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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.2 Server communication 1.1 . which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. and sends it back to the client program. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.7 business components Business code. Figure 1. 5 . like the client tier. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. or finance. retail. The web tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. processes it (if necessary). might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. processes it (if necessary). and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. like HTML pages. enterprise edition Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.java platform. 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. are not considered web components.

1 . it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. multithreading. database systems. In addition. Before a web. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. enterprise bean.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.9 java EE Containers Normally. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 6 . and other legacy information systems. 1. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. or application client component can be executed. 1.java platform.3 Web. Business and EIS Tiers 1. For example. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. mainframe transaction processing. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). enterprise edition Figure 1.9. and other complex low-level details.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. For example. and remote connectivity. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.java platform. After an enterprise bean is created. transaction management. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.1 .4. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. 1. including services such as security. data persistence.9. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 7 . database connection resource pooling. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.

develop.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. maps. Applet container .10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of application client components. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Web container . 8 . For example.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.10. 1. video. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. test. Application client container . Application clients and their container run on the client. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. or for document-oriented web services. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. enterprise edition Figure 1.manages the execution of applets. text-based standard for representing data. XML data.1 . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. 1. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. When XML data is exchanged between parties. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. program files.java platform. extensible. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.

The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. enterprise edition 1. the location of the service. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).10.java platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.10.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. and ways to communicate with the service.1 .10. such as Universal Description. 1.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. The description includes the name of the service. 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 9 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.

A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.11. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.java platform. or if the server shuts down. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. standard set of tags. If the client terminates. 1. When the client finishes executing. enterprise edition Figure 1.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.1 .11. you employ a single. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. WML. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . 1. and XML) and JSP elements.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. or enterprise bean.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.11.11. Commonly. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. In Java EE 5. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


better tools. or better customer support.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. and JNDI 1. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. JSP page. or a component.ear extension. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. JTA. Once deployed on a local platform. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. it is ready to be deployed. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.1 . No extra coding is needed. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. such as better performance. module. the application is ready to run. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. 15 .java platform. SAAJ. At runtime. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. or component accordingly. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a module. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. servlet.

6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Application client modules. such as caching directives. enterprise edition Figure 1. and a web application deployment descriptor.war (Web ARchive) extension. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. supporting class files. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. JSP files. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. For example. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and other documentation. for example. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.java platform. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. which contain all Java interfaces. Resource adapter modules. • • 16 . which contain servlet class files.1 .jar extension. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Web modules. GIF and HTML files. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. classes.jar extension. Together. native libraries.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor.

. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). so far) version. HEAD.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.org/rfc/rfc1945. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. check the official HTTP site – www.jmarshall. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen... was the object of several RFCs.2 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . an initial line 2. we recommend www.1.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. 2. POST. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).w3.com/easy/http. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. zero or more header lines 3.HTTP 2 .html). The second (and last. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . as follows: 1. The server answers with a response message. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. These messages may have different contents. The client sends a request message to the server.HTTP 2. namely HTTP 1.ietf. RFC 2616 (06/99). .. but they also have some common structural elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.org/Protocols .apps.

0). CONNECT 5.Posting a message to a bulletin board.1. GET 2. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. . All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.Annotation of existing resources. TRACE Three other commands are listed. HEAD 3. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.html HTTP/1. PUT 8. 18 . but lack of support makes them obsolete.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. HTTP/1. mailing list.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.1 specification. OPTIONS 7. POST 4. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. as well.2 . Here is their list: 1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. newsgroup. DELETE 6. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. 2. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. in the HTTP 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.

(encoded as multipart/form-data). after the “?” character. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. When used for form data submission. 2. or sending E-mail 2. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. such as the result of submitting a form.Extending a database through an append operation.” On the other side. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.0 404 Not Found 2. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. to a data-handling process. . form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). separated by the character “&” or “. . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or ordering a product. or in the message body.8 the status code A three-digit integer.HTTP or similar group of articles. or a record is subordinate to a database. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 3. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. 2. while POST may involve anything.Providing a block of data. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.6 differences between GET and POST 1. like storing or updating data. In this case.2 .

an unexpected server error.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . out of which.1 version specifies 46 of them. The HTTP 1. file or script output) is returned in the message body. or otherwise can't run correctly. one (Host) is mandatory. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. Although the header names are not case sensitive. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. none of them mandatory. separated a semicolon. 2. In a request.g. and the resulting resource (e. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. and section 10 for HTTP 1. In particular. 404 Not Found . The most common use of the message body is in a response. fails. 2. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.the request succeeded. header name and header value.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).2 .1 only) . where the requested resource is returned to the client. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. 20 .0. such as text/html or image/jpg.the requested resource doesn't exist. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header values are. while the HTTP 1.0 version specifies 16 headers.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 500 Server Error .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.1). If an HTTP message includes a body. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. that is.

partial. parallel 3. RFC 1521 (www.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtype basic 7. with subtype plain 2. external-body 4. with subtypes octet-stream. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ro. message. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.ro/path/file. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtype mpeg 2. multipart. postscript 5.uvt.0 200 OK Date: Fri.info. text. 21 .0 From: someuser@yahoo. audio.html HTTP/1. application. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.HTTP 2. with subtypes rfc822.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtypes mixed.ietf. alternative. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).2 . 1.info.html first open a socket to the host web. image.uvt. Then.apps. video.org/rfc/rfc1521. . with subtypes jpeg. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. gif 6. digest.

2 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP . the server closes the socket. 22 .

w3.HTML 3 .com/tutors.w3c. From 1999 on.0) dates from 08.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.apps.0 draft was released in 01.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.html) and was widely supported.0 . check the official HTML site – www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.com/indexdot/html .blooberry. HTML describes how text. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.org/Markup . The first version of HTML. Version 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.org/rfc/rfc1866.html. The newest version of HTML is 4. As a practical reference site use – www. Originally named Web Applications 1. The first official version – HTML 2.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.2 (3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. Other helpful sites .01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.01) can be found at this address: http://www. Since it fits in a couple of pages.HTML 3. namely HTML 1.0. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. A newer standard.3 . It is a revision of 4.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.99. 3. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.com/easy/html .0. The latest version (XHTML 2.0 and was accepted in December 1997. However. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. HTML 3.ietf.htmlgoodies. Mosaic. a working draft for the next major revision.01. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).www. www. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.jmarshall. The XHTML 1.

SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.3 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.

0 Strict DTD. 3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.0 Transitional DTD. DYNSRC. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. though.01 specification.w3. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. VSAPCE are omitted.the chinese character for water." (in hexadecimal) .0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. three DTDs (HTML 4. “&quot”. <><> --> 25 . 4. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. If you wonder what a character reference is. 3. "&#x6C34. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. like ALIGN. You get the point. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. CONTROLS.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. …. HTML 4.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. Overall. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. the specification of HTML 4. An example: <!-. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. Check the address http://www. BORDER.and end at the first occurrence of -->.acesta este un comentariu.0 contains an SGML declaration.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. look at these examples: “&lt”. HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.3 .

specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.3.3.3 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. etc. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.ro/webmail/src/login.HTML 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.5 tables 26 .uvt. NAME.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. image. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.info.

<TR>. Usually. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <THEAD>. its rows. columns. Here is their description and attributes. Here is a an example of a table: 3. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. headers and cells are <TABLE>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <TH> and <TD>.3 .6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .the default value. specifies the parameter name. "checkbox".if specified. Example: http://web. "submit". where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. the browser appends the values to the URL. • 3. "GET" .info. specifies how data will be sent to the server.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.8.8.uvt. allows multiple selections from the choice list.3 .HTML • METHOD . "text/plain" • • 3. 3.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "button".used with forms that contain a file-selection field.maximum number of options visible to the user. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".:. however. Main attributes: 29 .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.required. "file". "reset". after a quotation mark .8.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.sends the form values in a single transmission. "hidden". "radio". Main attributes: • TYPE . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . NAME . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". may have the values GET or POST.8 form related elements 3.?. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .required. SIZE . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. "image". "password".required. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

95. The first time a class is loaded. The current version (as of 10. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.C:\TW\mySource. a tool named Just In Time compiler. To overcome this significant shortage.3 java applications 31 . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. 4.java 2. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.) in 08.2 version. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. the compilation process occurs.90. Java bytecode – a file with extension .94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. Example: Edit the file prog1. In terms of execution time.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Early versions of Java were released in 12. Java source – a file with extension .4 .. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.class file.class. The current version (as of 10. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.0. but next time execution is much faster. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.java One example of command line compilation: 4. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. Inc.class 3.JAVA PRIMER 4 . with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. project started in 12.2 java the interpreter.java. following the 1.4.class file. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. jit From source to execution. -g : generate all debugging info.95.JAVA PRIMER 4. javac -classpath .

