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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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5 . processes it (if necessary). An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.java platform. processes it (if necessary).3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 . and sends it back to the client program. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. are not considered web components.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.7 business components Business code. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. retail.2 Server communication 1. 1. or finance. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Figure 1. like the client tier. The web tier. like HTML pages. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.

6 .3 Web. multithreading. mainframe transaction processing. and other legacy information systems. For example. Business and EIS Tiers 1. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. 1. enterprise bean. 1. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. and other complex low-level details. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. resource pooling. Before a web.9 java EE Containers Normally. enterprise edition Figure 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. database systems. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.java platform. In addition.1 . or application client component can be executed.9.

2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. For example. transaction management.9. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. database connection resource pooling. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. and remote connectivity. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 7 . data persistence. After an enterprise bean is created. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. including services such as security. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.1 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 1.4.java platform. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.

1. Web container . This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Application clients and their container run on the client.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Applet container . and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.manages the execution of applets. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. video. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. maps. develop. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.manages the execution of application client components. or any kind of binary data such as audio.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . 1.java platform.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. When XML data is exchanged between parties. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. 8 . Application client container .10. XML data. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. program files. test. extensible. or for document-oriented web services.1 . text-based standard for representing data.

3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.10. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.10. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. such as Universal Description. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and ways to communicate with the service. enterprise edition 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. 1.10.1 . 9 . and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 1.java platform. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The description includes the name of the service. the location of the service. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.

In Java EE 5.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.11. WML. or enterprise bean. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . Commonly. or if the server shuts down.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. the session bean and its data are gone. enterprise edition Figure 1. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.1 . you employ a single. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. 1.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. standard set of tags. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. 1. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.11.11. 1.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. and XML) and JSP elements.11. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. If the client terminates. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.java platform. When the client finishes executing.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code.1 . or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.java platform. No extra coding is needed. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. a module. or component accordingly. At runtime. 15 . The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. or a component. SAAJ. Once deployed on a local platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. such as better performance. the application is ready to run. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. or better customer support. JSP page. servlet. better tools. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. module.ear extension. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. JTA. and JNDI 1. it is ready to be deployed.

A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. GIF and HTML files. supporting class files. JSP files. Together. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . • • 16 . Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. which contain all Java interfaces. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. native libraries. such as caching directives. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. classes. for example. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. For example. Resource adapter modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.war (Web ARchive) extension.jar extension.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. Web modules. enterprise edition Figure 1. and a web application deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. and other documentation. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .1 .java platform.jar extension. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.

HEAD.apps. we recommend www.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.2 .ietf. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.w3. was the object of several RFCs. check the official HTTP site – www. as follows: 1.HTTP 2 . The second (and last. The client sends a request message to the server.. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).org/Protocols . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. but they also have some common structural elements. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.1. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.html). 2.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.. an initial line 2. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. so far) version.com/easy/http.. POST.HTTP 2. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. zero or more header lines 3. RFC 2616 (06/99).) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . These messages may have different contents. namely HTTP 1.org/rfc/rfc1945. The server answers with a response message. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. .jmarshall.

GET /path/to/the/file/index.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. mailing list. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.html HTTP/1.Annotation of existing resources.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.1 specification. . HEAD 3. 18 . but lack of support makes them obsolete. OPTIONS 7.0). PUT 8. as well. TRACE Three other commands are listed. Here is their list: 1. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. CONNECT 5. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. in the HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. 2. DELETE 6. GET 2. newsgroup. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .2 .4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. POST 4.

The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.Providing a block of data. such as the result of submitting a form. or ordering a product. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).0 404 Not Found 2. after the “?” character. . . to a data-handling process. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.” On the other side. while POST may involve anything. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. 2. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.8 the status code A three-digit integer. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.HTTP or similar group of articles. or sending E-mail 2. separated by the character “&” or “. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. When used for form data submission.6 differences between GET and POST 1. or in the message body. like storing or updating data. In this case. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.Extending a database through an append operation. 2. or a record is subordinate to a database. 3. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .2 . (encoded as multipart/form-data). while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.

none of them mandatory. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. and the resulting resource (e. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. In a request. The HTTP 1. 500 Server Error .2 . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. Although the header names are not case sensitive. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. separated a semicolon. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.0. If an HTTP message includes a body. or otherwise can't run correctly. 2. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. where the requested resource is returned to the client.the request succeeded. The most common use of the message body is in a response. file or script output) is returned in the message body. 404 Not Found .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 20 .the requested resource doesn't exist. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.g. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . fails. and section 10 for HTTP 1.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. while the HTTP 1. header name and header value.0 version specifies 16 headers. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. header values are.1 version specifies 46 of them. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. that is.1). 2. one (Host) is mandatory. In particular. such as text/html or image/jpg. out of which.an unexpected server error.1 only) .

video. multipart. message. alternative.0 From: someuser@yahoo. with subtype plain 2.apps.ro.org/rfc/rfc1521. audio. image.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtypes rfc822. with subtype mpeg 2.html HTTP/1. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. application.ietf. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtypes mixed. parallel 3. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).0 200 OK Date: Fri.HTTP 2.ro/path/file. RFC 1521 (www.info.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. 1. text. with subtypes jpeg. external-body 4. postscript 5. digest. partial. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtype basic 7. gif 6.html first open a socket to the host web.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.2 .info.uvt. with subtypes octet-stream. 21 . sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.uvt. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. Then. .

</body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .2 .HTTP . the server closes the socket.

3 . Other helpful sites .HTML 3. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.99.w3. namely HTML 1.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The latest version (XHTML 2.0. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.htmlgoodies.w3c. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.html) and was widely supported.html. Mosaic.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. However.org/rfc/rfc1866. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. The newest version of HTML is 4. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. Originally named Web Applications 1.2 (3.0.jmarshall.0 and was accepted in December 1997. www. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). A newer standard. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.com/indexdot/html . The first version of HTML. Version 4.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. As a practical reference site use – www.www.01) can be found at this address: http://www. HTML 3.01. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. From 1999 on.com/easy/html .apps. It is a revision of 4. HTML describes how text.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. a working draft for the next major revision. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.0) dates from 08. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.HTML 3 . The XHTML 1. Since it fits in a couple of pages. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.blooberry.com/tutors.ietf. The first official version – HTML 2.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. check the official HTML site – www.0 .2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.org/Markup .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.0 draft was released in 01. 3.

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.3 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.

This section deals with some of the most common elements. "&#x6C34. You get the point. CONTROLS. BORDER. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.acesta este un comentariu. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. 4." (in hexadecimal) . Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. like ALIGN. “&quot”.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. Check the address http://www. 3.0 Strict DTD.3 .w3. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. 3. An example: <!-. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.and end at the first occurrence of -->.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. If you wonder what a character reference is. HTML 4. Overall.0 contains an SGML declaration. the specification of HTML 4. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. …. VSAPCE are omitted.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.01 specification. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.the chinese character for water. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. HTML 4. three DTDs (HTML 4.0 Transitional DTD. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. though. <><> --> 25 . DYNSRC. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.

4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. image.ro/webmail/src/login. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.5 tables 26 .HTML 3.info. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. etc.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.uvt.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3.3 .php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.3. NAME.

6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TH> and <TD>. Usually. Here is their description and attributes. Here is a an example of a table: 3.3 . its rows. <THEAD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>.

7 forms A form is a basic component container. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.

where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "password". specifies the parameter name. • 3. allows multiple selections from the choice list.if specified.:. SIZE .HTML • METHOD . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.8 form related elements 3. "GET" . "file". "image". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. "checkbox". Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".?. "button". may have the values GET or POST. the browser appends the values to the URL.required.the default value. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . NAME .required.8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .3 . "submit". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.sends the form values in a single transmission.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. after a quotation mark . 3.maximum number of options visible to the user. "radio".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . Main attributes: • TYPE . "text/plain" • • 3. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.uvt. Main attributes: 29 . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. "hidden". however.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. specifies how data will be sent to the server.info.8. Example: http://web.required. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8. "reset".

