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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


like the client tier.2 Server communication 1. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. or finance. retail. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. The web tier. Figure 1. 1. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. are not considered web components.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. like HTML pages. enterprise edition Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. 5 .1 . processes it (if necessary). might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.java platform. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. processes it (if necessary).7 business components Business code.

enterprise bean. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. multithreading. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.9.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).java platform. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. 1.1 . the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. and other legacy information systems. Before a web. Business and EIS Tiers 1.9 java EE Containers Normally. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. database systems. or application client component can be executed. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. In addition. and other complex low-level details. For example. mainframe transaction processing. 6 .3 Web. resource pooling. 1. enterprise edition Figure 1.

After an enterprise bean is created.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. 7 . database connection resource pooling.4.java platform. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. data persistence. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. transaction management. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.1 . including services such as security. For example. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 1.9. and remote connectivity. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.

the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.manages the execution of application client components. Application client container . 8 .the runtime portion of a Java EE product. For example. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Application clients and their container run on the client. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web container . program files. When XML data is exchanged between parties. 1. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. extensible.1 . XML data. Applet container . computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. text-based standard for representing data.manages the execution of applets.java platform. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. or for document-oriented web services. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. enterprise edition Figure 1.10. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. develop. 1. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. test. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. or any kind of binary data such as audio.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. video. maps. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications.

10. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.10. and ways to communicate with the service. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. 1.java platform. enterprise edition 1. The description includes the name of the service.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.1 . such as Universal Description. 9 .4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. the location of the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.

the session bean and its data are gone. you employ a single.11. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. WML. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . 1. 1. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. or enterprise bean.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. When the client finishes executing. Commonly. 1. or if the server shuts down. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. In Java EE 5. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. standard set of tags. enterprise edition Figure 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.java platform. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. If the client terminates.11.11.1 . There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. and XML) and JSP elements.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


java platform. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. the application is ready to run. or component accordingly.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. 15 . SAAJ. Once deployed on a local platform. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. a module. or better customer support.1 . it is ready to be deployed. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. At runtime. better tools.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. servlet. JTA. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.ear extension. module. No extra coding is needed. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JNDI 1. such as better performance. or a component. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. JSP page.

which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and a web application deployment descriptor. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. and other documentation.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. for example. which contain all Java interfaces. supporting class files. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor.java platform.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. Application client modules.war (Web ARchive) extension. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.1 . Web modules. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. native libraries. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Together. JSP files. such as caching directives. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Resource adapter modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. classes. which contain servlet class files. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. GIF and HTML files. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. • • 16 . Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.jar extension.

was the object of several RFCs. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. so far) version. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. The client sends a request message to the server.com/easy/http. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). POST.html). check the official HTTP site – www.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. RFC 2616 (06/99). RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).jmarshall. as follows: 1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.org/rfc/rfc1945. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. The server answers with a response message. an initial line 2..org/Protocols .HTTP 2 . namely HTTP 1..) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . . but they also have some common structural elements.2 .. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.ietf.w3.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. These messages may have different contents. The second (and last.apps.1. zero or more header lines 3. 2. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. we recommend www. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. HEAD.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2.

GET 2. OPTIONS 7. as well. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.Annotation of existing resources. Here is their list: 1. mailing list. 2. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . in the HTTP 1. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.0).2 . PUT 8.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. CONNECT 5.1. HTTP/1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. DELETE 6. newsgroup. HEAD 3. . The only difference is that the response must not have a body. POST 4.1 specification. TRACE Three other commands are listed. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.html HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. but lack of support makes them obsolete. 18 .HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.

2 .Providing a block of data. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or ordering a product. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. or a record is subordinate to a database. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.8 the status code A three-digit integer. In this case. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. (encoded as multipart/form-data).Extending a database through an append operation. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . after the “?” character. to a data-handling process.0 404 Not Found 2. 2. . When used for form data submission.HTTP or similar group of articles. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.” On the other side. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. . while POST may involve anything. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. like storing or updating data. 3. or in the message body. or sending E-mail 2. separated by the character “&” or “. 2. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.6 differences between GET and POST 1. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. such as the result of submitting a form.

and should be automatically retrieved by the client. 2.0. 20 . while the HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.1 version specifies 46 of them.the requested resource doesn't exist.1 only) . that is.g. The HTTP 1. 404 Not Found . fails. such as text/html or image/jpg. one (Host) is mandatory. In particular. file or script output) is returned in the message body.an unexpected server error.2 . where the requested resource is returned to the client.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). none of them mandatory.1). Although the header names are not case sensitive. or otherwise can't run correctly. 2. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header name and header value. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. 500 Server Error .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. out of which. and the resulting resource (e.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. and section 10 for HTTP 1. If an HTTP message includes a body.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. header values are.the request succeeded. The most common use of the message body is in a response. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. separated a semicolon. In a request.0 version specifies 16 headers. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.

info.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. audio. with subtypes rfc822. . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. digest. with subtype mpeg 2. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes jpeg.apps. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). gif 6. alternative.ro/path/file.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. message. application. 21 . image. parallel 3. postscript 5. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .html HTTP/1. multipart.0 200 OK Date: Fri.org/rfc/rfc1521.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. RFC 1521 (www. video.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtypes octet-stream.0 From: someuser@yahoo. partial. Then. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. 1.ro. external-body 4.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.html first open a socket to the host web. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype plain 2.uvt.2 . with subtypes mixed.info.uvt. with subtype basic 7. text.HTTP 2. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.ietf.

the server closes the socket.2 .HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .

2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. 3.ietf. The first official version – HTML 2. namely HTML 1. Since it fits in a couple of pages.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.htmlgoodies. The newest version of HTML is 4. A newer standard. The XHTML 1.01.org/rfc/rfc1866. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).0) dates from 08.apps. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.com/easy/html . Mosaic. From 1999 on.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Other helpful sites . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. check the official HTML site – www.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.2 (3.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.jmarshall.w3. It is a revision of 4.html) and was widely supported. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.HTML 3 .w3c. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.www. However. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.99. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . HTML describes how text.0 draft was released in 01.0.HTML 3.com/indexdot/html . using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0. The latest version (XHTML 2.3 .was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/tutors. As a practical reference site use – www. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. a working draft for the next major revision. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.html. www.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.blooberry.0 . HTML 3.0 and was accepted in December 1997. The first version of HTML.01) can be found at this address: http://www. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. Originally named Web Applications 1.org/Markup . HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. Version 4.

implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. An example: <!-.acesta este un comentariu.w3. the specification of HTML 4.the chinese character for water. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. <><> --> 25 .3 . with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. DYNSRC.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.01 specification. HTML 4. If you wonder what a character reference is. You get the point. CONTROLS. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 Strict DTD. BORDER.and end at the first occurrence of -->. look at these examples: “&lt”. like ALIGN. though. "&#x6C34. 4." (in hexadecimal) . 3. 3.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. “&quot”. VSAPCE are omitted. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. Check the address http://www.0 Transitional DTD.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. Overall. This section deals with some of the most common elements. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. …. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4.

info.3.uvt. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. etc.HTML 3.3. NAME.ro/webmail/src/login. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.5 tables 26 . An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. image. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3 .4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.

the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Usually.3 . <THEAD>. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. its rows. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is their description and attributes. columns.

required. allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.

Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . "hidden".3 . after a quotation mark . Main attributes: 29 . "password". "radio". may have the values GET or POST.maximum number of options visible to the user.required. NAME .HTML • METHOD .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Main attributes: • TYPE . "reset".sends the form values in a single transmission.uvt.8 form related elements 3. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "submit". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. specifies how data will be sent to the server. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "button". • 3.info. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "file". allows multiple selections from the choice list.:.required.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.required.the default value.?. specifies the parameter name.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. the browser appends the values to the URL.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "checkbox". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "GET" . SIZE .8. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . Example: http://web. "text/plain" • • 3. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . however. 3.if specified.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. "image". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .8.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

but next time execution is much faster. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Example: Edit the file prog1.JAVA PRIMER 4 .java. 4.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. following the 1. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.0.2 java the interpreter. The current version (as of 10.95. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1..4 . The first time a class is loaded. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. Java source – a file with extension . The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. a tool named Just In Time compiler.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.java One example of command line compilation: 4.JAVA PRIMER 4. javac -classpath .C:\TW\mySource.4.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.class.2 version.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. Early versions of Java were released in 12. -g : generate all debugging info. To overcome this significant shortage. Java bytecode – a file with extension . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.java 2.95.class file.) in 08.90. In terms of execution time. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. The current version (as of 10.class file. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.3 java applications 31 . A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. jit From source to execution. the compilation process occurs. project started in 12.class 3. Inc. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.

the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). An example: 32 .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. or is derived from A.4 .jar file. 4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). Generally.4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.java. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4 object oriented concepts 4. or that it extends A). The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. In general.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.

JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Double. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4.4. 33 .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. providing its own implementation. Short. with the root the class Object. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Character. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Therefore. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Long. Therefore.1 bit char . a Java class can extend a single base class. In OO jargon. Float. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). called Object. 4. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. a class can have more than one method with the same name. 4. this is called method overloading.4 . In fact. Integer.4. namely: Byte. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Boolean.

Except for the "package" concept. anywhere abstract .. which extends the class javax.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. A final variable (method.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. automatic garbage collection. has the same value for all class instances. no templates. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.servlet. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable . 34 .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . rather than at class instance.4 . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.servlet. • • • • no specifier .the class is visible from any class.does not have any subclasses.http. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . class . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. inherited). A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.one which is constant method .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .http.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. 4.. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.no access from outside the class itself protected . method .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).access from any class anywhere private . } declares an abstract class.one which is defined at class level.

1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. code or data errors .lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 2.4 . 4. In Java. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. as defined in the java. not at execution time.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.like invalid cast. 4. namely class Error and the class Exception.ThreadDeath.7. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. java errors .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). Exception categories: 1.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . division by 0. array index out of bounds.7. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. programmer defined exceptions 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. 4.JAVA PRIMER 4. standard method exceptions 3. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.

support for data collections.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.1 Package names The default package has no name.support for user interface java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . the class (the .default. catch. the package statement is the first one in a java source file..net java.security 36 . The package containing the standard classes is java.by adding the key word throws.rmi java.geom .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. As a general rule. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. . import javax. don't have to import java.sql. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.ccards.util.awt .class file. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.. 4. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.support for event handling java.java.bank11.nio java.4 . An example: package com.sql java.util. finally construct. 4.*. therefore. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.event . the default package is used). All other packages must be explicitly imported.zip .Properties.this can be done by providing a try.awt. string analyzers.util . they have to be unique inside a package.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. In the example above. 4. date and time info java.8.lang (automatically available).io java.servlets.awt.support for java archives creation java. import.lang . followed by the import statements. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).

4 .event .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. All variables (actually. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. 37 .swing. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. it must be declared as abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.support for event handling 4.swing . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. static and final. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).accessibility javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.text javax.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.

A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. Subsequently. as JavaScript.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. like QtScript or ActionScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.HTML authors are normally not programmers.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. This is not always what we want. other 38 .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . and .javaScript 5 . However.JAVASCRIPT 5. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript statement like this: document. then LiveScript and finally. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.depending on the browser . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .5 . 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .

Save the external JavaScript file with a .3. or when an event is triggered. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . point to the .4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.5 . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . without having to write the same script on every page. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.. </script> </head> 5.3. </script> </body> 5.. 39 . When you place a script in the head section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. To simplify this.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.js file extension. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. go in the head section.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.... 5.

4.1 JavaScript for. 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. 5.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .4. namely – if .5 . catch constructs....5.. in and the try .4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. 5.javaScript 5.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. else. while() it is worth mentioning the for . for()..2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". while(). The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs...In statement The for. continue.. in loop is executed once for each element/property.4. The code in the body of the for .. switch(). break.

. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x...3 try. an array element.0. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.catch statement The try. When users see errors.. Example Using for.5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5. mycars[2] = "BMW". } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement (available in IE5+. mycars[1] = "Volvo". they often leave the Web page.5 . so you don't lose your audience.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). var mycars = new Array(). for (x in mycars) { document.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Mozilla 1.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet..catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors... or a property of an object. mycars[0] = "Saab". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . The try block contains the code to be run. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.

Also. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. txt+="Click OK to continue.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").7. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. Syntax: 42 . alert(txt).description + "\n\n".7 popup boxes 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). When an alert box pops up. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.\n\n".\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. 5.5 .

The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .7.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. in the example above had not been written within a function. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .7. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the box returns false. in the <head> section.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the box returns null.5 . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. If the user clicks "Cancel"."defaultvalue") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the box returns true.. If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.js file). When a prompt box pops up. Now. When a confirm box pops up.8. Syntax: prompt("sometext".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. If the user clicks "OK".javaScript alert("sometext") 5.8 functions 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.

So. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. etc are variables or values passed into the function. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. and will be stored in the variable called product. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9 javaScript objects 5.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.javaScript function functionname(var1. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.5 .1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.8.var2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.9... and how they are used. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. var2. document. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. 5.. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". 5. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.9.. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .varX) { some code } var1.write(txt. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.length).

The other class are the language specific objects.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. which will be specified in the next section. 45 . </script> 5.write(str.toUpperCase()). document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".9.javaScript 5.5 .

When an event message has been triggered. or when the user interacts with a Web page. N: Netscape.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. which are called Objects.asp 5.com/jsref/default.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Link on the page is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.w3schools. For example.5 .11 javaScript language built in objects 5. check the site http://www. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. every Image on the page is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. At its most basic level.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Properties FF: Firefox. Even this Document itself is an Object. as well).

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.5 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.11.

as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.5 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.

to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.11. N: Netscape. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to universal time. according to local time. according to local time. according to Greenwich time. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.

Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 .11.5 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 . var myNum=new Number(number). The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .

5 1 .5 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.11.

11.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .434) Returns PI (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . 0.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 3.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 2. 1.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.javaScript 5.y) min(x. 1. 0.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 2.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. N: Netscape. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.y) pow(x. 0.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.

12. 53 .methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj. age.firstname="John". 5. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.lastname="Doe".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. Objects also have methods. play(). height.firstname="John". document. sleep().firstname). personObj. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. The persons' methods could be eat(). etc.eyecolor="blue". but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Assume that the personObj already exists .12. work().3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().12. lastname.age=50. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods. weight. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj.age=30. personObj. All persons have these properties.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.lastname="Doe".eyecolor="blue". skin tone.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.5 . Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The persons' properties include name.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. Properties are the values associated with the object. personObj. personObj.write(personObj. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. age. eye color. etc.you can give it properties named firstname.

eyecolor=eyecolor.eyecolor) { this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. you can create new instances of the object. this.lastname.newlastname=newlastname.12.age=age. You can also add some methods to the person object. myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor=eyecolor. this.firstname=firstname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this.eyecolor) { this. this.eat=eat.age=age. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.lastname=lastname.48.lastname=lastname. 5.age."blue")."Rally".age."green"). this.5 . this."Doe".lastname=new_lastname.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname.propertyName.firstname=firstname. like this: myFather=new person("John". this. Once you have the template.50. } Notice that the template is just a function. 54 . Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.

F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . So. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. 5. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. We define the events in the HTML tags.newlastname("Doe"). JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.".5 . Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions..0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. For example. now you can write: myMother.

Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. 5.13.5 .1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted.13. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.2 onFocus.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .w3schools. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The name is then stored in a cookie. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. For example.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. the submit should be cancelled.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.

javaScript event').5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. As of January 2008. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. The W3C 58 . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. or WebAPI being among them. structure. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.6 .2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. CSS. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. HTML. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. XML. 2010). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . particularly those used in Web browsers. However. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). In other words. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.g. By October 1998. SVG. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. and style of a document.. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.Html DOM 6 . SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. the Document Object Model activity is closed. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. 6.HTML DOM 6. Right now (oct.

6. DOM Level 3 Core. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Load and Save.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. filtered views and events. 4. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 2. 3. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. 5. which further enhances the DOM 6. Level 1.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 XPath. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and 6.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 2. As of 2005. HTML-specific elements are included as well. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. To claim to support a level.6 . Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. each of which contains required and optional modules.

