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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. and sends it back to the client program.java platform.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. enterprise edition Figure 1. 5 . Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Figure 1.7 business components Business code.1 . The web tier. are not considered web components. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. like HTML pages. processes it (if necessary). processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. or finance. 1.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. like the client tier. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.2 Server communication 1. retail.

1. For example. 6 .java platform. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.1 . In addition. database systems. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.9. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Before a web. multithreading. and other legacy information systems.3 Web. Business and EIS Tiers 1. mainframe transaction processing. 1. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. and other complex low-level details. enterprise bean.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). or application client component can be executed. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. enterprise edition Figure 1.9 java EE Containers Normally.

transaction management.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.java platform. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. and remote connectivity. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. database connection resource pooling. 1.9. data persistence. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.4. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. For example. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. including services such as security.1 . The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. 7 .

1. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio.java platform. For example. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. When XML data is exchanged between parties. extensible. program files. text-based standard for representing data. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Applet container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. maps.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. develop. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text.10. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. video. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. test. Application clients and their container run on the client. XML data. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Application client container . Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.manages the execution of application client components. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.manages the execution of applets.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. 1. Web container . or for document-oriented web services.1 . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. 8 . The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.

enterprise edition 1.java platform. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. The description includes the name of the service. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. the location of the service.10. such as Universal Description. 1. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.1 . Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).10. 9 .5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. and ways to communicate with the service. 1.

these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. or if the server shuts down.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.java platform. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. you employ a single. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.1 . Although servlets can respond to any type of request. and XML) and JSP elements. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. or enterprise bean. the session bean and its data are gone. 1.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . enterprise edition Figure 1. standard set of tags. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. WML. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.11. If the client terminates.11. Commonly. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. When the client finishes executing. In Java EE 5. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. 1.11. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. or better customer support. better tools. No extra coding is needed.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system.ear extension. or component accordingly. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .1 . SAAJ. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. a module. JSP page. it is ready to be deployed. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. JTA. such as better performance. or a component. 15 . Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. At runtime. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. module. and JNDI 1. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. the application is ready to run.java platform. servlet. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. Once deployed on a local platform. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.

The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. enterprise edition Figure 1. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. for example. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .java platform. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. which contain servlet class files. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Together. GIF and HTML files. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. which contain all Java interfaces. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. classes. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Web modules. and a web application deployment descriptor.war (Web ARchive) extension. native libraries. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.jar extension. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. JSP files.jar extension. • • 16 . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. supporting class files.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. Application client modules. Resource adapter modules. such as caching directives.1 . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. and other documentation. For example.

.HTTP 2. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. as follows: 1.com/easy/http. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. The client sends a request message to the server. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). . we recommend www.2 . RFC 2616 (06/99). a blank line (CR/LF) 4.jmarshall. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.apps. The second (and last.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.. was the object of several RFCs. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.HTTP 2 . so far) version. The server answers with a response message. zero or more header lines 3. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.ietf. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. an initial line 2. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. check the official HTTP site – www..1. but they also have some common structural elements. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.w3. These messages may have different contents. 2.html). HEAD.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .org/rfc/rfc1945. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.org/Protocols . POST.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. namely HTTP 1.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model..

CONNECT 5. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.Posting a message to a bulletin board. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. POST 4.2 . Here is their list: 1.Annotation of existing resources. as well. PUT 8. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. TRACE Three other commands are listed.0). 18 . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.html HTTP/1.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.1 specification. in the HTTP 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. GET 2. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. GET /path/to/the/file/index. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. . HTTP/1. mailing list. HEAD 3. 2. but lack of support makes them obsolete. newsgroup. DELETE 6. OPTIONS 7.1.

separated by the character “&” or “.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. 2. or a record is subordinate to a database. (encoded as multipart/form-data).Extending a database through an append operation. like storing or updating data. while POST may involve anything. In this case. after the “?” character. to a data-handling process. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. . either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. or in the message body. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. 3.6 differences between GET and POST 1.” On the other side. . or ordering a product.HTTP or similar group of articles. such as the result of submitting a form. or sending E-mail 2. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.0 404 Not Found 2.Providing a block of data. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.8 the status code A three-digit integer. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.2 . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. When used for form data submission. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .

The HTTP 1. header name and header value.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. If an HTTP message includes a body. that is. In particular.the request succeeded. header values are. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 2.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . In a request. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. one (Host) is mandatory.the requested resource doesn't exist.1).2 .1 version specifies 46 of them. 2. 404 Not Found . A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. The most common use of the message body is in a response. Although the header names are not case sensitive. such as text/html or image/jpg. out of which. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). separated a semicolon. and the resulting resource (e. or otherwise can't run correctly. 500 Server Error . the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. while the HTTP 1. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.g. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. file or script output) is returned in the message body. and section 10 for HTTP 1. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. where the requested resource is returned to the client.1 only) . fails. none of them mandatory. 20 .0. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.an unexpected server error.0 version specifies 16 headers. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.

with subtype mpeg 2. parallel 3.info.apps. postscript 5. message.info. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.ro/path/file. Then. gif 6. with subtypes mixed. partial. application. video.0 From: someuser@yahoo. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . Here is the list of the seven types. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. alternative.0 200 OK Date: Fri. audio.uvt.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. text.org/rfc/rfc1521. with subtypes rfc822.HTTP 2.html HTTP/1. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). with subtypes jpeg.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. multipart. with subtype plain 2. digest.ietf. with subtypes octet-stream. RFC 1521 (www. image.html first open a socket to the host web.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. external-body 4. 21 .ro.uvt. 1. .2 .0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. with subtype basic 7.

HTTP . the server closes the socket.2 . 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.

A newer standard.w3. From 1999 on. Version 4.0 and was accepted in December 1997. 3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.blooberry.01) can be found at this address: http://www. The first official version – HTML 2. www.jmarshall.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. The XHTML 1. The latest version (XHTML 2.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.ietf. Mosaic. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.0 draft was released in 01. However. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.w3c.com/indexdot/html . All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.2 (3.htmlgoodies. HTML 3.com/tutors.0) dates from 08. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.3 . For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.99.0. Originally named Web Applications 1. Since it fits in a couple of pages.apps.org/rfc/rfc1866. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.com/easy/html . we can afford to have a look at this declaration.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. The first version of HTML. check the official HTML site – www. As a practical reference site use – www. a working draft for the next major revision. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. HTML describes how text. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).www. Other helpful sites .0.html) and was widely supported.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.html. It is a revision of 4.HTML 3 .0 .01.org/Markup . namely HTML 1.HTML 3. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. The newest version of HTML is 4.

-_:" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.

An example: <!-. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. VSAPCE are omitted. CONTROLS.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. BORDER.3 . Overall.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. ….acesta este un comentariu." (in hexadecimal) .0 contains an SGML declaration. 4. "&#x6C34. DYNSRC. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Check the address http://www. You get the point. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. like ALIGN.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. If you wonder what a character reference is. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Strict DTD. 3. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. “&quot”. This section deals with some of the most common elements. though.0 Transitional DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. HTML 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.w3. the specification of HTML 4. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. 3.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. HTML 4.the chinese character for water.01 specification. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. three DTDs (HTML 4. <><> --> 25 .

An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3 .4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. NAME. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3.ro/webmail/src/login.HTML 3. image.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.uvt. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc.info.3.5 tables 26 .

Usually. its rows.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is their description and attributes. columns. <TR>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . headers and cells are <TABLE>.3 . the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TH> and <TD>.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <THEAD>.

HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .

if specified. Main attributes: 29 .3 . "hidden". "file".maximum number of options visible to the user. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. SIZE .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . after a quotation mark . "GET" . specifies how data will be sent to the server.8 form related elements 3. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.sends the form values in a single transmission. "image". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "button". "reset". 3.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.required.8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". the browser appends the values to the URL. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. however. "checkbox". Example: http://web.uvt.8. Main attributes: • TYPE . "password".required.:.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. allows multiple selections from the choice list. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.?. specifies the parameter name.HTML • METHOD . "submit".required. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "text/plain" • • 3.info. "radio". NAME .the default value. • 3. may have the values GET or POST.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

java One example of command line compilation: 4. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. 4.java 2. but next time execution is much faster. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. javac -classpath . In terms of execution time. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. -g : generate all debugging info. jit From source to execution.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.JAVA PRIMER 4.. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The current version (as of 10.class file. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.) in 08.4 . Inc.0.java.class 3. Java source – a file with extension . Java bytecode – a file with extension . Example: Edit the file prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. a tool named Just In Time compiler.90. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.C:\TW\mySource.95. following the 1.3 java applications 31 .94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. The current version (as of 10.2 java the interpreter.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. the compilation process occurs. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. Early versions of Java were released in 12.2 version. The first time a class is loaded.JAVA PRIMER 4 .4. project started in 12.class file.class.95. To overcome this significant shortage.

or that it extends A).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. In general.4 . each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. Generally.4.4.jar file. or is derived from A. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. 4.java.4 object oriented concepts 4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). An example: 32 . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.

