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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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like HTML pages.1 . or finance. and sends it back to the client program.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. like the client tier. 5 . processes it (if necessary).java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1.2 Server communication 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Figure 1.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. are not considered web components. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. 1. The web tier.7 business components Business code. retail. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. processes it (if necessary). is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.

Before a web. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. enterprise edition Figure 1. and other legacy information systems.1 . In addition.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. resource pooling.3 Web. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. or application client component can be executed. For example.9. database systems. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. and other complex low-level details. mainframe transaction processing. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 1. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.9 java EE Containers Normally.java platform. 1. multithreading.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Business and EIS Tiers 1. enterprise bean. 6 .

The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. including services such as security. database connection resource pooling. 7 . For example. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 1. transaction management. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and remote connectivity. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.1 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. After an enterprise bean is created.9.java platform. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. data persistence.

No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned.java platform. When XML data is exchanged between parties. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. Web container . extensible.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. Application clients and their container run on the client. or for document-oriented web services. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. test. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . XML data. Application client container .1 . 8 . For example.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. video. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . develop. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. 1. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. or any kind of binary data such as audio. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. enterprise edition Figure 1. Applet container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open.manages the execution of applets.manages the execution of application client components.10. 1. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. program files. text-based standard for representing data. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. maps.

WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). enterprise edition 1. 9 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.1 .java platform. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. the location of the service. such as Universal Description. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. 1.10. 1.10. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The description includes the name of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. and ways to communicate with the service.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.

Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.11.java platform.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. If the client terminates. and XML) and JSP elements.11. Commonly.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.11. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.1 . WML. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. In Java EE 5. 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. or enterprise bean. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. enterprise edition Figure 1. you employ a single.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. standard set of tags. 1. or if the server shuts down. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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15 . A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . the application is ready to run. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. SAAJ.java platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. or a component. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. it is ready to be deployed. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. module.ear extension. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. At runtime. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. No extra coding is needed. such as better performance. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. JSP page. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. better tools. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. JTA. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. servlet.1 .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. or component accordingly. a module. or better customer support. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. and JNDI 1. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Once deployed on a local platform.

• • 16 . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. and a web application deployment descriptor. JSP files. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. supporting class files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. for example. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. Application client modules.jar extension. enterprise edition Figure 1.war (Web ARchive) extension. such as caching directives. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. native libraries. which contain all Java interfaces. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . and other documentation. Together. Resource adapter modules. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. For example. classes.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.java platform. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Web modules.1 . GIF and HTML files. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.

but they also have some common structural elements. The second (and last. RFC 2616 (06/99). These messages may have different contents.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. check the official HTTP site – www.1.HTTP 2.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. . HEAD.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. namely HTTP 1.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. was the object of several RFCs. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.org/Protocols . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. we recommend www. as follows: 1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.HTTP 2 . of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.html).jmarshall. 2. an initial line 2. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .. zero or more header lines 3.2 .. so far) version.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements..w3. The client sends a request message to the server.ietf. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).com/easy/http. The server answers with a response message.apps. POST.org/rfc/rfc1945.

POST 4. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. mailing list. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. HEAD 3.2 . HTTP/1. as well. GET /path/to/the/file/index.1 specification. 18 .html HTTP/1. PUT 8. TRACE Three other commands are listed. DELETE 6. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.0). but lack of support makes them obsolete.Posting a message to a bulletin board.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. Here is their list: 1.Annotation of existing resources. CONNECT 5.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. OPTIONS 7. in the HTTP 1. newsgroup. .1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. GET 2. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.

a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. after the “?” character. (encoded as multipart/form-data).8 the status code A three-digit integer. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.0 404 Not Found 2. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or a record is subordinate to a database. . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. 2.” On the other side.HTTP or similar group of articles. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. .6 differences between GET and POST 1. In this case. while POST may involve anything. or ordering a product. separated by the character “&” or “. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . or sending E-mail 2.Extending a database through an append operation. 2. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.2 . as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. such as the result of submitting a form. or in the message body. like storing or updating data. 3. to a data-handling process. When used for form data submission.Providing a block of data.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.

header name and header value. and section 10 for HTTP 1.0 version specifies 16 headers. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. none of them mandatory.2 .the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). where the requested resource is returned to the client. header values are. or otherwise can't run correctly. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. In particular. out of which. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. such as text/html or image/jpg.0.1 only) .1). separated a semicolon. In a request. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.the request succeeded.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . 2. The most common use of the message body is in a response. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. and the resulting resource (e.the requested resource doesn't exist. file or script output) is returned in the message body. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. one (Host) is mandatory.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.1 version specifies 46 of them. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. 404 Not Found . The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. If an HTTP message includes a body. Although the header names are not case sensitive. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.an unexpected server error. that is. 500 Server Error .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 20 .g. while the HTTP 1. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 2. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. The HTTP 1. fails.

ro.html first open a socket to the host web. video.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.html HTTP/1. 21 . with subtypes octet-stream. image. with subtypes jpeg. .ro/path/file.uvt.HTTP 2. audio. gif 6. Here is the list of the seven types. Then. parallel 3. with subtype basic 7. digest.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.uvt. alternative.info.info. message. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ietf.2 .0 From: someuser@yahoo. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. RFC 1521 (www. 1.0 200 OK Date: Fri.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . text. multipart. with subtypes mixed.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. with subtypes rfc822. partial.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). with subtype mpeg 2.org/rfc/rfc1521.apps. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype plain 2. postscript 5. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. external-body 4. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. application.

the server closes the socket.HTTP . 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.2 .

3.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.org/Markup . HTML describes how text.01.0.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. As a practical reference site use – www. Other helpful sites . -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. www.blooberry.com/tutors.html. A newer standard.99.htmlgoodies.0. Since it fits in a couple of pages. namely HTML 1.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. a working draft for the next major revision. The XHTML 1.jmarshall.3 .2 (3.0 and was accepted in December 1997.apps. The latest version (XHTML 2. The first official version – HTML 2.com/indexdot/html .01) can be found at this address: http://www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. However. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. check the official HTML site – www.www.0) dates from 08.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. The newest version of HTML is 4. Originally named Web Applications 1.org/rfc/rfc1866. HTML 3. From 1999 on. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. Mosaic.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.com/easy/html . Version 4. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.w3c.ietf. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.HTML 3 .0 .w3. It is a revision of 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. The first version of HTML.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.html) and was widely supported. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.HTML 3.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.0 draft was released in 01.

-_:" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

An example: <!-.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. If you wonder what a character reference is.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. the specification of HTML 4. Check the address http://www. 3.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. 3. 4.0 Transitional DTD.0 contains an SGML declaration.acesta este un comentariu." (in hexadecimal) . HTML 4. Overall.w3. You get the point.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.3 . Document instances containing data (content) and markup. though. BORDER. DYNSRC. CONTROLS. “&quot”.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. …. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements.the chinese character for water. three DTDs (HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. "&#x6C34.0 Strict DTD.01 specification. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. look at these examples: “&lt”. like ALIGN. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. VSAPCE are omitted. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. <><> --> 25 . with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.and end at the first occurrence of -->.

specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.ro/webmail/src/login. NAME.info.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3 . etc.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.uvt.5 tables 26 .php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. image.3.HTML 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3.

Here is their description and attributes. <TR>.3 . columns.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TH> and <TD>. its rows. Usually. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is a an example of a table: 3. headers and cells are <TABLE>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 .required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.7 forms A form is a basic component container.

required. Main attributes: • TYPE . specifies the parameter name. however.info. Main attributes: 29 . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.8.uvt.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "hidden". "submit". after a quotation mark .required.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "text/plain" • • 3. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .8 form related elements 3.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.sends the form values in a single transmission. may have the values GET or POST. Example: http://web. "file". allows multiple selections from the choice list.the default value.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. specifies how data will be sent to the server. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. 3. "GET" .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. NAME .?.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "password".3 . "image". "reset".required.8. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "checkbox". • 3. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .if specified. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". "radio". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.maximum number of options visible to the user.HTML • METHOD . SIZE .:. the browser appends the values to the URL. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "button".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. The first time a class is loaded. jit From source to execution. following the 1. To overcome this significant shortage.C:\TW\mySource.java 2. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.class file.3 java applications 31 . javac -classpath .class file.class. project started in 12. a tool named Just In Time compiler.95. the compilation process occurs. In terms of execution time. The current version (as of 10. 4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.JAVA PRIMER 4 .JAVA PRIMER 4.java One example of command line compilation: 4.2 java the interpreter.2 version. Inc.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.90.4 . allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.java..0. Early versions of Java were released in 12. but next time execution is much faster. Example: Edit the file prog1. Java bytecode – a file with extension . Java source – a file with extension . The current version (as of 10.) in 08.class 3.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. -g : generate all debugging info.95.4.

each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . or that it extends A). Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . or is derived from A. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4. Generally. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. An example: 32 .4 object oriented concepts 4.4.jar file. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.java.4 .JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. In general. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.