6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. support multiple browsers. can be accessed through the 60 . Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Opera. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.6 . In order to be cross-browser compatible. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). and Safari.x and Netscape 4. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. The Window object represents a browser window. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. All HTML elements. By 2005. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. 6. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). interoperability problems were numerous. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x were still widely used in 2000. along with their containing text and attributes. that is. Konqueror. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.

The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript. JavaScript. and new elements can be created. It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 .

The <head> node holds a <title> node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. everything in an HTML document is a node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. the element node <title>. 6. 6. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.Html DOM 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.6 .8.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The tree structure is called a node-tree.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. <head> and <body>. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.9. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <html> node has two child nodes. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8. However. 62 .

and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By using the getElementById() method 2.9.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. child.getElementById('main'). and the connections between them.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.9. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. the top node is called the root Every node.getElementsByTagName("p").6 .2 node parents. using the node relationships. 63 . The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. and new elements can be created. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. except the root. Parent nodes have children. By navigating the node tree. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).getElementsByTagName("p"). children. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The terms parent. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). • • • • • In a node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted.

• • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.write("<br />"). document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .i<x.9.6 . each node is an object. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).innerHTML).Html DOM for (i=0. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6.write(x[i]. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i++) { document.length.

txt=x.Html DOM 6. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .firstChild.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.nodeValue.9.getElementById("intro"). 6.6 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.

including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .6 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames. For elements. For elements. objects and images.

but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari.3. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. for instance. also supports these methods. During the event flow.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and then bubbled up. DOMNodeInserted.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. 67 . Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla. as of version 1. through a mouse click or a keypress. 6. Also. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. say "click". Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Fires when an element is activated. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.6 . there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.

Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.Html DOM 6. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. including information about target element. preventDefault 68 . there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).6 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. mouse position. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Unfortunately. key pressed. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. It is not a technology in itself. 69 . 7. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. The server does some processing — retrieving data. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. etc. fields of forms.AJAX 7.AJAX 7 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.7 . menus. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. For improving sharing of resources. For example. 7.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. dynamic website. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. choices of user. but also to save resources. crunching numbers. using web services or Php scripts. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.

7 . And at every step in a task. the user waits some more. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. waiting around for the server to do something. Once an interface is loaded. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. 70 . why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. waiting. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. While the server is doing its thing. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Obviously. we wouldn’t make users wait around. Instead of loading a web page. but the opposite is true. at the start of the session. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.

71 . loading additional interface code. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.7 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. usually using XML. editing data in memory.

This object provides two methods: .7 .url: the location of the file 72 .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.for a Xml file or .open: create a connection. 404 if the page is not found . 1: connection established. 2: request received. boolean) .send: send a request to the server. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.responseText . These events are user actions.AJAX 7.holds loaded data as a string of characters. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.holds a Xml loaded file. 3: answer in process. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". and in this purpose. 7.responseXml . DOM's method allows to extract data. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. . 4: finished. To get data on the server.mode: type of request.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. It allows the interaction with the servers.for a simple text. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. onreadystatechange . url. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. GET or POST .returned by the server .200 is ok. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . thanks to its methods and attributes. . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.

http_request.open: command GET or POST. if (window. if (request.fr/somefile.. .xul. but two options must be tried.readyState == 4) { // received.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. the data to send to the server. 'http://www.7 .boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. http_request.AJAX .. Safari. URL of the document. // Firefox. for browser compatibility.null for a GET command 7.XMLHTTP").send(null).ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . } else if (window..XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). 73 .xml'. The request below reads a document on the server.send: with POST only. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. . OK } else { // wait.open('GET'. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.6 building a request. true for asynchronous. true). request.

AJAX 7.7 examples 7. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.xml".status.open("GET".item(0).ajax.responseText.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. if(window. }.ajax.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.7.responseXML.getElementsByTagName('root').2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. else if (window.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".XMLHTTP). by this code: var doc = req. req. "data.dyn=""Received:" + req.readyState == 4) if(req. else document.7.dyn="Received:" + req.7 .dyn="Error code " + req.send(null).ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .responseText. req.status == 200) document. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). req. req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). true).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


For example. Servlet. like: 1.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 2. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.class>com. 6. but typical web. After an enterprise bean is created. MIME types used by the web application.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. welcome pages. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. web.ccards. 8. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time..WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JSPs and Java Server Faces. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 5. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. classes.bank11. servlet classes. entries related to session configuration.8 . JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.servlets.xml file: <?xml version="1. Here is a small.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. like what pages are error. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.. Others. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. data persistence. 3. Servlet. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.)> <web-app> <!-. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Initialization of parameters for servlets. 4. descriptions). database connection resource pooling.

1. Then the "EnrollServlet.class" and that it is part of the package "com. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.bank11.xml" 2. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.bank11.ccards.servlets.servlets". for flexibility. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. Basicly. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.ccards. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. For example.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . the name of the web application. In general.xml" file. However. Behind a very benign URL. whose name is rather long. it is the alias of the real servlet class. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".servlets". the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). basicly. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.ccards.xml file of the web application.xml".8 .5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.bank11.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Unfortunately.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.

9. platform independent programs. more often.0 specification.SERVLETS 9 .0 specification is available for public review.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. this is just a work in progress.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.4.4. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. As of oct. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.5 and is in final state. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . 9. which extend the functionality of the web server. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. from BEA Systems. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. 2010.2.2. in most cases as part of an application server.SERVLETS 9. Technically speaking. small footprint. modular design 9. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. the HttpServlet) class.9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. but at this point.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. tjws spec 2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. the Java Servlet 3. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. but through a web container.

Enterprise Edition.servlet javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet package are protocol independent.servlet.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. These packages are: • • javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. WebSphere.9 . the javax. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. IOException. public void destroy() throws ServletException. 82 . public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet. from Apple Inc.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet package. from IBM 9. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . while the second one. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. This method has two arguments. in a different section. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Throwable t) 9. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. 9. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. After instantiating the servlet. the web container calls its init() method. as well. More on the servlet life cycle. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. namely the HttpServlet class. 83 . respectively.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.9 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The method performs all initialization required. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly.

containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class.lang. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.ServletException javax.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. It also extends the java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . service(). 9.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.Exception and can be thrown by the init().servlet.lang.9 .UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.

Typically. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. If the servlet does not implement the javax. After instantiation. 85 . The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. this method contains JDBC driver loading. DB connection opening.SingleThreadModel. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. 9. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. etc. respectively. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Also. JSP or JSF. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.servlet.9 . or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. which will service all incoming requests. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. method which performs the initialization of the servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. Typically.

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 . Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.

87 . public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.ccards. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.io.xml file.servlets. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.9 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.java" file: package com.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. This is done in server's (container's) server.*.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.bank11. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. import java. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.

import javax.init(config).close().getWriter().println("</body>").println("<br>").println("<head>").println("<html>").println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</head>"). out. // output your page here out.println("<body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("</html>"). IOException { resp. out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. out.*. out.println("merge").servlet.http.9 . } } 88 . PrintWriter out = resp. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out. out.SERVLETS import javax.setContentType(“text/html”). out. out.*.

Type 1.odbc. This solution is inefficient.sql package. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.sun.10 . as recognized by the DB industry. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.jdbc. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.JDBC 10. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. the java. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. the javax. After that.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). 1997.1. Starting with version 3. 10.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. The JDBC 4. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.JDBC 10 . 89 .JdbcOdbcDriver .0 while the current (4.sql package 2. These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).

These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Type 4. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. 90 .JDBC Type 2. forwards them to the JDBC driver.10 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. which in turn. Part Java. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.

Array java.SQLData java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.SQLPermission java.sql.Wrapper 91 .sql.ResultSet java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.sql.10 .sql.sql.Blob java.SQLInput java.sql.Struct java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API. java.SQLWarning java.Date java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.Clob java.sql.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.0).sql.DriverManager java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.SQLDataException java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.Driver java.SQLOutput java.Timestamp java.Types java.0 API.sql.Connection java.Statement java.Time java.JDBC 10.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.3 the java.sql.

sql package.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.SQLInput java.sql.SQLWarning java.RowId java.sql.sql.NClob java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.SQLDataException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLTimeoutException java.StatementEvent javax.Blob java.Wrapper javax.sql.10 .SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.ClientinfoStatus java.Clob java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.Types java.SQLClientInfoException java. querying the database 4. java.sql.StatementEventListener 10.CallableStatement java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLXML java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.0.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLException java.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.Connection java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.Statement java.