3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). In OO jargon. with the root the class Object. In fact. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. a class can have more than one method with the same name.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Double. 4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. 4.4.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.4 .4. a Java class can extend a single base class. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Boolean. Therefore. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Integer. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4.1 bit char . and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. called Object.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. namely: Byte. Float. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Character. Long. providing its own implementation. 33 . Therefore. Short. this is called method overloading.

the class is visible from any class.servlet. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.no access from outside the class itself protected . method .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. } declares an abstract class.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . 4. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .4 .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). A final: • • • variable .servlet. no templates..one which is defined at class level.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.http.one which is constant method . automatic garbage collection. 34 . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. Except for the "package" concept.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A final variable (method. rather than at class instance. inherited).does not have any subclasses.http. which extends the class javax.. class . anywhere abstract .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . • • • • no specifier . has the same value for all class instances. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.access from any class anywhere private .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.

Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. 4. 2. In Java. not at execution time.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. namely class Error and the class Exception. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Exception categories: 1. code or data errors .7.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. 4. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.7. as defined in the java. division by 0. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. programmer defined exceptions 4.JAVA PRIMER 4.like invalid cast.ThreadDeath.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. array index out of bounds. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7. 4. standard method exceptions 3.4 . java errors . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.

bank11. 4.by adding the key word throws.rmi java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.class file.util.awt .sql. string analyzers.support for data collections. they have to be unique inside a package. the class (the . 4.security 36 .servlets. In the example above. followed by the import statements. import javax. 4. As a general rule.geom .io java. catch.java. All other packages must be explicitly imported.event ..8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.awt. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.support for user interface java. The package containing the standard classes is java.util.Properties.. finally construct.util .lang (automatically available).9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.support for event handling java. don't have to import java.default. date and time info java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.support for java archives creation java. therefore.sql java. the default package is used). ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .awt.zip . import. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.lang . the package statement is the first one in a java source file. An example: package com.this can be done by providing a try.*.net java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. .ccards.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.1 Package names The default package has no name.4 .8.nio java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).

text javax.accessibility javax. All variables (actually. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.4 .swing .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.event . it must be declared as abstract.support for event handling 4.swing. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. 37 . static and final.

A JavaScript statement like this: document. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. and . This is not always what we want.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.depending on the browser . as JavaScript. other 38 .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.JAVASCRIPT 5.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.HTML authors are normally not programmers. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .5 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. 5. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. However. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . like QtScript or ActionScript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . The origins of this language date back to 1995. then LiveScript and finally.

you can write a JavaScript in an external file. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.3. without having to write the same script on every page. To simplify this. </script> </body> 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. 5. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . </script> </head> 5.. go in the head section. point to the .js file extension.5 . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.. 39 . When you place a script in the head section. or when an event is triggered..3.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript...3.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. Save the external JavaScript file with a .

2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". switch().javaScript 5.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". catch constructs.4...in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.In statement The for. The code in the body of the for . 5..4. 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.4. continue. for().....5. 5. in and the try ..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5... namely – if .. while() it is worth mentioning the for . in loop is executed once for each element/property. else.5 .1 JavaScript for. break. while()..4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.

.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x... so you don't lose your audience.5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). they often leave the Web page.5 .. When users see errors. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". } </script> </body> </html> 5.3 try.catch statement The try. mycars[2] = "BMW". This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. an array element. mycars[1] = "Volvo". The try block contains the code to be run. for (x in mycars) { document... or a property of an object. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .catch statement (available in IE5+.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.0. var mycars = new Array(). There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Mozilla 1. Example Using for.. mycars[0] = "Saab".5.

When an alert box pops up. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. Also.\n\n".\n\n". 5.description + "\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err.5 .7.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. alert(txt). txt+="Click OK to continue.7 popup boxes 5. Syntax: 42 .6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Syntax: prompt("sometext". A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .7. Now. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.7.8. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "OK". the box returns null. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.js file).. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns true.5 . in the <head> section. the box returns false. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up."defaultvalue") 5.8 functions 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. When a prompt box pops up.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . in the example above had not been written within a function.

functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.javaScript function functionname(var1.9 javaScript objects 5. var2. etc are variables or values passed into the function.8..2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. document. 5. 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. and will be stored in the variable called product.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".length). 5..9. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.write(txt.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above..9.var2.varX) { some code } var1. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. So. and how they are used.5 .

9. The other class are the language specific objects. which will be specified in the next section. </script> 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". 45 .javaScript 5.5 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.toUpperCase()).write(str.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.

11. as well).com/jsref/default. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .w3schools. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. Even this Document itself is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. N: Netscape. or when the user interacts with a Web page. check the site http://www. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. which are called Objects. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Properties FF: Firefox. When an event message has been triggered. For example. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.5 .1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. At its most basic level. every Image on the page is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Link on the page is an Object. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.asp 5.

javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.11. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser. as a four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

according to local time. according to local time.11. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Properties FF: Firefox. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).5 . according to universal time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to Greenwich time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.

var myNum=new Number(number).5 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 .5 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 3 4 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .

11.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 .5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

434) Returns PI (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. Properties FF: Firefox. 0. 2.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.javaScript 5.11. 1. 0.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 2.y) min(x. N: Netscape.y) pow(x.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.5 .6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 0. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 3.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.

write(personObj.12. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. All persons have these properties. sleep(). and eyecolor as follows: personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. etc. personObj. work().12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. age. personObj.eyecolor="blue".you can give it properties named firstname.5 .javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. The persons' properties include name.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname).lastname="Doe". document. personObj.age=30. age. eye color. Properties are the values associated with the object.lastname="Doe". lastname. personObj. Objects also have methods. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. etc.firstname="John". weight.firstname="John". personObj. play().12. 53 .12.eyecolor="blue". skin tone. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. The persons' methods could be eat(). Assume that the personObj already exists . You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. 5.age=50. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods. height.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().

propertyName. myMother=new person("Sally". This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.firstname=firstname."Doe".lastname=lastname.lastname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.eyecolor=eyecolor. this.newlastname=newlastname.age. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). like this: myFather=new person("John". } Notice that the template is just a function. Once you have the template.5 .age=age.48. this."Rally".javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.eyecolor=eyecolor.firstname=firstname. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eat=eat. 5. You can also add some methods to the person object. 54 . this.eyecolor) { this. this.50.eyecolor) { this.lastname."green"). Inside the function you need to assign things to this."blue"). this. this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.lastname=new_lastname.lastname=lastname.12.age.age=age. you can create new instances of the object. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.

0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. So. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. We define the events in the HTML tags. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.".newlastname("Doe").. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .5 . like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. For example. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. 5. now you can write: myMother.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person..

onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. 5. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.13. the submit should be cancelled. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. The name is then stored in a cookie.w3schools. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. If the field values are not accepted. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.13. For example. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.2 onFocus.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13.5 .4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .

Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The W3C 58 . Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.6 ..defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. and style of a document. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.HTML DOM 6. SVG. particularly those used in Web browsers. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . Right now (oct. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. However. or WebAPI being among them. CSS. XML. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). 2010). The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. HTML.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. 6.g. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. As of January 2008. structure.Html DOM 6 . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. By October 1998. In other words. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. the Document Object Model activity is closed.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.

including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. 6. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Requirements. each of which contains required and optional modules. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. 5.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). DOM Level 3 XPath. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. 2. and 6.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. which further enhances the DOM 6. Level 2. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. a new DOM Core specification. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. As of 2005. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 Core. To claim to support a level. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. Level 1. 3.6 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Validation. 4.

