HtmlOutputText .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlMessages . HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.

represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneRadio . It is passed to. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.14 the java. • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. In particular. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. HtmlSelectOneListbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. FacesContextFactory .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.javaserver faces property.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. ResponseWriterWrapper . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. ResponseStream . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing a single available option at a time.faces.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.15 the java. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.12 . • • • • • • 12.convert package 164 . showing a single available option at a time. ResponseWriter .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectManyMenu . FacesContext .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectManyListbox . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.

represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.javaserver faces 12. PropertyResolver .faces. 12. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. ValueBinding .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. • • • • 165 .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.12 .15.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.16 the java. Classes: MethodBinding . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.

an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. ValueChangeListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .faces.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ReferenceSyntaxException . PhaseId . FacesEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. 166 .AbortProcessingException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ValueChangeEvent . • • • • • One exception . MethodNotFoundException . and event implementation classes. Interfaces: ActionListener . PhaseEvent . PhaseListener .17 the java.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. FacesListener .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12. PropertyNotFoundException .12 .

ListDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.faces.19 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. DataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel .18 the java.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .20 the java.javaserver faces 12. SelectItemGroup .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. DataModelEvent . Renderer .faces. ResultSetDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ResultDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. 12.12 . • • • • • • • • • 12.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". SelectItem .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ScalarDataModel .

as well. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. • • 12. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .faces.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. Typically. The package contains an exception. including a standard servlet. together.22 the java. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.faces. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. ResponseStateManager . LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. • RenderKit . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). and concrete validator implementation classes. AttributeTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags.21 the java.validator package Interface defining the validator model.12 . ConverterTag . 12.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. base classes for JSP custom component tags. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. RenderKitFactory .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. and/or user Locale.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. markup language.

javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. FacetTag . which has several implications. 12.12 . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. but basically. the controller is the 169 . you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. In MVC. Likewise. that need to process their tag bodies. servlets. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. that request is passed to the container.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. ValidatorTag .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When the model is updated. the controller sends a message to the view. the process includes a few more components or pages. the controller sends a message to the model. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the life cycle is more complicated. UIComponentBodyTag . related to a UIComponent.a base class for all JSP custom actions. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. telling the view to update its presentation. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When a web server receives a request.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. • • • • • FacesServlet . User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. UIComponentTag . the JSF life cycle does not apply. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. When using JSF. When the user takes some action with the presentation. which passes the request to the page class. Also. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. or some other web technology. In JSF.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. or when an exception occurs. telling the model to update its data.

• Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. or from request headers. the JSF implementation must create the view. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the conversion occurs in this phase. 170 . • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. such as components that create HTML input fields. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. In addition. These objects update their state with the data values. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. For a JSF-enabled application. It updates only the UI components with the new data.javaserver faces JSF implementation. and a piece of data failed validation. and what happens during the processing and response. not every request will flow through all six phases. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. converting a String to a Date object). if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. However. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. from cookies sent as part of the request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. it creates UI objects for each view component. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. Data can come from input fields in a web form. If this is a subsequent request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. and the response is sent to the client. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. Data for some components. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. • Invoke Application: During this phase. depending on the request. In addition. The components are stored in a component tree. If this is the client’s first visit to a page.12 . the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. As with the previous phase. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if errors occur during any of the phases. skipping any remaining phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 . For example. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. Also. 171 .javaserver faces In the above figure.

for example.COM. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. In addition. When using almost any computer program or system.2. in turn. such as addresses. when you use an electronic mail system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. you supply it the name of the object.5). names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. 172 . A file system maps a filename (for example. The DNS entry Wiz. you must supply its name.COM.48. To access a file in the computer."). c:\bin\autoexec. DNS. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. /usr/hello. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. It enables applications to access different. and NIS(YP).bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. 13.13 . naming and directory services using a common API. names a file hello in the file directory usr. which is located in the root of the file system. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").1 names To look up an object in a naming system. or objects typically used by computer programs. such as LDAP. you are always naming one object or another. NDS.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.Wiz. The UNIX pathname. For example. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. identifiers.JNDI 13 . such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. 13.9. Using JNDI.JNDI 13. possibly multiple. For example.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. Thus the DNS name sales.sun. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. For example. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.