This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.java. Generally. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. or is derived from A.4. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). In general.4 . or that it extends A). The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4 object oriented concepts 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4. An example: 32 .”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. 4.jar file. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.

Long.4 . 4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. Therefore. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Integer. Double. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. In fact. Float. 4. called Object. a Java class can extend a single base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Character.4. providing its own implementation. Boolean. this is called method overloading.4. 4. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. Therefore. 33 . The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. namely: Byte. a class can have more than one method with the same name.1 bit char . with the root the class Object. In OO jargon. Short.

one which is constant method .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . which extends the class javax. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.4 .no access from outside the class itself protected . A final: • • • variable . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . 4.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. • • • • no specifier . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.one which is defined at class level.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. has the same value for all class instances.access from any class anywhere private .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet. A final variable (method.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. method .http.servlet. } declares an abstract class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).does not have any subclasses. Except for the "package" concept. class . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. anywhere abstract .the class is visible from any class.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. 34 . rather than at class instance. automatic garbage collection.http. no templates.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .. inherited).

7.7. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. as defined in the java. 2.ThreadDeath.7. 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . Exception categories: 1. java errors . All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. array index out of bounds.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . In Java. programmer defined exceptions 4. standard method exceptions 3. 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. namely class Error and the class Exception.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7.4 .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.JAVA PRIMER 4. division by 0. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. not at execution time. code or data errors .like invalid cast.

.default.event . the package statement is the first one in a java source file. catch. As a general rule.lang (automatically available).this can be done by providing a try. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.io java.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. don't have to import java.awt. the default package is used).by adding the key word throws. 4. import. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.lang .servlets.class file.util.bank11. 4.geom ..support for data collections.Properties.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. they have to be unique inside a package.*. followed by the import statements. An example: package com. The package containing the standard classes is java.net java.nio java.awt . 4. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).sql. finally construct. In the example above. string analyzers. the class (the .awt.util. import javax.1 Package names The default package has no name.zip ..8.sql java. date and time info java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.support for event handling java.java.support for user interface java.security 36 . ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . therefore.ccards. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. All other packages must be explicitly imported.util . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.support for java archives creation java.4 .rmi java.

static and final. 37 .accessibility javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All variables (actually. it must be declared as abstract. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.event .4 .support for event handling 4. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).swing . All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.text javax. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.

then LiveScript and finally. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . 5. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. like QtScript or ActionScript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript statement like this: document. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . as JavaScript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.JAVASCRIPT 5.5 . This is not always what we want. and .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .javaScript 5 . The origins of this language date back to 1995. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . However. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.HTML authors are normally not programmers.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.depending on the browser .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. other 38 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.

5..3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. </script> </head> 5. When you place a script in the head section.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. point to the . or when an event is triggered.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3.js file extension. without having to write the same script on every page. 39 ..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. </script> </body> 5.5 . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3. go in the head section...2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. Save the external JavaScript file with a .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. To simplify this. you can write a JavaScript in an external file..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.

4.In statement The for. 5.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. switch().in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. catch constructs.javaScript 5.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. in loop is executed once for each element/property. namely – if ...4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while() it is worth mentioning the for . or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"...4. The code in the body of the for . continue.5..1 JavaScript for. 5. for().. break. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script..4.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . 5.4..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. while(). else.5 . in and the try ..

or a property of an object. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. var mycars = new Array().5. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. mycars[2] = "BMW". mycars[1] = "Volvo". so you don't lose your audience. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.catch statement The try.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. for (x in mycars) { document.5.. Mozilla 1..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").3 try.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.5 . } </script> </body> </html> 5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. an array element. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. When users see errors..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. they often leave the Web page.catch statement (available in IE5+. Example Using for..0. The try block contains the code to be run. mycars[0] = "Saab".

txt+="Error description: " + err. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.5 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). Also.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). Syntax: 42 . } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".7 popup boxes 5.\n\n".description + "\n\n".7. alert(txt). When an alert box pops up. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.

When a confirm box pops up. the box returns false. in the example above had not been written within a function. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. If the user clicks "Cancel". The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external ."defaultvalue") 5.7. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. Now. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. If the user clicks "OK".7. the box returns null. the box returns true.js file). the script is not executed before the user hits the button.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.8 functions 5.8.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.5 .. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Syntax: prompt("sometext". Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. in the <head> section.

9. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. So.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.. 5.. and will be stored in the variable called product.varX) { some code } var1. document. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .8. etc are variables or values passed into the function. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.javaScript function functionname(var1. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. and how they are used.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. 5. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.5 .9 javaScript objects 5.var2. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.. 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. var2.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.length).9.write(txt. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.

10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str. The first class consists of browser specific objects. which will be specified in the next section.5 .javaScript 5. </script> 5. 45 .9. document.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects.toUpperCase()).

1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Even this Document itself is an Object.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.asp 5.w3schools. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. At its most basic level. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .11. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. every Image on the page is an Object. Properties FF: Firefox. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.5 . N: Netscape. which are called Objects. as well). When an event message has been triggered. or when the user interacts with a Web page.com/jsref/default. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. check the site http://www. every Link on the page is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. For example. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.11. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.

depending on the browser. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .5 . 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.

according to universal time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time. according to local time.11. according to Greenwich time.5 . to a string. N: Netscape. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .

var myNum=new Number(number).4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 3 4 .5 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 .5 .

Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11.5 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. N: Netscape.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 0.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 0. 1. 0.11.434) Returns PI (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 3.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) pow(x.y) min(x. 2. Properties FF: Firefox. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 1.5 .14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 2.javaScript 5.

methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj. The persons' properties include name. Assume that the personObj already exists .firstname="John". Properties are the values associated with the object.lastname="Doe". sleep(). Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. play().3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). The code above will generate the following output: John 5. eye color. document.you can give it properties named firstname.firstname="John".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. lastname. personObj.12. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. etc.age=50. 5.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.lastname="Doe". work(). etc. height. personObj. weight. 53 . You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.12. All persons have these properties.12.write(personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.eyecolor="blue". personObj.firstname).1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. personObj. age. Objects also have methods.5 .age=30. The persons' methods could be eat().2 Methods An object can also contain methods. with a collection of properties and methods. personObj. age.eyecolor="blue". skin tone.

lastname. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.48.propertyName. like this: myFather=new person("John". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. Once you have the template. 5.eyecolor) { this.50. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).age. this. } Notice that the template is just a function.lastname=lastname.lastname.firstname=firstname.eat=eat."blue").javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.eyecolor=eyecolor. this."Rally".age=age.age=age. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.firstname=firstname.lastname=new_lastname.lastname=lastname. this.age. this.5 .12. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.newlastname=newlastname. this."green"). 54 . This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname."Doe". you can create new instances of the object. You can also add some methods to the person object.eyecolor=eyecolor. this.eyecolor) { this. myMother=new person("Sally".

Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.. now you can write: myMother. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. 5. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.5 . We define the events in the HTML tags.newlastname("Doe"). like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . For example.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.". So.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4..javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.

3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13.5 . onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.w3schools.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. the submit should be cancelled. The name is then stored in a cookie. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. If it returns true the form will be submitted. 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.2 onFocus. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. 5. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. For example. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.

javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .

Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The W3C 58 . DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.6 . Right now (oct. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).g. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. or WebAPI being among them. XML. 6. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). In other words. structure. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. SVG. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. 2010). By October 1998.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . As of January 2008. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .Html DOM 6 . HTML. CSS. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. and style of a document.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. However. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.HTML DOM 6. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. the Document Object Model activity is closed. particularly those used in Web browsers. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.