Konqueror. 6. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. along with their containing text and attributes. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.x and Netscape 4. All HTML elements. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. support multiple browsers. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.x were still widely used in 2000. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. that is. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. interoperability problems were numerous.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. The Window object represents a browser window. In order to be cross-browser compatible. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. By 2005.6 .5 web browsers implementation Earlier. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. and Safari. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. can be accessed through the 60 . Opera.

and new elements can be created. JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript.Html DOM DOM. It can be used by any programming language like Java. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 .

62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree. The <head> node holds a <title> node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. 6. <head> and <body>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.8.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.Html DOM 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. everything in an HTML document is a node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".9. The <html> node has two child nodes. However. the element node <title>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.6 .8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.

and sibling are used to describe the relationships. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. except the root. The terms parent. the top node is called the root Every node. and the connections between them.getElementsByTagName("p"). • • • • • In a node tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. using the node relationships.9.6 . children. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. and new elements can be created. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By using the getElementById() method 2. child.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.getElementById('main').getElementsByTagName("p"). The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).2 node parents.9. 63 . Parent nodes have children. Their contents can be modified or deleted.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. By navigating the node tree. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.

document.6 . • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. } 6.write("<br />").write(x[i].9. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.i++) { document.Html DOM for (i=0.length. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x. each node is an object.

Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.5 example .Html DOM 6.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.getElementById("intro"). The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . 6. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.firstChild.6 .nodeValue. txt=x.9.

it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. For elements. frames. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . objects and images. including window.

Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Fires when an element is activated. During the event flow. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.3.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. 6. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. say "click". Mozilla. When the user clicks on the inner element.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). DOMNodeInserted. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. for instance. Also. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. 67 . also supports these methods.6 . Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and then bubbled up. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. through a mouse click or a keypress. Safari. as of version 1.

Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. including information about target element. preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area.Html DOM 6. Unfortunately.6 . Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. mouse button pressed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse position. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). key pressed. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. etc. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. etc. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. but also to save resources.AJAX 7. menus. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. For example. For improving sharing of resources. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 69 .7 . but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. dynamic website. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. using web services or Php scripts. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.AJAX 7 . It is not a technology in itself. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 7. fields of forms. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. choices of user. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7. crunching numbers. before the whole page was sent within the network. The server does some processing — retrieving data.

but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. what’s the user doing? That’s right. but the opposite is true. waiting around for the server to do something. While the server is doing its thing. Once an interface is loaded. Instead of loading a web page. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around. at the start of the session. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. Obviously. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. waiting. 70 . the user waits some more.7 . So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.

loading additional interface code. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.7 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

send: send a request to the server. url. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. 2: request received. To get data on the server.for a simple text. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.200 is ok.for a Xml file or . .url: the location of the file 72 . . 404 if the page is not found . These events are user actions.responseText . 1: connection established. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.returned by the server . GET or POST . DOM's method allows to extract data.mode: type of request.7 . 4: finished. 7.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. thanks to its methods and attributes.holds a Xml loaded file. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.open: create a connection.holds loaded data as a string of characters. 3: answer in process.responseXml . It allows the interaction with the servers.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". they call functions associated to elements of the web page. and in this purpose. boolean) .AJAX 7. onreadystatechange . This object provides two methods: . .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.

onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.6 building a request. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.open('GET'. for browser compatibility.AJAX . .ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.xul. true for asynchronous. OK } else { // wait. 'http://www. the data to send to the server.fr/somefile.send: with POST only. 73 .boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . http_request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . URL of the document.XMLHTTP").. but two options must be tried.open: command GET or POST. http_request.7 .xml'. true). Safari.readyState == 4) { // received.null for a GET command 7. The request below reads a document on the server. } else if (window.send(null). request..XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. if (request. // Firefox.. . if (window..

XMLHTTP).xml".responseXML. }. true).AJAX 7.getElementsByTagName('root'). req.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.dyn=""Received:" + req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.7.responseText.item(0). else if (window.dyn="Received:" + req. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.open("GET".responseText.ajax. "data.status == 200) document. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.7 .7.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. if(window. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.ajax.send(null). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). by this code: var doc = req. req.ajax.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".readyState == 4) if(req. req. else document.status.dyn="Error code " + req. req.7 examples 7.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


5. 3. Here is a small. servlet classes. After an enterprise bean is created. 2.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.)> <web-app> <!-. like: 1. but typical web.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . entries related to session configuration. classes. Servlet.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.ccards. Others. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 8. welcome pages.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. For example. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. data persistence. 4.servlets. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. JSPs and Java Server Faces.bank11. 6. Servlet. Initialization of parameters for servlets.. web. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. descriptions). a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine..class>com. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. like what pages are error.8 .Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.xml file: <?xml version="1. database connection resource pooling. MIME types used by the web application.

servlets.ccards. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets". basicly. Basicly. for flexibility.8 . The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.bank11. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. whose name is rather long. Unfortunately. the name of the web application. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".bank11.xml".ccards. Then the "EnrollServlet.xml file of the web application. Behind a very benign URL.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .class" and that it is part of the package "com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. it is the alias of the real servlet class.ccards. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. 1.xml" file.servlets". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. However. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. In general.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".xml" 2. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. For example.

Web containers are implemented by various vendors. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.0 specification is available for public review.4. the HttpServlet) class. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.5 and is in final state.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. but through a web container. tjws spec 2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. more often. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.SERVLETS 9 .9 .SERVLETS 9. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. modular design 9. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).2. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. small footprint. 9. in most cases as part of an application server. 9. but at this point.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. Technically speaking. which extend the functionality of the web server. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .4. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . The current Java Servlet specification is 2. this is just a work in progress. As of oct. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. platform independent programs. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from BEA Systems.2. the Java Servlet 3. 2010.0 specification.

3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. These packages are: • • javax. while the second one. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. public void destroy() throws ServletException.servlet javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. from Apple Inc. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . the javax. 82 .servlet package are protocol independent. public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. Enterprise Edition.9 . from IBM 9. IOException. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. WebSphere. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .

namely the HttpServlet class. After instantiating the servlet. 9. More on the servlet life cycle. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. This method has two arguments. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. Throwable t) 9.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). 83 . The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. ServletConfig. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. respectively.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The servlet API provides such a specific class. The method performs all initialization required. in a different section. as well.9 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.

UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. service().SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.lang. 9.9 .ServletException javax. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. It also extends the java.Exception class. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .servlet. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.

Typically. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. After instantiation. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. If the servlet does not implement the javax. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. 9. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Also. JSP or JSF. 85 . There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.servlet.SingleThreadModel. respectively. DB connection opening. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects.9 . Typically. etc. which will service all incoming requests. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.9 . Here are the most important ones: 86 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.

Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. import java. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server.9 .html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. 87 . The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.*.bank11.io.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.java" file: package com. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.servlets. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.ccards.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.

IOException { resp. out.println("</html>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. // output your page here out. out.println("merge").servlet. out.*.http. out.setContentType(“text/html”).println("<br>").println("<body>").init(config). out. out.getWriter(). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. import javax. out.println("<html>"). PrintWriter out = resp.println("<title>Servlet</title>").*. out.SERVLETS import javax. out.println("</head>").println("</body>").servlet. } } 88 .9 .close().println("<head>").

Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. 1997.0 while the current (4. 10.10 . JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.sql package 2.1. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. Starting with version 3. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.odbc.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. The JDBC 4. the javax. as recognized by the DB industry. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. These drivers fall into four standard categories. 89 . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).JDBC 10.jdbc. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . After that.JdbcOdbcDriver .sql package. This solution is inefficient.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. Type 1.JDBC 10 . It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0.sun. the java.

This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. 90 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. forwards them to the JDBC driver.10 . Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. because it eliminates one level of indirection.JDBC Type 2. Type 3. which in turn. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Part Java. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Type 4.

ResultSetMetaData java.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.0 API.SQLException java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.Connection java.SQLOutput java.sql.Driver java.JDBC 10.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLPermission java. java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.Struct java.SQLWarning java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.CallableStatement java.10 .sql.Blob java.DriverManager java.Date java.sql.sql.sql.Clob java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.Wrapper 91 .sql.Types java.sql.Array java.SQLData java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.0).Statement java.sql.SQLInput java.3 the java.Timestamp java.Time java.

SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.0.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.Statement java.ResultSet java. querying the database 4.10 .SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.Clob java.Wrapper javax.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLOutput java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.sql. java.sql.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql package.SQLNonTransientException java.Types java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLTimeoutException java.PreparedStatement java.CommonDataSource javax.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.Connection java.RowId java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLInput java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java. establishing a database connection 3. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql.DatabaseMetaData java. processing the result set 92 .CallableStatement java.sql.Blob java.NClob java.sql.

jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .10 .jdbc.odbc.db2.borland.SybDriver com. A database driver is specified by the driver name.sybase.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver.net.ibm.jdbc.DB2Driver oracle.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.DataStoreDriver com.driver.JDBC 10.datastore.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.

} The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.mm.*.forName("org. user.mysql. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.gjt. but let's take it for granted: import java. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).Driver").bank11.printStackTrace().10 . subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. import java. as specified by the driver vendor.getConnection(connURL. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". passwd). Since we just used it. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. String user = "root".sql.newInstance(). 94 . by using the connection URL. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.*. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. try { Class.util.

Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Connection conn = DriverManager. int resultSetConcurrency. prp). java. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.put("autocommit".getConnection(connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.JDBC 10. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. prp. 10. "true"). "true").util. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.sql package. String user.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. prp. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.put("create".sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.10 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. we can use it for various purposes. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Properties prp = new Properties().

methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. namely. prepared statements and stored procedures.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . Statement. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.JDBC 10.10 . respectively. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.

sql.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn..JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.executeUpdate(sqlString). 10.".10 ..createStatement(). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . stmt. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.

These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. PreparedStatement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10.10 . and CallableStatement objects.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. 98 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


Time java.produces a Connection object that will 103 .10 .JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.0 optional package.math. a factory for creating DB connections. time. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. Connection pooling implementation -.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.DataSource object.sql. basicly.Big Decimal Object float 10. mins.sql. Basic implementation -.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.produces a standard Connection object 2. This interface is. It is part of the javax.sql package.math. There are three types of implementations: 1. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. secs date.sql. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.

*.servlets. java. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.sql. 104 . String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*.class. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". javax.sql.ccards.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). Distributed transaction implementation -.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.lookup("java:comp/env"). public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. 3.servlet.*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.getLogger(TestDataSource. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax.http.10 . import import import import import import java.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*. private DataSource theDataSource.servlet. javax.bank11.io.*.naming.getName()).

HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.10 . ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 ... } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

servlet.jsp and javax. namely javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).5 Java Servlet specification. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.jsp.servlet.servlet. 11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.2 the java.tagext.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet. 11. The package javax.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.JSP 11. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.JSP 11 .HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. the servlet code is regenerated. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.jsp.1 and is related to the 2. If the JSP is modified.11 . The current JSP specification is JSP 2.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet. The package javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .. 111 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".11 .JSP • if the URL does not start with / . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. include and taglib. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions)..

a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7.7. Assigns it to available name or id.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. In Tomcat.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11. 11. 11.11 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.JSP 11.7.7 scripting elements 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . this code goes to inside the service() method.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.

stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . Attributes description: • • • name .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.the name of a bean instance. and if so.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .11 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. you must specify param.

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions.13 the forward standard action 114 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.only the "true" value is supported. flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. <jsp:forward>. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.the URL of the page. same format as the <%@include> directive.

the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag..JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. name .class extension in the name following code. as this attribute has no default value.a name for the Bean or applet instance. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. . name="instanceName" .. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .the name of a bean instance.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . 11. You must include the . It is used mainly.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .the type of object the plugin will execute.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. when we want to separate the application into different views. as well.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.11 ." . depending on request. servlet or to a static resource.. If you do not supply a value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.. code="classFileName" . archive="URIToArchive.. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. You must specify either bean or applet.

servlet. it has java. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . config . and domain name.1.11 . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.PrintWriter. 1.16 scopes 1.Object type and scope page 11. based on the servlet API. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . writes to the output stream to the client. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. pageContext .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. in pixels. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . session . of the image the applet or Bean displays. The value is a full URL. objects which are automaticly available.lang. Must be a small nonzero number.the initial height and width. request . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. The default value is 1.io.it represents the buffered version of java. in pixels.JspWriter type and scope page 7.1" . it has javax. response . out . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. with a protocol name. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .represents the servlet context.jsp.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. request . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.represents server's response to the request. optional port number. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. application . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. page .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.the amount of space.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.

Object value) method 2.init(). the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.beans.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .11 . the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 4.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.bank11.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.jsp file. Object value) method 3.JSP request object.ccards. page . session . application .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.

examples.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private String colors[]. private SimpleSubBean subBean.18. a boolean and another String).io. a software development and consulting company. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). 11.java: package com. %> <jsp:forward page="response. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private float number. The public constructor could have been omitted.register(). SimpleBean. private int list[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.devsphere.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.simple. private boolean flag.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. a float.mapping.string.Serializable { private String string. an int. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.11 . The SimpleBean class is declared public. private int integer. private String optional.

colors[index]. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } 119 .flag.integer. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.integer = value.colors.string = value.number. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values.number = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.JSP this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.11 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag = value.

colors[index] = value.list[index].subBean.11 . String value) { this.optional. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.optional = value. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } } 120 .list[index] = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean = value. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. int value) { this.list = values.

number.number = value. } } 11.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.mapping.11 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.Serializable { private String string.examples. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.string = value.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. private float number.18. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.java: package com.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . SimpleSubBean.devsphere.io.string.simple.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .

number]".18.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "abc" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".123) }. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. a boolean and an int[]. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. "One or more colors must be selected" }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.integer]".util. new String[] { 123 . The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.list]".examples.flag]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.colors]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.string]". the list of optional properties. SimpleBeanResources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. 3 } }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. new Boolean(true) }. the form's name and the processor's name.11 . new Float(0. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. a float. The list of optional properties has a single element.java: package com. the processing order. new int[] { 2. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The default values are defined for a String. error messages. There are three error messages.devsphere.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.simple.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]". "One or more items must be selected" }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.mapping. "An option must be selected" }.

devsphere.mapping.jsp" } }.simple.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). The formToBean() method of com.html" }.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "SimpleForm.mapping.11 .JSP "optional" } }. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.devsphere. SimpleHndl.logging.devsphere. { "[FORM_NAME]". new String[] { "string". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). string values are converted to numbers. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". } } 11. "flag". com. "colors".devsphere.18.devsphere.util. { "[PROC_NAME]". "list". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.*.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. "integer". If necessary. The beanToForm() method of com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.mapping. "optional".mapping. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . "subBean" } }.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.examples. "SimpleProc. For a better understanding of this example. "number".

formPath = application.trim().getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.lastIndexOf('/').getRealPath(formPath).formToBean(formData.getClass()).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. slashIndex+1) : "".io.getString("[FORM_NAME]").removeUserErrors(errorTable). response). errorTable = HandlerUtils.substring(0.getDocument(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.File(formPath)).trim(). simpleBean. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).util. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).equals("POST"). logger).JSP = HandlerUtils.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getServletPath(). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. 125 .getMethod().getTemplate(new java. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.11 . // Process the valid data bean instance application. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. int slashIndex = basePath.forward(request.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.

getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.11 .length == 0) return "". } %> 11.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. for (int i = 0.JSP elements logger).getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. document. SimpleProc.18.length.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.simple.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getString() %> <P> subBean.send(out).getSubBean(). if (list.mapping. i < list.number = <%= simpleBean.examples.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. i++) 126 .string = <%= simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("{ "). strbuf.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. errorTable.beanToForm(simpleBean.devsphere. // Send the form document document.

examples.util.18. In addition.length == 0) return "".length. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.devsphere.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. ComplexHndl. In addition. strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append("}"). return strbuf.length == 1) return Integer. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.toString().formToBean() call. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.toString().append(list[i]). return strbuf.append(" "). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.11 .beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. } strbuf. } %> 11.toString(list[0]).append(" "). i++) { strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. strbuf.append("{ "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. ComplexForm. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. A single call to FormUtils. The localization of the Complex*.jsp files. Using the framework.mapping. } strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("}"). for (int i = 0. if (list. strbuf.append(list[i]).simple. making the testing and the debugging easier. i < list.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.