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

jit From source to execution. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.class 3. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. but next time execution is much faster.class file.C:\TW\mySource.0. 4.95. project started in 12. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.4.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. The current version (as of 10.2 java the interpreter. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.JAVA PRIMER 4 . the compilation process occurs.3 java applications 31 .class. Early versions of Java were released in 12. javac -classpath .95. To overcome this significant shortage.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.2 version.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. -g : generate all debugging info. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. In terms of execution time. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The first time a class is loaded.. Example: Edit the file prog1.) in 08. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Inc. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. a tool named Just In Time compiler. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Java source – a file with extension .JAVA PRIMER 4. following the 1.class file. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The current version (as of 10.90. Java bytecode – a file with extension .java One example of command line compilation: 4.java.java 2.4 .

4. 4. In general. or that it extends A).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 object oriented concepts 4.4 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.java. An example: 32 . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. Generally.4.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.jar file. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. or is derived from A. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.

and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Float. called Object.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Character. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). While C++ allows multiple inheritance. Boolean. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. providing its own implementation.4 . Integer.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. In fact. a Java class can extend a single base class. 4. Therefore. Double. 33 . 4.1 bit char . namely: Byte. with the root the class Object. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. 4.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. this is called method overloading. In OO jargon.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Therefore. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Short.4. Long. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. a class can have more than one method with the same name.4.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.

all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. automatic garbage collection..http. has the same value for all class instances.http.one which is defined at class level.no access from outside the class itself protected .one which is constant method . method .the class is visible from any class. 4.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. which extends the class javax.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . rather than at class instance. inherited). The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . 34 . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.servlet. anywhere abstract . Except for the "package" concept.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.does not have any subclasses. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. no templates. } declares an abstract class.servlet. which is visible only to the classes in the same package..JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).4 .access from any class anywhere private . class . • • • • no specifier . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. A final variable (method. A final: • • • variable .

7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).JAVA PRIMER 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . java errors . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. code or data errors .1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. not at execution time. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. as defined in the java.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. Exception categories: 1.like invalid cast. programmer defined exceptions 4. array index out of bounds.4 . 4.7.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. division by 0.7. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. In Java.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.ThreadDeath. standard method exceptions 3.7. 2. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.

catch. the default package is used). As a general rule.zip .util . 4.Properties.. import.1 Package names The default package has no name.security 36 .lang .util.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.rmi java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .geom .by adding the key word throws. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.4 .ccards. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.sql java.io java.*. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. An example: package com.awt . All other packages must be explicitly imported. they have to be unique inside a package.this can be done by providing a try. finally construct.support for user interface java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.default.support for data collections.nio java. the class (the .net java..JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.event . In the example above.8.util. The package containing the standard classes is java. .awt.support for java archives creation java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.lang (automatically available).awt. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. 4.support for event handling java.bank11.sql. import javax. date and time info java. followed by the import statements.java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.servlets. don't have to import java. therefore. 4. string analyzers.class file.

it must be declared as abstract. static and final. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All variables (actually. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. 37 .swing . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).swing.4 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.event .text javax.support for event handling 4. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.accessibility javax.

A JavaScript statement like this: document.HTML authors are normally not programmers. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. 5.5 . as JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .depending on the browser . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .JAVASCRIPT 5.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . However. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . This is not always what we want. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. other 38 . like QtScript or ActionScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .javaScript 5 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. then LiveScript and finally. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. and . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.

Save the external JavaScript file with a . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. </script> </head> 5. without having to write the same script on every page.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. go in the head section.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called..3..3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. When you place a script in the head section. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> ..3. or when an event is triggered. 39 .5 . point to the ..js file extension.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. To simplify this..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. </script> </body> 5.

1 JavaScript for. namely – if . while()..4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while() it is worth mentioning the for .4. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. continue.. 5.. else. break. in and the try .4.. for()..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5....2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".5.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object... 5. in loop is executed once for each element/property. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable..4. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".In statement The for. switch(). catch constructs. 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.5 .4.. The code in the body of the for .javaScript 5.

javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. so you don't lose your audience. mycars[0] = "Saab". and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. they often leave the Web page. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.5.0..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").. or a property of an object..catch statement The try. var mycars = new Array()..5 . and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5. When users see errors.catch statement (available in IE5+.3 try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Example Using for...2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. an array element. mycars[1] = "Volvo". mycars[2] = "BMW". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. The try block contains the code to be run. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Mozilla 1.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. for (x in mycars) { document.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.

\n\n".\n\n".6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). Also. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.5 . txt+="Error description: " + err.7 popup boxes 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.description + "\n\n". 5. alert(txt). When an alert box pops up. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. Syntax: 42 .javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.7. txt+="Click OK to continue.

the box returns null. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the <head> section.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.8. Now. in the example above had not been written within a function.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.js file). the script is not executed before the user hits the button. When a confirm box pops up. When a prompt box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext".7. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. If the user clicks "Cancel"."defaultvalue") 5.7.5 . Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.8 functions 5. the box returns true. If the user clicks "OK". the box returns false. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").

var2. 5. document.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. So. etc are variables or values passed into the function. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.9 javaScript objects 5. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.5 .varX) { some code } var1.var2..javaScript function functionname(var1.length).2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. 5. and how they are used. 5. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.8.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.9.9.write(txt.. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.. and will be stored in the variable called product. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.

In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()).5 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.javaScript 5. </script> 5.9. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document.write(str. which will be specified in the next section. 45 .

or when the user interacts with a Web page.com/jsref/default. every Link on the page is an Object.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Even this Document itself is an Object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . When an event message has been triggered. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.w3schools. which are called Objects. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.5 . N: Netscape. For example. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.11. as well). Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. every Image on the page is an Object. At its most basic level. Properties FF: Firefox. check the site http://www.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.asp 5.

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.11. N: Netscape.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.

1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 . 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. depending on the browser. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.

to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.11. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to universal time. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Properties FF: Firefox.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).5 . according to Greenwich time. to a string.

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. var myNum=new Number(number).11.5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. Syntax for creating a new Number object.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 .5 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.

N: Netscape.5 1 .5 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.11.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .

2. 0. 0. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 1. 1.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . Properties FF: Firefox.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.javaScript 5.11.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 3.y) min(x. 2. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.5 .6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.y) pow(x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. N: Netscape.

Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. lastname. work().you can give it properties named firstname.12.5 .2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname). 53 . etc. play(). height.lastname="Doe". Assume that the personObj already exists . Objects also have methods. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.eyecolor="blue". with a collection of properties and methods. etc. age.eyecolor="blue".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. 5.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. All persons have these properties. personObj.lastname="Doe". personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. eye color. personObj. document.write(personObj. weight. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. sleep(). age.age=50.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. The persons' methods could be eat().12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj.12. skin tone.age=30. personObj.firstname="John".12. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. The persons' properties include name.firstname="John".

This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this. Once you have the template. this."Doe". this.lastname=lastname.5 . You can also add some methods to the person object.age=age. 54 .50. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname=new_lastname.lastname. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname.12."blue")."green"). 5. this.firstname=firstname.propertyName. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.eyecolor=eyecolor.firstname=firstname.newlastname=newlastname. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.eat=eat.age=age."Rally".eyecolor) { this. this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.48.age.eyecolor) { this. this.age. myMother=new person("Sally". The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. } Notice that the template is just a function. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.lastname=lastname. you can create new instances of the object. this.

Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. We define the events in the HTML tags. 5. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .5 . For example.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.". now you can write: myMother.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.newlastname("Doe"). So.

htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.2 onFocus. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.5 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. If it returns true the form will be submitted.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.13. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.w3schools. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". For example.13. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. the submit should be cancelled.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. If the field values are not accepted.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. 5. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The name is then stored in a cookie.

javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The W3C 58 . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. particularly those used in Web browsers. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. Right now (oct. structure. SVG. By October 1998. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. 6. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. However. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). the Document Object Model activity is closed.Html DOM 6 . In other words. XML. and style of a document.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .HTML DOM 6. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. As of January 2008. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .g. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.6 .. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. HTML. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. 2010).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. CSS. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. or WebAPI being among them.

Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 1. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. each of which contains required and optional modules. 3. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 2. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 2 XML namespace support. a new DOM Core specification. 5. 2. DOM Level 3 Core. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. and 6. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. To claim to support a level. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. 4. DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. which further enhances the DOM 6. 6. As of 2005. DOM Level 3 XPath. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM.6 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels.