To claim to support a level. 6.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. and 6. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Validation. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. HTML-specific elements are included as well. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2 XML namespace support. a new DOM Core specification. As of 2005. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Level 1.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 5. which further enhances the DOM 6. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. filtered views and events. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). 2. Level 2.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 3. DOM Level 3 XPath. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 4. DOM Level 3 Core.6 . each of which contains required and optional modules. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.

and Safari. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.6 . All HTML elements. that is. 6. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x and Netscape 4.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. along with their containing text and attributes. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).x were still widely used in 2000. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. support multiple browsers. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Opera. interoperability problems were numerous.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. The Window object represents a browser window. Konqueror. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. can be accessed through the 60 . W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. By 2005.

JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The contents can be modified or deleted. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.6 . and VBScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java.

the text of an element node is stored in a text node.9.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.8. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".6 .8. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The tree structure is called a node-tree. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. However. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. <head> and <body>. everything in an HTML document is a node. The <html> node has two child nodes.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. 62 . 6. 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. the element node <title>.Html DOM 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <head> node holds a <title> node.

getElementsByTagName("p"). the top node is called the root Every node. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). child.2 node parents. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).9.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. 63 . The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children. • • • • • In a node tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. and the connections between them. By navigating the node tree.getElementById('main'). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.6 . Their contents can be modified or deleted. The terms parent. By using the getElementById() method 2. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. children. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. except the root. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. using the node relationships. and new elements can be created.9.

length. } 6.write("<br />"). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.i++) { document. each node is an object.write(x[i].6 . The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).Html DOM for (i=0.9. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). document.

A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.Html DOM 6.getElementById("intro").nodeValue.9.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.5 example . txt=x.6 .firstChild.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .

it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images. For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. frames. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.6 . but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements.

say "click". W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Also. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Fires when an element is activated.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Safari. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. and then bubbled up. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.6 . Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). When the user clicks on the inner element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. DOMNodeInserted. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). through a mouse click or a keypress. for instance.3. also supports these methods. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). 6. as of version 1. 67 . This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.

12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Unfortunately. etc. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. mouse position. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. key pressed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. mouse button pressed. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). preventDefault 68 . including information about target element.6 . Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.Html DOM 6.

before the whole page was sent within the network. etc. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. The server does some processing — retrieving data. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. For improving sharing of resources. using web services or Php scripts. but also to save resources. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. choices of user.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast.7 . crunching numbers. 7. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. For example. dynamic website. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.AJAX 7.AJAX 7 . fields of forms. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. 7. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. menus. 69 . It is not a technology in itself.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.

waiting. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. at the start of the session. Instead of loading a web page. waiting around for the server to do something. Obviously. but the opposite is true. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. And at every step in a task. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. While the server is doing its thing. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. we wouldn’t make users wait around. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. the user waits some more. what’s the user doing? That’s right.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense.7 . 70 . Once an interface is loaded.

without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. editing data in memory. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. usually using XML. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.7 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . loading additional interface code.

GET or POST . thanks to its methods and attributes. . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.holds a Xml loaded file.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.returned by the server . 1: connection established.for a Xml file or . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". It allows the interaction with the servers.open: create a connection. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 2: request received.responseText .mode: type of request.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. To get data on the server. and in this purpose. 7. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. onreadystatechange . 404 if the page is not found . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. These events are user actions. DOM's method allows to extract data.for a simple text. 4: finished.AJAX 7. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .url: the location of the file 72 . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .send: send a request to the server. boolean) . This object provides two methods: . they call functions associated to elements of the web page. 3: answer in process.200 is ok.responseXml . url. . .holds loaded data as a string of characters.7 .

open('GET'. but two options must be tried.fr/somefile.xml'.7 . if (request. .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. .. } else if (window. the data to send to the server. http_request. if (window. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. 'http://www.null for a GET command 7.open: command GET or POST. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. http_request. 73 . URL of the document. request. Safari.. true). OK } else { // wait.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. The request below reads a document on the server.readyState == 4) { // received. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.XMLHTTP").6 building a request.send: with POST only. // Firefox.xul.AJAX . true for asynchronous. for browser compatibility.send(null)..boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .

ajax.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). }.responseXML.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.readyState == 4) if(req. req.ajax.send(null).getElementsByTagName('root').7.responseText.dyn="Received:" + req.dyn="Error code " + req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7. else if (window. req. if(window. else document.7 examples 7. "data. req.status.XMLHTTP).status == 200) document.open("GET". // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.xml". by this code: var doc = req.ajax.7 .dyn=""Received:" + req.AJAX 7. req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.item(0).responseText. true).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


class>com. 2. like: 1. Others. servlet classes. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. After an enterprise bean is created. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. database connection resource pooling. descriptions). an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 6. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.xml file: <?xml version="1. 4.)> <web-app> <!-. MIME types used by the web application. like what pages are error. classes. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 3.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .ccards. Servlet. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. web. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces. entries related to session configuration. Here is a small.servlets. 8.bank11.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. but typical web.8 .. Initialization of parameters for servlets.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. data persistence. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.. 5. For example.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.

8 . In general.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.ccards. Then the "EnrollServlet. whose name is rather long.servlets. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. basicly. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets". For example. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. Behind a very benign URL. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.bank11.ccards.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.xml file of the web application. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").class" and that it is part of the package "com.bank11. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards.servlets". The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. it is the alias of the real servlet class. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. for flexibility. 1.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. However. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.xml" 2.xml" file.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Basicly.bank11. the name of the web application. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Unfortunately.

The current Java Servlet specification is 2. 2010.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.SERVLETS 9. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. small footprint. from BEA Systems.2.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. As of oct.4. modular design 9.5 and is in final state. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). platform independent programs. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.0 specification is available for public review. in most cases as part of an application server. more often. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.SERVLETS 9 . The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. 9.9 . but at this point. but through a web container. which extend the functionality of the web server. tjws spec 2. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . the Java Servlet 3. the HttpServlet) class. 9. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.0 specification. Technically speaking.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. this is just a work in progress. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .

from Apple Inc. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.servlet package are protocol independent.9 .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. IOException. public void destroy() throws ServletException. from IBM 9.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . Enterprise Edition. the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . These packages are: • • javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet. public void service(ServletRequest req. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . WebSphere.servlet. 82 . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. while the second one.

This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. ServletConfig. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. namely the HttpServlet class. as well. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). The method performs all initialization required. 9. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. in a different section. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. After instantiating the servlet.9 . The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. 83 . Throwable t) 9.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet API provides such a specific class. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. respectively. This method has two arguments. More on the servlet life cycle. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. service().9 . namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.servlet.lang.ServletException javax. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception and can be thrown by the init().servlet. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. 9. It also extends the java.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.

9 . which will service all incoming requests. If the servlet does not implement the javax. Also. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. 85 .servlet. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. etc.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. Typically.SingleThreadModel. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. 9. Typically. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. this method contains JDBC driver loading. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. JSP or JSF.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. respectively. DB connection opening. After instantiation.

12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

9 .ccards.java" file: package com. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.*.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. 87 .xml file.io. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. This is done in server's (container's) server. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.servlets. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. import java. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.bank11.

println("<br>").*.println("<body>"). out.println("</body>").println("</html>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("merge"). out. out. out. out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. } } 88 .close(). IOException { resp.init(config). // output your page here out.*.getWriter().servlet.9 . PrintWriter out = resp.println("<head>"). out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").http.SERVLETS import javax.servlet. out.println("</head>"). out.setContentType(“text/html”). import javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out.println("<html>").

The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. This solution is inefficient.odbc. The JDBC 4. After that.0 while the current (4. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.JDBC 10. Starting with version 3.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. Type 1. the javax. the java.sql package. 89 .sun. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. as recognized by the DB industry.sql package 2. 1997. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . These drivers fall into four standard categories.10 .JdbcOdbcDriver .jdbc.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. 10. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.0.JDBC 10 .0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.

JDBC Type 2. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. because it eliminates one level of indirection. which in turn. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Type 3. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products.10 . Type 4. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Part Java. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).

sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.3 the java.sql.Time java.0 API.DriverManager java.SQLPermission java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.Struct java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.sql. java.SQLWarning java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.JDBC 10.Statement java.Blob java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.ResultSet java.Types java.sql.Driver java.0).sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3. let's remind some of the most important ones. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLData java.SQLDataException java.SQLInput java.PreparedStatement java.10 .Connection java.Date java.Clob java.ResultSetMetaData java.Timestamp java.Array java.sql.

loading a database driver 2.sql.Clob java.SQLTimeoutException java.0.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java. establishing a database connection 3. querying the database 4.sql.Statement java.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.sql package.sql.SQLDataException java. java.sql.sql.SQLException java.SQLXML java.10 .DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.Blob java.Connection java.SQLNonTransientException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLOutput java.sql.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.ResultSet java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.StatementEvent javax.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLTransientException java.NClob java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.StatementEventListener 10.sql.RowId java.Types java.