length. String colorValues[] = { "red". i < integerLabels. "Blue" }. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Option 3" }. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.getInteger() == value. j++) if (colors[j]. j < colors. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Option 2".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. boolean checked = simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. i < colorValues.getColors(). "blue" }. for (int i = 0. "green".JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". for (int i = 0. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 . "Green". i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i++) { boolean checked = false.

length.examples. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 2".11 . break. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.mapping.getSubBean(). "subBean. i < listItems.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .setSubBean( new com.SimpleSubBean()). "Item 3" }. for (int i = 0. boolean selected = false.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. j < list.JSP break. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { int value = i+1.devsphere. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".simple.getList().

util.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. return message.equals("POST").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.mapping.mapping. } %> ComplexHndl.simple. if (message == null) message = "".getString() == null || simpleBean.getString(). boolean isPostMethod = request.get(property).11 .JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.util.getMethod().devsphere. "subBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.simple.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getSubBean(). 130 .setString("abc").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.examples.Hashtable errorTable.

setErrorMessage(errorTable. "An option must be selected").setNumber(0.123f). if (flagValue. "integer". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.setFlag(flagValue != null).length() != 0) simpleBean. else { simpleBean. "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.123f).setNumber(0.11 .getColors() == null || simpleBean.getParameter("number").length == 0) { 131 .length() == 0 || flagValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getParameter("flag"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "Must be filled"). "Must be filled").floatValue()). } simpleBean. "Must be a number").getColors(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string".trim().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "number".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.

3 }).string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. 132 . //* subBean.setString("").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.11 .getParameter("subBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "subBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2.getList(). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "list".floatValue()).length == 0) { simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getString().string". } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.setOptional(""). "Must be } //* subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.number". "Must be filled"). "One or more colors must be selected").number"). "colors".

put(property. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.number". The com.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.devsphere.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.simple.mapping.11 . The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.18.123f).setOptional(""). simpleBean.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.helpers.setNumber(0.properties or web. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. 3 }). } } else { simpleBean.JSP filled").examples. simpleBean.SimpleBean.mapping.devsphere.util. String property. simpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. message). } %> 11. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.\ 133 .helpers. simpleSubBean.code=com.xml: SimpleHndl.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. simpleBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setList(new int[] { 2.setFlag(true).jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.setString(""). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. "Must be a number"). errorTable. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp.setString("abc").Hashtable errorTable.devsphere. "subBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.

xml) file: ServletName.devsphere. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.properties: AnotherHndl.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.devsphere. you could add a few other lines to servlets. If you have another bean-form pair.helpers.simple.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.helpers.host. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. 11.18.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.another.mapping.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.devsphere. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.code=com. In many cases.11 .\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.mapping.mapping.examples. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.code=com.AnotherBean. a servlet is identified with its class.properties (or web.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.company. A servlet can be made bean-independent.host.examples.host.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.

JSP 135 .11 .

javaserver faces 12 . This technology includes: 1.JAVASERVER FACES 12. which loads the appropriate view template. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. buttons. Version 2. 12. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .0 supersedes version 1. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. like input fields. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.0. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. Version 2. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. processes events.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. builds a component tree.12 . JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.

12 .3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.javaserver faces 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. 12. As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.2 of the JFS specification.4. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.

4. 12. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. columns and rows.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. see the column tag documentation. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. footers.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . such as alternating row colors.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. respectively.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. Common formatting techniques. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.12 . These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. For more information about columns. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.

checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. your options include using plain HTML forms. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkout}" /> 139 . If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.4.12 . Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.

12 .</span> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. red for error.user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.5. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.4.4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.user.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.

12. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.5.12 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5. can publish value change events. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.customer. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5. 12.mycompany.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Without this JavaScript event. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. but only if the new input is validated successfully.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Any component that receives user input. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.javaserver faces 12. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. validateLength. The body content of this tag must be empty.12 .

the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. for each locale you wish to support. myJSFapp 143 .5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.12 . This allows you to design localized versions of each page. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. Example: welcome_en.5.mycompany.javaserver faces 12. including images and styles. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany.

like third party jar files jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Create managed beans 4. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. custom tag libraries.javaserver faces /ant build.exadel.contains libraries required by the application. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.html. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar – files included in the /lib directory.jar jsf-api.xml web. mandatory for any JSF application web. JSP pages. It has a deployment descriptor.jar. jsf-api.xml – the JSF configuration file. static resources.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.12 .com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.jar faces-config.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create JSP pages 2. Define navigation rules 3. and so on. Create properties files 144 .

we just want to go from inputname.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp file 7. As a diagram. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Edit JSP pages 6. Create an index. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.12 .jsp and greeting. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp to greeting. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.7.7. Deploy and run the application 12. And that's all there is to this. Now that we have the two JSP pages.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.xml file. The directory structure already exists. You just need to create its contents.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp. Compile the application 8. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. These files will act as place holders for now. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. we can create a navigation rule.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.javaserver faces 5. 12.jsp is greeting.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp. In our application.

7. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.java file. You can easily create more complex ones.xml file should look like this: 146 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.7.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. a very simple navigation rule. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.3.3 faces-config.xml Your final faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. This class is straight-forward.3. of course.3.7. 12.12 . Inside this myJFSapp folder.1 PersonBean. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.PersonBean. To read more about navigation rules. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. request sets the bean scope in the application.javaserver faces This is.) 12. The next line is the full class name. the second part of faces-config. 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.xml Now.7. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp. we will create a PersonBean. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.

com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .javaserver faces <?xml version="1.sun. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.1 messages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. 12. 12.1//EN" "http://java. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. 12.12 . We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.sun.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.7.7.properties file in the bundle folder.7.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.sun.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.1 inputname.4. Inc.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.5.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun.12 . <h:inputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.bundle.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.bundle.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.

The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.jsp page.javaserver faces Line 1. 12. Lines 3-5. Create the index. Creates an HTML input text box.bundle. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.sun.5. name! 12.12 . Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.2 greeting.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. That's how JSF knows where to go next.greeting_text}" />. and also print its contents on the page. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. specifically the bean attribute personName.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .</h3> tags. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file..sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.6 creating the index.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. The first three lines are identical to our first page..7.7. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Line 2. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Having an index. The second line will access a Java bean. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.xml file. Line 6.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.

8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. This is used here. you'll notice the file suffix is .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.javaserver faces Now.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).12 . launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. which asks an user for an ID and password.xml file. Of course. To do this.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. Your setup.7.8. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.jsp.jsf and not .7.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml file for the application *. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. This is a "login" application. 12.html . When Tomcat is done loading.7. though.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. 12. we need to deploy it. because in the web. might possibly be different).bat in Tomcat's bin directory). 150 .sourceforge. 12. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. verifies the information. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. To build the application run the build.9 Running Next. We are almost done with this example.

javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. 1. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Enter project name. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. The New Project wizard appears. name the folder pages.WEB-INF 151 .xml Editor (see faces-config. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click Next. in the Add JSF Support page. say. c. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. select the Source tab. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.webroot | +-. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.8. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node.12 . click Finish 4... From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Yes through messages that appear.. 9.. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 12. 6. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. click Next d. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. and set up folders for a web application.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click Next. 10. Select the Amateras node.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. and to add JSF libraries to the project. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 2. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. 7.. your mileage may vary. 3. jsf-login. click Add Folder.src | +-. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.. from the menubar select File/New/Other. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. in the wizard that appears. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.. Select Java Project. see Installing & Uninstalling. name the folder webroot 5. a. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.

xml.xml Editor.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. in the Name field enter LoginManager. 2. a. Click Finish. for name enter mgr.javaserver faces | | | +-.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. The Java code editor opens. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". The faces-config. click Managed Bean.lib | +-. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. from its context menu select New/Class. 1. private String _pwd = "". public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". if ( _uid.12 . enter login. else action = "loginFail". for class enter login. } 4.8. input widgets appear d. c. for scope select 152 . } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login.LoginManager. 3. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. We then configure it to be a managed bean.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.xml editor opens. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } return action.pages 12. click Add. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. b. In the Package field. In Package Explorer select the src folder. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. The New Java Class wizard appears.

index. the New File wizard appears. c. for File name enter index.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp: create this file similarly to index. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp).jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. success.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. but in webroot/pages. click Finish.webroot/pages/success. Create error. </body> Please try 153 . save the file and close the editor.12 .jsp is placed directly in webroot. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Create success.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp and error.javaserver faces session.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. enter the following code.jsp. and 3 content pages (login. Enter the following code: <!-.8. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. e. b.jsp.jsp). the JSP Editor opens.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp: a. from its context menu select New/File. All pages except login.webroot/index. from the menubar select File/Save. Create index.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. Then we create login. in Package Explorer select webroot. so we create them first. 1. again.webroot/pages/error. <!-. then close the editor 12.