3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. 4. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. 4. namely: Byte. with the root the class Object. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. Therefore. Double.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. In OO jargon.1 bit char . Short. a Java class can extend a single base class. Long. Therefore.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. In fact. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. this is called method overloading. 4. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Character. Boolean. providing its own implementation. Float.4. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. called Object. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Integer. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 33 .4 .

the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . rather than at class instance. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. method .access from any class anywhere private . has the same value for all class instances. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.4 . } declares an abstract class.http. 34 . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .one which is constant method .does not have any subclasses. inherited). automatic garbage collection. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.servlet. anywhere abstract . no templates..HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. • • • • no specifier .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). class . 4. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. which extends the class javax. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . A final variable (method. A final: • • • variable .servlet.the class is visible from any class.one which is defined at class level..HttpServlet implements Serializable { .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. Except for the "package" concept.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.http.no access from outside the class itself protected .

Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. not at execution time. 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . division by 0.ThreadDeath. In Java. standard method exceptions 3. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7. 2. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.JAVA PRIMER 4.7.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. Exception categories: 1. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. as defined in the java. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4. code or data errors .4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.like invalid cast.4 .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. array index out of bounds. programmer defined exceptions 4. namely class Error and the class Exception.7. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. java errors .2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. 4.

by adding the key word throws.awt.sql java.security 36 . In the example above.rmi java.Properties.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.4 . 4.bank11.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.support for data collections. don't have to import java. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.lang .zip . finally construct. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.io java. string analyzers.this can be done by providing a try. therefore. The package containing the standard classes is java.nio java. the default package is used). rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.net java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .sql.event .util. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.ccards.util.support for event handling java..util . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. the class (the .8. import. followed by the import statements.*. All other packages must be explicitly imported.class file.support for java archives creation java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).awt . date and time info java.servlets. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . catch. .default. 4. An example: package com.geom .. 4. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.lang (automatically available). import javax.awt. they have to be unique inside a package.1 Package names The default package has no name. As a general rule.support for user interface java.

10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.4 . 37 .swing.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. it must be declared as abstract. All variables (actually. static and final.text javax. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.accessibility javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.event . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.support for event handling 4.

Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript statement like this: document. 5. like QtScript or ActionScript. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. The origins of this language date back to 1995.JAVASCRIPT 5.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. then LiveScript and finally. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.5 .depending on the browser .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .javaScript 5 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. However. and . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. other 38 .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. Subsequently. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. as JavaScript. This is not always what we want.

4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3. 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a . or when an event is triggered. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.5 .. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.3. </script> </head> 5. without having to write the same script on every page. When you place a script in the head section. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. go in the head section. </script> </body> 5..js file extension. 39 . point to the .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages... To simplify this.

... 5.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". for(). else.. break.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.In statement The for.4.1 JavaScript for.4. The code in the body of the for .4... This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. while() it is worth mentioning the for .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.javaScript 5. 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"..5 .4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.5.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. namely – if . 5.4.. continue. catch constructs. in loop is executed once for each element/property.. in and the try . switch(). Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .... while().

5.. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".5.. for (x in mycars) { document... The try block contains the code to be run. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. mycars[0] = "Saab". or a property of an object. so you don't lose your audience. an array element. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.catch statement (available in IE5+.0.3 try. var mycars = new Array().5 .write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. When users see errors. mycars[1] = "Volvo". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.catch statement The try.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. mycars[2] = "BMW". } </script> </body> </html> 5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. Mozilla 1.. they often leave the Web page.. Example Using for.

7 popup boxes 5. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. Also.7. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). 5.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").\n\n".description + "\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Syntax: 42 .5 .\n\n". strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. alert(txt). txt+="Click OK to continue.

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. When a prompt box pops up. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up. Now.8.5 . If the user clicks "Cancel".. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").7.8 functions 5. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns false. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. in the example above had not been written within a function.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . Syntax: prompt("sometext".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.js file). If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.7. the box returns true. the box returns null."defaultvalue") 5. If the user clicks "OK". the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. in the <head> section.

b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. 5.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.var2. 5.9 javaScript objects 5. So. 5.9. and will be stored in the variable called product. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.javaScript function functionname(var1.write(txt. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. etc are variables or values passed into the function.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. and how they are used. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.varX) { some code } var1. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.8.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.5 .. document. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 ..9. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.length).. var2.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.

9.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document. which will be specified in the next section.javaScript 5. 45 . </script> 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects. The other class are the language specific objects.5 .toUpperCase()).3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

asp 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. N: Netscape. as well). Even this Document itself is an Object. check the site http://www.11.com/jsref/default. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. every Link on the page is an Object. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Properties FF: Firefox. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. For example.w3schools. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. or when the user interacts with a Web page.5 .1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. every Image on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. At its most basic level. which are called Objects.

javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. N: Netscape.

depending on the browser. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . as a four-digit number. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time. according to Greenwich time.11. according to universal time.5 . N: Netscape.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox.

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 . var myNum=new Number(number). The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. Properties FF: Firefox. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .5 4 3 4 .

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. N: Netscape.5 .5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .11.

Properties FF: Firefox.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 2.y) min(x. 0. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 2.y) pow(x.5 .414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.11.javaScript 5.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx. 0. 3.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 1. N: Netscape. 1.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.

age. eye color.eyecolor="blue". lastname. personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. with a collection of properties and methods.eyecolor="blue". The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.12. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.12. 5. The persons' properties include name. personObj. personObj. skin tone. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.write(personObj. age.age=50.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Assume that the personObj already exists . etc.5 . personObj.lastname="Doe".you can give it properties named firstname. Properties are the values associated with the object. The persons' methods could be eat(). personObj. play(). sleep(). Objects also have methods.firstname="John".lastname="Doe".1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.firstname).3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). 53 . All persons have these properties. weight. etc.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.12. height.firstname="John". and eyecolor as follows: personObj. work().age=30.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. document.

myMother=new person("Sally". } Notice that the template is just a function."Rally"."Doe".eyecolor=eyecolor. you can create new instances of the object.5 . The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this. this.propertyName.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eat=eat.age=age. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. Once you have the template. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. You can also add some methods to the person object."blue").age. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.lastname=lastname.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.12.age=age.eyecolor) { this."green").lastname.firstname=firstname.age.lastname=new_lastname. this. this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. 54 . 5. like this: myFather=new person("John".50. this. this.48.lastname=lastname.newlastname=newlastname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.

F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.".. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. now you can write: myMother.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. For example.newlastname("Doe").5 . So.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. We define the events in the HTML tags.. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.

Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.5 . otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13. The name is then stored in a cookie. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.13. 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. the submit should be cancelled. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. 5.2 onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. For example.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.w3schools.13.

javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .

with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . By October 1998. HTML. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. 2010). an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. particularly those used in Web browsers.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. Right now (oct. or WebAPI being among them. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. XML.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .HTML DOM 6. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . 6. As of January 2008. the Document Object Model activity is closed. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. SVG. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.6 . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.Html DOM 6 . The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. However.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. structure. In other words. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. The W3C 58 .g.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. CSS.. and style of a document. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.

As of 2005. 2. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. which further enhances the DOM 6. 3. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 XPath.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. and 6. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. 6. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 2. DOM Level 3 Validation. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. 4. 5. Level 2 XML namespace support. HTML-specific elements are included as well. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events.6 . each of which contains required and optional modules. filtered views and events.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. To claim to support a level.

x and Netscape 4. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. and Safari. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.6 . Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. that is.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. interoperability problems were numerous. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. support multiple browsers. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. By 2005. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. 6. Opera. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). can be accessed through the 60 .Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Konqueror. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x were still widely used in 2000. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. The Window object represents a browser window. along with their containing text and attributes. All HTML elements. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. In order to be cross-browser compatible.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.

and VBScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. JavaScript.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created.

the text of an element node is stored in a text node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. <head> and <body>. The tree structure is called a node-tree.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 6.Html DOM 6. everything in an HTML document is a node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. The <head> node holds a <title> node. 6. 62 . in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The <html> node has two child nodes. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. However. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8.9.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.6 . The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the element node <title>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.8.