10 .JDBC 10.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .DB2Driver oracle.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.jdbc.sybase.SybDriver com.DataStoreDriver com.datastore.ibm. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.db2.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.net.jdbc.borland. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.odbc. The first one is loading a database driver.driver.

sql. as specified by the driver vendor.util. passwd). but let's take it for granted: import java. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". by using the connection URL. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.newInstance().com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.*. String user = "root". } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.mysql. user. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. import java. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mm.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.gjt.bank11.forName("org.printStackTrace().getConnection(connURL. Since we just used it. try { Class. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).*.10 . 94 . let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.Driver").

JDBC 10.put("autocommit". Connection conn = DriverManager. java. "true").7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Properties prp = new Properties(). String user. we can use it for various purposes. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. prp.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetConcurrency. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.10 .sql package. "true"). Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.util. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. prp.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. 10.put("create".getConnection(connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.

namely. Statement. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. respectively. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.JDBC 10. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.10 .

stmt.sql.".ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved..9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. 10..createStatement(). Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .executeUpdate(sqlString).JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .10 .

An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. 98 . not at 0) or the column name. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 . These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. PreparedStatement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql. time.produces a Connection object that will 103 . Connection pooling implementation -.sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. There are three types of implementations: 1. It is part of the javax. mins.sql.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. Basic implementation -. This interface is.sql package. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.10 .DataSource object.Big Decimal Object float 10.produces a standard Connection object 2.math. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math.Time java.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. a factory for creating DB connections. basicly. secs date.0 optional package.

*. javax. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*.servlets.*. javax.getLogger(TestDataSource.servlet. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. 3.*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.servlet.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).10 . private DataSource theDataSource.class. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.sql. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). Distributed transaction implementation -. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".io.ccards.getName()).*.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. import import import import import import java.naming.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*.http.bank11.sql. java. 104 . javax. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.

. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { .10 . } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. namely javax. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The package javax.JSP 11 .1 and is related to the 2.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification.tagext.jsp.jsp and javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.jsp. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp.servlet.JSP 11. 11. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.11 . HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The javax. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. If the JSP is modified. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .servlet.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.2 the java. The package javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.11 . The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. 111 . include and taglib.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" ..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.

7. 11.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.JSP 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. 11. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7 scripting elements 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. In Tomcat. Assigns it to available name or id.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11.7.11 .3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .

9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. and if so. Attributes description: • • • name .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. you must specify param. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .11 .

11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.11 .name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:plugin> actions. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.the URL of the page. <jsp:forward>. same format as the <%@include> directive. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. flush .13 the forward standard action 114 .

which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. code="classFileName" .. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • ..11 . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. 11.. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. You must include the . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. as this attribute has no default value.a name for the Bean or applet instance.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). You must specify either bean or applet.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . as well. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. It is used mainly. depending on request. when we want to separate the application into different views.class extension in the name following code. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . name="instanceName" . .the type of object the plugin will execute.. name ..the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. archive="URIToArchive." .the name of a bean instance. servlet or to a static resource. If you do not supply a value.

1" .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . session . of the image the applet or Bean displays.servlet.io. 1.lang.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.the amount of space. with a protocol name.1. config . pageContext . in pixels.11 . optional port number. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . page . request . objects which are automaticly available. The value is a full URL. and domain name. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. based on the servlet API. Must be a small nonzero number. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. it has java. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. request .JspWriter type and scope page 7.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. response . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. application .Object type and scope page 11.jsp. out .represents server's response to the request.the initial height and width. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.it represents the buffered version of java.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.16 scopes 1. it has javax. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . The default value is 1. in pixels. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .represents the servlet context.PrintWriter. writes to the output stream to the client.

JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. session .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.ccards.init(). page . Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 2.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. application .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 4.11 .jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . if (enrollBean.beans. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 3.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.

a software development and consulting company. private String colors[].Serializable { private String string.simple. private float number.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.mapping. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). 11.io. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. a float. an int.11 . The SimpleBean class is declared public. private int list[].JSP <% } else { enrollBean.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.examples.register().devsphere. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. private boolean flag. %> <jsp:forward page="response. The public constructor could have been omitted. private SimpleSubBean subBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.java: package com. private String optional. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . SimpleBean.string.18. private int integer.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. a boolean and another String).

} // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.number = value.number. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } 119 .11 .JSP this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.colors = values. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag.integer.integer = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.colors. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.flag = value.colors[index]. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.string = value.

} // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. String value) { this.list = values. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } } 120 .list.11 .JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.colors[index] = value.list[index]. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.subBean = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional. int value) { this.list[index] = value.subBean.optional = value. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.

number = value.io.string. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. SimpleSubBean. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.string = value.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.18. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.simple.11 .Serializable { private String string. } } 11. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).mapping.examples. private float number.number.java: package com.devsphere.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .string subBean.

SimpleBeanResources. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]". new String[] { 123 . 3 } }. new int[] { 2.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "An option must be selected" }.18. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "abc" }. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.mapping.string]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The list of optional properties has a single element.simple. the list of optional properties. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.list]".flag]". There are three error messages. a boolean and an int[]. the processing order.number]".examples.devsphere. new Boolean(true) }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.util.list]".123) }.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.java: package com. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". a float. "One or more colors must be selected" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. new Float(0.11 . The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. "One or more items must be selected" }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. The default values are defined for a String.colors]". the form's name and the processor's name. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. error messages.

jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.devsphere.18.devsphere. "SimpleForm. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. string values are converted to numbers. The beanToForm() method of com.11 . If necessary. "subBean" } }.jsp" } }.html" }.mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.JSP "optional" } }. new String[] { "string".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . com. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. { "[FORM_NAME]". "integer".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.examples.mapping. "list". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. For a better understanding of this example. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping. "flag". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.logging. SimpleHndl.devsphere. "optional".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.devsphere. } } 11. { "[PROC_NAME]".simple. The formToBean() method of com. "number".*.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.devsphere. "colors". "SimpleProc.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").util.mapping.

trim(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. // Process the valid data bean instance application.getMethod(). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.11 . slashIndex+1) : "".getString("[PROC_NAME]").io.equals("POST").substring(0. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).JSP = HandlerUtils.getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. int slashIndex = basePath.getServletPath().getRealPath(formPath).getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getTemplate(new java. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). response).trim().lastIndexOf('/').getClass()). logger). simpleBean.removeUserErrors(errorTable). errorTable = HandlerUtils.getDocument().File(formPath)).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.formToBean(formData.forward(request.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. 125 .util. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. formPath = application.

JSP elements logger).18.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.simple. // Send the form document document. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.string = <%= simpleBean.getString() %> <P> subBean.beanToForm(simpleBean.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.getSubBean().mapping. SimpleProc.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.length.append("{ ").number = <%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0. document. errorTable. i++) 126 . if (list.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. strbuf. i < list.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.length == 0) return "".examples.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. } %> 11.11 .getSubBean().devsphere.send(out).

JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.length == 0) return "".toString(). } strbuf.append(" ").append(list[i]). Using the framework. ComplexForm.mapping.append(list[i]). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. i < list.util.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .toString(). In addition. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.jsp files.append("}").simple.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append("{ "). strbuf. strbuf. ComplexHndl.devsphere. The localization of the Complex*. A single call to FormUtils. In addition. making the testing and the debugging easier. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. return strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. return strbuf.formToBean() call.append("}").18. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. } strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. for (int i = 0.11 .toString(list[0]).examples. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.length == 1) return Integer. i++) { strbuf.append(" "). if (list.length. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. } %> 11. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.

if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "green".length.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. for (int i = 0.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "blue" }. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Blue" }. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < colors.getInteger() == value.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green". String colorLabels[] = { "Red".getColors().11 .length. for (int i = 0. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. i++) { boolean checked = false. j++) if (colors[j]. i < colorValues. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. 128 .getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". boolean checked = simpleBean. String colorValues[] = { "red". i < integerLabels. "Option 3" }. i++) { int value = i+1.

string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.simple.examples.mapping. if (list == null) list = new int[0].SimpleSubBean()). break. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i < listItems. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean(). for (int i = 0. "Item 3" }.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.JSP break.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .11 .string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.setSubBean( new com. boolean selected = false. "subBean.length.getList(). if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.devsphere. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. "Item 2". j < list. i++) { int value = i+1.

devsphere.simple.mapping.examples.setString("abc").equals("POST").util.simple. } %> ComplexHndl.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.mapping.getMethod().getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . "subBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.get(property).length() == 0) { simpleBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere. 130 . boolean isPostMethod = request. return message.getString() == null || simpleBean.examples.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). if (message == null) message = "".number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getSubBean().getString().Hashtable errorTable.

JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue. "string". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.length() == 0 || flagValue. else { simpleBean.setNumber(0.length() != 0) simpleBean. "An option must be selected").length == 0) { 131 . "Must be filled"). } simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.floatValue()).11 . } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setFlag(flagValue != null).getParameter("flag").trim().getParameter("number"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0.123f). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number". "number". "Must be a number"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getColors(). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.123f). "Must be filled").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean.

setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.11 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "One or more colors must be selected").getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getList().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled").setString(""). "Must be } //* subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.getParameter("subBean.setList(new int[] { 2.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() != 0) simpleSubBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "list". "One or more items must be selected"). //* subBean. "colors". "subBean.floatValue()).number". "subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.setOptional(""). 132 .getString(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string".length == 0) { simpleBean. 3 }).number").

which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.devsphere. simpleBean. errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.18.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.examples.helpers. simpleBean.\ 133 . message).jsp.simple.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.JSP filled").number".SimpleBean.setNumber(0. simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.11 . String property. 3 }). simpleBean.xml: SimpleHndl. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. } %> 11.123f).code=com. "subBean. "Must be a number").properties or web.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.Hashtable errorTable. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.devsphere.setList(new int[] { 2. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".helpers.util.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.devsphere. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. The com. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setString("abc"). } } else { simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.mapping.setOptional("").setString(""). simpleSubBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.mapping.setFlag(true).put(property.

host. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.mapping.helpers.devsphere.properties: AnotherHndl. you could add a few other lines to servlets.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . In many cases.devsphere.xml) file: ServletName.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.mapping.host.host.AnotherBean.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.company.simple.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.mapping.11 .code=com.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. If you have another bean-form pair.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. A servlet can be made bean-independent.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.another.code=com.18. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.devsphere.examples. 11.properties (or web. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. a servlet is identified with its class.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.examples.helpers. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.devsphere.

11 .JSP 135 .

namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Version 2. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. processes events.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. builds a component tree. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.JAVASERVER FACES 12. which loads the appropriate view template. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.javaserver faces 12 .2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. like input fields. Version 2. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 2.0 supersedes version 1. This technology includes: 1.12 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. 12.

3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. As of version 1.12 .4. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.javaserver faces 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.2 of the JFS specification.

such as alternating row colors. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. footers. 12. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.12 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. respectively. For more information about columns. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. see the column tag documentation.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.4. Common formatting techniques.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. columns and rows.

javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. your options include using plain HTML forms.4.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.12 .checkout}" /> 139 .4. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.

5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.4. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean." /> 12.12 . green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().4. red for error.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.user. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.5.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .</span> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.12 . For example.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.5. 12.

the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. The body content of this tag must be empty.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.customer. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . A component fires a value change event when its input changes. can publish value change events. Without this JavaScript event. Any component that receives user input. validateLength. 12.mycompany.5. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.javaserver faces 12. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. but only if the new input is validated successfully.5.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.

jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. myJSFapp 143 . JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. Example: welcome_en. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.12 . This allows you to design localized versions of each page.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. for each locale you wish to support.javaserver faces 12. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. including images and styles.5. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.

static resources.jar – files included in the /lib directory. jsf-api.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.html. mandatory for any JSF application web. Create JSP pages 2.xml – the JSF configuration file. It has a deployment descriptor. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.exadel. Create properties files 144 .com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.javaserver faces /ant build. and so on. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml web. like third party jar files jsf-impl.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar faces-config. custom tag libraries. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. JSP pages.jar. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Create managed beans 4.12 .jar jsf-api.contains libraries required by the application. Define navigation rules 3.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .

we just want to go from inputname. The directory structure already exists.12 .jsp and greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.7. As a diagram. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.xml file. Compile the application 8. In our application. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .jsp to greeting.7. You only need to create the JSP files.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. Create an index.jsp is greeting. 12. And that's all there is to this. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Edit JSP pages 6.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp.jsp file 7.javaserver faces 5.jsp. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. You just need to create its contents. we can create a navigation rule. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. These files will act as place holders for now.

12. Inside this myJFSapp folder.xml Your final faces-config.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. a very simple navigation rule.7. the second part of faces-config. This class is straight-forward. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.) 12. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.7. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.PersonBean. we will create a PersonBean.3.3 faces-config.3. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. You can easily create more complex ones.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. The next line is the full class name. of course.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.1 PersonBean. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.7. public class PersonBean { String personName.xml Now.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. myJFSapp.12 . 12. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.javaserver faces This is. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. To read more about navigation rules.xml file should look like this: 146 .3.java file.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.

5.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.7.properties file in the bundle folder.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.sun.7. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. 12. Inc.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.4.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.12 .1 inputname. 12.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.7.sun.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.sun. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 messages.1//EN" "http://java.

12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg. Then. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.

The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.javaserver faces Line 1.</h3> tags.. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.5.6 creating the index. Having an index. 12. specifically the bean attribute personName. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Line 2. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.jsp page.7. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Create the index. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.greeting_text}" />.7.2 greeting..sun.bundle. name! 12. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. and also print its contents on the page.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. The first three lines are identical to our first page. Line 6.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The second line will access a Java bean.sun.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.xml file.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. Lines 3-5. Creates an HTML input text box.12 . Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.

might possibly be different).jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. 12. 12.8. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.xml file for the application *. Of course.7. When Tomcat is done loading.xml file. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.12 . which asks an user for an ID and password. 12. because in the web.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12.jsf and not .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. This is a "login" application. To build the application run the build.7. To do this. We are almost done with this example.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. though.jsp. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. This is used here. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. 150 .xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. Your setup.html . you'll notice the file suffix is .7.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. and forwards the user to a success or error page.9 Running Next.sourceforge. verifies the information.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). we need to deploy it.javaserver faces Now. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.

. 2. make sure all checkboxes are checked. name the folder pages. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). Select Java Project. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. in the wizard that appears. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. 1.. c. a.12 . and to add JSF libraries to the project. click Next.webroot | +-. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. click Finish 4. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. from the menubar select File/New/Other. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.. The New Project wizard appears. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. your mileage may vary. 7. 10..src | +-. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. click Add Folder.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. see Installing & Uninstalling. 3. in the Add JSF Support page.WEB-INF 151 . in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. 6. Select the Amateras node. Enter project name. click Yes through messages that appear.. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.. jsf-login. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click Next. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. say. select the Source tab. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.xml Editor (see faces-config. name the folder webroot 5. and set up folders for a web application. 12. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.8. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 9. click Next d.

We then configure it to be a managed bean. The New Java Class wizard appears. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.xml editor opens.pages 12. The Java code editor opens.12 . for scope select 152 . in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. 1. for class enter login. private String _pwd = "". input widgets appear d. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. 3. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. b.lib | +-. 2.xml Editor. In the Package field. } 4. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. click Managed Bean. click Add. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". a.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". enter login.8.javaserver faces | | | +-. The faces-config. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } return action. for name enter mgr. In Package Explorer select the src folder. if ( _uid. in the Name field enter LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. else action = "loginFail". Click Finish. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.xml.java package login.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.LoginManager. c. from its context menu select New/Class. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.

javaserver faces session.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. Create index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. then close the editor 12. success.jsp and error. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp: a.webroot/pages/success. click Finish.webroot/index. for File name enter index.jsp. in Package Explorer select webroot. the New File wizard appears. </body> Please try 153 .4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. b. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Then we create login. Create success. again. Enter the following code: <!-. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from the menubar select File/Save. the JSP Editor opens.jsp is placed directly in webroot. save the file and close the editor. Create error. but in webroot/pages. <!-. c. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. so we create them first.jsp. index.8.12 . and 3 content pages (login. e.webroot/pages/error.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp.jsp). 1. enter the following code. All pages except login.jsp are simple pages with static content. Enter the following code: <!-. but in webroot/pages.jsp. from its context menu select New/File.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.