.. the New wizard appears.javaserver faces </html> 4. g. (See Show View Dialog) f. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. etc. and choose default for Template. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <%@ page contentType="text/html. Open the JSF palette. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. To see this in action. Create login. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. from its context menu select New/Other. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.. b. as shown below. with the following template code. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. click Finish. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. 154 .sun. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and uses them for code completion as well. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. click Next c.completion. place your cursor in one of these lines. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar.12 . and dock it along the right. enter jsf-login e. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. d. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. for File name enter login.jsp: a.sun. a code-completion window pops up. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and the JSP Editor can help with code.jsp. now we want to add attributes to this element.

insert another <h:inputText> element.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".loginAction} The final code. enter #{mgr. set its value to Login. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.password}" l. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html..12 . select userID from the code-completion window. and hit Enter. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces h. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.) j.sun. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. insert a <h:commandButton> element. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. complete the expression with the closing { k. this inserts value="" at the cursor. with the barest presentational formatting. i. a code-completion window pops up. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. with bean properties available in mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .

from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. 1. Open faces-config.8. 2.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. using a FacesIDE editor. This is shown below. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. then click inside the editor window.xml. it should open in the faces-config.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml Editor. Select the Navigation tab 3.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. 156 .12 . this inserts a page icon into the editor. click on Page.

jsp. 6. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. add 3 more pages.jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index.12 . Its properties appear in the Properties view. 5. in the Properties view.jsp 4. from the palette at left. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). This is shown below: 157 .jsp and then on the icon for success. /pages/success. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. select Navigation Case. and set them to /pages/login. and is represented by an arrow. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp.jsp. then click first on the icon for login.

The application is now complete.xml Here we edit web.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.xml for the specifics of our application. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.6 Editing web.javaserver faces 7. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. Similarly add a forward-action from login. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be sent to the success page. We'll set some properties in web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. 1. Once deployed browse to index.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. since we have such a trivial application.jsp. so uncomment it.jsp to error. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).jsp. or leave it as-is. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.xml.jsp. As it turns out. 12. We want virtual path-based mapping. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. all we need do in web.8.12 . Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. any other id/password should send you to the error page. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. and extension-based mapping is turned on. open web. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.

webapp 12.model javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.component.faces.faces.faces.faces.12 . namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.render javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.html javax.10 the javax.0 1. open its Manager application in a browser.javaserver faces 12.faces.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. For a given factory class name.application javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login. scroll down to Deploy. click Deploy 3.faces.el javax. the Manager application should reload.context javax.faces. 12.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.component javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.convert javax. as file:///. Click on its link to launch the application. start Tomcat..faces.8.faces..faces.faces javax.event javax.lifecycle javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.CONFIG_FILES 159 . the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.validator javax. that factory is used. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications..

with the last one taking precedence.Severity . ApplicationFactory . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. StateManagerWrapper .represents a single validation (or other) message.11 the javax. FacesMessage.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.12 . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. StateManager . handling events and input validation. defining page navigation. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. FacesMessage .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. with the last one taking precedence. those factories are used.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. If none of the above steps yield a match.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.faces. ViewHandler . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. 12. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. ViewHandlerWrapper .

including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. • ViewExpiredException . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. ContextCallBack . or a hyperlink. 12.restoreView(javax. StateHolder .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". UICommand . UIComponent . Here they are: • • UIColumn . • • 161 . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. a menu item. when activated by the user. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. String) results in failure on postback.context.faces.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. NamingContainer .12 the javax. UIComponentBase .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. String. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. ActionSource2 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. EditableValueHolder .12 .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. ValueHolder .faces.FacesContext.

The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. by storing it as the value property of the component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. it is for display purposes only. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. it is for display purposes only. UINamingContainer .12 . UIInput . that is displayed to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIMessages . UIGraphic .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. This component has no rendering. UISelectMany . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. Optionally.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. it just serves as the root of the component tree. UIMessage .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.component. identified by a clientId.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that has a value. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.faces. Optionally. The user can modify the selected value.13 the java. UIParameter . UISelectItem . UIForm .html package 162 . UISelectBoolean . UISelectOne . UIPanel . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. The user can modify the selected values. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.

HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML img element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlOutputLink . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputText . HtmlOutputFormat .renders the component value as text. or not. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML label element.represents an HTML form element. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.12 . HtmlCommandLink . The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.renders child components in a table. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlPanelGroup .causes all child components of this component to be rendered.Message".represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlDataTable .by default. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.by default. HtmlInputTextarea .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlColumn .faces.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlOutputText .faces.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlPanelGrid . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlForm . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlCommandButton .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlMessages . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlInputHidden . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. and renders the result. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. On a redisplay.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.

It is passed to.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. showing a single available option at a time.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.javaserver faces property.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. and the rendering of the corresponding response. ResponseStream . • • • • • • 12. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. showing a single available option at a time. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. • • • • 12. HtmlSelectManyMenu . and potentially modified by.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . ResponseWriter .faces.12 . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.convert package 164 . In particular. FacesContextFactory . FacesContext . HtmlSelectManyListbox . HtmlSelectOneListbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.15 the java.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.14 the java.faces. ResponseWriterWrapper . HtmlSelectOneMenu .

represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. PropertyResolver . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. 12.12 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . • • • • 165 .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.faces. ValueBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.16 the java. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.javaserver faces 12. Classes: MethodBinding .15. VariableResolver .

and event implementation classes.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.faces. PhaseId . FacesListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • • One exception . PropertyNotFoundException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.17 the java.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. 166 . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesEvent . • • • • 12. MethodNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. PhaseEvent . ReferenceSyntaxException .12 . ValueChangeEvent .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. ValueChangeListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .AbortProcessingException . PhaseListener . Interfaces: ActionListener .

DataModel .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.faces.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). Renderer . SelectItem .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.12 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.18 the java. ScalarDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. • • • • • • • • • 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. SelectItemGroup . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. 12.faces.javaserver faces 12.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".19 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ListDataModel . DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.faces. Classes: ArrayDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ResultSetDataModel .

Typically. LongRangeValidator .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. • • 12. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. RenderKitFactory . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. base classes for JSP custom component tags. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.validator package Interface defining the validator model. ConverterTag .faces.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. ResponseStateManager . AttributeTag . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and/or user Locale. and concrete validator implementation classes. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . as well. The package contains an exception.21 the java.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. together.12 . 12. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.22 the java.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. including a standard servlet.faces. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . • RenderKit . markup language.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.

you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the controller sends a message to the model. or when an exception occurs. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. which passes the request to the page class. Likewise. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. When a web server receives a request. When the model is updated. ValidatorTag . This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. but basically. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. UIComponentTag . that need to process their tag bodies.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. In MVC. related to a UIComponent. FacetTag . telling the view to update its presentation. UIComponentBodyTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions. the controller is the 169 . The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). In JSF. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. Also. 12. When the user takes some action with the presentation. • • • • • FacesServlet . the controller sends a message to the view. the process includes a few more components or pages. or some other web technology. which has several implications.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. that request is passed to the container.12 . telling the model to update its data. When using JSF. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. servlets. the life cycle is more complicated. the JSF life cycle does not apply. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.

the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. and the UI components are the view. Data for some components. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. not every request will flow through all six phases. and the response is sent to the client. is validated at this time. converting a String to a Date object). the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. and a piece of data failed validation. or from request headers. • Invoke Application: During this phase. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). As with the previous phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request.javaserver faces JSF implementation. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. In addition. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. However. If this is a subsequent request. such as components that create HTML input fields. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. Data can come from input fields in a web form.12 . Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. In addition. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. it creates UI objects for each view component. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. from cookies sent as part of the request. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. the conversion occurs in this phase. For a JSF-enabled application. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. These objects update their state with the data values. the JSF implementation must create the view. 170 . and what happens during the processing and response. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. The components are stored in a component tree. depending on the request.