Parent nodes have children. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By using the getElementById() method 2.getElementsByTagName("p"). except the root. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. The terms parent. 63 . Their contents can be modified or deleted. and new elements can be created. and the connections between them. using the node relationships. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).6 .2 node parents. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. child.9.getElementById('main').Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. children. By navigating the node tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementsByTagName("p"). the top node is called the root Every node. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. • • • • • In a node tree.9.

• • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.write("<br />").write(x[i].6 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i++) { document. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.length.Html DOM for (i=0.i<x.9. document. each node is an object. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.innerHTML).4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .

Html DOM 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.getElementById("intro").5 example .nodeValue.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.6 . txt=x. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6.firstChild. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .9.

Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. frames. For elements.6 . including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. objects and images. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window.

Also. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. 67 .Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. as of version 1. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Mozilla. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Fires when an element is activated. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. through a mouse click or a keypress. 6. During the event flow.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). say "click". DOMNodeInserted. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. and then bubbled up. When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.6 . for instance.3. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. also supports these methods. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Safari.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together.

To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. preventDefault 68 . Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.Html DOM 6. mouse position. including information about target element. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. etc. Unfortunately. mouse button pressed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.6 . key pressed. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.

means that the response of the server will be processed when available. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. For improving sharing of resources. using web services or Php scripts. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. 7. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. etc. It is not a technology in itself. but also to save resources. dynamic website. crunching numbers. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. fields of forms.AJAX 7. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7. choices of user. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.AJAX 7 . The server does some processing — retrieving data. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. For example. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. before the whole page was sent within the network.7 . menus. 69 .

While the server is doing its thing. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. we wouldn’t make users wait around.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. And at every step in a task.7 . Obviously. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. at the start of the session. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. waiting. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. 70 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Instead of loading a web page. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. but the opposite is true. the user waits some more. waiting around for the server to do something. Once an interface is loaded.

loading additional interface code. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.7 . and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. usually using XML. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. editing data in memory.

. This object provides two methods: .for a Xml file or .holds a Xml loaded file. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . GET or POST . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.200 is ok. DOM's method allows to extract data.responseXml .holds loaded data as a string of characters.for a simple text. onreadystatechange . It allows the interaction with the servers. 404 if the page is not found .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.returned by the server . and in this purpose. url.AJAX 7.send: send a request to the server. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . To get data on the server. thanks to its methods and attributes. 2: request received. . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. 7. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. 1: connection established.responseText .url: the location of the file 72 . These events are user actions.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.open: create a connection.mode: type of request.7 . 3: answer in process. boolean) . . 4: finished.

6 building a request. 73 . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . // Firefox. http_request.fr/somefile.AJAX . . 'http://www.readyState == 4) { // received. . request. the data to send to the server.null for a GET command 7. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.send: with POST only.xml'. if (window..ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.open: command GET or POST.xul. but two options must be tried.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().7 . true).. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. for browser compatibility. if (request. http_request. } else if (window..open('GET'.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. true for asynchronous. URL of the document.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . OK } else { // wait.XMLHTTP"). The request below reads a document on the server..send(null). Safari.

AJAX 7.responseText. req.7.responseXML. if(window. "data. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").open("GET".status == 200) document.dyn="Error code " + req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.getElementsByTagName('root').xml". req. }.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ajax.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.responseText. true).send(null).7.ajax. req.ajax.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7 examples 7.readyState == 4) if(req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.XMLHTTP).status.item(0).dyn=""Received:" + req.7 . req. else if (window. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. else document.dyn="Received:" + req. by this code: var doc = req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

ccards.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . descriptions). like what pages are error. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. JSPs and Java Server Faces. For example. After an enterprise bean is created. entries related to session configuration.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. classes. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 3. Others.class>com.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. Servlet. web. MIME types used by the web application.. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. 2. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. data persistence. 8. like: 1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.servlets. 6.xml file: <?xml version="1. but typical web. 5. 4.. database connection resource pooling.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. Here is a small.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Initialization of parameters for servlets. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.8 . Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.bank11. servlet classes. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. welcome pages.)> <web-app> <!-.

ccards.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.ccards. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. whose name is rather long.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. For example. In general.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Basicly. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards. the name of the web application.xml file of the web application. Unfortunately. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" 2. basicly. for flexibility. However. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.servlets". in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.class" and that it is part of the package "com. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Then the "EnrollServlet. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".xml". This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.bank11. Behind a very benign URL. 1. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".bank11.8 . The "/ccards" part of the URL is.servlets.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.xml" file.bank11. it is the alias of the real servlet class. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.servlets".EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .

2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . 2010. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. platform independent programs. 9. the Java Servlet 3.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. modular design 9.2.9 . more often. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.SERVLETS 9. but through a web container. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.SERVLETS 9 . the HttpServlet) class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. Technically speaking. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. 9. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . this is just a work in progress. but at this point. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. in most cases as part of an application server.5 and is in final state.2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from BEA Systems. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.4. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.4. tjws spec 2. small footprint. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.0 specification is available for public review. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).0 specification. which extend the functionality of the web server. As of oct.

http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. Enterprise Edition. These packages are: • • javax. 82 . public void service(ServletRequest req.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from Apple Inc. IOException.servlet javax. WebSphere. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet package. public void destroy() throws ServletException. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. while the second one. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . the javax.9 .servlet. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet package are protocol independent.servlet. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . from IBM 9.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.

arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. More on the servlet life cycle. respectively. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). namely the HttpServlet class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. before the servlet processes any HTTP request.9 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. in a different section. After instantiating the servlet. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. ServletConfig. as well. the web container calls its init() method. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. Throwable t) 9. This method has two arguments. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. 83 . public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The method performs all initialization required. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The servlet API provides such a specific class. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. 9.

9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.lang.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. service(). a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. It also extends the java.servlet.ServletException javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 .lang. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.

The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. which will service all incoming requests. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. respectively.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. etc. JSP or JSF. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. Also. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. DB connection opening.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. If the servlet does not implement the javax. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. Typically.SingleThreadModel. 85 . 9. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs.servlet. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. After instantiation. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.9 . Typically. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.

java" file: package com.bank11.ccards.xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. 87 . Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.*. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.servlets. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. import java.9 . A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.io. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. This is done in server's (container's) server.

SERVLETS import javax. out. out. } } 88 . public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out.http. out. PrintWriter out = resp.println("</html>").println("<head>").println("</head>"). out.*. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. // output your page here out.close().println("<html>").*. IOException { resp.servlet.init(config). import javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("<title>Servlet</title>").getWriter().setContentType(“text/html”).println("merge").println("<br>").println("<body>").println("</body>"). out. out.9 . out. out.servlet.

A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 89 . the java.JdbcOdbcDriver . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. After that.sql package.odbc. as recognized by the DB industry. The JDBC 4. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.sun.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .0 while the current (4. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.JDBC 10 .10 .jdbc.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. the javax. 10.JDBC 10.1. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. This solution is inefficient. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0.sql package 2. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. These drivers fall into four standard categories. 1997. Type 1. Starting with version 3.

Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. 90 . The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. which in turn. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Type 4. Part Java.10 . Type 3. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). forwards them to the JDBC driver. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.JDBC Type 2. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.

Date java.Types java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.3 the java.sql.sql.DriverManager java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.SQLData java.Driver java.sql.SQLPermission java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.SQLXML java.Blob java.ResultSet java.sql.SQLException java.PreparedStatement java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.10 .Time java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Clob java.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.0 API.Statement java.sql.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.JDBC 10.0).sql.Array java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Struct java.sql.sql.Connection java.sql. java.SQLInput java.SQLWarning java.sql.Timestamp java.