A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x were still widely used in 2000. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. By 2005. 6. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.x and Netscape 4.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. and Safari. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. along with their containing text and attributes. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. interoperability problems were numerous. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. can be accessed through the 60 . All HTML elements. Konqueror.6 . large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. support multiple browsers. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). The Window object represents a browser window.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. that is. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. Opera.

and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and VBScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java. JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.6 . The contents can be modified or deleted.

<head> and <body>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9.Html DOM 6.8. the element node <title>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. 62 . everything in an HTML document is a node. However. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <html> node has two child nodes.6 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 6. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.8. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.

The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By navigating the node tree. The terms parent. By using the getElementById() method 2.2 node parents.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.getElementsByTagName("p"). and sibling are used to describe the relationships. and the connections between them. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. child. children. 63 . The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.6 . Their contents can be modified or deleted.getElementById('main').9. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).9. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. using the node relationships. except the root.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and new elements can be created. Parent nodes have children. the top node is called the root Every node. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. • • • • • In a node tree.getElementsByTagName("p").

each node is an object.Html DOM for (i=0.9.6 . Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).write(x[i].write("<br />"). } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).innerHTML). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . document. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.i<x.i++) { document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.length.

6. txt=x. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .5 example .getElementById("intro").Html DOM 6.nodeValue.6 .firstChild.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.9. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.

The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.6 . frames.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window. For elements.

67 .6 . This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. say "click". as of version 1. When the user clicks on the inner element. Mozilla. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). also supports these methods. Fires when an element is activated. DOMNodeInserted. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. During the event flow.3. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Safari. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. for instance. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Also. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). and then bubbled up.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. 6. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.

Html DOM 6. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse position.6 . Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. etc. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Unfortunately. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. key pressed. including information about target element. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.7 . The server does some processing — retrieving data. fields of forms. dynamic website. using web services or Php scripts. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. For improving sharing of resources. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 7. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. etc.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. but also to save resources. crunching numbers. It is not a technology in itself. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.AJAX 7 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. before the whole page was sent within the network.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. For example. 69 . optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. choices of user. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. 7. menus.AJAX 7. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side.

waiting. Instead of loading a web page. While the server is doing its thing. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. at the start of the session. we wouldn’t make users wait around. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting around for the server to do something.7 . the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. the user waits some more. 70 . but the opposite is true. Obviously.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Once an interface is loaded. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. And at every step in a task.

and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.7 . loading additional interface code. editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

7 . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. GET or POST .responseXml .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.send: send a request to the server.holds loaded data as a string of characters. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . To get data on the server. 1: connection established. This object provides two methods: . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. thanks to its methods and attributes.AJAX 7.for a Xml file or .returned by the server . url. 3: answer in process. . onreadystatechange .open: create a connection. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 2: request received. and in this purpose.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". they call functions associated to elements of the web page.mode: type of request. 7. DOM's method allows to extract data. These events are user actions. 404 if the page is not found .for a simple text.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .200 is ok. 4: finished. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.url: the location of the file 72 .holds a Xml loaded file. . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.responseText . boolean) . It allows the interaction with the servers. .

ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . The request below reads a document on the server.send(null). if (window.. // Firefox. 'http://www.. .. http_request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().readyState == 4) { // received. Safari. true).onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.6 building a request.XMLHTTP").send: with POST only. if (request. true for asynchronous. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. URL of the document. request.open: command GET or POST.fr/somefile. } else if (window.open('GET'. but two options must be tried.xul. for browser compatibility.null for a GET command 7.AJAX . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .. http_request. 73 .7 . .xml'. the data to send to the server. OK } else { // wait.

req.send(null).getElementsByTagName('root').dyn="Error code " + req. req.status == 200) document. else if (window.7.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". true). if(window. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. by this code: var doc = req.responseText. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").ajax.AJAX 7.item(0).XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. }.7 examples 7.ajax.ajax.open("GET".dyn="Received:" + req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. "data.7 .responseText.7.dyn=""Received:" + req. req.responseXML.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.xml".onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.status. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . req. else document.XMLHTTP).readyState == 4) if(req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

servlet classes. 5.xml file: <?xml version="1. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces.class>com. like what pages are error. 8.bank11.)> <web-app> <!-. like: 1.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 3.8 . JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.. web.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . entries related to session configuration. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. data persistence.ccards.. but typical web. For example. classes. welcome pages. Others. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. database connection resource pooling. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. 2. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. MIME types used by the web application.servlets. 4.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. descriptions). 6. After an enterprise bean is created. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. Here is a small. Initialization of parameters for servlets.

the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.ccards. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. basicly. Then the "EnrollServlet.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. for flexibility. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. whose name is rather long.servlets". For example.bank11. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .servlets.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.xml" 2.8 . the name of the web application.class" and that it is part of the package "com. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. 1. Unfortunately. it is the alias of the real servlet class. However. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.ccards. Behind a very benign URL. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".bank11.xml". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.servlets".bank11. In general. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.xml file of the web application. Basicly.ccards.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml" file.

Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. small footprint.SERVLETS 9 . maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .5 and is in final state.4. in most cases as part of an application server. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.0 specification is available for public review.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . platform independent programs.0 specification.2. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. the HttpServlet) class. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. tjws spec 2. As of oct. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . the Java Servlet 3.SERVLETS 9. more often. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. but at this point. from BEA Systems. modular design 9. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 2010. but through a web container.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.9 .1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. Technically speaking. 9. 9. which extend the functionality of the web server. this is just a work in progress.

The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. the javax.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. Enterprise Edition. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void destroy() throws ServletException. while the second one. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet package.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public void service(ServletRequest req.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from Apple Inc.servlet. These packages are: • • javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.9 . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet javax.servlet package are protocol independent. from IBM 9. IOException. 82 . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. WebSphere.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. the web container calls its init() method. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. ServletConfig. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Throwable t) 9. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. respectively. The method performs all initialization required. This method has two arguments. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. After instantiating the servlet. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. in a different section. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. as well.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet.9 . The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. namely the HttpServlet class. 9. 83 . Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. More on the servlet life cycle.

HttpServletResponse resp) 9. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. It also extends the java.ServletException javax.servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.servlet. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.Exception class.9 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). service().UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .lang.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.

Typically. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Also. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. After instantiation. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. If the servlet does not implement the javax. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.9 . The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. 85 . But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. respectively. Typically. 9. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. which will service all incoming requests. JSP or JSF. etc.SingleThreadModel. DB connection opening.

13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 .SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.ccards. 87 . String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.*.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.java" file: package com. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. This is done in server's (container's) server. import java.xml file.bank11.servlets.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.io.9 .SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.

println("</body>").println("merge").getWriter().servlet.*.println("<br>").println("</html>"). out. import javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out. out. out.init(config).9 . out.*.println("<html>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<body>"). out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.http. out.println("</head>"). // output your page here out. out. out.setContentType(“text/html”).SERVLETS import javax. IOException { resp.println("<title>Servlet</title>").close(). PrintWriter out = resp.servlet.println("<head>"). } } 88 .

Type 1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. the java.JdbcOdbcDriver .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . This solution is inefficient.0 while the current (4.10 .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. 10. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. Starting with version 3.0.1.odbc. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. the javax. as recognized by the DB industry.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.JDBC 10 . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.sql package. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. After that. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. These drivers fall into four standard categories. 1997.JDBC 10. The JDBC 4.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).jdbc. 89 .sun. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.sql package 2.

Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Type 3. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.JDBC Type 2.10 . Part Java. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Type 4. forwards them to the JDBC driver. which in turn. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.

sql.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java.SQLData java.SQLPermission java.Timestamp java.sql.SQLWarning java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.0).3 the java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Time java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLOutput java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. java.sql.sql.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.Struct java.SQLInput java.sql.10 .0 API.Blob java. defined in the JDBC 3.Wrapper 91 .sql.PreparedStatement java.Types java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.Clob java.Array java.sql.sql.Date java.Driver java.SQLException java.JDBC 10.DriverManager java.Statement java.Connection java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.

ClientinfoStatus java.DatabaseMetaData java. processing the result set 92 .sql.RowId java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.Connection java.sql.Clob java.CommonDataSource javax.SQLInput java.sql.SQLWarning java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.StatementEventListener 10.sql. querying the database 4.sql.sql. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.0.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLTimeoutException java.NClob java.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql package.SQLDataException java.Statement java.sql.sql. java.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLOutput java.Blob java.sql.sql.10 .SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.Types java.SQLException java.sql.