One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. 171 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. For example. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases.javaserver faces In the above figure. Also.12 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. skipping any remaining phases.

This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.sun. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.9.COM. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.2.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. When using almost any computer program or system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. naming and directory services using a common API. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").13 . such as LDAP. names a file hello in the file directory usr. c:\bin\autoexec. For example. For example. To access a file in the computer. or objects typically used by computer programs. which is located in the root of the file system.48.Wiz. identifiers. in turn. Thus the DNS name sales. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. 172 . It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. you are always naming one object or another."). In addition. you supply it the name of the object. for example. A file system maps a filename (for example. such as addresses. and NIS(YP). you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. when you use an electronic mail system. The UNIX pathname. 13. NDS. DNS.JNDI 13 .JNDI 13. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example.COM. Using JNDI.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. possibly multiple. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.5). 13. you must supply its name.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. The DNS entry Wiz. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. It enables applications to access different. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. /usr/hello.

in the an LDAP entry o=sun. while the object itself might contain more state information. Every context has an associated naming convention. is a context.c=us. an LDAP entry. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. relative to the entry o=Sun. some objects cannot be stored directly. such as its print server name and printing protocol. in the DNS domain Sun. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. and listing bound names. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. For simplicity. A printer object reference.13 . An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("=").2. that is. is relative to c=us. A printer object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left.").2. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. such as /usr. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. o=Sun. its flight plan. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. and its flight number and departure time.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. 13. A file object. 13. For example. For example. By contrast. In another example. might contain the state of the printer. a DNS domain. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. is a context. A reference is information about how to access an object. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. such as c=us. Using the reference. that is. Instead.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. for example. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. also called a file handle. for example. Finally. That is. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. on the other hand. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. which in turn. For example.COM. 13. a file name is bound to a file. delimited by the comma character (". they must be stored by reference. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. in the UNIX file system is a context. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. is accessed using a file reference. 173 . and fuel and instrument status. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. For example. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. in a file directory /usr/bin. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For example. unbinding names. a file directory.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.2. such as COM. Typically.

to some extent. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A directory object can be used. resolution. For example. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. For example. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. postal mail address. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. a person. one context can be viewed. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. however. a computer. and computer account information.13 .1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. and color.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. various telephone numbers. two different computer 174 . or a network. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. And it kind of makes sense.3. for example. programs. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. An example is the telephone company's directory service. Thus.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.2. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. because we can. 13. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. to represent a printer. 13. For example. and even the computer itself and other computers. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. a name is unique 13. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).

For example. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. Within the DIT. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. for example. The query is called a search filter. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. called a directory information tree (DIT). 175 . An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. A Java mail client program. Many examples of directory services are possible. Alternatively.3. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. 13. By using a directory service. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.4. When you search. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.3. 13. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. removing. the ability to access directory services will become essential. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. many directories. adding. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. "mail" is the attribute identifier. such as that relating to machines. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. for example. such as the file and print services. for example.13 . like any other program running on the network.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. networks. such as those based on the LDAP.50". you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.smith@somewhere. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The email address.113. 13. 13. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. that is. Similarly. The service is accessed through its own interface. support the notion of searches. printers.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. For example. an organization object. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. When directory objects are arranged in this way. and users.3.com".

1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).1 and the Java 2 SDK.naming.4. It extends the v1.2.naming.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. For example.directory javax.event javax.1 and v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.1 and Java 2 SDK. v1. 13.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. To use the JNDI.ldap 176 . When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. Thus a variety of directories--new. more coherent and manageable. v1. 13. For example.5. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. 13.5.naming javax. v1. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. and even the network. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. emerging. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.3 and later releases. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.13 . that is to store and retrieve Java objects.naming. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. The Java 2 SDK.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.2. v1.

lang. However. and so on.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. A java. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. the name of the object's class.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. for some objects in the directory. comparing components. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. Furthermore. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. 13.naming. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.lang. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. and the object itself.1 context The javax.naming package defines a Context interface. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. composing them. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.6.6. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The overloads that accept java.JNDI • javax.String name argument represents a composite name. printer. which is the core interface for looking up.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.print(report). list() is similar to listBindings(). In this case.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. 13. For the methods in the Context interface. For example.spi 13. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.String name.13 .6.lookup("treekiller"). a 177 . that is. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. 13.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.lang. 13.6 the naming package The javax. and it returns the object bound to that name.6. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. binding/unbinding. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.

Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. For example. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).7 directory package The javax. 13.7.13 .2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.directory package extends the javax. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. replace. There are no absolute roots.6.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. they should catch NamingException.naming. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.6. 13.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.7. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Once you have an initial context. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 178 . Otherwise. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). You can add. InitialContext. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). 13. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.

Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. that is. 13. These operations are called "extended" operations.9 LDAP package The javax.naming. Once registered.9.9. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.directory package. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.8 event package The javax.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. For example. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event." and those that do not. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.naming. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.13 . a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. In fact.ldap package at all. and vice versa.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. controls. To receive event notifications. For example. such as information about the object before and after the change. 13.JNDI 13. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. or unsolicited notifications. called controls . Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.naming. 13. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. such as "object changed. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.naming.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. such as "object added. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .

spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. That is.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. import javax.10.java. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. 13. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.2 java object support The javax.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.naming.1 plug-In architecture The javax.Context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. and receiving response controls. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.naming. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.naming.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. This support is provided in the form of object factories.naming. implementors of Context.naming package.10. 13. 180 .bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.9. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.spi package supports implementors of Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. This support is provided in the form of state factories. For example. 13. 13.10. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.11.10 service provider package The javax. In the process of completing an operation. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. It uses a service provider for the file system. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. if you look up a printer name from the directory.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.13 . sending request controls. 13. create a file named Lookup.

11. import javax.11. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. you must have access to the JNDI classes. 13.jndi. 13. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.3. "com.11. 181 .sun. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).13 . } catch (NamingException e) { System.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.JNDI import javax. To compile to program.err. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Object obj = ctx. // Print it System. then the JNDI classes are already included. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.3 looking up an Object Next. If the compilation fails.11. using the capitalization shown. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. create an initial context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).5 compiling the program Next. } 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).NamingException.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). v1.lookup() to look up an object. env.jar as an installed extension. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. 13.lookup(name). How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.put(Context. use Context. If the compilation succeeds.out.naming. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. as follows.RefFSContextFactory").InitialContext. If you are still having problems.naming. Otherwise.fscontext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.lookup(name). For this reason.java).

Hashtable env = new Hashtable().sun.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.LdapCtxFactory"). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.3. and your example class (Lookup.naming. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. To run the program.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. javax. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.naming. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.put(Context.13 .class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.bat If you supply a file directory.directory. javax.class). env. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.jndi.naming and javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. supply the name of a file in your file system.naming.directory. include the directory that contains your Lookup.JNDI 13.DirContext. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.Attributes.naming. Finally.NamingException.jar and providerutil.ldap. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.put(Context. v1.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.PROVIDER_URL.sun. "com. javax. then you will see something like the following. 13. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. you need access to the JNDI classes. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. env.directory packages. javax. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.12. 182 .6 running the program To run the program. import import import import import javax. create an initial directory context.11.java. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.InitialDirContext. create a file named Getattr.naming. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jar).naming.jndi.fscontext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.Context.directory. 13. the file system service provider.12. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.

The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. Attributes.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Similar to the naming example. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. using the capitalization shown. If the compilation succeeds. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.12.get()).6 compiling the program Next.println("sn: " + attrs. If the compilation fails. compile the source file using the Java compiler.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.get("sn"). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).get(). If you are still having problems. 13. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.13 . } catch (NamingException e) { System. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.12.12. For now. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. ou=People").get() and then from that attribute get its value.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. For this reason.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. 13. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.java).12. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.out. ou=People"). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.get() on it to get its value: attrs. } 13. 183 .err. 13. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. As with the naming example.

# java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. Getattr.12. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. env. With this configuration.put(Context. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). then see the Common Problems lesson. 184 . then these classes are already included.PROVIDER_URL. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. If you have any trouble running this example. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.class. v1.JNDI 13.3.jar and providerutil. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. Once it has the attributes.13 .7 running the program As with the naming example. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.jar). ou=People". Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.