now we want to add attributes to this element. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. enter jsf-login e. Open the JSF palette. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and the JSP Editor can help with code. with the following template code. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. from its context menu select New/Other. etc. as shown below. g.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. Create login. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. To see this in action. (See Show View Dialog) f. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.sun. 154 . click Next c. the New wizard appears.javaserver faces </html> 4. place your cursor in one of these lines. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. <%@ page contentType="text/html. d. a code-completion window pops up. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and choose default for Template. for File name enter login.jsp: a. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. and dock it along the right.jsp.sun. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.completion... and uses them for code completion as well.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. click Finish.12 . b.

set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. enter #{mgr.12 . and hit Enter. insert another <h:inputText> element. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java..password}" l. set its value to Login.) j. with bean properties available in mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.javaserver faces h.loginAction} The final code. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. select userID from the code-completion window.sun. insert a <h:commandButton> element. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. with the barest presentational formatting. a code-completion window pops up.sun. i. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.

it should open in the faces-config.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. 1.12 . 2.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. click on Page.8.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.xml. 156 .xml Editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Open faces-config. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. This is shown below.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. this inserts a page icon into the editor. using a FacesIDE editor. then click inside the editor window. Select the Navigation tab 3. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.

jsp. 6. and set them to /pages/login.jsp. change the value of path to /index.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears. 5. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). in the Properties view. add 3 more pages. select Navigation Case. from the palette at left.jsp 4. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.12 .jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp and /pages/error. and is represented by an arrow. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. /pages/success. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. then click first on the icon for login.

8. As it turns out.xml Here we edit web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. any other id/password should send you to the error page.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. or leave it as-is. Similarly add a forward-action from login. and you should be sent to the success page.javaserver faces 7. We'll set some properties in web.jsp to error. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). so uncomment it. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. The application is now complete.6 Editing web.jsp. since we have such a trivial application.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and extension-based mapping is turned on. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.jsp. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. all we need do in web. We want virtual path-based mapping. 12.jsp.xml. Once deployed browse to index.xml. open web. 1.12 .xml for the specifics of our application. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.

component javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.12 . for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.application javax.html javax.el javax.faces.faces.faces.event javax.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.validator javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2..faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.javaserver faces 12.component.. the Manager application should reload.context javax.faces.faces..faces.faces javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. open its Manager application in a browser.lifecycle javax.model javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.CONFIG_FILES 159 .0 1. 12. scroll down to Deploy. click Deploy 3.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.10 the javax. For a given factory class name. as file:///.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.webapp 12. Click on its link to launch the application.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces.render javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.8.faces. that factory is used. start Tomcat.faces.convert javax.

ViewHandler . those factories are used.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. defining page navigation. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.Severity . StateManagerWrapper . FacesMessage .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.application package Contains the following classes: • Application .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. FacesMessage.12 . If none of the above steps yield a match. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. handling events and input validation. 12. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. with the last one taking precedence. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. with the last one taking precedence.faces.represents a single validation (or other) message. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. StateManager .11 the javax.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. ViewHandlerWrapper . ApplicationFactory . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).

Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. when activated by the user. EditableValueHolder .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.12 the javax. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. StateHolder .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. • ViewExpiredException . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. • • 161 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. ActionSource2 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. String.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.faces.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. UIComponentBase .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. Here they are: • • UIColumn .faces. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. a menu item. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. UIComponent . 12.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. String) results in failure on postback. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. ContextCallBack . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.12 . triggers an application specific "command" or "action".FacesContext. UICommand . or a hyperlink.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.restoreView(javax.context. NamingContainer . ValueHolder .

a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. that is displayed to the user. identified by a clientId. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UIMessages . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.12 . The user can modify the selected values.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UIInput . Optionally.a UIComponent that has a value.faces.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIGraphic . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.component. UIViewRoot . UIParameter . This component has no rendering. The user cannot manipulate this component. Optionally. UIOutput . UIPanel . by storing it as the value property of the component.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIMessage . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UISelectBoolean . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UISelectItem . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UINamingContainer . UISelectOne . UISelectMany . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIForm .javaserver faces • UIData . it is for display purposes only. it just serves as the root of the component tree. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.13 the java. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.html package 162 .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.

faces.renders the component value as text. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.faces.by default. HtmlPanelGroup .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlCommandLink . HtmlOutputLabel .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlOutputLink .represents an HTML img element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. but the application wishes to render more than one.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputText .represents an HTML textarea element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlForm . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. and renders the result.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlMessages . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputText . HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML form element. or not.represents an HTML input element of type text. On a redisplay. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlInputTextarea .Message".renders child components in a table. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlInputSecret .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlMessage . HtmlPanelGrid . HtmlColumn . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.by default. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.12 . HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents an HTML label element. This component must be placed inside a form. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlCommandButton .

HtmlSelectOneListbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseWriter .15 the java.faces. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.convert package 164 . and potentially modified by.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectOneMenu . showing a single available option at a time.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectOneRadio . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. HtmlSelectManyListbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. In particular. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.javaserver faces property.14 the java. ResponseWriterWrapper . showing a single available option at a time. FacesContextFactory .12 . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. ResponseStream .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. HtmlSelectManyMenu .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. FacesContext . It is passed to.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.faces. • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.

faces.16 the java.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. • • • • 165 . ValueBinding .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .12 .15.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. VariableResolver .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. Classes: MethodBinding . PropertyResolver . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. 12.javaserver faces 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.

an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseEvent . PhaseListener . ReferenceSyntaxException .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .AbortProcessingException .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PropertyNotFoundException .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.17 the java. and event implementation classes.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.12 .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ValueChangeListener .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12.faces. Interfaces: ActionListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • • One exception .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. 166 . MethodNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesListener .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). PhaseId . FacesEvent .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. ValueChangeEvent .

12 . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. ListDataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. ScalarDataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. DataModel .19 the java. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. 12. Classes: ArrayDataModel . Renderer . • • • • • • • • • 12.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ResultSetDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).20 the java.faces.faces. ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. SelectItem .18 the java.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . SelectItemGroup .javaserver faces 12.faces.

22 the java.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). together.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.faces. • RenderKit .faces. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. The package contains an exception.12 . AttributeTag .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. markup language. • • 12. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. LongRangeValidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and concrete validator implementation classes.21 the java. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. base classes for JSP custom component tags.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . ConverterTag . including a standard servlet.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. as well. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. RenderKitFactory .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. and/or user Locale. ResponseStateManager .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Typically.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.validator package Interface defining the validator model. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. 12.

the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. that need to process their tag bodies. telling the view to update its presentation. which passes the request to the page class. the life cycle is more complicated. When the model is updated. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. Likewise. or when an exception occurs. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. which has several implications.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the controller is the 169 . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. UIComponentTag . the process includes a few more components or pages. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. but basically.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. In JSF. the JSF life cycle does not apply. • • • • • FacesServlet . the controller sends a message to the view. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. related to a UIComponent. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. or some other web technology. FacetTag . In MVC.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. When using JSF. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. Also. telling the model to update its data. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. UIComponentBodyTag . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model).a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.a base class for all JSP custom actions. servlets. When the user takes some action with the presentation.12 . When a web server receives a request. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. ValidatorTag . that request is passed to the container. 12. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the controller sends a message to the model.

If this is a subsequent request. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. or from request headers.12 . The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. As with the previous phase. The components are stored in a component tree. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. In addition. such as components that create HTML input fields. These objects update their state with the data values. and the response is sent to the client. However. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. Data for some components. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and a piece of data failed validation. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. depending on the request. converting a String to a Date object). the conversion occurs in this phase. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. For a JSF-enabled application. the JSF implementation must create the view. and the UI components are the view. it creates UI objects for each view component. and what happens during the processing and response. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. • Invoke Application: During this phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. is validated at this time. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase.javaserver faces JSF implementation. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. In addition. from cookies sent as part of the request. It updates only the UI components with the new data. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. 170 . If this is the client’s first visit to a page.

the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 . 171 . For example. skipping any remaining phases. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.