SybDriver com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.sybase.jdbc.net.odbc.JDBC 10.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.ibm.borland.db2.datastore.jdbc.10 .driver.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.OracleDriver sun.

94 .JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.getConnection(connURL. try { Class.mysql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.mm. String user = "root". let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.forName("org.*. by using the connection URL. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".gjt.*. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). passwd).printStackTrace().util.newInstance(). but let's take it for granted: import java. import java.bank11. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. as specified by the driver vendor. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. Since we just used it. user. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.10 .sql.Driver").

Properties prp = new Properties(). Once we get the hold of a Connection object.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. String user. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. 10.getConnection(connURL. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp. int resultSetConcurrency.JDBC 10. we can use it for various purposes. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. "true").10 . java. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.put("autocommit". prp. Connection conn = DriverManager.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. "true").util. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("create". let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.sql package. prp).sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.

10 . other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. respectively. Statement. namely. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.JDBC 10. prepared statements and stored procedures.

".createStatement().sql..10 .9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. 10. stmt. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved..

10 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. PreparedStatement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. as the argument. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. not at 0) or the column name. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. and CallableStatement objects. 98 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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There are three types of implementations: 1. mins.DataSource object. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. Connection pooling implementation -. a factory for creating DB connections.produces a Connection object that will 103 . It is part of the javax.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. Basic implementation -.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal Object float 10.produces a standard Connection object 2.sql. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql package. time. basicly.10 .sql.sql. secs date.Time java.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.math. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. This interface is.math.0 optional package.

naming. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax.io.servlet. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax.*.class.*.*. java.*. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". 104 .10 .lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). private DataSource theDataSource.sql.bank11. import import import import import import java. Distributed transaction implementation -.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.ccards.http. 3.lookup("java:comp/env").servlets.*.getName()). String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. javax.*. javax. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.sql.getLogger(TestDataSource.servlet.

. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").10 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 . ServletException { ..

The javax. The package javax. the servlet code is regenerated. If the JSP is modified. 11.JSP 11. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet.jsp.servlet.1 and is related to the 2.tagext. 11. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The package javax.JSP 11 .1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. namely javax.2 the java. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.jsp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.11 .3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .servlet.jsp and javax.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.jsp.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. 111 . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). include and taglib..11 .. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".

In Tomcat. Assigns it to available name or id.7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7 scripting elements 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. this code goes to inside the service() method.11 .8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.JSP 11.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.7. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . you must specify param.11 . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.

same format as the <%@include> directive.13 the forward standard action 114 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. <jsp:forward>. flush . 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11.the URL of the page.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:plugin> actions.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .only the "true" value is supported.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.

The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute." . archive="URIToArchive.the type of object the plugin will execute. name .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.class extension in the name following code. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.11 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . depending on request. You must include the . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name="instanceName" .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . as this attribute has no default value.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . If you do not supply a value.. when we want to separate the application into different views.. code="classFileName" . . 11.. as well.the name of a bean instance... servlet or to a static resource.a name for the Bean or applet instance. You must specify either bean or applet. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . It is used mainly.

height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . it has java. Must be a small nonzero number. page .it represents the buffered version of java.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. config . response . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . The default value is 1. objects which are automaticly available.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. with a protocol name. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.11 .1.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.the initial height and width.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. pageContext .the amount of space. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. of the image the applet or Bean displays. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.JspWriter type and scope page 7. 1. writes to the output stream to the client.servlet.lang.16 scopes 1.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has javax. in pixels.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. request .represents the servlet context. The value is a full URL.1" .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. and domain name. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. request .jsp. out . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.Object type and scope page 11. in pixels.io. based on the servlet API.PrintWriter. optional port number.represents server's response to the request. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. session .

session .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 2.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp file.ccards.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. application . if (enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .11 .beans. Object value) method 11. Object value) method 3.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.init(). the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. page . the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. Object value) method 4.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.

SimpleBean. private int list[]. a float. a software development and consulting company.examples. private SimpleSubBean subBean. 11.io. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.Serializable { private String string. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. %> <jsp:forward page="response.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.18.register().java: package com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). a boolean and another String). private String optional. private boolean flag.devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .mapping.11 . // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. private int integer. an int.string.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. The public constructor could have been omitted. The SimpleBean class is declared public. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private String colors[].simple. private float number.

colors.colors[index]. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer.JSP this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.integer = value.number = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.string = value.flag = value. } 119 .11 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.flag.number.colors = values.

} // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } } 120 .list = values. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.subBean = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.colors[index] = value. int value) { this.11 . } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index].optional.optional = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list[index] = value. String value) { this.subBean. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.

// No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. SimpleSubBean.number = value. } } 11.Serializable { private String string.io.string = value.number.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.examples.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).11 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.devsphere.18. private float number.mapping. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.simple.java: package com.string.

string subBean.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

123) }.11 . Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. error messages. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.mapping. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.flag]".list]".integer]". "An option must be selected" }. new Float(0. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.simple. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. the form's name and the processor's name. The default values are defined for a String.devsphere.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.examples. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. a boolean and an int[]. SimpleBeanResources.list]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. a float. new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "One or more items must be selected" }. There are three error messages. 3 } }. new int[] { 2. "abc" }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.18. The list of optional properties has a single element. the list of optional properties.java: package com.util.colors]".number]". new Boolean(true) }. "One or more colors must be selected" }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.string]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the processing order. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".

"number". For a better understanding of this example.jsp" } }. The beanToForm() method of com. "SimpleForm. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. { "[PROC_NAME]". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.examples.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping.11 .mapping. If necessary. "colors". SimpleHndl.mapping. "SimpleProc. string values are converted to numbers.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.simple. "optional".devsphere. new String[] { "string".18. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".html" }. com.JSP "optional" } }.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). "integer". The formToBean() method of com.util.devsphere. "list". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.logging.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.mapping.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.*.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.devsphere.devsphere. "subBean" } }. { "[FORM_NAME]". "flag". } } 11. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.

// Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.trim(). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). logger).getDocument().io.getServletPath().formToBean(formData. 125 . if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. errorTable = HandlerUtils. slashIndex+1) : "". int slashIndex = basePath.lastIndexOf('/').util. // Process the valid data bean instance application. formPath = application.trim().forward(request.getRealPath(formPath).getString("[PROC_NAME]"). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getBeanResources(simpleBean.JSP = HandlerUtils.substring(0. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.File(formPath)). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).removeUserErrors(errorTable).equals("POST").Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. response).getClass()). simpleBean.11 .getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getMethod().getTemplate(new java.

length. for (int i = 0.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. if (list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean(). errorTable.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.JSP elements logger).18.length == 0) return "". document.mapping.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.send(out).examples. SimpleProc. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. i < list.string = <%= simpleBean. // Send the form document document.11 . } %> 11.getString() %> <P> subBean.append("{ ").devsphere.number = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.beanToForm(simpleBean.simple. i++) 126 .getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.

for (int i = 0.18.append(" "). Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. In addition. return strbuf.toString().length.mapping. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). i < list. ComplexForm.append(list[i]). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. making the testing and the debugging easier.examples.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. } strbuf.toString().util. strbuf. } %> 11. The localization of the Complex*.length == 1) return Integer.append(" ").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append("{ ").6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.toString(list[0]).append("}"). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.append(list[i]). strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere.formToBean() call. A single call to FormUtils. if (list.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. ComplexHndl. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.simple.append("}"). In addition. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.length == 0) return "". strbuf. return strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. Using the framework.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.11 .Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .jsp files. } strbuf. i++) { strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.

getInteger() == value. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Blue" }.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. boolean checked = simpleBean. j < colors. "Option 3" }. "Green".length. i < integerLabels.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i++) { boolean checked = false.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1. for (int i = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". j++) if (colors[j]. i < colorValues. "blue" }.11 . %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green".length. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. 128 .getColors().

simple. "subBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.SimpleSubBean()).getList().JSP break. "Item 2". if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getSubBean(). String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i++) { int value = i+1. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. "Item 3" }. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. for (int i = 0.length.mapping.11 . i < listItems.devsphere.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. break. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples. if (list == null) list = new int[0].getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . boolean selected = false.setSubBean( new com.length. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.