An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).a JMS client that receives messages. Here. JMS queue . • 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. JMS client . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS topic .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. unless it has established a durable 185 .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. As the name queue suggests. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . JMS producer . JMS message . In this model. Enterprise Edition. the messages are delivered in the order sent. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. JMS consumer . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .

14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 186 . users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. On the receiving side. 14. Using Java. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.4. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.3 the JMS API programming model 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. In that case. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.jms. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.14 . Depending on the type of message. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). 14.createConnection().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. you must call the connection's start() method.4. It is either a queue or a topic.4.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). a connection to a JMS provider can be created. 14.14 .4. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. In a J2EE application. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. For example.close(). The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . When you have a ConnectionFactory object. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Like the connection factory. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Before your application can consume messages. 14. and users discover them using JNDI. you must close any connections that you have created. It receives messages sent to a destination. you call the stop() method. The JMS administrator creates these objects. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. For example. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Depending on the connection type.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Before an application completes. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Connections implement the Connection interface. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. connection.

the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.createConsumer(myTopic). Moreover. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you are likely to miss messages.receive(). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. Message m = consumer. (Remember always to call the start() method. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example.setMessageListener(myListener). A message listener does. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.start(). consumer.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. if it needs to reply to messages.start().createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. onMessage().4. After you register the message listener. You use the Session. and you can use it to receive messages. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. connection. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. 14. which contains one method. For example. a message listener object may be used.receive(1000).createConsumer(myQueue). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.) When message delivery begins. This object implements the MessageListener interface. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 188 . In the onMessage() method. however. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). usually expect a specific message type and format. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. After you have created a message consumer. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. it becomes active. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. Message m = consumer.14 .

stream message.4. MessageProducer producer = session. message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.createProducer(myQueue). to create and send a TextMessage.14 . bytes message.createProducer(myTopic).createProducer(null). from one application to another. if you created an unidentified producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. For example.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. // msg_text is a String producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.createTextMessage().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.send(message). that is. anon_prod.4. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.send(myQueue.receive(). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. After you have created a message producer. You must first create the messages. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. 3. map message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).send(message). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. and object message). A message has three main parts: 1. message). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. At the consuming end.setText(msg_text). 14. Here. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. 189 . With an unidentified producer. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.

and message consumers to receive messages. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Sessions implement the Session interface.println("Reading message: " + message. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.14 . meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(true.createSession(false. then delivers the messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. 0).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. Here.getText()).8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. } else { // Handle error } 14. To create a transacted session. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. After you create a Connection object. Session. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). use the following code: Session session = connection.out. the first argument means that the session is transacted.4. Before committing the transaction. 190 . If the user selects transaction support. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.

Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0. server which provides an execution environment for containers.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. 15. component recovery scalability portability 191 . the container lives (in general) in an application server.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . bundled into a single unit. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.object oriented representation of data in a DB. On the other side. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. improved performance security . message-driven beans The 2.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .jar file into the application server.DB interaction transactions . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .15 .no developer coding. container which offers services to the component.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Version 1.0.consistent error handling framework . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.transaction management can be complex.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .logging. The component lives inside a container.

xml 15. the deployment descriptor.15 . Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the remote interface of the bean 4. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. called ejb-jar. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. the home interface of the bean 3. which is an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. as follows: 1. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.

5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. import.RemoteException.RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import java.ejb. } 193 .ejb.*.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. While the Remote interface declares no methods. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. } 15.15 .*. The developer does not implement this interface. import java. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.javax.rmi. String lastName. import. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.javax.rmi.

getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. prop.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. prop.interfaces. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). "org. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. we need to know: 1.PROVIDER_URL. this can be done (for example) through SSL. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.15 .jnp. In the case of an web application. how to create or find the bean 2. "localhost:1099").put(Context. creating them for the client application. } 194 . if the client executes outside the container. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.put(Context.NamingContextFactory". Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).

The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. to the appropriate type. Some languages.rmi. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. more specifically. MyBeanHome. • if the client executes outside the container. IIOP has not been designed for Java. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. do implements the java. that is part of CORBA standards. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). in fact. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space..class). cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.PortableRemoteObject class and.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the client has a stub). in fact. but for generic languages. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. using the narrow() method. This is done through the javax. do not have the concept of casting.rmi. Why? For EJB.rmi.narrow(homeRef. 195 . The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).e.15 . Problem is. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. and this means that there are some limitations.lookup("MyBean").Remote interface). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.

} public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . public class MyBean implements javax. int custId) { // method implementation .SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.remove().ejb.. as well).bank11. "Vasile". remove the bean instance myObject.ccards. String lastName.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).15 .SessionContext. import javax.ejbeans. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 ..create().processEntry("Dumitrascu". Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ejb. 1102). Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.. 15. call business methods on the bean myObject. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.

that is.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15. 15. the object is activated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans. 197 . because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.15 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. A stateless bean does not. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.

The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. All other methods in Figure 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. or passivate. Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container activates the bean.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. 15.15 . for example. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. (Typically. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. For example. 198 . The ejbCreate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. the client invokes the remove method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. is inside the bean class.

The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 . stored in a Database).12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. support for concurrent access 3. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.

the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. methods which have the same parameters. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. Read.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. as the parameters in the original create() method. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. CreateException. in the same order. an instance of that bean is created.14.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. Update and Delete. all throwing RemoteException.ccards.bank11.lang.15 . These methods are mandatory for entity beans.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. On the other side. state data is stored into data store (usually. We can have more create() methods. 200 . when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. 15.

The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. Second.14. After instantiation. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. On the first path. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). On the second path. 201 . it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. left empty most of the time in CMP. but the developer returns null for CMP. a client can invoke the remove method. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. After the EJB container creates the instance. the client invokes the create method. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. First. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. it is empty. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. for BMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. it's business methods can be invoked.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. 15. not null. actual SQL update code.14. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. in BMP.15 .14. 15. While in the pooled stage. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. but in general. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). All instances in the pool are identical. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. for BMPs.

an application client. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Therefore. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. another enterprise bean. If the primary key is incorrect. 202 . It acts as a JMS message listener.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.15 . In the pooled state. or a Web component . the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.getPrimaryKey(). With bean-managed persistence. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. it does not automatically set the primary key. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. In the pooled state. the values of the instance variables are not needed.

3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. 15. the message will be redelivered. To ensure concurrency. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 203 .16. When a message arrives. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. To avoid tying up server resources. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. For more information on this element see.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.16. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. In several respects. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. max-beans-infree-pool. a JMS API connection. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. an open database connection. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. Previously.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven bean can be used.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.16. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. 15. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16.for example. Unlike a session or entity bean. If message processing is rolled back. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. but not asynchronously.15 . a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. The onMessage method may call helper methods.

methods.16. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.jms. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.15 .. 3. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. // An EJB constructor is required.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. public void onMessage(javax. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. 15. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). Obtain a new bean instance.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Classes. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. and it must not // accept parameters.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. 15. Note: These instances can be pooled. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.Message MessageName) {.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.. finalize{}. As with other EJB types.Message.16. or create a new one.ejb.}. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.16. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.} // onMessage() is required. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. 2...jms. public void ejbRemove() {.0 specification.

jms. even in onMessage(). However.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).15 . from the client perspective the EJB still exists. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().16. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . passing the full JMS message object as an argument. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.onMessage() for more information. If any method throws such an exception. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. For example. 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. 15. See javax. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.16. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().16. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. 15. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. getRollbackOnly() . 15.MessageListener. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). getUserTransaction(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.This is not a client context.

0 specification.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. 15.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.15 .16. as required by the EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.16.xml. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. as described in the EJB 2. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. In either case. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.0 specification.

as described in the EJB 2.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .15 . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. 207 .jms. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. the weblogic-ejb-jar.. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.ejb20. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.. 15.xml deployment file.message. 2. For each instance. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean..xml elements.0 specification.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. </message-driven> .

the container calls the ejbRemove method. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. EJB class name 5. 15. At the end of the life cycle. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.15 . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. a message-driven bean is never passivated.security issues. entity specific elements 10. attributes .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. isolation level. access control entries . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.like transaction.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. bean home name . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. security 208 . session specific elements 9. control descriptors . environment properties 6. the home interface name 7. the remote interface name 8.

CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.ejb.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.lang.ejb.ejb.ejb.15 .Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.bank11.ccards.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.ccards.bank11.bank11.

Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..lang. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.


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