Using the reference.2. is accessed using a file reference.13 . in the an LDAP entry o=sun."). and listing bound names.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. Every context has an associated naming convention. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. That is. 13. a file name is bound to a file. some objects cannot be stored directly. such as COM. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. Instead. 13. For example. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. on the other hand. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. a DNS domain. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.2. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. is a context. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. In another example. o=Sun. that is. for example. For example. unbinding names. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. its flight plan. such as its print server name and printing protocol. is a context. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. and its flight number and departure time. they must be stored by reference. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. 173 . The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). relative to the entry o=Sun. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. delimited by the comma character (".c=us. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. is relative to c=us. A file object. A printer object. For example. while the object itself might contain more state information. that is. A reference is information about how to access an object. Typically. For simplicity.COM. Finally.2. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. which in turn. a file directory. A printer object reference. 13. For example. By contrast. in a file directory /usr/bin. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. such as c=us. also called a file handle. and fuel and instrument status. might contain the state of the printer. in the UNIX file system is a context. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For example.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. in the DNS domain Sun. such as /usr. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. for example. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. an LDAP entry.

identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. a person. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. The computer's directory service is much more powerful.3. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. to represent a printer. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. one context can be viewed. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. and computer account information. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. For example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. For example. For example. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. 13. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. two different computer 174 . the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. to some extent. For example. because we can. An example is the telephone company's directory service. various telephone numbers. For example. postal mail address. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. 13. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. or a network. and color. programs.13 . resolution. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. and even the computer itself and other computers. a computer. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. for example.2.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. a name is unique 13. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. And it kind of makes sense. A directory object can be used.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. however. Thus. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes.

2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. for example. 13. an organization object. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. 13. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. such as those based on the LDAP.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. the ability to access directory services will become essential. When you search.com". 13. When directory objects are arranged in this way.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. 13. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.50".13 . called a directory information tree (DIT). might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The email address. By using a directory service. removing. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. for example. printers. 13. many directories.smith@somewhere. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. networks. Similarly. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. The query is called a search filter. Within the DIT. that is. For example. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. such as that relating to machines. such as the file and print services. A Java mail client program. can use the directory in the traditional way.3. and users. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.3. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.4. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. adding.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. Many examples of directory services are possible. like any other program running on the network. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. 175 .113. for example. "mail" is the attribute identifier.3. support the notion of searches. Alternatively. For example. The service is accessed through its own interface.

and even the network.5. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.event javax. 13. v1.1 and Java 2 SDK.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.naming javax.ldap 176 . v1.3 and later releases. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.directory javax. For example.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.5.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). that is to store and retrieve Java objects. It extends the v1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. v1. Thus a variety of directories--new. The Java 2 SDK.naming. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.4.1 and the Java 2 SDK.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. 13. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. emerging.naming. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.13 . To use the JNDI. For example. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.naming.2. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.2. more coherent and manageable.

String name. In this case.lookup("treekiller").JNDI • javax. comparing components. Furthermore. 13.lang. 13. and it returns the object bound to that name.6 the naming package The javax. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. binding/unbinding. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. 13. A java. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. for some objects in the directory.print(report). that is.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .naming package defines a Context interface.naming. composing them. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. For example.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. For the methods in the Context interface. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. The overloads that accept java.13 .4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.1 context The javax. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.spi 13. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. list() is similar to listBindings(). A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.6.String name argument represents a composite name. and the object itself. However.lang. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. 13.lang. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . the name of the object's class.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.6. which is the core interface for looking up.6.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. and so on. a 177 . renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.6. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. printer. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.

This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 13. InitialContext.6. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. replace. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. For example. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.7.naming. 13.7 directory package The javax. There are no absolute roots.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.7. 178 . DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. In the simplest and most common form of usage. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. 13. You can add. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. 13. Otherwise. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. 13. they should catch NamingException.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.13 . the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.6. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. Once you have an initial context.directory package extends the javax.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.