The first one is loading a database driver.OracleDriver sun.10 .jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.borland.DataStoreDriver com.driver.ibm.SybDriver com.odbc.net.datastore.jdbc.JDBC 10.DB2Driver oracle.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.db2. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.sybase.jdbc.

import java. as specified by the driver vendor.*. String user = "root". } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.bank11.printStackTrace(). try { Class. 94 .Driver"). user. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).gjt. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.10 .sql. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. Since we just used it.mysql. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.getConnection(connURL.forName("org. but let's take it for granted: import java. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mm. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. passwd). by using the connection URL.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.*.util. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.newInstance(). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).

let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp.getConnection(connURL.10 . The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetConcurrency. Properties prp = new Properties(). "true"). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.JDBC 10.sql package. 10. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. String user. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. java.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Connection conn = DriverManager.put("create". "true"). prp. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. we can use it for various purposes. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("autocommit".util.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .

namely. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 . respectively. prepared statements and stored procedures. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. Statement. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.JDBC 10. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .10 .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.createStatement(). Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.executeUpdate(sqlString). Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. stmt.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.sql.".. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.. 10.

What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed.10 . and cursors are held over commit boundaries. and CallableStatement objects. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. 98 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. not at 0) or the column name.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. PreparedStatement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. as the argument. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. It is part of the javax.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Time java.DataSource object. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. Basic implementation -.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math.sql.produces a Connection object that will 103 . There are three types of implementations: 1.0 optional package. Connection pooling implementation -. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.Big Decimal Object float 10. basicly. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.sql. mins. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. secs date.math.sql. a factory for creating DB connections.produces a standard Connection object 2.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql package. This interface is.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. time.10 .

*. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. 3. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.getLogger(TestDataSource.http. import import import import import import java.io. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".getName()).*.sql. 104 .class.servlet. javax. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.ccards. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. javax.*.*.*. javax.bank11. Distributed transaction implementation -. java.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). private DataSource theDataSource.sql.servlets.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.10 .*. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.servlet.naming.lookup("java:comp/env"). } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax.

HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").10 .. ServletException { .

A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.tagext.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.jsp.jsp. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp and javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . namely javax.servlet. If the JSP is modified.servlet.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet.1 and is related to the 2.servlet. The javax.5 Java Servlet specification. The package javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. 11. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.JSP 11.servlet. The package javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.2 the java.JSP 11 . HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The JSP specific interfaces. 11.11 .

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. 111 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". include and taglib.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .11 . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.

7.7. In Tomcat. 11. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.11 .4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.JSP 11. Assigns it to available name or id.7 scripting elements 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. this code goes to inside the service() method. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.

Sets one Bean property to a specific value. Attributes description: • • • name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. you must specify param.the name of a bean instance.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.

converts them to string and displays the output to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . <jsp:forward>. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.the URL of the page.only the "true" value is supported.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. flush .13 the forward standard action 114 . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . same format as the <%@include> directive.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.

a name for the Bean or applet instance.. name="instanceName" .. depending on request.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).11 . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. If you do not supply a value.the name of a bean instance.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . It is used mainly.. servlet or to a static resource. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. archive="URIToArchive." ..the type of object the plugin will execute. . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. 11. as well. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . You must specify either bean or applet. code="classFileName" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .class extension in the name following code. when we want to separate the application into different views. as this attribute has no default value. You must include the . name .

it has java. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . it has javax.represents server's response to the request. out . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .1" .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. page .the amount of space. in pixels. based on the servlet API.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. of the image the applet or Bean displays. pageContext .servlet. response .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. optional port number. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. request . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .represents the servlet context. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.Object type and scope page 11. in pixels.11 . application .it represents the buffered version of java.PrintWriter. with a protocol name. objects which are automaticly available. request .16 scopes 1. config . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. The default value is 1. and domain name.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. 1. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.jsp.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. session .io.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. writes to the output stream to the client. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.lang.1.JspWriter type and scope page 7. Must be a small nonzero number.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. The value is a full URL.the initial height and width.

an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. session .jsp file. Object value) method 4. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.JSP request object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 2.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 3.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. page .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.11 .beans. Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .ccards.bank11. application . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.init().

The SimpleBean class is declared public.Serializable { private String string.simple. private SimpleSubBean subBean.18. private int list[]. a boolean and another String).mapping.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).examples. private int integer. private boolean flag. an int.11 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.java: package com. 11. private String colors[].devsphere. a software development and consulting company. SimpleBean.string.io. private String optional. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. The public constructor could have been omitted.register(). a float. private float number. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

colors[index]. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } 119 .colors = values.JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.string = value.number = value.integer = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.11 .integer.number. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.flag.colors. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag = value.

optional. } } 120 .list[index]. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.subBean.11 .list = values. String value) { this.list. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.subBean = value. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.colors[index] = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.optional = value. int value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.

string = value. SimpleSubBean. } } 11.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).Serializable { private String string.number = value. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.string.number.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.io.18. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.java: package com.11 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.devsphere. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.mapping. private float number. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.examples.simple.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .

number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

"An option must be selected" }.colors]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. 3 } }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. error messages. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.123) }.18.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. a boolean and an int[]. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.number]". new int[] { 2.flag]".devsphere. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.11 . "One or more colors must be selected" }. "abc" }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.list]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.list]".integer]". There are three error messages.java: package com. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The default values are defined for a String. a float. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.mapping.examples.simple. new Float(0. new String[] { 123 . { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". the list of optional properties. the processing order. "One or more items must be selected" }. SimpleBeanResources. the form's name and the processor's name. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.util. The list of optional properties has a single element. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.string]". new Boolean(true) }.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.

devsphere.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.util. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. new String[] { "string". "colors".18. The beanToForm() method of com.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.logging. { "[FORM_NAME]". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. "integer". The formToBean() method of com. "list". com. { "[PROC_NAME]".examples. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".devsphere.devsphere.devsphere.mapping. For a better understanding of this example. "SimpleForm.11 .FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.jsp" } }.*.mapping.JSP "optional" } }. SimpleHndl. "flag". } } 11. "SimpleProc. "subBean" } }.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.mapping.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. string values are converted to numbers. "optional".html" }.mapping. "number". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. If necessary. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").devsphere.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .

getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. logger). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.11 .getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getBeanResources(simpleBean. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.trim(). simpleBean. int slashIndex = basePath. slashIndex+1) : "". // Construct the base path String basePath = request.formToBean(formData. // Process the valid data bean instance application. 125 . errorTable = HandlerUtils.JSP = HandlerUtils. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).forward(request.util. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getTemplate(new java.io.removeUserErrors(errorTable). formPath = application.lastIndexOf('/').getDocument(). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).equals("POST"). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getServletPath(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.substring(0.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.trim().File(formPath)).getMethod(). response). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getClass()).getString("[FORM_NAME]").getRealPath(formPath).

devsphere.getSubBean().append("{ "). } %> 11.mapping. if (list. i < list.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.send(out).18.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.simple.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.number = <%= simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].getSubBean().JSP elements logger).11 .getString() %> <P> subBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. // Send the form document document.beanToForm(simpleBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.examples.length == 0) return "".getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.length. i++) 126 .string = <%= simpleBean. SimpleProc. document. errorTable. for (int i = 0.

if (list.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.11 .beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append(list[i]). In addition.append(" "). The localization of the Complex*. } %> 11. strbuf.length == 1) return Integer.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. } strbuf. return strbuf.toString(). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append("}"). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.append(" ").length. } strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.toString(list[0]). return strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier. Using the framework.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.util. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.examples.mapping.18.jsp files. strbuf. i < list.simple. i++) { strbuf.append("{ "). ComplexForm.devsphere. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. A single call to FormUtils.append("}").formToBean() call. In addition. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append(list[i]). ComplexHndl.length == 0) return "".toString(). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. for (int i = 0. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.

"integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green".length. for (int i = 0. "Option 2".length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.getInteger() == value.11 .JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i++) { boolean checked = false. "green". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j]. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". j < colors. i < colorValues.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "Blue" }. 128 . "blue" }.length. String colorValues[] = { "red". i < integerLabels.getColors(). "Option 3" }. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

setSubBean( new com. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.length.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .length. "Item 2". "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.JSP break.11 . "subBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.devsphere. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple. break.mapping.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. i < listItems. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".getList().examples. for (int i = 0. i++) { int value = i+1. j < list.getSubBean(). } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean selected = false. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.SimpleSubBean()). "Item 3" }.

util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.get(property).number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean. return message.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.11 .getString().equals("POST").mapping.setString("abc").examples. boolean isPostMethod = request.simple.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.devsphere.mapping. "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples.getMethod().util.devsphere.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".Hashtable errorTable.getSubBean(). 130 .simple.

equals("false")) flagValue = null. "string". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "number". } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.123f). } simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be filled").getParameter("flag").length() != 0) simpleBean.getParameter("number"). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be filled"). "An option must be selected").setFlag(flagValue != null).setNumber(0.setNumber(0. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.11 .getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.trim().getColors() == null || simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.floatValue()). if (flagValue.length() == 0 || flagValue. "integer".123f).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 . "number". else { simpleBean.getColors().

"subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "list". //* subBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("").string".getParameter("subBean. "One or more items must be selected").length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getString().length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "colors".string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.11 .number : text try { String numberValue = request.number".getString() == null || simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number").setOptional("").getList(). 132 . } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be } //* subBean.floatValue()). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). 3 }).

11 .setOptional(""). simpleSubBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.properties or web.setString("abc").jsp.number".123f). "Must be a number"). 3 }).xml: SimpleHndl. "subBean.devsphere. } %> 11. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. simpleBean.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.Hashtable errorTable.SimpleBean.\ 133 .setNumber(0. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.setString("").devsphere.simple.mapping. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".helpers.code=com.util. message). } } else { simpleBean. The com.JSP filled").setFlag(true).put(property.devsphere.mapping. simpleBean.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.examples.setList(new int[] { 2. errorTable. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.18. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.helpers.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. simpleBean. String property. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.

helpers.devsphere.another.devsphere. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.devsphere.host.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.AnotherBean. you could add a few other lines to servlets. If you have another bean-form pair.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.code=com.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.code=com.host. In many cases.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.simple.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.host. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.devsphere.helpers.examples.examples. A servlet can be made bean-independent. a servlet is identified with its class. 11.xml) file: ServletName. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.18.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.company.properties (or web. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.11 .com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .mapping.

11 .JSP 135 .

A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.javaserver faces 12 . Version 2. buttons.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. like input fields. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. processes events. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. Version 2.0.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.12 . which loads the appropriate view template.0 supersedes version 1. 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 12. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. builds a component tree. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. This technology includes: 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.

javaserver faces 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .12 . there are 25 HTML JSF tags.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1. 12.2 of the JFS specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.

javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. Common formatting techniques. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.12 . columns and rows. see the column tag documentation. 12.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. footers. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. respectively. For more information about columns. such as alternating row colors.4. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.

4.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. your options include using plain HTML forms.12 .jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.

5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.</span> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.12 .javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.user. 12.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component." /> 12.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.4.4. red for error.user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.5.

12 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. 12. For example. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. Any component that receives user input.12 .5.5. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. but only if the new input is validated successfully.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.mycompany. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. 12.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. The body content of this tag must be empty. Without this JavaScript event.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. can publish value change events. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. validateLength. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.customer.javaserver faces 12. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.

Example: welcome_en. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. myJSFapp 143 . for each locale you wish to support.12 . including images and styles.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. If you have not specified a default locale.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.5.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.javaserver faces 12.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.mycompany.

static resources.exadel. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.jar. It has a deployment descriptor. Create managed beans 4. and so on. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. jsf-api. like third party jar files jsf-impl.xml – the JSF configuration file. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.12 .contains libraries required by the application. Create properties files 144 . JSP pages.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.javaserver faces /ant build.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Define navigation rules 3. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.html.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create JSP pages 2. mandatory for any JSF application web. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. custom tag libraries.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .xml web.jar faces-config.jar jsf-api.

We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. we can create a navigation rule. In our application. And that's all there is to this. Create an index.12 . Now that we have the two JSP pages. Edit JSP pages 6. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp to greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Compile the application 8.jsp and greeting. we just want to go from inputname. As a diagram.xml file.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. You just need to create its contents.jsp is greeting. The directory structure already exists. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.7.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp file 7. These files will act as place holders for now.javaserver faces 5.jsp. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp. Deploy and run the application 12.7.

3 creating the Managed Bean Next.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. we will create a PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3.7. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.7.PersonBean.3 faces-config.xml Now.xml Your final faces-config.java file. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. myJFSapp.javaserver faces This is. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.1 PersonBean.) 12. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. Inside this myJFSapp folder.12 . of course. a very simple navigation rule. public class PersonBean { String personName.3. 12. This class is straight-forward.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. To read more about navigation rules.3. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. the second part of faces-config.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.7.xml file should look like this: 146 . You can easily create more complex ones. The next line is the full class name. 12.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.7.

Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.sun. Inc. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.7.7. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.1 inputname.sun.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 messages.1//EN" "http://java.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. 12.sun.7.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.4.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. 12.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .properties file in the bundle folder.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.12 .

1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .sun.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. <h:inputText value="#{msg.12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.

While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.sun.. specifically the bean attribute personName.6 creating the index.7.7.12 . The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. The first three lines are identical to our first page. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .bundle.javaserver faces Line 1. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Creates an HTML input text box. 12.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Create the index.</h3> tags.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Line 6. Line 2. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. Having an index. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.5. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.greeting_text}" />. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. name! 12.2 greeting. and also print its contents on the page.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. The second line will access a Java bean. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp page.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple..xml file. Lines 3-5.

bat in Tomcat's bin directory). When Tomcat is done loading. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. Your setup. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.sourceforge. To build the application run the build. This is used here. To do this.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12. 12.html .jsp. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml file.7.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. you'll notice the file suffix is .xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.8.xml file for the application *. We are almost done with this example. Of course. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.javaserver faces Now.9 Running Next.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. 12. because in the web. though. 12. This is a "login" application.jsf and not . we need to deploy it.7. might possibly be different). which asks an user for an ID and password. and forwards the user to a success or error page.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. verifies the information.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7. 150 .12 . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.

Select Java Project. name the folder webroot 5. The New Project wizard appears.. 6. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. select the Source tab.. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. your mileage may vary. 7. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. say. click Yes through messages that appear... in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). a... and to add JSF libraries to the project. click Next d.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. jsf-login. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.webroot | +-. in the wizard that appears. 12. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. Select the Amateras node.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. name the folder pages. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. 2. 10.12 . in the Add JSF Support page. click Finish 4. and set up folders for a web application. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 9. click Add Folder.8. click Next.WEB-INF 151 . Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. c. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.src | +-. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. make sure all checkboxes are checked.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. see Installing & Uninstalling. from the menubar select File/New/Other.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project... This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Enter project name. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. click Next. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.xml Editor (see faces-config. 1. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. 3.

from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. b. private String _pwd = "".javaserver faces | | | +-. input widgets appear d. in the Name field enter LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. The Java code editor opens.LoginManager. Click Finish. else action = "loginFail". } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.12 . } return action. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. } 4.java package login.xml. click Add.8.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. for name enter mgr. for scope select 152 . The faces-config. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. c. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". click Managed Bean.lib | +-. for class enter login.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. In Package Explorer select the src folder. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. 1. 3. a.xml editor opens. if ( _uid. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. 2. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.pages 12. The New Java Class wizard appears.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. In the Package field. from its context menu select New/Class. We then configure it to be a managed bean.xml Editor. enter login.