Hashtable errorTable. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).examples.devsphere.devsphere. } %> ComplexHndl.getMethod().Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.util.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple. 130 . String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.get(property).examples. return message.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getString().mapping.getSubBean().11 .equals("POST"). if (message == null) message = "".simple.getString() == null || simpleBean.mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.setString("abc"). boolean isPostMethod = request.util. "subBean.

"string". "Must be a number").11 . setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0.trim(). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.length() != 0) simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer".floatValue()).123f). "number". "Must be filled"). if (flagValue. else { simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 .getColors().setFlag(flagValue != null). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.123f).getColors() == null || simpleBean. } simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.length() == 0 || flagValue. "number". "An option must be selected").getParameter("number"). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getParameter("flag").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. "Must be filled").

number".length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number : text try { String numberValue = request.setOptional("").setList(new int[] { 2. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "One or more items must be selected"). "subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.string".11 .getString(). 3 }).getParameter("subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "colors".setNumber(new Float(numberValue).string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "list". "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 .getList(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more colors must be selected").number").floatValue()).length == 0) { simpleBean.setString("").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "subBean.

123f).setList(new int[] { 2.setFlag(true).code=com. 3 }). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.helpers. message). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.\ 133 . The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.setString("abc").devsphere.jsp.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. simpleBean. errorTable.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.JSP filled"). } %> 11.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.setNumber(0.setOptional("").SimpleBean.helpers. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. "subBean. simpleBean.Hashtable errorTable.setString("").xml: SimpleHndl. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.util.mapping.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.properties or web.18. String property.devsphere. } } else { simpleBean.11 .devsphere. "Must be a number"). The com. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. simpleSubBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. simpleBean.examples. simpleBean.simple.put(property.number".

helpers.code=com. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.examples. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.devsphere.another.examples.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.helpers.host.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping.devsphere.company.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. 11. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.host. If you have another bean-form pair.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . a servlet is identified with its class.AnotherBean.devsphere. you could add a few other lines to servlets. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.simple. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.11 . In many cases. A servlet can be made bean-independent.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.code=com. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.mapping.devsphere.properties (or web.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.18.host.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.

11 .JSP 135 .

namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . buttons. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. 2.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. builds a component tree.JAVASERVER FACES 12.0. This technology includes: 1. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.12 . processes events. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. 12. like input fields. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. which loads the appropriate view template. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.javaserver faces 12 . Version 2.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0 supersedes version 1. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.

javaserver faces 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.12 .4.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . As of version 1.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.2 of the JFS specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. 12.

A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. 12. see the column tag documentation.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . For more information about columns. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.12 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. columns and rows. respectively.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.4.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Common formatting techniques. such as alternating row colors. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. footers. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.

00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkout}" /> 139 . your options include using plain HTML forms. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.12 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.4.

5.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . red for error.user.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user.</span> 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.12 . 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.4.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().4.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself." /> 12.

5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. 12. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. For example.

4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . such as one of the HTML select or text input components. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.customer.mycompany. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. Without this JavaScript event. can publish value change events.5.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.5.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. validateLength. but only if the new input is validated successfully. The body content of this tag must be empty. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.javaserver faces 12.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Any component that receives user input. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. 12. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.

JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.javaserver faces 12.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. for each locale you wish to support.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. Example: welcome_en.5.12 . Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. myJSFapp 143 . This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.mycompany.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. including images and styles.

Create properties files 144 . The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.jar. static resources. Create JSP pages 2.jar jsf-api.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. Create managed beans 4.exadel.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. custom tag libraries.jar – files included in the /lib directory. and so on. like third party jar files jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. jsf-api.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Define navigation rules 3. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml – the JSF configuration file.javaserver faces /ant build.html.jar faces-config.contains libraries required by the application. It has a deployment descriptor. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . JSP pages.12 . Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.

Create an index.xml file. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp to greeting. The directory structure already exists. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp and greeting. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp. In our application. You just need to create its contents.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Compile the application 8.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. Edit JSP pages 6.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Now that we have the two JSP pages.javaserver faces 5. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. 12.12 . The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . As a diagram.jsp.jsp file 7. You only need to create the JSP files. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. And that's all there is to this. we can create a navigation rule.7.jsp is greeting. we just want to go from inputname.7.

} /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.3 faces-config. a very simple navigation rule.7.xml Now. The next line is the full class name.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.1 PersonBean. 12. myJFSapp.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. request sets the bean scope in the application.java file. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. the second part of faces-config.xml Your final faces-config.7. To read more about navigation rules.PersonBean.javaserver faces This is.3. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.3. You can easily create more complex ones. Inside this myJFSapp folder.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. public class PersonBean { String personName. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.) 12. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. of course.7. we will create a PersonBean. 12.7. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. This class is straight-forward.12 . This section defines a bean name PersonBean.xml file should look like this: 146 .

//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.sun. 12. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.5.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. 12.sun.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.properties file in the bundle folder.sun.12 . Inc. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.1 messages.1//EN" "http://java.1 inputname.7. 12.4.

sun. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.bundle.12 .javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Then.bundle.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Lines 3-5.greeting_text}" />. Create the index.sun.sun. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Line 2.bundle.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.javaserver faces Line 1.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 .5. specifically the bean attribute personName. The first three lines are identical to our first page. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.xml file. The second line will access a Java bean. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. 12. Having an index.. Line 6.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. and also print its contents on the page.7. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.6 creating the index. That's how JSF knows where to go next.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.7. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Creates an HTML input text box..2 greeting.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. name! 12.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.</h3> tags.

12 .9 Running Next. 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jsp. verifies the information. This is used here. Of course. We are almost done with this example. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. because in the web.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. This is a "login" application. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. 150 . might possibly be different).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. To build the application run the build. When Tomcat is done loading. 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. 12. which asks an user for an ID and password.8.7.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.sourceforge. To do this.javaserver faces Now.html .7. though.jsf and not . you'll notice the file suffix is . launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.xml file.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). we need to deploy it. Your setup.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. 12. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.xml file for the application *.7.

select the Source tab. 6. a. c. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.webroot | +-. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.WEB-INF 151 .xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. click Next. click Next d. in the wizard that appears. your mileage may vary. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. in the Add JSF Support page. jsf-login. and set up folders for a web application. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. make sure all checkboxes are checked. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. name the folder pages.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. name the folder webroot 5. click Next.12 . click Add Folder. The New Project wizard appears. say.8.. Select the Amateras node. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed... 2. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Enter project name. and to add JSF libraries to the project. see Installing & Uninstalling. from the menubar select File/New/Other. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. click Finish 4. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Select Java Project.. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 1.. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.xml Editor (see faces-config... 3. 10. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. 9.src | +-. 12. click Yes through messages that appear. 7.

in the Name field enter LoginManager. a. for scope select 152 .equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. from its context menu select New/Class. 3. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.lib | +-. In the Package field.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. We then configure it to be a managed bean. if ( _uid. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.xml Editor. else action = "loginFail". } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. 1. } return action. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. click Managed Bean. The Java code editor opens.LoginManager. input widgets appear d. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.8. b.xml. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. c.12 . 2. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.pages 12.java package login. In Package Explorer select the src folder. The faces-config. Click Finish. private String _pwd = "". } 4. click Add.javaserver faces | | | +-. The New Java Class wizard appears. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. for class enter login. for name enter mgr. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".xml editor opens. enter login.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.