SQLTransactionRollbackException java.Clob java. loading a database driver 2.0.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.CallableStatement java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.Blob java.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.StatementEvent javax.sql.Types java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql package.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.StatementEventListener 10.sql.ResultSet java.sql.Statement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.SQLInput java.SQLException java.Connection java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLTransientException java. querying the database 4.Wrapper javax.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.10 .sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLDataException java.DatabaseMetaData java. processing the result set 92 .JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.NClob java.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.RowId java.RowIdLifeTime java. java.sql.

net.10 .JDBC 10.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.ibm.db2.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .datastore. A database driver is specified by the driver name. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.odbc.driver.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.OracleDriver sun.DB2Driver oracle.sybase. The first one is loading a database driver.borland.jdbc.SybDriver com.

but let's take it for granted: import java.mysql. Since we just used it. String user = "root".Driver"). The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.newInstance().getConnection(connURL. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.util. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.*. try { Class. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mm. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.forName("org. as specified by the driver vendor.bank11. import java. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".printStackTrace(). 94 . as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.10 . passwd). let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.gjt. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).sql. user. by using the connection URL.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.*.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.

sql package.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Connection conn = DriverManager. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Once we get the hold of a Connection object.JDBC 10.util. int resultSetConcurrency.put("autocommit". String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. we can use it for various purposes. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Properties prp = new Properties(). String user. 10. prp.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp).10 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.getConnection(connURL.put("create". Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp. "true").6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. java. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.

JDBC 10. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.10 . namely. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. Statement. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. respectively.

createStatement()."..9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql. 10.executeUpdate(sqlString). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.10 .

and CallableStatement objects. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. 98 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.10 . One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. PreparedStatement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. as the argument. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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sql.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. This interface is. basicly.produces a standard Connection object 2.sql package. Connection pooling implementation -. There are three types of implementations: 1.sql.produces a Connection object that will 103 . The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. It is part of the javax.Time java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.10 . While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. mins.0 optional package.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math.math. time.DataSource object.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql. a factory for creating DB connections. Basic implementation -. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. secs date.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.

sql. 104 .*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().naming. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. java.servlet. javax.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). private DataSource theDataSource.getLogger(TestDataSource.lookup("java:comp/env").servlets.ccards. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax. 3.servlet.http. import import import import import import java. javax.*.*.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.sql. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.bank11. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. Distributed transaction implementation -.*.io.class.getName()).10 .produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 ...10 . ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. the servlet code is regenerated. The javax. The package javax.jsp. The package javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.jsp and javax. If the JSP is modified. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. 11. The JSP specific interfaces. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).2 the java.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.5 Java Servlet specification. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. namely javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.tagext.jsp.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.1 and is related to the 2.servlet.servlet.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp.servlet.11 .3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . 11.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.JSP 11 .JSP 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

include and taglib. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false"..JSP • if the URL does not start with / .11 . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. 111 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions)..

11. 11. 11.JSP 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11. In Tomcat. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. Assigns it to available name or id.11 . A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7 scripting elements 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.

JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. Attributes description: • • • name . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. and if so.11 . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.

11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.the URL of the page.name of the property to be retrieved 11.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . <jsp:plugin> actions. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. flush . same format as the <%@include> directive.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. <jsp:forward>.11 .13 the forward standard action 114 .

as this attribute has no default value. You must include the ..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). It is used mainly. 11. when we want to separate the application into different views. servlet or to a static resource.11 . . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags..the type of object the plugin will execute. name="instanceName" . If you do not supply a value.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.a name for the Bean or applet instance. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.class extension in the name following code. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. code="classFileName" . depending on request." .. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . as well. You must specify either bean or applet.. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. archive="URIToArchive.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute..the name of a bean instance.

objects which are automaticly available. response .io.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.servlet.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. in pixels. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .Object type and scope page 11. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . request .the initial height and width.represents server's response to the request.JspWriter type and scope page 7. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. The default value is 1.PrintWriter.16 scopes 1. it has javax.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.represents the servlet context. and domain name.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . pageContext . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . session .1. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. out . application . based on the servlet API.it represents the buffered version of java. The value is a full URL. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . Must be a small nonzero number.1" . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the amount of space.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. of the image the applet or Bean displays. with a protocol name. page .11 .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. optional port number. config . writes to the output stream to the client.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. it has java. request . in pixels.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. 1.lang.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.jsp. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.

jsp file. Object value) method 2.beans. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. if (enrollBean. page .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.JSP request object. Object value) method 3.11 .EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.ccards. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.bank11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.init(). Object value) method 11.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. Object value) method 4. session .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . application .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.

simple. private boolean flag.java: package com.examples. a float.register(). The SimpleBean class is declared public. a software development and consulting company. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. SimpleBean.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private int list[]. %> <jsp:forward page="response.Serializable { private String string. private String optional.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.18. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .mapping. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private float number. private SimpleSubBean subBean. The public constructor could have been omitted. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private int integer. private String colors[]. 11.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.string. a boolean and another String).io. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. an int.11 .

} // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors[index]. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number = value.number.integer = value. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.flag = value.colors = values. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.flag.string = value.JSP this. } 119 .colors. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.11 . } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.integer. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.

optional = value.list = values. int value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.optional. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. String value) { this.list.list[index]. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.colors[index] = value.11 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.subBean. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.subBean = value.

number. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. SimpleSubBean.examples.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.18. private float number.simple.java: package com.11 .mapping.io.Serializable { private String string.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).string = value.devsphere.string. } } 11. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .

a boolean and an int[]. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. "An option must be selected" }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. 3 } }. "One or more colors must be selected" }. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The list of optional properties has a single element.integer]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.flag]".java: package com. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. the processing order. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. SimpleBeanResources.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.list]".18. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.123) }. "One or more items must be selected" }. the list of optional properties. new String[] { 123 . "abc" }. new int[] { 2.examples.util.devsphere.string]". a float.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Float(0. The default values are defined for a String. error messages.list]". the form's name and the processor's name.colors]". new Boolean(true) }.11 .simple.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.number]". These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.mapping. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. There are three error messages.

*.logging. new String[] { "string".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. For a better understanding of this example. "list".mapping. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. string values are converted to numbers.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . The beanToForm() method of com.mapping. "integer". If necessary.devsphere.devsphere.jsp" } }.11 .mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. { "[PROC_NAME]". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. { "[FORM_NAME]". "SimpleProc. "subBean" } }.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.mapping. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "SimpleForm.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. } } 11.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.devsphere. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").devsphere.JSP "optional" } }. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. "colors". "flag". The formToBean() method of com. SimpleHndl.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. com.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. "optional".html" }. "number".18.util.examples.

formPath = application.util.getBeanResources(simpleBean. logger).JSP = HandlerUtils. response). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.formToBean(formData.getDocument().getTemplate(new java. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. int slashIndex = basePath.getMethod(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getRealPath(formPath). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.trim(). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).lastIndexOf('/').forward(request. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getClass()). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). 125 . // Process the valid data bean instance application.substring(0. simpleBean.File(formPath)). slashIndex+1) : "".getServletPath().getString("[PROC_NAME]").getRequestDispatcher(procPath).io. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.equals("POST").trim().removeUserErrors(errorTable).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. errorTable = HandlerUtils.11 .

number = <%= simpleBean. } %> 11.send(out).18.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].JSP elements logger).getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. i < list.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.examples. i++) 126 .getSubBean().getString() %> <P> subBean. // Send the form document document. errorTable.devsphere. SimpleProc. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. if (list.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean.simple.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getSubBean().append("{ ").length. document. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). for (int i = 0.11 . strbuf.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.beanToForm(simpleBean.mapping.length == 0) return "".

append(" ").append(list[i]). strbuf. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.append("{ ").beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.length. return strbuf. for (int i = 0.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append("}"). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. A single call to FormUtils. making the testing and the debugging easier. return strbuf.mapping.length == 0) return "". you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. i < list. In addition. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append(" "). if (list. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.append("}").devsphere. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().formToBean() call.18. strbuf. } strbuf.toString().toString(). strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.11 . In addition.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append(list[i]). Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.simple. Using the framework.toString(list[0]). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. } %> 11.length == 1) return Integer. ComplexForm. } strbuf.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. i++) { strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. The localization of the Complex*.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.util.examples.jsp files. ComplexHndl.