1.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Create success. the JSP Editor opens. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp). Enter the following code: <!-.javaserver faces session. but in webroot/pages.jsp). so we create them first. then close the editor 12. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. success. Create error. for File name enter index.jsp and error. from its context menu select New/File.jsp: create this file similarly to index. c. e.12 . click Finish.jsp. <!-.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. index.8. Enter the following code: <!-. in Package Explorer select webroot. save the file and close the editor.jsp: a. the New File wizard appears.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. from the menubar select File/Save.webroot/index. enter the following code.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.webroot/pages/error. Create index. b. All pages except login.jsp.jsp.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.webroot/pages/success. and 3 content pages (login. again. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Then we create login. but in webroot/pages.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp is placed directly in webroot. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. </body> Please try 153 .

charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. and dock it along the right. from its context menu select New/Other. (See Show View Dialog) f. Open the JSF palette.sun. and uses them for code completion as well. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.completion. <%@ page contentType="text/html. a code-completion window pops up. d. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. g.12 . etc. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. with the following template code. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.jsp. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. the New wizard appears.sun.jsp: a.javaserver faces </html> 4...com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. as shown below. and choose default for Template. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Create login. for File name enter login. 154 . now we want to add attributes to this element. enter jsf-login e.. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. b. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. click Finish. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. place your cursor in one of these lines. click Next c. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. To see this in action.

) j.12 . set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". enter #{mgr. with bean properties available in mgr. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .javaserver faces h. select userID from the code-completion window. insert another <h:inputText> element. and hit Enter. a code-completion window pops up. complete the expression with the closing { k. i.password}" l.sun. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. this inserts value="" at the cursor. with the barest presentational formatting.loginAction} The final code. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. set its value to Login.

it should open in the faces-config. 1.xml Editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Open faces-config.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml. click on Page.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 156 . This is shown below.8. 2. Select the Navigation tab 3. using a FacesIDE editor. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.12 . then click inside the editor window. this inserts a page icon into the editor. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.

in the Properties view.jsp. /pages/success. 5. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. select Navigation Case. This is shown below: 157 . notice that the warning triangle disappears.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. and is represented by an arrow. then click first on the icon for login.jsp. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. Its properties appear in the Properties view. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp 4. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. 6. and set them to /pages/login. change the value of path to /index.jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp and /pages/error. from the palette at left. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.12 . add 3 more pages.

We want virtual path-based mapping. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Similarly add a forward-action from login. or leave it as-is. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. any other id/password should send you to the error page. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. We'll set some properties in web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. all we need do in web. As it turns out. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.javaserver faces 7. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. 1. and extension-based mapping is turned on.8.12 .jsp.xml for the specifics of our application.xml. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. 12. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.jsp to error. so uncomment it. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.jsp. and you should be sent to the success page.xml Here we edit web.xml. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.jsp. The application is now complete. Once deployed browse to index. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.6 Editing web. open web.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. since we have such a trivial application.

start Tomcat.faces.faces.faces. open its Manager application in a browser.8..component. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.webapp 12.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.lifecycle javax.event javax.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.javaserver faces 12.10 the javax.convert javax. 12.faces.context javax.faces.application javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.validator javax.faces.html javax.faces.faces javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.. that factory is used.component javax.faces. For a given factory class name.faces.model javax.12 .render javax. scroll down to Deploy. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. for Context path enter /jsf-login.0 1. as file:///. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.el javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. the Manager application should reload. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 .. click Deploy 3.

with the last one taking precedence.faces. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.represents a single validation (or other) message. handling events and input validation.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. ViewHandlerWrapper . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. those factories are used. defining page navigation. StateManagerWrapper . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. ViewHandler . its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. FacesMessage .Severity . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. with the last one taking precedence. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. 12. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.12 .11 the javax. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. If none of the above steps yield a match. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. ApplicationFactory . StateManager . FacesMessage.

or a hyperlink.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. UIComponent . UICommand .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.restoreView(javax.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.FacesContext. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . ActionSource2 . String.faces.12 . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. • ViewExpiredException . EditableValueHolder . Here they are: • • UIColumn . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. UIComponentBase .context.faces.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.12 the javax.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. a menu item. • • 161 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. 12. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. ValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. StateHolder . ContextCallBack . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. String) results in failure on postback. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. NamingContainer . when activated by the user.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.

it is for display purposes only.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIMessages . The user can modify the selected values.component. UIGraphic . UINamingContainer .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that has a value. UISelectMany . UIForm . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. UIParameter . UISelectOne .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. Optionally. UIMessage .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. identified by a clientId. UISelectBoolean . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).javaserver faces • UIData . This component has no rendering.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UIPanel . The user can modify the selected value.13 the java. UIInput .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.html package 162 . that is displayed to the user. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UISelectItem . it just serves as the root of the component tree. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.faces. Optionally. UIViewRoot . The user cannot manipulate this component. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.12 .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. it is for display purposes only. UIOutput .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.

represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.faces. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML input element of type password. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.renders child components in a table. HtmlCommandLink .renders the component value as text. HtmlOutputFormat .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. On a redisplay.by default. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlColumn .12 . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlMessage . HtmlDataTable .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlInputText . and renders the result. or not.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlMessages . HtmlInputSecret . HtmlForm .represents an HTML img element.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. This component must be placed inside a form. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlPanelGrid . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlOutputText . but the application wishes to render more than one. The label text is specified by the component value.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.Message".represents an HTML input element of type hidden. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlPanelGroup . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML input element of type text. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML textarea element.faces. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.by default.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML label element.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML form element. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.

HtmlSelectOneListbox . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyListbox .15 the java.faces.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. showing a single available option at a time.12 .14 the java. and potentially modified by.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • • • 12. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. and the rendering of the corresponding response.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseStream .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. It is passed to. In particular.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.faces. showing a single available option at a time.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. FacesContext .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.convert package 164 . FacesContextFactory . • • • • • • 12. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneMenu .javaserver faces property. ResponseWriterWrapper . ResponseWriter . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .

12 .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.faces. VariableResolver .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. ValueBinding .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. 12. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. PropertyResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. Classes: MethodBinding .16 the java.15.javaserver faces 12.

PhaseId .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. ReferenceSyntaxException .faces.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesListener .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. ValueChangeListener . PhaseEvent . • • • • 12. ValueChangeEvent .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .12 . MethodNotFoundException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.AbortProcessingException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. PhaseListener .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • • One exception . and event implementation classes.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.17 the java.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). PropertyNotFoundException . FacesEvent . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. 166 . Interfaces: ActionListener .

lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.20 the java.12 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.faces. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. SelectItem . DataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". ListDataModel . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.javaserver faces 12.18 the java.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. Classes: ArrayDataModel . DataModelEvent .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). SelectItemGroup .19 the java.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . 12. Renderer .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. • • • • • • • • • 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. ResultSetDataModel .faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ResultDataModel .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. ScalarDataModel .

if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. LongRangeValidator . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. as well. Typically.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.faces.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.22 the java.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. • • 12.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. 12. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. base classes for JSP custom component tags.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. and concrete validator implementation classes. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. RenderKitFactory . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . together.validator package Interface defining the validator model. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.12 . ConverterTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. The package contains an exception. • RenderKit . AttributeTag . markup language. including a standard servlet.faces. and/or user Locale. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.21 the java.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . ResponseStateManager .

UIComponentTag . JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. telling the model to update its data. When a web server receives a request. Likewise. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. which has several implications. Also. • • • • • FacesServlet . When using JSF. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. servlets. that request is passed to the container. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the life cycle is more complicated. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. or some other web technology. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. 12. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. but basically. the controller sends a message to the model. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. In MVC. UIComponentBodyTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way.a base class for all JSP custom actions. When the model is updated. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. FacetTag . the controller sends a message to the view. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.12 . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the process includes a few more components or pages. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). In JSF. that need to process their tag bodies. the JSF life cycle does not apply. related to a UIComponent.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. or when an exception occurs. which passes the request to the page class. telling the view to update its presentation. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). When the user takes some action with the presentation. ValidatorTag . the controller is the 169 .the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.

javaserver faces JSF implementation. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). not every request will flow through all six phases. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. is validated at this time. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. and the UI components are the view. the JSF implementation must create the view. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. • Invoke Application: During this phase. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. from cookies sent as part of the request. The components are stored in a component tree.12 . and what happens during the processing and response. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. As with the previous phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. These objects update their state with the data values. If this is a subsequent request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. Data can come from input fields in a web form. or from request headers. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and the response is sent to the client. depending on the request. It updates only the UI components with the new data. In addition. However. For a JSF-enabled application. converting a String to a Date object). the conversion occurs in this phase. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. In addition. it creates UI objects for each view component. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. Data for some components. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. and a piece of data failed validation. 170 .