A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.naming. or unsolicited notifications.directory package. In fact. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. For example.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers." and those that do not. 13. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. These operations are called "extended" operations.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .ldap package at all.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. 13.naming.8 event package The javax. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . such as "object changed. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. such as "object added. controls. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.9 LDAP package The javax.9. For example. and vice versa.9. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.naming." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. Once registered. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.9. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.13 . the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. To receive event notifications. 13. that is. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. 13. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. called controls .naming.naming. such as information about the object before and after the change.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.JNDI 13.

10 service provider package The javax.2 java object support The javax.spi package supports implementors of Context.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.13 . That is. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory.Context. implementors of Context. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.10. and receiving response controls. 180 .naming package. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. In the process of completing an operation. For example.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. sending request controls. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.1 plug-In architecture The javax. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.11. 13. import javax.10.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. create a file named Lookup. It uses a service provider for the file system.java.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.9.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. 13. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.naming. This support is provided in the form of state factories.10. 13. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.naming.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.

jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.fscontext.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. create an initial context. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11.java). env.lookup(name).5 compiling the program Next.NamingException. then the JNDI classes are already included. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).lookup() to look up an object. } catch (NamingException e) { System.11. you must have access to the JNDI classes.jar as an installed extension.sun.naming. using the capitalization shown. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. To compile to program.err. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } 13. Otherwise.put(Context. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.11.lookup(name). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.InitialContext.3.13 . If you are still having problems. For this reason.RefFSContextFactory"). // Print it System.out.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). 181 . "com. 13. If the compilation succeeds. If the compilation fails.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.11. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.JNDI import javax. import javax.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). v1. Object obj = ctx. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. 13.naming.3 looking up an Object Next. as follows. use Context. 13.jndi.

12.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. include the directory that contains your Lookup. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.3.DirContext. env. v1.naming.directory. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.NamingException.Attributes.sun.put(Context. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.naming.bat If you supply a file directory.Context. create an initial directory context. Finally. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.12.11. you need access to the JNDI classes. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().naming.java.jndi.13 . It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.directory. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. To run the program.directory packages.PROVIDER_URL.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.naming. javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.jndi. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.jar and providerutil. 13. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.ldap.directory.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. supply the name of a file in your file system.fscontext.jar).RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.naming and javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. 13.LdapCtxFactory"). env. 182 . The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming. import import import import import javax.JNDI 13. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. "com.sun.6 running the program To run the program. javax. and your example class (Lookup. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.class).naming. javax. the file system service provider.InitialDirContext. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").put(Context. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. create a file named Getattr. javax. then you will see something like the following.

} catch (NamingException e) { System. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.out.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.get("sn"). Similar to the naming example.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. 13.6 compiling the program Next. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. using the capitalization shown.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. For this reason. If you are still having problems. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.java).4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.get()).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.12.err. As with the naming example. Attributes.get(). 183 . The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. } 13.13 . If the compilation fails. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. 13. If the compilation succeeds.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. compile the source file using the Java compiler.get() and then from that attribute get its value.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. ou=People").12. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.println("sn: " + attrs.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.get() on it to get its value: attrs.12. ou=People"). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. For now. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get("sn"). 13. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.

then these classes are already included. ou=People". If you are using the Java 2 SDK. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.jar and providerutil. Once it has the attributes.3. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.12.JNDI 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").PROVIDER_URL. With this configuration. If you have any trouble running this example. env.13 . it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.put(Context. then see the Common Problems lesson.7 running the program As with the naming example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. v1.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.jar). 184 .class. Getattr.

The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . As the name queue suggests. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. Enterprise Edition.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. Here. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).14 . unless it has established a durable 185 .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS queue .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. • 14.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS client .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS message . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.a JMS client that receives messages. JMS topic . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS consumer . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. In this model. JMS producer .