"Green".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.getColors().getInteger() == value. for (int i = 0. j < colors. i++) { int value = i+1.length. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. String colorValues[] = { "red". if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "green".length.length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". 128 . "blue" }. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". boolean checked = simpleBean.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . i < integerLabels. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < colorValues. for (int i = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Option 3" }. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j].

SimpleSubBean()).getList().length. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.getSubBean().11 .JSP break.simple. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. break. boolean selected = false.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.length. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . i++) { int value = i+1. "Item 2". j < list. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < listItems.devsphere.setSubBean( new com. for (int i = 0. "Item 3" }. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.mapping.examples.

if (message == null) message = "".mapping. 130 .simple. } %> ComplexHndl.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.Hashtable errorTable.examples. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.devsphere.examples.length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.equals("POST").util.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).getString() == null || simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getString().util.mapping.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. "subBean. boolean isPostMethod = request.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.devsphere.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.setString("abc").getMethod().simple.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.get(property).getSubBean(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.11 .

} //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. "An option must be selected"). } simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.123f).setNumber(new Float(numberValue).123f).setNumber(0. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("number"). else { simpleBean.getParameter("flag").length == 0) { 131 .11 .getColors(). "Must be filled").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". "Must be a number"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.trim().floatValue()). "number". "Must be filled").length() != 0) simpleBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue.length() == 0 || flagValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer".setFlag(flagValue != null).setNumber(0. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.equals("false")) flagValue = null. "number".

setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "subBean.getParameter("subBean. "One or more colors must be selected").number". else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.number"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.string".getString().length == 0) { simpleBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "list". "Must be filled").length() != 0) simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. 3 }).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2. 132 .setOptional("").getList(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").setString(""). "subBean.floatValue()). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean. "colors". //* subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.11 .

devsphere. errorTable.setString("abc").setOptional("").SimpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.123f).mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.helpers.properties or web. simpleSubBean.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. } } else { simpleBean. simpleBean.18.examples. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setFlag(true).11 . simpleBean. simpleBean.setNumber(0.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.\ 133 . String property. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } %> 11.mapping.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.code=com. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". "Must be a number"). This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.put(property.util.devsphere. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.devsphere.helpers.mapping. simpleBean.jsp. "subBean.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. message). The com.simple. 3 }).setList(new int[] { 2.xml: SimpleHndl.setString(""). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.number".Hashtable errorTable.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.JSP filled").

devsphere.AnotherBean.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.code=com.devsphere.properties (or web.devsphere.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A servlet can be made bean-independent. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. If you have another bean-form pair.examples.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.another. a servlet is identified with its class.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.company.mapping. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.properties: AnotherHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.11 .8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.simple. In many cases.mapping.helpers.code=com.host. you could add a few other lines to servlets.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.xml) file: ServletName.helpers. 11.mapping.host. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.examples.18.host.devsphere.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.

11 .JSP 135 .

This technology includes: 1.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. which loads the appropriate view template. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. builds a component tree. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. 2. Version 2. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. like input fields. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. 12. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. buttons. processes events. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0.0 supersedes version 1. Version 2.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.JAVASERVER FACES 12.javaserver faces 12 .12 .

here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .2 of the JFS specification.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.12 .4. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. As of version 1. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.javaserver faces 12.

respectively. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. Common formatting techniques. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.12 . Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. such as alternating row colors. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. For more information about columns. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. see the column tag documentation.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . footers.4.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. columns and rows. 12.

00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.4.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4.checkout}" /> 139 .12 . JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. your options include using plain HTML forms. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.

You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.user.user. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.</span> 12.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .12 .4.4.5. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". red for error.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.

javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.5. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

5. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. 12. can publish value change events. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.5.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. validateLength.javaserver faces 12.12 . A component fires a value change event when its input changes.mycompany. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. The body content of this tag must be empty.customer.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Any component that receives user input. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Without this JavaScript event.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.

This allows you to design localized versions of each page.5.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.mycompany.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. myJSFapp 143 . You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. for each locale you wish to support. including images and styles.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.mycompany. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.javaserver faces 12. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. Example: welcome_en.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.12 . If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. If you have not specified a default locale. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.

A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. It has a deployment descriptor. Create properties files 144 . JSP pages.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar – files included in the /lib directory.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml – the JSF configuration file. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml web.jar jsf-api. Create JSP pages 2. custom tag libraries. Define navigation rules 3.12 . and so on.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.exadel.jar faces-config.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. Create managed beans 4. static resources. jsf-api.jar.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.html.contains libraries required by the application.javaserver faces /ant build. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.

jsp. we can create a navigation rule.jsp is greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . And that's all there is to this.javaserver faces 5.jsp. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Edit JSP pages 6. Deploy and run the application 12. These files will act as place holders for now.xml file.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. The directory structure already exists. Create an index. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp and greeting. 12. In our application. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp file 7.12 .7.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. You only need to create the JSP files. As a diagram.7. Compile the application 8. You just need to create its contents. we just want to go from inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp to greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.

xml Your final faces-config.3 faces-config. myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName.1 PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones.xml file should look like this: 146 . of course. the second part of faces-config.12 .xml Now. This class is straight-forward.java file.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.7.7.7. request sets the bean scope in the application. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. Inside this myJFSapp folder.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. 12. we will create a PersonBean.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.) 12.3.PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule. 12. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.7. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. To read more about navigation rules. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3.3. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. The next line is the full class name.javaserver faces This is. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.

4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.4.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1 inputname.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12. 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.12 .7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. Inc.1 messages.sun.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.7. 12.1//EN" "http://java.sun.5.properties file in the bundle folder.

button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .bundle. <%@ taglib uri="http://java. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.12 .bundle. Then.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.sun. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.

.5.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . <h:outputText value="#{personBean..2 greeting. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Having an index.7. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.javaserver faces Line 1.bundle. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. That's how JSF knows where to go next. The second line will access a Java bean. Line 6. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. specifically the bean attribute personName.7.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. 12. and also print its contents on the page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.6 creating the index.12 . Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sun.greeting_text}" />. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Lines 3-5. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. Line 2.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. name! 12.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.sun.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.xml file. Create the index. Creates an HTML input text box.</h3> tags.

C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jsf and not . which asks an user for an ID and password. we need to deploy it.html .jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.8. might possibly be different).xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. you'll notice the file suffix is . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. We are almost done with this example.jsp.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.12 . because in the web. This is a "login" application. and forwards the user to a success or error page. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. 12. Your setup.xml file for the application *.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.9 Running Next. verifies the information. 150 . To build the application run the build. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.7.javaserver faces Now. 12.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. though. 12. This is used here.7.7. When Tomcat is done loading. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml file. Of course. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. To do this. 12.sourceforge. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.

click Next.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. click Next d. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. in the wizard that appears. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Finish 4. and set up folders for a web application.xml Editor (see faces-config.. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. 2..javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. 7. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. say. jsf-login. and to add JSF libraries to the project. 1. c. 9. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. name the folder pages. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Yes through messages that appear. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. from the menubar select File/New/Other. 6.src | +-.8. Select Java Project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.12 . a. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. click Next. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.. click Add Folder. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node.. Enter project name. in the Add JSF Support page. select the Source tab.WEB-INF 151 . 12. name the folder webroot 5. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.. see Installing & Uninstalling. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). The New Project wizard appears.. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.webroot | +-. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 10. your mileage may vary.. 3. Select the Amateras node.

1. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. 2. a.xml Editor. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. 3. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.8.xml editor opens. click Managed Bean. for name enter mgr. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. Click Finish. from its context menu select New/Class. if ( _uid. } 4. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Add. for scope select 152 .12 . in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. c. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.pages 12. The Java code editor opens.LoginManager.xml. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. In Package Explorer select the src folder.javaserver faces | | | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } return action.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. private String _pwd = "". The New Java Class wizard appears.lib | +-. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. We then configure it to be a managed bean. b. else action = "loginFail".3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. In the Package field. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The faces-config. for class enter login.java package login. input widgets appear d. enter login.

so we create them first.jsp are simple pages with static content. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.webroot/pages/error. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.8.jsp and error. Then we create login.webroot/index. c. from the menubar select File/Save.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. the JSP Editor opens.jsp). All pages except login. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp). Enter the following code: <!-. Create error. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Create index.jsp.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.12 . </body> Please try 153 . save the file and close the editor.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File.javaserver faces session.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. b. Enter the following code: <!-. and 3 content pages (login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. <!-.jsp. 1. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Create success. but in webroot/pages. e. success.webroot/pages/success.jsp: a. click Finish. but in webroot/pages.jsp: create this file similarly to index. again. index.jsp is placed directly in webroot. then close the editor 12. the New File wizard appears. enter the following code.jsp. for File name enter index.

d. and the JSP Editor can help with code.javaserver faces </html> 4. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. etc. click Finish. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. To see this in action. <%@ page contentType="text/html. the New wizard appears. and choose default for Template. for File name enter login. b. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. from its context menu select New/Other. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File.. Open the JSF palette..sun. a code-completion window pops up.jsp. with the following template code. as shown below. g. (See Show View Dialog) f. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. 154 .sun. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. click Next c.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.jsp: a. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place your cursor in one of these lines. now we want to add attributes to this element. and uses them for code completion as well. Create login. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and dock it along the right.completion. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. enter jsf-login e. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.

with the barest presentational formatting. complete the expression with the closing { k. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. a code-completion window pops up.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .loginAction} The final code.. i. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and hit Enter. insert another <h:inputText> element. select userID from the code-completion window.12 . with bean properties available in mgr.sun. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". insert a <h:commandButton> element. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor. set its value to Login. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.) j. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.password}" l.javaserver faces h. enter #{mgr.sun.

Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.xml Editor. Select the Navigation tab 3.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. This is shown below. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. 2. it should open in the faces-config. this inserts a page icon into the editor. click on Page.12 .password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.xml. Open faces-config.8. 1. 156 . then click inside the editor window.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. using a FacesIDE editor.

then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. 6. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. notice that the warning triangle disappears. then click first on the icon for login. /pages/success. in the Properties view.12 . Its properties appear in the Properties view. change the value of path to /index.jsp 4.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp. add 3 more pages.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .jsp and /pages/error. select Navigation Case. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. and is represented by an arrow. and set them to /pages/login. from the palette at left.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. 5.

or leave it as-is.jsp. We'll set some properties in web. all we need do in web. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.xml.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . 12.jsp to error. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. since we have such a trivial application.jsp.xml.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. so uncomment it. open web. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. As it turns out. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.javaserver faces 7. 1. and extension-based mapping is turned on. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and you should be sent to the success page. Similarly add a forward-action from login. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.8.jsp. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml Here we edit web. We want virtual path-based mapping.6 Editing web.12 . Once deployed browse to index.

that factory is used.faces.event javax. as file:///. open its Manager application in a browser.application javax. click Deploy 3.faces.html javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.CONFIG_FILES 159 . leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.. for Context path enter /jsf-login.javaserver faces 12.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. 12.render javax.context javax.convert javax. For a given factory class name. start Tomcat.component.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.webapp 12.faces.component javax. the Manager application should reload.12 ..0 1.10 the javax.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces javax.faces.faces.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces. scroll down to Deploy.el javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.8.lifecycle javax.faces.faces.. Click on its link to launch the application.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.validator javax.model javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.

javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. ViewHandlerWrapper . which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.represents a single validation (or other) message. those factories are used. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . 12.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.11 the javax. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. with the last one taking precedence. StateManagerWrapper .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.Severity . StateManager .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. FacesMessage. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. handling events and input validation. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.12 . ApplicationFactory . ViewHandler . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. with the last one taking precedence. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. FacesMessage .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .faces. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. If none of the above steps yield a match. defining page navigation. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.

context.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. 12.12 . • ViewExpiredException .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. StateHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. ActionSource2 . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.FacesContext.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. EditableValueHolder . String.faces. UIComponent . ValueHolder . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. String) results in failure on postback. a menu item. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. • • 161 . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. UICommand . NamingContainer . ContextCallBack . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. UIComponentBase .restoreView(javax.12 the javax.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.faces. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. when activated by the user. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. or a hyperlink.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. Here they are: • • UIColumn .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.

a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that has a value. UIForm .13 the java.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. by storing it as the value property of the component. UISelectOne . The user cannot manipulate this component. identified by a clientId. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.html package 162 .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. it is for display purposes only.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.12 . UISelectItem . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). Optionally. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UISelectMany .component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UINamingContainer . UIParameter . UIMessage .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. it is for display purposes only.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIPanel . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.faces. The user can modify the selected values.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIInput . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. This component has no rendering. that is displayed to the user. Optionally.javaserver faces • UIData .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIMessages . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UISelectBoolean . UIGraphic . The user can modify the selected value.

represents an HTML label element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML img element.represents an HTML form element. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.by default.represents an HTML textarea element.renders the component value as text.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlForm . HtmlPanelGroup . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. On a redisplay.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlGraphicImage . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlColumn . or not. HtmlOutputLabel .faces. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlOutputText . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlMessage . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.by default. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlInputSecret . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlPanelGrid .faces.12 . HtmlInputHidden .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type text.renders child components in a table. HtmlOutputFormat . and renders the result. but the application wishes to render more than one. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlCommandButton . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.Message". used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlInputText .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlMessages .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML input element of type password. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.

ResponseStream .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. In particular. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.faces. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • • • 12. FacesContext .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectManyMenu . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. showing a single available option at a time.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.12 . HtmlSelectManyListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. It is passed to. and the rendering of the corresponding response. showing a single available option at a time.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .javaserver faces property.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. ResponseWriterWrapper . ResponseWriter .15 the java. FacesContextFactory .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. and potentially modified by.convert package 164 .14 the java. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneListbox .

el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.javaserver faces 12.faces. VariableResolver .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. ValueBinding .12 .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. 12.15. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. Classes: MethodBinding . • • • • 165 .16 the java. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. PropertyResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.

PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. ReferenceSyntaxException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. 166 .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesListener . FacesEvent . PhaseId .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • 12.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.12 .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . ValueChangeListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . PhaseListener .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.AbortProcessingException . and event implementation classes.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. PhaseEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ValueChangeEvent . Interfaces: ActionListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.faces. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. MethodNotFoundException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.17 the java. • • • • • One exception .

faces. SelectItemGroup .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Renderer .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.20 the java. SelectItem . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.javaserver faces 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.19 the java.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.faces. • • • • • • • • • 12. DataModelEvent .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.faces.12 . Classes: ArrayDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. ResultDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.18 the java.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. DataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ResultSetDataModel . ScalarDataModel . ListDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.

Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.21 the java. LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. RenderKitFactory . including a standard servlet. markup language. together.faces.validator package Interface defining the validator model. 12.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. AttributeTag . Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). Typically. The package contains an exception. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . as well. • RenderKit . and concrete validator implementation classes. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. • • 12.22 the java. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. and/or user Locale.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .faces. ResponseStateManager . ConverterTag .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. base classes for JSP custom component tags.12 .

12 . The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. telling the view to update its presentation. related to a UIComponent. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. the life cycle is more complicated. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. telling the model to update its data.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. In JSF. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. Also. that need to process their tag bodies. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. but basically. which has several implications. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. ValidatorTag . the JSF life cycle does not apply. When a web server receives a request. that request is passed to the container. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When the user takes some action with the presentation. UIComponentBodyTag . or some other web technology. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. the controller sends a message to the model.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. or when an exception occurs. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. 12.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions. servlets. FacetTag . When using JSF. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the process includes a few more components or pages. In MVC. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. which passes the request to the page class. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. • • • • • FacesServlet . JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the controller sends a message to the view. the controller is the 169 . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Likewise. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. When the model is updated. UIComponentTag .the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request).

The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request.12 . 170 . This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. and the UI components are the view. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the JSF implementation must create the view. • Invoke Application: During this phase. These objects update their state with the data values. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). not every request will flow through all six phases. For a JSF-enabled application. or from request headers. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. and the response is sent to the client. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. Data for some components. As with the previous phase. the conversion occurs in this phase. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. depending on the request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. and a piece of data failed validation. from cookies sent as part of the request. The components are stored in a component tree. such as components that create HTML input fields. converting a String to a Date object). the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. this does not yet update the business objects in the application.javaserver faces JSF implementation. it creates UI objects for each view component. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. It updates only the UI components with the new data. is validated at this time. In addition. In addition. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. However. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. and what happens during the processing and response. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. If this is a subsequent request. Data can come from input fields in a web form. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below.