The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. for example. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. such as LDAP. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").Wiz. or objects typically used by computer programs.5). naming and directory services using a common API. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.COM. Thus the DNS name sales. For example. When using almost any computer program or system."). These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. and NIS(YP).2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. The DNS entry Wiz. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.2. 172 . This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. possibly multiple. identifiers. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. DNS. Using JNDI. NDS. c:\bin\autoexec. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. 13.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. you supply it the name of the object. The UNIX pathname. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.COM. in turn. In addition.9. 13. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.JNDI 13.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. A file system maps a filename (for example. To access a file in the computer. For example. For example. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. such as addresses. when you use an electronic mail system.13 . /usr/hello. It enables applications to access different. you must supply its name. you are always naming one object or another.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".sun.48.JNDI 13 . which is located in the root of the file system. names a file hello in the file directory usr.

it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object."). The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is a context. that is. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. delimited by the comma character (". might contain the state of the printer. in a file directory /usr/bin. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. its flight plan. For example. in the UNIX file system is a context. Typically. 13. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. For example. a file name is bound to a file. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. 13.2. and fuel and instrument status. For example. A printer object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. for example. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. which in turn. A reference is information about how to access an object. 173 . By contrast. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left.c=us. In another example. an LDAP entry. such as /usr. For simplicity.2. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service.COM. such as c=us. in the DNS domain Sun. a file directory. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. Every context has an associated naming convention.2. is relative to c=us. is accessed using a file reference. such as its print server name and printing protocol. relative to the entry o=Sun. For example. is a context.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. for example. and listing bound names. on the other hand. some objects cannot be stored directly. A printer object reference. that is. a DNS domain. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. Using the reference. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). they must be stored by reference. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. Instead. unbinding names. o=Sun. also called a file handle. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. A file object.13 . an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. such as COM. 13. and its flight number and departure time. That is. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. Finally. For example. while the object itself might contain more state information. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. in the an LDAP entry o=sun.

13. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. A directory object can be used. The computer's directory service is much more powerful.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. Thus. and computer account information. and color.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to represent a printer. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. one context can be viewed.3. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. programs. for example. however.2. For example. a computer. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. to some extent. two different computer 174 .13 . A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. And it kind of makes sense. postal mail address. For example. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. a person. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. For example. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. or a network. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). because we can. and even the computer itself and other computers. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. various telephone numbers. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. For example. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. a name is unique 13. resolution. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. An example is the telephone company's directory service. 13.

13. removing.50". And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.4. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Similarly. printers. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. called a directory information tree (DIT). networks. can use the directory in the traditional way.3.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.3. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. such as those based on the LDAP. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. that is. for example. 13. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.3.smith@somewhere. for example. such as that relating to machines. the ability to access directory services will become essential. Within the DIT. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. such as the file and print services. adding. 13. support the notion of searches. 13. The service is accessed through its own interface.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. 175 . Many examples of directory services are possible. and users. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. 13. "mail" is the attribute identifier. Alternatively. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. When you search. When directory objects are arranged in this way. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.113. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The query is called a search filter. A Java mail client program.13 . an organization object. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. For example.com". The email address. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. By using a directory service. many directories. for example. For example. like any other program running on the network. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.

The Java 2 SDK. emerging. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.ldap 176 . 13. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. For example.event javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.naming.naming javax. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.4. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. Thus a variety of directories--new. 13.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming.2. 13.directory javax.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.13 . printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. For example.1 and the Java 2 SDK.5. v1. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 and v1.5. more coherent and manageable. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. To use the JNDI.2. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. and even the network. It extends the v1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).naming. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.1 and Java 2 SDK. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. v1.3 and later releases.

A java.6. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. 13. The overloads that accept java.6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.naming package defines a Context interface. that is.print(report). printer. For the methods in the Context interface. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. the name of the object's class. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.String name. 13. For example.lookup("treekiller").2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.6 the naming package The javax.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. which is the core interface for looking up. 13. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. composing them. binding/unbinding. and the object itself.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.spi 13. for some objects in the directory.lang. However. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.6. list() is similar to listBindings().1 context The javax. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. Furthermore.JNDI • javax. comparing components. a 177 .String name argument represents a composite name. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. and so on.6.lang. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. In this case. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.naming.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.13 . NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. 13. and it returns the object bound to that name. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.

Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. You can add.naming. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Once you have an initial context. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). replace. 13.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. InitialContext. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13. they should catch NamingException.directory package extends the javax. 178 .7.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). 13. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.13 .6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. In the simplest and most common form of usage.7 directory package The javax. There are no absolute roots. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.7. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. For example.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. 13. Otherwise.6. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.6. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.

the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. For example. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. Once registered. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. 13. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.naming." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.naming.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. To receive event notifications. that is.naming. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.8 event package The javax. 13.9 LDAP package The javax.naming.9. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .JNDI 13. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. For example.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.ldap package at all.directory package.13 . In fact. such as "object changed.9. and vice versa. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. called controls ." and those that do not.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. or unsolicited notifications. such as information about the object before and after the change.naming. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. such as "object added.9. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. 13. controls. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.

It uses a service provider for the file system.13 .spi package supports implementors of Context. 13.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13. That is.naming. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. This support is provided in the form of object factories. implementors of Context. 13.11.java. create a file named Lookup.naming. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.naming. and receiving response controls. 180 .bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.naming package. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. sending request controls.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.10. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.10. import javax. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. 13.2 java object support The javax.1 plug-In architecture The javax. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.10 service provider package The javax. 13.10. In the process of completing an operation. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. For example. This support is provided in the form of state factories.9.Context. if you look up a printer name from the directory.

// Look up an object Object obj = ctx. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.3 looking up an Object Next. then the JNDI classes are already included. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. If the compilation succeeds.JNDI import javax.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. 13.11. 13. 181 .11.11. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.put(Context. use Context.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. For this reason. import javax.err. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).NamingException. Otherwise.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. } catch (NamingException e) { System.3. // Print it System. as follows. If the compilation fails. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. using the capitalization shown. you must have access to the JNDI classes. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. To compile to program.InitialContext.naming. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.lookup() to look up an object. create an initial context. v1.sun.5 compiling the program Next.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).out.lookup(name). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13. "com. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).13 .jndi.11. } 13.lookup(name). If you are using the Java 2 SDK.RefFSContextFactory"). If you are still having problems. env. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().java).jar as an installed extension. Object obj = ctx. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.fscontext.naming. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.

create a file named Getattr. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.LdapCtxFactory"). you need access to the JNDI classes. 182 .sun.PROVIDER_URL.naming.ldap.naming. javax.naming.sun.class). # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. 13. 13.NamingException.naming.jar and providerutil.InitialDirContext.6 running the program To run the program. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. and your example class (Lookup.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. then you will see something like the following. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.java. "com.naming. javax.Attributes. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.bat If you supply a file directory. v1. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). supply the name of a file in your file system.12. import import import import import javax.directory. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. javax. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Finally. the file system service provider.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.DirContext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). env.naming and javax.jndi. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.12.put(Context.Context.jar). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. javax. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. include the directory that contains your Lookup.fscontext. create an initial directory context.jndi.naming. env.JNDI 13.13 . To run the program.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.3.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.directory packages. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.11.directory.directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.put(Context.

get()).13 .java). The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get() on it to get its value: attrs. As with the naming example.12. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. For now.get("sn").get("sn"). 13. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.println("sn: " + attrs. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.out. Similar to the naming example.12. If the compilation fails. For this reason. 183 . then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.12. 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. } 13.err. using the capitalization shown.get() and then from that attribute get its value.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Attributes. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.12. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. ou=People"). If you are still having problems. 13. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. compile the source file using the Java compiler. If the compilation succeeds.get(). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.6 compiling the program Next. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. ou=People"). } catch (NamingException e) { System.

7 running the program As with the naming example.12.jar and providerutil.3. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.JNDI 13. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.13 . Getattr. env.put(Context. then these classes are already included.jar). If you have any trouble running this example. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. 184 . then see the Common Problems lesson. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").PROVIDER_URL. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. ou=People". v1. With this configuration.class.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. Once it has the attributes.

JMS message .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS consumer .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that creates and sends messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.a JMS client that receives messages. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. As the name queue suggests. unless it has established a durable 185 . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS producer .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. Here.14 . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS topic . JMS queue . In this model. JMS client . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. Enterprise Edition. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. • 14. the messages are delivered in the order sent. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.