Using Java. In that case. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.jms. 14. On the receiving side.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.3 the JMS API programming model 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. 14.14 .4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. Depending on the type of message. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4. 186 . The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

14. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. In a J2EE application.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Before an application completes. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. Like the connection factory. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Depending on the connection type. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. 14. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.4. you must call the connection's start() method.4. For example. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). For example.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.createConnection(). Before your application can consume messages. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.14 . The JMS administrator creates these objects. and users discover them using JNDI. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). It receives messages sent to a destination. It is either a queue or a topic. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.close(). you call the stop() method.4. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. connection. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. you must close any connections that you have created.

and you can use it to receive messages. A message listener does. 14.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. a message listener object may be used.) When message delivery begins.receive(1000).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.start().createConsumer(myQueue). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. Message m = consumer. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. if it needs to reply to messages. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.createConsumer(myTopic). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. (Remember always to call the start() method. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). consumer. In the onMessage() method. you are likely to miss messages. usually expect a specific message type and format.setMessageListener(myListener). For example. Moreover. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. which contains one method. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.receive(). You use the Session.start(). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. For example. After you register the message listener.14 . connection. MessageConsumer consumer = session. however. onMessage(). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message m = consumer. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. it becomes active.4. After you have created a message consumer. 188 . This method is valid only if you are using a topic. This object implements the MessageListener interface. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.

bytes message. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. With an unidentified producer. from one application to another. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. message. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. After you have created a message producer. if you created an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer.send(message).setText(msg_text).createProducer(myTopic).send(myQueue. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.createTextMessage(). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.receive().14 . The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 14. stream message. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. to create and send a TextMessage. You must first create the messages. that is. anon_prod. For example. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. message). 3. A message has three main parts: 1. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. 189 . map message.createProducer(myQueue). At the consuming end. Here.createProducer(null). use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.4.send(message). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. MessageProducer producer = session.4. and object message).

meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.getText()). then delivers the messages. To create a transacted session. Before committing the transaction. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Here. 190 .8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. } else { // Handle error } 14. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. After you create a Connection object.14 . the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 0).println("Reading message: " + message. If the user selects transaction support. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.out.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). Sessions implement the Session interface. and message consumers to receive messages. use the following code: Session session = connection. Session.createSession(true. the first argument means that the session is transacted. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.createSession(false. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.

1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. server which provides an execution environment for containers.15 .transaction management can be complex.logging. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .0. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. component recovery scalability portability 191 .0.jar file into the application server. On the other side. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). improved performance security . The component lives inside a container. the container lives (in general) in an application server. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . message-driven beans The 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . bundled into a single unit. Version 1.DB interaction transactions . container which offers services to the component. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .consistent error handling framework .no developer coding.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. 15. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .object oriented representation of data in a DB. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.

as follows: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the home interface of the bean 3. called ejb-jar.15 . which is an xml file.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).xml 15. the remote interface of the bean 4. the deployment descriptor.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.

void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.javax. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.*. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.rmi. import.*. import java.RemoteException. import java. int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. While the Remote interface declares no methods.javax. The developer does not implement this interface. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. String lastName.ejb.RemoteException.rmi. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. RemoteException. import.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. } 193 . } 15.

jnp. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. "org. "localhost:1099"). getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context. how to create or find the bean 2.NamingContextFactory". getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.interfaces.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.PROVIDER_URL. if the client executes outside the container.put(Context. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. In the case of an web application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. prop. we need to know: 1. } 194 . how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. this can be done (for example) through SSL. creating them for the client application. prop. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).

PortableRemoteObject class and.15 .class).rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.. MyBeanHome. This is done through the javax.rmi. the client has a stub). in fact.rmi. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. that is part of CORBA standards. Problem is. do not have the concept of casting. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. but for generic languages. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). using the narrow() method.lookup("MyBean"). 195 . the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. • if the client executes outside the container. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.Remote interface). Some languages.e. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.narrow(homeRef. and this means that there are some limitations. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. Why? For EJB. do implements the java. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. to the appropriate type. in fact.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. more specifically. IIOP has not been designed for Java.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.

SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.15 .ccards. String lastName.ejb. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. we concentrate now on the bean class itself..create().7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. call business methods on the bean myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.. "Vasile".remove().. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean..bank11. remove the bean instance myObject. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. int custId) { // method implementation .ejbeans. as well). 15.processEntry("Dumitrascu". import javax. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . 1102). public class MyBean implements javax.ejb.SessionContext. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.

15. 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. 15. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. namely stateful and stateless beans. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. the object is activated. that is. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 197 . public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. A stateless bean does not. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.15 .1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.

(Typically. is inside the bean class. At the end of the life cycle. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the client invokes the remove method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. 198 . Figure 15. for example. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.15 .2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. The ejbCreate method. or passivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the EJB container activates the bean.1 are invoked by the EJB container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. For example.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. 15. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. All other methods in Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and then moves it to the ready stage. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.

15 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. stored in a Database). The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. equals() 199 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. support for concurrent access 3. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.

Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. On the other side.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.lang. an instance of that bean is created.14.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.15 . 15. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. CreateException. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). in the same order. 200 . methods which have the same parameters. Read. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. as the parameters in the original create() method. all throwing RemoteException. Update and Delete.ccards. We can have more create() methods.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. state data is stored into data store (usually.bank11.

but in general. the client invokes the create method.14. it's business methods can be invoked. in BMP. On the first path. it is empty. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. but the developer returns null for CMP. All instances in the pool are identical. for BMP.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. After instantiation. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. 201 . actual SQL update code. Second. While in the pooled stage.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). a client can invoke the remove method. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.15 . On the second path. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. 15. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. After the EJB container creates the instance. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMPs. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.14.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. First. the programmer will create actual SQL code. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. 15.14. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). not null.

15. it does not automatically set the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. In the pooled state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. If the primary key is incorrect. With bean-managed persistence. 202 .15 .16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.getPrimaryKey(). In the pooled state.an application client. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the values of the instance variables are not needed. It acts as a JMS message listener.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. or a Web component . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. another enterprise bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . Therefore. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.

message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. max-beans-infree-pool. To ensure concurrency. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. Unlike a session or entity bean. 15. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. 15. the message will be redelivered. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. In several respects.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.16. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. The onMessage method may call helper methods.15 . message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a JMS API connection.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. but not asynchronously. an open database connection. If this element is set to more than one. When a message arrives. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. message-driven bean can be used. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. Previously. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.for example.16. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. If message processing is rolled back. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.16. 203 . For more information on this element see. To avoid tying up server resources.16.

ejb. and it must not // accept parameters. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. 15.16.. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). finalize{}. Obtain a new bean instance. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.}.Message MessageName) {.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. Note: These instances can be pooled. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . methods. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. public void onMessage(javax.16. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs..0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.} // onMessage() is required. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. Classes..jms. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.Message.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. 3..jms. or create a new one..0 specification. public void ejbRemove() {. // An EJB constructor is required. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. 2. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.16. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.15 .5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. 15. As with other EJB types. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.

whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. 15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.16.MessageListener. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.onMessage() for more information. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. 15. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.jms. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().This is not a client context. getRollbackOnly() . if the EJB throws a runtime exception). See javax. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.16. getUserTransaction(). The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.15 . or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . If any method throws such an exception. even in onMessage(). 15. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. For example. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. However. 15. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.

a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. as described in the EJB 2.16.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.16. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.xml.0 specification. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.0 specification.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. In either case. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. 15.15 . as required by the EJB 2.

jms. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. as described in the EJB 2. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.xml elements. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.0 specification. 15. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> ..17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. </message-driven> .xml deployment file. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.ejb20.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. 2. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. 207 .. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.message. the weblogic-ejb-jar.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. For each instance.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.

At the end of the life cycle. the home interface name 7. session specific elements 9. security 208 .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. the container calls the ejbRemove method. EJB class name 5. 15. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. entity specific elements 10. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.security issues. control descriptors . the remote interface name 8. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. environment properties 6. attributes . bean home name .15 .like transaction. a message-driven bean is never passivated.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. isolation level. access control entries . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.

bank11.bank11.ccards.lang.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.15 .bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ejb.ejb.ejb.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ejb.ccards.

lang..15 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.


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