171 .12 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if errors occur during any of the phases.javaserver faces In the above figure. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. skipping any remaining phases. Also. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. For example. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.

sun. names a file hello in the file directory usr. 13. NDS. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. for example. For example. c:\bin\autoexec. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. identifiers.5). which is located in the root of the file system. /usr/hello.").9. For example. such as addresses. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. For example. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. The DNS entry Wiz. 13. Thus the DNS name sales. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. 172 .48. DNS.COM.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. you must supply its name.JNDI 13 . To access a file in the computer. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. you are always naming one object or another. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.2. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. possibly multiple. or objects typically used by computer programs. and NIS(YP).COM.13 . The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. such as LDAP.JNDI 13. you supply it the name of the object. when you use an electronic mail system. A file system maps a filename (for example. Using JNDI. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". relative to the DNS entry Wiz. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. The UNIX pathname.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. It enables applications to access different.Wiz.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. in turn. naming and directory services using a common API. When using almost any computer program or system. In addition. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.

A file object. also called a file handle. for example. 13. they must be stored by reference. Instead. That is. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. in the UNIX file system is a context. Every context has an associated naming convention. on the other hand. and listing bound names. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.COM. A printer object reference.2. some objects cannot be stored directly. In another example. For simplicity.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. is relative to c=us. By contrast. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. and fuel and instrument status. its flight plan. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. such as c=us. an LDAP entry. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. for example. Finally. relative to the entry o=Sun. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. in the DNS domain Sun.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. such as COM. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. that is. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. is a context. A printer object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. Using the reference. For example.c=us. 173 ."). a DNS domain. For example.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For example. For example. a file name is bound to a file.13 . in a file directory /usr/bin. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is accessed using a file reference. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. and its flight number and departure time. delimited by the comma character (". unbinding names. 13. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. A reference is information about how to access an object. a file directory. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. might contain the state of the printer. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. o=Sun. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. while the object itself might contain more state information. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray.2. Typically. is a context. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. such as its print server name and printing protocol.2. which in turn. such as /usr. For example. 13. that is.

identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). postal mail address. For example. various telephone numbers. 13. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. For example. for example. and color. and computer account information.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. however. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. to represent a printer. one context can be viewed. a person. A directory object can be used. And it kind of makes sense. a name is unique 13. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. resolution. because we can. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users.2.3. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values.13 .JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. to some extent. or a network. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. two different computer 174 .5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. An example is the telephone company's directory service. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. For example. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. Thus. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. 13. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. and even the computer itself and other computers. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. programs. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. a computer.

1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. support the notion of searches. for example. called a directory information tree (DIT). such as those based on the LDAP. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.3. Alternatively.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. The service is accessed through its own interface. When you search.113. for example. like any other program running on the network. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. can use the directory in the traditional way. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. for example. removing. many directories. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Within the DIT. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. 13. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. adding.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. and users. such as the file and print services.4. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.50". 13. Similarly. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. 13. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. the ability to access directory services will become essential. networks.3. such as that relating to machines. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. For example.3. For example. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. A Java mail client program. By using a directory service. 13. The email address. The query is called a search filter. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. When directory objects are arranged in this way.13 . to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. 175 . might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. "mail" is the attribute identifier. an organization object.com". Many examples of directory services are possible. that is.smith@somewhere. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. 13. printers.

JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. more coherent and manageable. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. 13. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.13 .3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).naming javax.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13.1 and v1. For example. v1.3 and later releases. 13.ldap 176 .1 and Java 2 SDK. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. It extends the v1. v1. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. To use the JNDI.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. emerging. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. v1.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.event javax.5. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. The Java 2 SDK. and even the network.naming. v1.directory javax. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. 13. Thus a variety of directories--new. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.4.naming.naming. For example.

13.print(report). Furthermore. and it returns the object bound to that name. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. 13.lang. comparing components. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. For the methods in the Context interface. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.lang. The overloads that accept java. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.1 context The javax. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. 13. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.6. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.lang.13 . A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. However.String name argument represents a composite name. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. which is the core interface for looking up.lookup("treekiller").spi 13.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. a 177 .naming package defines a Context interface.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. list() is similar to listBindings().3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. and the object itself. For example. printer. binding/unbinding. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.6. 13.naming.6. composing them.JNDI • javax. In this case. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. and so on. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. for some objects in the directory.String name. that is.6 the naming package The javax.6. the name of the object's class. A java.

Once you have an initial context.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. You can add.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. Otherwise. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.7 directory package The javax. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.7. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. InitialContext. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. 13. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. In the simplest and most common form of usage.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.naming. There are no absolute roots. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.7.6.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. replace.directory package extends the javax. they should catch NamingException. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.6.13 .5 the Initial context In the JNDI. For example. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. 178 . which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.

there need not be a response control for each request control sent. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.naming.9. 13.JNDI 13. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.naming.9." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. such as "object added. called controls . For example. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.13 . controls.naming.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. 13. or unsolicited notifications.9.ldap package at all. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. 13. For example. that is. 13. such as "object changed. such as information about the object before and after the change. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. and vice versa.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. Once registered. To receive event notifications. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax." and those that do not.8 event package The javax.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.directory package.naming. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. In fact. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.9 LDAP package The javax. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. These operations are called "extended" operations. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.

That is. and receiving response controls.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10. sending request controls.naming. This support is provided in the form of state factories. 13. 180 . You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. if you look up a printer name from the directory. create a file named Lookup.13 .naming package. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system. 13.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming.11. implementors of Context.Context.10. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. In the process of completing an operation.spi package supports implementors of Context.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.10. 13.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.java. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.10 service provider package The javax. import javax.naming. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 13.1 plug-In architecture The javax. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.9.2 java object support The javax. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. For example.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.

181 . If the compilation succeeds. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().err.11. 13.lookup(name). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. If the compilation fails.sun.java).lookup(name). 13.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.naming. 13. "com. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). as follows. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.put(Context.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). To compile to program. // Print it System.jndi. use Context.fscontext. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. using the capitalization shown.11.JNDI import javax. create an initial context.11.out.RefFSContextFactory").InitialContext. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Object obj = ctx.NamingException.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Otherwise. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. v1.3 looking up an Object Next.13 .naming. import javax. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.5 compiling the program Next. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. For this reason. If you are still having problems.3. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. you must have access to the JNDI classes. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.11. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).lookup() to look up an object.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. then the JNDI classes are already included. } 13.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).jar as an installed extension. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. env.

env.ldap. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.3.PROVIDER_URL.jndi.12.DirContext. create an initial directory context.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.Context. Finally.java.directory packages.naming.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().LdapCtxFactory"). include the directory that contains your Lookup. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.put(Context.InitialDirContext. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. import import import import import javax. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. then you will see something like the following. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. "com. supply the name of a file in your file system.class). and your example class (Lookup.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.Attributes. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.NamingException.13 . To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.naming and javax.jndi. To run the program.naming. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.directory. the file system service provider.directory.jar). The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.12.naming. 13.fscontext. javax.directory. javax. javax. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jar and providerutil. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.JNDI 13. v1. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.11.6 running the program To run the program.naming. 182 .RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.naming.put(Context. env. you need access to the JNDI classes. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.sun.bat If you supply a file directory. javax. 13.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.naming.sun. create a file named Getattr.

The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. For now. Attributes.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.err.get() and then from that attribute get its value. ou=People"). compile the source file using the Java compiler.get().6 compiling the program Next.12. } catch (NamingException e) { System.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). For this reason.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People").12.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.12.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.println("sn: " + attrs. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. 13. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.java). Similar to the naming example. 13. If you are still having problems.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.13 . you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.out. 13. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.get() on it to get its value: attrs. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. } 13.get()). As with the naming example. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. using the capitalization shown. 183 .get("sn").get("sn"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. If the compilation fails. If the compilation succeeds.

v1.3. 184 . With this configuration.jar and providerutil.JNDI 13.put(Context.jar). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). then these classes are already included.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.7 running the program As with the naming example. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. ou=People". you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. Once it has the attributes. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.12. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. If you have any trouble running this example. Getattr. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").class.13 . env. then see the Common Problems lesson.PROVIDER_URL. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.

the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS topic . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS producer . Here. JMS message .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. As the name queue suggests. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. unless it has established a durable 185 . Enterprise Edition. JMS queue . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. the messages are delivered in the order sent. • 14. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS consumer . In this model. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.a JMS client that receives messages.14 . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS client .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.

Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. 14.4.3 the JMS API programming model 14. On the receiving side. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Using Java. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. 186 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 14. In that case.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. Depending on the type of message.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.jms.

you must call the connection's start() method. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Like the connection factory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. 14. In a J2EE application. For example. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . It receives messages sent to a destination. 14.14 . The JMS administrator creates these objects. you must close any connections that you have created.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. and users discover them using JNDI. Depending on the connection type. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. It is either a queue or a topic. Connections implement the Connection interface. connection. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.4. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.4. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. Before your application can consume messages.createConnection(). the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. For example.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.close().4. Before an application completes. you call the stop() method.

You use the Session. (Remember always to call the start() method. 188 . forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. MessageConsumer consumer = session. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. onMessage().14 . if it needs to reply to messages. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. usually expect a specific message type and format. consumer. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. it becomes active. you are likely to miss messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. For example. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.) When message delivery begins. In the onMessage() method.4. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. connection. which contains one method. and you can use it to receive messages. however. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.start(). the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.createConsumer(myQueue).start(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. a message listener object may be used. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. 14.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. After you have created a message consumer. A message listener does. After you register the message listener.createConsumer(myTopic). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. For example.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. This object implements the MessageListener interface. Moreover.setMessageListener(myListener).receive(). Message m = consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. Message m = consumer. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.receive(1000).

After you have created a message producer. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. 189 . The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. A message has three main parts: 1. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. bytes message. 14.send(message). and object message).createProducer(null). to create and send a TextMessage. that is. stream message. anon_prod.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. 3. from one application to another. Here.4. MessageProducer producer = session. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. For example. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). You must first create the messages. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.setText(msg_text). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(myQueue. // msg_text is a String producer. With an unidentified producer.4. map message.createTextMessage().createProducer(myTopic).createProducer(myQueue). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. if you created an unidentified producer. message.send(message). At the consuming end. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. message).14 . you do not specify a destination until you send a message.receive(). You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.

createSession(true. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. Sessions implement the Session interface. and message consumers to receive messages. then delivers the messages. After you create a Connection object. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.out. Here.14 .8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. To create a transacted session. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. } else { // Handle error } 14.println("Reading message: " + message. Before committing the transaction. If the user selects transaction support. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Session. 0).4.getText()). use the following code: Session session = connection. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. 190 . meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(false. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.

while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.0. bundled into a single unit. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.jar file into the application server. message-driven beans The 2. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . server which provides an execution environment for containers. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .object oriented representation of data in a DB. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.DB interaction transactions . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .logging. On the other side.transaction management can be complex. component recovery scalability portability 191 .no developer coding.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . container which offers services to the component.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. the container lives (in general) in an application server. 15.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .0.15 .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. Version 1. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).consistent error handling framework . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. The component lives inside a container. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. improved performance security .

called ejb-jar.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . which is an xml file. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the remote interface of the bean 4. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. as follows: 1. the home interface of the bean 3. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.xml 15.

ejb. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. String lastName. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException.*.ejb. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. int custId) throws RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. } 193 . the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.rmi. } 15.javax. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. The developer does not implement this interface.javax. import.RemoteException. RemoteException.*. import java. import java.15 .

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.put(Context. how to create or find the bean 2. this can be done (for example) through SSL. creating them for the client application.PROVIDER_URL. prop. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.jnp.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "localhost:1099").6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. if the client executes outside the container. we need to know: 1. "org.interfaces. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.NamingContextFactory". prop. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 . } 194 .put(Context. In the case of an web application.

lookup("MyBean"). cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. using the narrow() method.rmi. in fact. do implements the java. This is done through the javax. to the appropriate type. in fact. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. the client has a stub). IIOP has not been designed for Java. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. and this means that there are some limitations. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.e.rmi. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.Remote interface).PortableRemoteObject class and. more specifically. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. 195 . • if the client executes outside the container. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do not have the concept of casting. Problem is. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Some languages. MyBeanHome. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.narrow(homeRef.class). Why? For EJB..15 .lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. that is part of CORBA standards. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. but for generic languages.

ccards.processEntry("Dumitrascu". public class MyBean implements javax.ejbeans. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . int custId) { // method implementation . Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean..ejb. call business methods on the bean myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface..create().remove().. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.bank11.ejb. 15. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.. String lastName. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.SessionContext.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. "Vasile". import javax. remove the bean instance myObject. 1102). } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . as well).SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.15 .

8 session beans There are two types of session beans. namely stateful and stateless beans.15 . 197 . To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. A stateless bean does not.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 15. 15. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the object is activated. that is.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.

1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. The ejbCreate method. or passivate.15 . 15. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.1 are invoked by the EJB container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. For example. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. 198 . the EJB container activates the bean. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. Figure 15. for example. the client invokes the remove method. All other methods in Figure 15. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. At the end of the life cycle. (Typically. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. is inside the bean class. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.

This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. equals() 199 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. support for concurrent access 3.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database). maintaining a cache between transactions 4.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.

These methods are mandatory for entity beans. all throwing RemoteException. an instance of that bean is created.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. 15. methods which have the same parameters.14.lang. Update and Delete. as the parameters in the original create() method. Read.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. in the same order.bank11.15 . This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. 200 . the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. We can have more create() methods.ccards. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. CreateException. On the other side.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. state data is stored into data store (usually. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.

14. 201 . Second. but the developer returns null for CMP. On the first path. First. 15.15 . While in the pooled stage. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. a client can invoke the remove method. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 15. the client invokes the create method.14.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). All instances in the pool are identical.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. in BMP. but in general. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. it's business methods can be invoked.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. On the second path. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.14. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the programmer will create actual SQL code. not null. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. actual SQL update code. left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMP. After instantiation. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. it is empty. for BMPs.

when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.15 . With bean-managed persistence. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. In the pooled state. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. or a Web component . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. 202 . another enterprise bean. If the primary key is incorrect.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.an application client.getPrimaryKey(). which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the values of the instance variables are not needed.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Therefore. it does not automatically set the primary key. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . It acts as a JMS message listener. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. In the pooled state. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.

203 .16. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. Previously. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.15 . For more information on this element see. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a JMS API connection. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. Unlike a session or entity bean. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To avoid tying up server resources. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.16. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. 15. max-beans-infree-pool. but not asynchronously. To ensure concurrency. 15.16. the message will be redelivered.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. message-driven bean can be used. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. an open database connection.for example.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. If message processing is rolled back. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. In several respects. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 15. When a message arrives.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.

16. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.16. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class..0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.jms.. As with other EJB types.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. 3.} // onMessage() is required.ejb. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. 15. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.Message. finalize{}. or create a new one. methods. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. public void ejbRemove() {. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. public void onMessage(javax. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. // An EJB constructor is required.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.0 specification. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.. Note: These instances can be pooled. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static..15 .}.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.16.Message MessageName) {.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.. and it must not // accept parameters. 15.jms. Obtain a new bean instance. Classes. 2.

whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.onMessage() for more information. 15. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . See javax. 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().15 . getUserTransaction(). However. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. getRollbackOnly() .16. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.This is not a client context. 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. even in onMessage(). For example. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.MessageListener. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. If any method throws such an exception. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.jms. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.

WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.xml.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.16.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification.0 specification. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. as described in the EJB 2. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. In either case. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. 15.15 .12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. as required by the EJB 2. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.

• message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.jms. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .message.ejb20.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 2. as described in the EJB 2. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.15 .xml deployment file.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.0 specification.xml elements.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. </message-driven> .4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. the weblogic-ejb-jar. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.... 207 . For each instance.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.

EJB class name 5.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. the home interface name 7. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. isolation level. 15. At the end of the life cycle.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. security 208 . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. bean home name .like transaction. access control entries . a message-driven bean is never passivated. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. environment properties 6. the remote interface name 8. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. entity specific elements 10.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.security issues.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. session specific elements 9. the container calls the ejbRemove method. attributes .specifies control attributes for transactions 4.15 . control descriptors .

bank11.bank11.15 .bank11.bank11.ccards.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.lang.ccards.bank11.ccards.ccards.ejb.ejb.ccards.ccards.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..lang.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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