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. skipping any remaining phases.javaserver faces In the above figure.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. 171 . One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. For example. Also. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.

COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. Thus the DNS name sales. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. when you use an electronic mail system.JNDI 13 .JNDI 13. and NIS(YP). such as addresses. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. c:\bin\autoexec. NDS. It enables applications to access different."). The UNIX pathname. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. DNS.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. which is located in the root of the file system. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".2.5).48. you must supply its name. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. In addition. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. 13. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.COM. A file system maps a filename (for example. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. naming and directory services using a common API. such as LDAP. names a file hello in the file directory usr. 172 .13 . JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. possibly multiple. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.9. To access a file in the computer. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. or objects typically used by computer programs.sun. for example. For example.COM. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. identifiers. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). For example. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. you are always naming one object or another. /usr/hello. in turn. For example. you supply it the name of the object.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. Using JNDI. When using almost any computer program or system. The DNS entry Wiz. 13.Wiz.

on the other hand. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. For example. its flight plan. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. also called a file handle. that is.2. relative to the entry o=Sun. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object.2. in a file directory /usr/bin. while the object itself might contain more state information. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. and its flight number and departure time. unbinding names. in the UNIX file system is a context. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. and listing bound names. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time.c=us. A printer object reference. For example. some objects cannot be stored directly. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. which in turn. Every context has an associated naming convention. 13. is a context. is relative to c=us. By contrast. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. such as c=us. they must be stored by reference. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). In another example. For example. 13. delimited by the comma character (". A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. o=Sun. a file directory. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. such as its print server name and printing protocol.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. a file name is bound to a file. A file object. A reference is information about how to access an object. in the DNS domain Sun. 173 . Finally. is accessed using a file reference. for example. such as COM.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. that is. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.13 . Using the reference. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray.2. an LDAP entry. For example. and fuel and instrument status. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. For simplicity. A printer object. 13.COM. For example. is a context. That is. a DNS domain. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. Typically. such as /usr. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. might contain the state of the printer. for example. Instead."). The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("=").

and even the computer itself and other computers.2. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system.13 . A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. a name is unique 13. a person. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. various telephone numbers. to some extent. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. a computer. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. however. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. For example. For example. postal mail address.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. 13. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. two different computer 174 . to represent a printer. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. resolution.3. For example. because we can. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. For example. for example. For example. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. or a network. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. A directory object can be used. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. 13. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. one context can be viewed. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. and computer account information. An example is the telephone company's directory service.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. And it kind of makes sense. programs. and color. Thus.

And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. such as those based on the LDAP. For example. A Java mail client program. networks. By using a directory service. 13. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. Within the DIT. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.4.13 .com". the ability to access directory services will become essential. many directories. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. that is. adding. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. printers. 13. 13. Similarly. for example. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.3. for example.smith@somewhere. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. and users.113. The service is accessed through its own interface. called a directory information tree (DIT). Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. 13. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. an organization object.3. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. such as the file and print services. removing. When you search. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. 13.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. such as that relating to machines. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. can use the directory in the traditional way. for example.3. The query is called a search filter. The email address. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. Alternatively. When directory objects are arranged in this way.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. Many examples of directory services are possible. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. like any other program running on the network. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. "mail" is the attribute identifier. support the notion of searches. For example. 175 .50".

you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.4.5.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.1 and v1. To use the JNDI. more coherent and manageable.13 . When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. emerging. v1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. v1. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and the Java 2 SDK.directory javax. The Java 2 SDK.3 and later releases. 13. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.naming. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.ldap 176 .naming javax.naming. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. 13. 13. 13. For example.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).1 and Java 2 SDK. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. Thus a variety of directories--new.5. and even the network.event javax.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. It extends the v1.2. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.2.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. For example.naming. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.

13.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. which is the core interface for looking up.lang. a 177 . and the object itself. 13.6. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. For the methods in the Context interface.6.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. the name of the object's class. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6 the naming package The javax. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. A java. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. printer. The overloads that accept java. comparing components.13 . so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. In this case. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.print(report).6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . that is.spi 13. composing them. list() is similar to listBindings(). the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. binding/unbinding. For example.String name. and it returns the object bound to that name.1 context The javax. Furthermore.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. However. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.lookup("treekiller"). (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. 13. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .lang.JNDI • javax. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. for some objects in the directory. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.naming.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.lang. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.naming package defines a Context interface. and so on. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. 13.String name argument represents a composite name. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.6.

7. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. replace. 13. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. 13.directory package extends the javax. 178 . Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. There are no absolute roots.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. Once you have an initial context.6. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.13 . Otherwise. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().7.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 13. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. InitialContext. You can add. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. they should catch NamingException. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. For example. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.naming. 13. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.7 directory package The javax. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.6. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.

For example. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. such as "object changed.naming. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. 13. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. or unsolicited notifications. For example. controls.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . 13.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. These operations are called "extended" operations.naming.naming.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.ldap package at all. 13. In fact. such as information about the object before and after the change.naming.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.naming. that is.9." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.JNDI 13. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.9.9. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.8 event package The javax. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. 13.directory package.13 . A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. and vice versa.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. called controls ." and those that do not. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. such as "object added. Once registered.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.9 LDAP package The javax. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. To receive event notifications.

implementors of Context.naming. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context. 180 .10. 13.9. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. sending request controls. In the process of completing an operation. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. That is.11. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.naming package.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.1 plug-In architecture The javax.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.13 .1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. 13. create a file named Lookup.Context.java. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming. This support is provided in the form of state factories.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10.naming. and receiving response controls.10 service provider package The javax.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. 13. For example. if you look up a printer name from the directory.2 java object support The javax.10.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. import javax. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.

11. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.RefFSContextFactory").11. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.err. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. } 13.jar as an installed extension. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. } catch (NamingException e) { System. env. then the JNDI classes are already included.jndi. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Object obj = ctx.3.lookup() to look up an object.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.naming.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Otherwise. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.5 compiling the program Next.put(Context. "com.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.NamingException. If the compilation succeeds.13 .jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. import javax. 181 . using the capitalization shown. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). as follows.java).sun. To compile to program.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. you must have access to the JNDI classes. create an initial context. 13.fscontext.out. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. For this reason. 13. v1.3 looking up an Object Next. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).JNDI import javax.naming. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.11. // Print it System. If you are still having problems. 13.11.lookup(name).InitialContext. use Context. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).lookup(name). If the compilation fails.

javax.6 running the program To run the program.class).jar). javax.directory packages. import import import import import javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. 13.naming.bat If you supply a file directory.put(Context.directory. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.NamingException. and your example class (Lookup.Context.directory. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). javax.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.12.naming. To run the program. env.java.Attributes. javax. 182 . then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.sun.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.directory. 13.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.12. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.naming and javax.jar and providerutil.naming.put(Context.sun. then you will see something like the following.naming. "com.naming. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. include the directory that contains your Lookup.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. create an initial directory context. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). Finally. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.JNDI 13. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.naming.LdapCtxFactory"). env.ldap.3.fscontext. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.jndi. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.13 .DirContext. v1.jndi.11.PROVIDER_URL. you need access to the JNDI classes.InitialDirContext. supply the name of a file in your file system. the file system service provider. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. create a file named Getattr.

ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.get() and then from that attribute get its value.12.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.12. Attributes.println("sn: " + attrs. For now. 13. For this reason.java).err. 13. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If the compilation fails.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. 13. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. ou=People"). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get() on it to get its value: attrs. As with the naming example. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.get("sn").13 . you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn"). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.get()).println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).12. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. Similar to the naming example.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.get(). ou=People"). using the capitalization shown.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. 183 .JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).6 compiling the program Next. If you are still having problems. If the compilation succeeds. compile the source file using the Java compiler.out. } 13.

it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").JNDI 13.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.3. then these classes are already included.13 . then see the Common Problems lesson. With this configuration. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.12. env. If you have any trouble running this example.7 running the program As with the naming example. v1.class.jar).jar and providerutil. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.PROVIDER_URL. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. Getattr. ou=People". 184 . you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. Once it has the attributes. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").put(Context.

unless it has established a durable 185 .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. As the name queue suggests.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. In this model.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS consumer . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. JMS client . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. Here.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS queue .a JMS client that receives messages.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS topic .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS producer . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. the messages are delivered in the order sent. Enterprise Edition.14 .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. • 14. JMS message .