3 the JMS API programming model 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.14 . 14. 186 . 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. On the receiving side. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.jms. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. In that case. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Using Java. Depending on the type of message. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.

the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. Before an application completes.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). The JMS administrator creates these objects. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). It receives messages sent to a destination. you must call the connection's start() method. you call the stop() method.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.4.createConnection(). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Before your application can consume messages. 14. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.4. For example.4. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. For example. and users discover them using JNDI. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you must close any connections that you have created. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. Like the connection factory. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). 14.14 . then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.close(). In a J2EE application. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .lookup("jms/MyTopic"). It is either a queue or a topic. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Depending on the connection type.

forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. You use the Session. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.createConsumer(myQueue). you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.14 . For example. 14.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.start(). Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.start(). For example. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. After you register the message listener. 188 . You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. MessageConsumer consumer = session. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. consumer. A message listener does. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. connection. usually expect a specific message type and format. (Remember always to call the start() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. a message listener object may be used. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. onMessage(). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. however. In the onMessage() method. Moreover. Message m = consumer.receive(1000). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.) When message delivery begins.receive(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. if it needs to reply to messages.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. it becomes active. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.createConsumer(myTopic). you are likely to miss messages. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. This object implements the MessageListener interface. Message m = consumer. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). and you can use it to receive messages.setMessageListener(myListener). After you have created a message consumer. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. which contains one method.4.

message). Here.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. to create and send a TextMessage. With an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. map message. from one application to another. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. that is. A message has three main parts: 1. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). if you created an unidentified producer.setText(msg_text). 3. You must first create the messages.createProducer(myQueue). After you have created a message producer. stream message. MessageProducer producer = session. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.send(myQueue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. bytes message. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. anon_prod. 189 .createProducer(null).4. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. For example. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.createTextMessage().4. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.createProducer(myTopic). and object message). 14. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(message). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.receive(). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. message.send(message). At the consuming end.14 .

out. use the following code: Session session = connection. Before committing the transaction. Here.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). 0). The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.getText()). A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. then delivers the messages. Sessions implement the Session interface. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. 190 . and message consumers to receive messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.14 . you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.createSession(true. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. After you create a Connection object. } else { // Handle error } 14.4. To create a transacted session. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.println("Reading message: " + message. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Session.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. If the user selects transaction support.createSession(false.

transaction management can be complex.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .logging.0. The component lives inside a container. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .15 . message-driven beans The 2.DB interaction transactions . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). Version 1. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. improved performance security . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. server which provides an execution environment for containers.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. the container lives (in general) in an application server.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.0. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.no developer coding. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.object oriented representation of data in a DB. component recovery scalability portability 191 . bundled into a single unit. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. On the other side.consistent error handling framework . container which offers services to the component. 15.jar file into the application server. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the home interface of the bean 3. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). as follows: 1. called ejb-jar. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.15 . the remote interface of the bean 4. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor.xml 15.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .

The developer does not implement this interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.*. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. } 193 .*. import java.15 .rmi.javax. int custId) throws RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. } 15. import.RemoteException. RemoteException.ejb. String lastName. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.ejb.rmi. import. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.RemoteException.javax. While the Remote interface declares no methods.

prop.15 . Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). In the case of an web application. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.interfaces. "org.put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. } 194 . how to create or find the bean 2. "localhost:1099").jnp.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. this can be done (for example) through SSL. creating them for the client application. if the client executes outside the container.PROVIDER_URL.put(Context. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). we need to know: 1. prop.NamingContextFactory". This object acts like a factory for EJBs. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.

MyBeanHome. do implements the java.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. in fact. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. and this means that there are some limitations.lookup("MyBean"). when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.class). Some languages. using the narrow() method.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").Remote interface). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. 195 .rmi. • if the client executes outside the container. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. Why? For EJB. that is part of CORBA standards.rmi. IIOP has not been designed for Java. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. Problem is. to the appropriate type. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. This is done through the javax.PortableRemoteObject class and.15 . more specifically.e.narrow(homeRef.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.rmi. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. in fact. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the client has a stub). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. but for generic languages. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. do not have the concept of casting.

ccards.bank11..ejb. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods... int custId) { // method implementation ..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ejb.15 . String lastName. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). call business methods on the bean myObject. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ejbeans.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . we concentrate now on the bean class itself.SessionContext. 15. as well). 1102). remove the bean instance myObject. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . import javax.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. public class MyBean implements javax.processEntry("Dumitrascu".create(). "Vasile".remove().

This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.15 .8 session beans There are two types of session beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. A stateless bean does not. 15. namely stateful and stateless beans. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. 197 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. that is.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the object is activated. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.

the client invokes the remove method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.1 are invoked by the EJB container. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. (Typically.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. is inside the bean class. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. At the end of the life cycle. Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. 15. or passivate. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.15 . Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. for example.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. All other methods in Figure 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. 198 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The ejbCreate method. For example.

container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3. stored in a Database). This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.15 .

On the other side. We can have more create() methods.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. all throwing RemoteException.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. as the parameters in the original create() method. CreateException. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. Update and Delete.lang. state data is stored into data store (usually. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). an instance of that bean is created. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.ccards. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. 200 . an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. 15. Read. in the same order.14. methods which have the same parameters. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.15 .

2 read • • • ejbLoad(). On the second path. 15.14.14. While in the pooled stage. in BMP. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.15 . a client can invoke the remove method. but the developer returns null for CMP. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. All instances in the pool are identical.14. On the first path.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. but in general. it is empty. left empty most of the time in CMP. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. 201 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. the client invokes the create method.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. for BMP. First. After the EJB container creates the instance. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. After instantiation. it's business methods can be invoked. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. actual SQL update code.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. not null. for BMPs. Second. the programmer will create actual SQL code. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.

16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.getPrimaryKey().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. 15. or a Web component . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Therefore. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.an application client. it does not automatically set the primary key. another enterprise bean.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. If the primary key is incorrect. In the pooled state. the values of the instance variables are not needed. 202 . an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.15 . In the pooled state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. With bean-managed persistence.

15. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.15 . The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . 15. a JMS API connection. 203 . To ensure concurrency. max-beans-infree-pool. When a message arrives. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.16. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The onMessage method may call helper methods.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.16. In several respects. message-driven bean can be used. but not asynchronously.16. If message processing is rolled back. an open database connection. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. To avoid tying up server resources. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. Unlike a session or entity bean. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. If this element is set to more than one.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.16. 15. For more information on this element see. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.for example. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. the message will be redelivered. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. Previously. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.

Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class..16. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. and it must not // accept parameters.. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .16. Classes. public void onMessage(javax.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. 15. or create a new one. 15.16. 3. // An EJB constructor is required.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). finalize{}. 2. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.jms.Message. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.}.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. As with other EJB types. Obtain a new bean instance.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.jms..MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.} // onMessage() is required. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.ejb. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.0 specification..15 . public void ejbRemove() {. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.Message MessageName) {. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. methods. Note: These instances can be pooled. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.

the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.onMessage() for more information. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. 15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . If any method throws such an exception.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. getRollbackOnly() . it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.This is not a client context.16. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.jms. For example.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().16. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. 15. getUserTransaction(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. However.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. even in onMessage(). passing the full JMS message object as an argument. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16. See javax. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.15 . because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.MessageListener.

you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. 15.xml. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.0 specification. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.16. as required by the EJB 2.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. In either case. as described in the EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).0 specification.15 .16. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.

• message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.15 . 2.0 specification.xml deployment file. 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. as described in the EJB 2. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method... the weblogic-ejb-jar. For each instance.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.xml elements.jms. 207 . jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. </message-driven> . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.ejb20.message.

like transaction. the container calls the ejbRemove method.security issues. At the end of the life cycle. a message-driven bean is never passivated.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.15 . 15.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. security 208 . attributes . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. isolation level. environment properties 6. EJB class name 5. the home interface name 7. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the remote interface name 8.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. entity specific elements 10.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. session specific elements 9. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. access control entries . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. bean home name . here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. control descriptors .

ccards.bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.15 .bank11.bank11.lang.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.ccards.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.bank11.bank11.ejb.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.ejb.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.ccards.bank11.

. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.lang..


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