Enter the following code: <!-. from the menubar select File/Save. click Finish. in Package Explorer select webroot.webroot/index.8. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. so we create them first.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp.webroot/pages/success. c. Enter the following code: <!-. Create success. the JSP Editor opens. <!-. b. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp. Create error. again.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.webroot/pages/error. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp are simple pages with static content. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.12 . from its context menu select New/File.javaserver faces session. but in webroot/pages. Create index. then close the editor 12.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp). e. for File name enter index. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp: a. save the file and close the editor. All pages except login. but in webroot/pages. 1.jsp and error. </body> Please try 153 .jsp). success. and 3 content pages (login. enter the following code.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Then we create login. the New File wizard appears.

sun. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. enter jsf-login e. and choose default for Template.jsp: a. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. click Next c. Open the JSF palette. and the JSP Editor can help with code. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. <%@ page contentType="text/html. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. g. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.javaserver faces </html> 4. the New wizard appears. click Finish. as shown below. (See Show View Dialog) f.jsp. To see this in action... for File name enter login. etc. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.. place your cursor in one of these lines. from its context menu select New/Other.sun. a code-completion window pops up. now we want to add attributes to this element. with the following template code. and dock it along the right. 154 . Create login. b.12 . and uses them for code completion as well. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.completion. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. d.

and hit CTRL + Spacebar.javaserver faces h. complete the expression with the closing { k. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. insert another <h:inputText> element. with the barest presentational formatting. i.sun. with bean properties available in mgr. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.password}" l.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value to Login.) j. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.12 . This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. a code-completion window pops up. and hit Enter.loginAction} The final code.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .sun.. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". select userID from the code-completion window. enter #{mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element. this inserts value="" at the cursor.

password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. 156 . it should open in the faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. using a FacesIDE editor.xml Editor.xml. 2. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.8. Select the Navigation tab 3.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. This is shown below.12 . then click inside the editor window.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. this inserts a page icon into the editor. 1. click on Page.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Open faces-config.

javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp.jsp. 5. select Navigation Case. /pages/success. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. notice that the warning triangle disappears. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp 4.12 . and set them to /pages/login. and is represented by an arrow.jsp and /pages/error. Its properties appear in the Properties view. This is shown below: 157 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. change the value of path to /index. 6. in the Properties view. add 3 more pages. then click first on the icon for login. from the palette at left.jsp and then on the icon for success.

xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.8. Once deployed browse to index.xml.jsp. 1. or leave it as-is. As it turns out.xml Here we edit web. 12. We want virtual path-based mapping.jsp.xml. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.12 . open web. so uncomment it. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.6 Editing web. since we have such a trivial application. and you should be sent to the success page. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. We'll set some properties in web. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. all we need do in web.javaserver faces 7. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp to error. and extension-based mapping is turned on. Similarly add a forward-action from login.

faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.context javax.faces. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.el javax.faces javax.faces.faces.faces.10 the javax.faces.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. For a given factory class name. the Manager application should reload. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. Click on its link to launch the application.. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.convert javax. 12.CONFIG_FILES 159 . click Deploy 3..lifecycle javax..html javax.webapp 12. for Context path enter /jsf-login.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. scroll down to Deploy.component. that factory is used. as file:///.component javax.event javax.faces.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.javaserver faces 12.application javax.12 .faces.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. start Tomcat.validator javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.model javax.0 1.render javax.faces.8.

NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.Severity . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. those factories are used. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. 12. defining page navigation.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.12 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. FacesMessage. If none of the above steps yield a match. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. FacesMessage . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. ApplicationFactory . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. ViewHandler . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. handling events and input validation.11 the javax. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. with the last one taking precedence. with the last one taking precedence.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.faces. StateManager .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.represents a single validation (or other) message. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. ViewHandlerWrapper . StateManagerWrapper . which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.

and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.FacesContext. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. ContextCallBack .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. • ViewExpiredException .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. String) results in failure on postback. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. StateHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. when activated by the user.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.context.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. NamingContainer . UICommand .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. String. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. a menu item. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. • • 161 . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.faces. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. UIComponentBase . 12. Here they are: • • UIColumn . or a hyperlink. UIComponent .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.faces. EditableValueHolder . ActionSource2 . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.12 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. ValueHolder . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.12 the javax. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.restoreView(javax.

UIGraphic . UIMessage .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UISelectOne . UISelectMany .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UIViewRoot . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.13 the java. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. The user cannot manipulate this component. UISelectItem . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.javaserver faces • UIData .12 . Optionally. identified by a clientId. The user can modify the selected values. UIInput .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. Optionally. UISelectBoolean . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that has a value.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UIForm . UIPanel . UINamingContainer . The user can modify the selected value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIParameter . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.html package 162 .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. that is displayed to the user. This component has no rendering.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. it is for display purposes only.faces. by storing it as the value property of the component. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.component. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIMessages . UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. it is for display purposes only.

represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.Message". HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.by default.by default.represents an HTML img element. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML input element of type text.12 . HtmlInputText . HtmlForm . HtmlPanelGroup . The checkbox will be rendered as checked. and renders the result. HtmlInputTextarea . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML label element. HtmlMessages . HtmlOutputLink .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. On a redisplay. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlCommandLink . The label text is specified by the component value.faces.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputText . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlColumn .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. or not.renders child components in a table. HtmlCommandButton .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML textarea element. but the application wishes to render more than one.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputLabel . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlGraphicImage .faces. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlDataTable . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlOutputFormat . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlPanelGrid . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. This component must be placed inside a form. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.

represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. It is passed to. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.faces.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. showing a single available option at a time.convert package 164 . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . showing a single available option at a time.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. In particular. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. and the rendering of the corresponding response.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. ResponseStream .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. FacesContext . ResponseWriterWrapper .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . FacesContextFactory . and potentially modified by.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.14 the java.12 . HtmlSelectManyListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneListbox .javaserver faces property. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.faces. HtmlSelectManyMenu .15 the java.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. HtmlSelectOneMenu . • • • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. ResponseWriter . HtmlSelectOneRadio .

12.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.16 the java.15.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.faces. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.12 .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. PropertyResolver . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. VariableResolver .javaserver faces 12. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . Classes: MethodBinding .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. ValueBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.

12 . FacesEvent .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.AbortProcessingException . 166 .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseId .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • 12.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . MethodNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. and event implementation classes. ValueChangeEvent .17 the java.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. PhaseEvent . PhaseListener .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. FacesListener . • • • • • One exception .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. PropertyNotFoundException .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.faces. Interfaces: ActionListener . ValueChangeListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . ReferenceSyntaxException .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).javaserver faces 12.12 . 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. DataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . SelectItem .18 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. SelectItemGroup . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.20 the java.faces. ResultDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ResultSetDataModel . ScalarDataModel . DataModelEvent .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. Classes: ArrayDataModel . ListDataModel .faces.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.19 the java. • • • • • • • • • 12. Renderer .

javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. ResponseStateManager . AttributeTag . together.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . base classes for JSP custom component tags. and concrete validator implementation classes. LongRangeValidator . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . markup language.faces.22 the java.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. Typically. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).validator package Interface defining the validator model. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. ConverterTag .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. The package contains an exception.12 . 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .faces. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. RenderKitFactory . • RenderKit . including a standard servlet. as well. and/or user Locale.21 the java. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. • • 12.

JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. that need to process their tag bodies. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the controller sends a message to the model. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. ValidatorTag . or some other web technology. which has several implications. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the controller is the 169 . UIComponentBodyTag . 12. When using JSF. telling the view to update its presentation. servlets. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. Likewise. telling the model to update its data.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. When the model is updated. In JSF. In MVC.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. that request is passed to the container. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the life cycle is more complicated. the process includes a few more components or pages. the controller sends a message to the view. UIComponentTag . FacetTag . related to a UIComponent. which passes the request to the page class. When a web server receives a request.a base class for all JSP custom actions. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. When the user takes some action with the presentation.12 .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). • • • • • FacesServlet . When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. but basically. the JSF life cycle does not apply. Also. or when an exception occurs.

12 . this does not yet update the business objects in the application. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. It updates only the UI components with the new data. The components are stored in a component tree. depending on the request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. • Invoke Application: During this phase. converting a String to a Date object). and the response is sent to the client. and a piece of data failed validation. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. If this is a subsequent request. such as components that create HTML input fields. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. the JSF implementation must create the view. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. and what happens during the processing and response. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. As with the previous phase. For a JSF-enabled application. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. In addition. and the UI components are the view. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase).javaserver faces JSF implementation. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. These objects update their state with the data values. 170 . not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. In addition. Data for some components. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. Data can come from input fields in a web form. it creates UI objects for each view component. the conversion occurs in this phase. or from request headers. from cookies sent as part of the request. However. is validated at this time.

Also. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. For example.javaserver faces In the above figure. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. 171 . skipping any remaining phases.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.