The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Depending on the type of message. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.14 . Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. In that case. 14. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 14.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.4. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.3 the JMS API programming model 14.jms. Using Java. 186 . On the receiving side.

A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Connections implement the Connection interface. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must close any connections that you have created. It receives messages sent to a destination. Before your application can consume messages. Like the connection factory. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.close(). the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. In a J2EE application. The JMS administrator creates these objects. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.4. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. For example. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .lookup("jms/MyTopic").4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Before an application completes. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.4. Depending on the connection type. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). For example. you must call the connection's start() method.14 . you call the stop() method. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. 14. and users discover them using JNDI. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. 14. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.lookup("jms/MyQueue").3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.createConnection().2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. connection. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. It is either a queue or a topic. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.

After you have created a message consumer. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. For example.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. it becomes active. connection. For example.) When message delivery begins. You use the Session. Message m = consumer.receive(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. MessageConsumer consumer = session. A message listener does. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.receive(1000). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.start(). 188 . the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. you are likely to miss messages. Message m = consumer. usually expect a specific message type and format. (Remember always to call the start() method. if it needs to reply to messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. consumer. a message listener object may be used. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. and you can use it to receive messages. After you register the message listener. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. which contains one method.start(). onMessage(). In the onMessage() method. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. This object implements the MessageListener interface. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. Moreover.setMessageListener(myListener). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.4. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.createConsumer(myTopic). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). however. 14.createConsumer(myQueue).

For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. 14. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. message. bytes message. anon_prod. map message. and object message).7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. stream message. For example. At the consuming end.4.send(message). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.setText(msg_text).createProducer(myQueue). to create and send a TextMessage. if you created an unidentified producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. from one application to another.receive(). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 189 .14 .4. message). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. Here. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.createProducer(null). MessageProducer producer = session. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You must first create the messages.send(myQueue. A message has three main parts: 1.createProducer(myTopic). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. With an unidentified producer. After you have created a message producer.createTextMessage(). It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.send(message). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 3. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. // msg_text is a String producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. that is.

the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.14 . Session. After you create a Connection object.4. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. 0). you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Before committing the transaction.createSession(false. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. and message consumers to receive messages. the first argument means that the session is transacted.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.out. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.getText()). use the following code: Session session = connection. If the user selects transaction support. Sessions implement the Session interface. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.println("Reading message: " + message. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.createSession(true. To create a transacted session. } else { // Handle error } 14. then delivers the messages. 190 .

message-driven beans The 2.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.jar file into the application server.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.transaction management can be complex.no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .consistent error handling framework . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. server which provides an execution environment for containers. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.15 . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . the container lives (in general) in an application server. improved performance security .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. Version 1.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. container which offers services to the component.0. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . On the other side.0.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.DB interaction transactions . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). 15. The component lives inside a container. bundled into a single unit. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.object oriented representation of data in a DB. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.logging.

returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.15 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the deployment descriptor.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. as follows: 1. which is an xml file. called ejb-jar. the home interface of the bean 3. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.xml 15.

public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.rmi. RemoteException.RemoteException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. import.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. int custId) throws RemoteException.javax.*. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.*. } 15.ejb.ejb.rmi. import java. } 193 .RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface. String lastName.javax. import java. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. While the Remote interface declares no methods.15 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.

implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. "org. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. this can be done (for example) through SSL. "localhost:1099").interfaces. we need to know: 1. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. creating them for the client application.15 . The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.NamingContextFactory".INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. prop. In the case of an web application. } 194 . the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().PROVIDER_URL.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. if the client executes outside the container. how to create or find the bean 2.jnp. prop.put(Context.

• if the client executes outside the container.rmi. more specifically.15 . This is done through the javax. to the appropriate type. do implements the java. do not have the concept of casting. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. but for generic languages. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.e. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. MyBeanHome. Why? For EJB. using the narrow() method. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. in fact. in fact. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. Some languages.PortableRemoteObject class and. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject..lookup("MyBean").rmi. 195 . and this means that there are some limitations. Problem is. the client has a stub). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").class).Remote interface).narrow(homeRef. that is part of CORBA standards. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.

set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).processEntry("Dumitrascu".remove(). the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ejb.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. 15. int custId) { // method implementation . } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .SessionContext..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ejbeans. public class MyBean implements javax.bank11. import javax. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.. "Vasile".ejb.. remove the bean instance myObject.15 .ccards. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. 1102). String lastName. call business methods on the bean myObject. as well).create().

The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. that is.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. 15. 197 .9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.15 . A stateless bean does not. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. 15. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.

15 . If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. or passivate. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. Figure 15. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. The ejbCreate method. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. the client invokes the remove method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. All other methods in Figure 15. the EJB container activates the bean.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. 198 . you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. 15. (Typically. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.1 are invoked by the EJB container. At the end of the life cycle. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. is inside the bean class. For example. for example. and then moves it to the ready stage.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.15 . support for concurrent access 3.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. stored in a Database). equals() 199 . • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.

CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. state data is stored into data store (usually.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. On the other side. as the parameters in the original create() method. all throwing RemoteException. Read.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.14. 200 . This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.ccards. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.15 . Update and Delete. an instance of that bean is created. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. methods which have the same parameters.lang. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). in the same order. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. We can have more create() methods. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. CreateException.bank11. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.

15.2 read • • • ejbLoad().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. for BMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. in BMP. 201 .15 . it's business methods can be invoked. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it is empty.14. the client invokes the create method. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. for BMPs. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. While in the pooled stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.14. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. not null. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. After instantiation. but the developer returns null for CMP. but in general. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 15. All instances in the pool are identical. a client can invoke the remove method. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. On the first path. After the EJB container creates the instance. the programmer will create actual SQL code. Second.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. left empty most of the time in CMP. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.14. On the second path. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. First. actual SQL update code.

it does not automatically set the primary key. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . another enterprise bean. With bean-managed persistence.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. 202 .an application client. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. or a Web component . In the pooled state. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. In the pooled state. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. Therefore. If the primary key is incorrect. 15.getPrimaryKey().15 . the values of the instance variables are not needed.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.

15. the message will be redelivered.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. Previously. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. When a message arrives. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.16.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.16.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. In several respects. 15. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a JMS API connection. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. but not asynchronously.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. The onMessage method may call helper methods. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. an open database connection. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. If this element is set to more than one. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. For more information on this element see.for example. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. Unlike a session or entity bean. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 203 .16. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. To ensure concurrency. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.15 . by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.16. 15. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. max-beans-infree-pool. To avoid tying up server resources. If message processing is rolled back. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . message-driven bean can be used. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.

.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. public void onMessage(javax.16. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. // An EJB constructor is required.jms.}. 2. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. Note: These instances can be pooled. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. As with other EJB types. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. 15. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. and it must not // accept parameters. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. methods.16.15 .6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.jms. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). finalize{}.Message MessageName) {. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Obtain a new bean instance. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.. Classes.} // onMessage() is required. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax..0 specification. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. public void ejbRemove() {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . or create a new one.ejb. 15.. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 3..16.Message.

The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.16. getUserTransaction(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. 15. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). If any method throws such an exception. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.15 .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. However. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). getRollbackOnly() . See javax. 15.MessageListener.16. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. For example. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.This is not a client context. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). from the client perspective the EJB still exists.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. even in onMessage(). Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.jms.16. 15.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.onMessage() for more information.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.

both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). as required by the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.16.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. In either case. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.15 .13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. 15.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16.xml. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.0 specification. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.16. as described in the EJB 2.0 specification. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.

message. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. as described in the EJB 2.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. For each instance. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.15 . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax..xml deployment file. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. </message-driven> .ejb20. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 207 . 2.. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. the weblogic-ejb-jar. 15.xml elements.0 specification. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.jms.

isolation level.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. At the end of the life cycle. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.security issues. the home interface name 7. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. entity specific elements 10. the container calls the ejbRemove method. control descriptors . a message-driven bean is never passivated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. bean home name .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. attributes . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. session specific elements 9. EJB class name 5. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. access control entries . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.like transaction.15 . the remote interface name 8.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. security 208 . 15. environment properties 6.

bank11.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ejb.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.lang.ccards.ccards.ccards.bank11.ejb.15 .CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.bank11.ccards.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ejb.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..lang..15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.


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