It enables applications to access different. such as LDAP. The DNS entry Wiz. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. A file system maps a filename (for example.5).1 names To look up an object in a naming system. The UNIX pathname. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").13 . such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. To access a file in the computer. you are always naming one object or another."). or objects typically used by computer programs. in turn. and NIS(YP).1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. c:\bin\autoexec. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. NDS.9. naming and directory services using a common API. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. When using almost any computer program or system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.JNDI 13.JNDI 13 .COM. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. Using JNDI. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.COM. for example. when you use an electronic mail system. possibly multiple. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.Wiz.sun. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. Thus the DNS name sales. For example.2. In addition. you must supply its name. 13.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. identifiers. which is located in the root of the file system. 13. you supply it the name of the object.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. DNS. For example. For example.48.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. such as addresses. 172 . /usr/hello. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.

A file object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). they must be stored by reference. For example. such as /usr. on the other hand.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. 173 . The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). Using the reference. In another example. its flight plan. a file name is bound to a file. some objects cannot be stored directly. Instead. for example. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. By contrast. is relative to c=us. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. a file directory.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. o=Sun.c=us. delimited by the comma character (". A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. For example. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. 13. That is. an LDAP entry. For example.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. and its flight number and departure time. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. in a file directory /usr/bin.2. for example. in the DNS domain Sun. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.COM. such as COM. which in turn.").13 . A printer object. might contain the state of the printer. For simplicity. Finally.2. is a context. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. For example. such as c=us. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. is accessed using a file reference. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. 13.2. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. A reference is information about how to access an object. also called a file handle. that is. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. in the UNIX file system is a context. A printer object reference. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. such as its print server name and printing protocol. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. while the object itself might contain more state information. and listing bound names. For example. unbinding names. 13. Every context has an associated naming convention. and fuel and instrument status. that is. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. is a context. a DNS domain. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. relative to the entry o=Sun. Typically.

you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. to represent a printer. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. Thus. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).13 . And it kind of makes sense. for example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. For example. or a network. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. a name is unique 13. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. 13. For example. and computer account information.3.2. For example. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. and color. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a computer. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. resolution. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A directory object can be used. For example.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. to some extent. and even the computer itself and other computers. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. various telephone numbers.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. a person. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. An example is the telephone company's directory service. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. two different computer 174 . A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. because we can. programs. one context can be viewed. For example. postal mail address.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. however. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.

13. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. can use the directory in the traditional way.com". 13.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. By using a directory service. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. Alternatively.3. Similarly. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. The email address. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The query is called a search filter. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. 175 . for example. For example. such as that relating to machines. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. for example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. and users. When you search.4. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.113. printers. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. many directories.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.smith@somewhere. an organization object. When directory objects are arranged in this way.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.50".3. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. that is. like any other program running on the network. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. such as the file and print services. called a directory information tree (DIT). you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. such as those based on the LDAP. The service is accessed through its own interface. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. A Java mail client program. Within the DIT. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. 13. networks. for example. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. Many examples of directory services are possible. the ability to access directory services will become essential. 13.3. removing. For example. 13. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. adding.13 . support the notion of searches. "mail" is the attribute identifier.

emerging.4.5. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. v1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. It extends the v1.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2. To use the JNDI.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.1 and v1. Thus a variety of directories--new.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. 13. 13. The Java 2 SDK. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. v1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. For example. v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.13 . v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13.5. more coherent and manageable.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. 13.naming.naming. and even the network. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.directory javax.3 and later releases.event javax. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. For example.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.1 and Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.naming.naming javax.2.ldap 176 . and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.

13. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.6 the naming package The javax. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.6.lookup("treekiller"). binding/unbinding.1 context The javax.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. However.spi 13.String name argument represents a composite name. A java. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. that is. the name of the object's class. 13. composing them. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. and so on.String name. a 177 . For example.lang.6.print(report). You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.lang. For the methods in the Context interface.13 . for some objects in the directory.naming package defines a Context interface. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. The overloads that accept java. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.6.6. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. which is the core interface for looking up. 13. list() is similar to listBindings(). and it returns the object bound to that name. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .JNDI • javax. comparing components.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. In this case. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. 13.lang.naming. printer. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. and the object itself.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. Furthermore. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.

which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.13 . In the simplest and most common form of usage. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). InitialContext. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. 13.6. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. Otherwise. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13. For example.7 directory package The javax. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.naming. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). Once you have an initial context. There are no absolute roots.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. 13. You can add. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.directory package extends the javax. 178 . the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. replace.7. 13. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.7. 13. they should catch NamingException. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.6. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().

A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. such as "object added.naming. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. For example." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. 13. called controls . event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. For example.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.13 . 13.9 LDAP package The javax. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming." and those that do not. In fact. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.9. controls. such as "object changed. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .9. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .ldap package at all.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. To receive event notifications. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.JNDI 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.directory package.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. 13. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.9. or unsolicited notifications.naming. such as information about the object before and after the change. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. These operations are called "extended" operations. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. that is. Once registered. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.8 event package The javax. 13. and vice versa.

java. create a file named Lookup. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. sending request controls.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system. 13.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.spi package supports implementors of Context. 13.10.13 .10. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 13. and receiving response controls. 13.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.10 service provider package The javax.1 plug-In architecture The javax.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.naming package.9. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. This support is provided in the form of state factories. For example. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.11. That is.naming.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10. import javax. 13. 180 . implementors of Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.2 java object support The javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. In the process of completing an operation. if you look up a printer name from the directory.Context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming.naming.naming.

13.RefFSContextFactory").INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.java). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. Object obj = ctx. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). use Context.3. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. If the compilation fails.out.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.5 compiling the program Next.sun. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. } 13.err. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. 13. create an initial context.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. To compile to program. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.InitialContext. Otherwise.lookup(name).naming. } catch (NamingException e) { System.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). If the compilation succeeds.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). using the capitalization shown. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.lookup(name). as follows.11. "com. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).3 looking up an Object Next.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. import javax. then the JNDI classes are already included. For this reason. If you are still having problems.JNDI import javax. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.fscontext.lookup() to look up an object.put(Context.13 .jndi.11.naming. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. env.11.jar as an installed extension. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. 13.11. // Print it System. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). 181 . See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.NamingException.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. you must have access to the JNDI classes. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. v1. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.

jndi. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.put(Context. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.6 running the program To run the program. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming.jar and providerutil. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. Finally. and your example class (Lookup. 13.fscontext. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.jar).NamingException.java. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. javax.bat If you supply a file directory.naming and javax.naming.12. include the directory that contains your Lookup.PROVIDER_URL. env. import import import import import javax. you need access to the JNDI classes.directory. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. create an initial directory context. then you will see something like the following. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). javax.naming.13 . env. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.sun. create a file named Getattr.naming. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. javax. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.11.naming. javax.sun.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.Attributes.directory packages.12. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). the file system service provider.LdapCtxFactory").jndi.put(Context.naming. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.3. To run the program. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. v1.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.Context. "com.directory. 13.class).2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. 182 .JNDI 13.ldap.directory.DirContext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.InitialDirContext. supply the name of a file in your file system.

java).3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get() on it to get its value: attrs.12.get() and then from that attribute get its value.get()). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Attributes. For this reason. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If the compilation succeeds. If the compilation fails. 183 . } catch (NamingException e) { System.get("sn"). // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. 13. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.get("sn"). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.get(). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.12. compile the source file using the Java compiler. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. ou=People"). As with the naming example.12. 13. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. } 13.6 compiling the program Next. If you are still having problems. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. using the capitalization shown. 13.err.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).13 .println("sn: " + attrs. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. Similar to the naming example. ou=People").5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). For now.out.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.12.

this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL. ou=People". v1. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.13 . then these classes are already included. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. env. Once it has the attributes.3. Getattr. 184 . it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").jar). If you have any trouble running this example.JNDI 13.jar and providerutil. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.class.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.7 running the program As with the naming example. then see the Common Problems lesson. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.12. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. With this configuration. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").

neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Enterprise Edition. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS queue . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. As the name queue suggests. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. the messages are delivered in the order sent. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. JMS producer . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .a JMS client that receives messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.14 . • 14.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS consumer . unless it has established a durable 185 . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS message . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. In this model. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. JMS client . JMS topic . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. Here.

JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Using Java. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. Depending on the type of message.3 the JMS API programming model 14.14 .1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.4. In that case. 14. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.jms. On the receiving side. 186 . and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

Before an application completes. For example. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. Connections implement the Connection interface.4. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. connection. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). The JMS administrator creates these objects. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.close(). When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. It receives messages sent to a destination. Depending on the connection type. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. you call the stop() method.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. Like the connection factory.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. It is either a queue or a topic. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). you must close any connections that you have created. 14. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. In a J2EE application.createConnection().2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. and users discover them using JNDI. 14. Before your application can consume messages. you must call the connection's start() method. For example. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.4.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.14 .

createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. In the onMessage() method. After you have created a message consumer. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. if it needs to reply to messages. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. usually expect a specific message type and format. 188 . For example. This object implements the MessageListener interface.receive(1000). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. you are likely to miss messages. MessageConsumer consumer = session.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.) When message delivery begins. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. which contains one method.setMessageListener(myListener). Message m = consumer.4. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. consumer.start(). After you register the message listener. connection. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.start(). For example. 14. A message listener does. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.createConsumer(myTopic). you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.createConsumer(myQueue). Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. a message listener object may be used. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). it becomes active. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. Moreover.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. however. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. (Remember always to call the start() method. Message m = consumer. onMessage(). and you can use it to receive messages. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.14 . you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.receive().) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. You use the Session.

The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. bytes message. anon_prod. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. stream message. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.createProducer(myQueue). that is.send(message).createProducer(null). After you have created a message producer. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.4.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.setText(msg_text). Here. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. At the consuming end.send(message).receive(). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. 189 . For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. MessageProducer producer = session. if you created an unidentified producer. A message has three main parts: 1. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.4.createTextMessage(). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.send(myQueue.14 .createProducer(myTopic). map message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. With an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer. message. from one application to another. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. You must first create the messages. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. 3. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. and object message). 14. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. to create and send a TextMessage. message). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. For example.

8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.println("Reading message: " + message. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. To create a transacted session. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. After you create a Connection object. 0). Sessions implement the Session interface. then delivers the messages.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Here.4. If the user selects transaction support. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. use the following code: Session session = connection. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. } else { // Handle error } 14. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. Before committing the transaction.createSession(false.getText()). A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Session. and message consumers to receive messages.createSession(true. the first argument means that the session is transacted.14 .out. 190 .

1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. On the other side. container which offers services to the component. improved performance security . The component lives inside a container. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .jar file into the application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.consistent error handling framework . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . message-driven beans The 2. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.0.0.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .logging. Version 1. component recovery scalability portability 191 . bundled into a single unit.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.transaction management can be complex. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.no developer coding. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. server which provides an execution environment for containers. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.15 .DB interaction transactions .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. the container lives (in general) in an application server. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .object oriented representation of data in a DB.

returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface.xml 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the home interface of the bean 3.15 . RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. called ejb-jar. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the deployment descriptor. as follows: 1. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file.

The developer does not implement this interface. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import.*.15 .RemoteException.rmi. } 15.ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException.javax. import java. } 193 . called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.*. import. import java. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. While the Remote interface declares no methods.javax. int custId) throws RemoteException.RemoteException.ejb. String lastName.

this can be done (for example) through SSL. if the client executes outside the container. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. In the case of an web application. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.15 .PROVIDER_URL.interfaces. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.put(Context. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. how to create or find the bean 2. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. prop. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. "localhost:1099"). we need to know: 1. prop. "org.put(Context. } 194 . creating them for the client application. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().NamingContextFactory".jnp.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.

Why? For EJB. Problem is.lookup("MyBean"). It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. that is part of CORBA standards..narrow(homeRef. and this means that there are some limitations. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.class). This is done through the javax.15 .rmi.Remote interface). IIOP has not been designed for Java. to the appropriate type. do implements the java. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").rmi. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). • if the client executes outside the container. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. in fact. 195 . the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. do not have the concept of casting.PortableRemoteObject class and. Some languages. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.rmi. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. in fact. but for generic languages.e. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. using the narrow() method. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. the client has a stub). MyBeanHome. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. more specifically.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.

"Vasile". remove the bean instance myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. call business methods on the bean myObject.ejbeans.ccards.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.create()..remove(). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. 15. String lastName.bank11.15 . 1102). import javax. as well)..ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome..processEntry("Dumitrascu". set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). int custId) { // method implementation .7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . we concentrate now on the bean class itself..SessionContext.ejb. public class MyBean implements javax. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.

the object is activated. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.15 . When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. 197 .10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. A stateless bean does not. that is. namely stateful and stateless beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.

The ejbCreate method.1 are invoked by the EJB container.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. (Typically. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and then moves it to the ready stage. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. 198 . the client invokes the remove method. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. is inside the bean class.15 . the EJB container activates the bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. or passivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. All other methods in Figure 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. 15. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. For example. for example.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.

12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. support for concurrent access 3.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. equals() 199 . container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().15 . The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. stored in a Database). maintaining a cache between transactions 4. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.

Read. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). 15. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). as the parameters in the original create() method. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. state data is stored into data store (usually. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. CreateException.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. We can have more create() methods. an instance of that bean is created. Update and Delete. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.bank11.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.lang.ccards. 200 . methods which have the same parameters. in the same order.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. On the other side. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.14. all throwing RemoteException.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.

2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 . While in the pooled stage.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. not null.14. On the first path. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. 15. 15. a client can invoke the remove method.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.14. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. for BMP. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. it's business methods can be invoked. 201 . the client invokes the create method. First. All instances in the pool are identical.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.14. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. but in general.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. On the second path. After instantiation. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. it is empty. actual SQL update code. left empty most of the time in CMP. in BMP. for BMPs. but the developer returns null for CMP. Second. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.

202 . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. 15. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the values of the instance variables are not needed. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. it does not automatically set the primary key. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. Therefore. another enterprise bean. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.an application client. or a Web component . the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.15 . If the primary key is incorrect. With bean-managed persistence.getPrimaryKey(). In the pooled state. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.

message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.16. max-beans-infree-pool. message-driven bean can be used. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. Unlike a session or entity bean. To ensure concurrency. For more information on this element see. In several respects. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. 15. To avoid tying up server resources.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.for example. the message will be redelivered.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.15 .16. a JMS API connection. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.16. When a message arrives. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. If message processing is rolled back. Previously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. 15. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. If this element is set to more than one. an open database connection. 15. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context.16. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . 203 . the container will spawn as many threads as specified. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. but not asynchronously. The onMessage method may call helper methods.

} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . Note: These instances can be pooled. and it must not // accept parameters. 3. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.16. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). // An EJB constructor is required.. As with other EJB types.0 specification.Message MessageName) {. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.jms. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. 2. finalize{}. methods. Classes. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class..6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.} // onMessage() is required. 15.jms. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.. Obtain a new bean instance.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.ejb.}.16. public void ejbRemove() {. public void onMessage(javax.Message. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.15 .0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. or create a new one. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.16..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context... you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. 15.

15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.16.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. See javax. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.15 . because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. getRollbackOnly() .onMessage() for more information. However. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). getUserTransaction(). 15.16. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16. For example.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.jms. If any method throws such an exception.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.This is not a client context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. 15. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.MessageListener.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).16. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. even in onMessage().

12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.15 .16. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.16. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. In either case.0 specification. 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. as required by the EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.0 specification. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. as described in the EJB 2.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.xml. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .

The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.ejb20.message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 207 .xml deployment file. the weblogic-ejb-jar. 2.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.jms.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml elements. For each instance.0 specification.. as described in the EJB 2. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.15 .. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. </message-driven> . 15.. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.

4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.like transaction.security issues. a message-driven bean is never passivated. environment properties 6. security 208 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 . control descriptors . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. At the end of the life cycle. session specific elements 9. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. 15. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. isolation level.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. access control entries . entity specific elements 10.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. attributes . the remote interface name 8. bean home name .specifies control attributes for transactions 4. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. the home interface name 7. the container calls the ejbRemove method. EJB class name 5.

bank11.ejb.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .15 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.bank11.ccards.ccards.ccards.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.AccountHome</home> <remote>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.lang.bank11.ejb.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards.ejb.ccards.ccards.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

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