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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


or finance. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. like HTML pages.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. retail. and sends it back to the client program.2 Server communication 1. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. 5 .java platform. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. enterprise edition Figure 1. Figure 1. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. The web tier.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs.7 business components Business code. 1.1 . Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. processes it (if necessary). like the client tier.

enterprise bean. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). mainframe transaction processing. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.3 Web. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. multithreading.1 . and other complex low-level details. 1. 6 . thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. or application client component can be executed.java platform. Before a web. database systems. Business and EIS Tiers 1. 1. and other legacy information systems. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.9 java EE Containers Normally. In addition.9. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. For example. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.

java platform. database connection resource pooling. data persistence.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.4. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.1 . 7 . transaction management. For example. and remote connectivity. After an enterprise bean is created. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.9. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. including services such as security. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 1.

you send documents containing the service data back and forth. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. maps.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Application client container . enterprise edition Figure 1. 1.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. XML data. When XML data is exchanged between parties. or for document-oriented web services. video. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. develop. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Web container . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. extensible. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Application clients and their container run on the client. Applet container . test. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.manages the execution of applets. 1. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.manages the execution of application client components. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.1 .java platform. text-based standard for representing data. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. For example.10. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. program files. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. 8 .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned.

and the APIs used in Java EE applications.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. enterprise edition 1. and ways to communicate with the service. 9 .5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.1 . The description includes the name of the service. such as Universal Description. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10.10. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.java platform. the location of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.

1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . 1. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. the session bean and its data are gone. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.11. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. or if the server shuts down.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. 1. In Java EE 5. you employ a single. WML. and XML) and JSP elements.11.11. 1. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. If the client terminates.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. or enterprise bean. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. When the client finishes executing.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. standard set of tags. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.1 .3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.java platform. Commonly. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


SAAJ. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. and JNDI 1. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. better tools. the application is ready to run. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. or better customer support. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. or component accordingly. such as better performance. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.java platform. No extra coding is needed. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. or a component. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. At runtime. servlet. module. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. JSP page. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. JTA. Once deployed on a local platform. it is ready to be deployed. 15 . An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . a module. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.1 .ear extension.

these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.jar extension.war (Web ARchive) extension. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. native libraries. classes. Together. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. enterprise edition Figure 1. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. and other documentation. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain servlet class files. • • 16 .xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. For example.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.java platform. such as caching directives. GIF and HTML files.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Resource adapter modules.jar extension. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. for example. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. supporting class files. JSP files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.1 . Web modules. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and a web application deployment descriptor.

of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).ietf. zero or more header lines 3..w3. The client sends a request message to the server.jmarshall. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. 2. The server answers with a response message.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .html). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.. we recommend www.1. These messages may have different contents. RFC 2616 (06/99). but they also have some common structural elements. HEAD. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. check the official HTTP site – www. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. The second (and last. .apps.org/Protocols .3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.org/rfc/rfc1945. was the object of several RFCs. namely HTTP 1.HTTP 2.2 .com/easy/http.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.. as follows: 1. POST. an initial line 2. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.HTTP 2 . Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.. so far) version. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.

as well. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. DELETE 6. Here is their list: 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index.2 . HTTP/1.0). GET 2.Posting a message to a bulletin board.html HTTP/1. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. newsgroup.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. but lack of support makes them obsolete. CONNECT 5. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.1 specification.1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. OPTIONS 7.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.Annotation of existing resources.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. PUT 8.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. in the HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. POST 4. mailing list. 18 . HEAD 3. 2. TRACE Three other commands are listed.

either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. In this case.2 .6 differences between GET and POST 1. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. When used for form data submission. . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. 3. after the “?” character.8 the status code A three-digit integer. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.Extending a database through an append operation. like storing or updating data.Providing a block of data. or a record is subordinate to a database.” On the other side. such as the result of submitting a form. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. or sending E-mail 2. 2. . separated by the character “&” or “.0 404 Not Found 2. to a data-handling process. or ordering a product. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. (encoded as multipart/form-data). a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. 2. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. while POST may involve anything. or in the message body.HTTP or similar group of articles.

that is.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.0. In particular. and the resulting resource (e.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.an unexpected server error. and section 10 for HTTP 1. 404 Not Found . 20 . such as text/html or image/jpg. or otherwise can't run correctly.1 only) . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. In a request.1). or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. header values are. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. one (Host) is mandatory. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.2 . fails. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .0 version specifies 16 headers. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. none of them mandatory.g. If an HTTP message includes a body. header name and header value.the requested resource doesn't exist. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. 2. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. 2.1 version specifies 46 of them.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.the request succeeded. 500 Server Error . Although the header names are not case sensitive. separated a semicolon. out of which. The most common use of the message body is in a response. where the requested resource is returned to the client. while the HTTP 1. file or script output) is returned in the message body. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.

12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.2 . with subtype plain 2. Here is the list of the seven types.ro. partial.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. application. multipart. text. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.0 From: someuser@yahoo. postscript 5. 1. video. alternative. message. .uvt.ietf.html first open a socket to the host web. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtype basic 7.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ro/path/file. gif 6. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.html HTTP/1. image.org/rfc/rfc1521.uvt. external-body 4.HTTP 2. with subtypes octet-stream.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtype mpeg 2.info. with subtypes rfc822. digest. with subtypes jpeg. parallel 3. RFC 1521 (www.0 200 OK Date: Fri. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtypes mixed. Then.apps. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. audio.info. 21 .

</body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP . 22 .2 . the server closes the socket.

com/easy/html . HTML 3.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.html) and was widely supported.3 . HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. Version 4. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. HTML describes how text. The latest version (XHTML 2.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. Since it fits in a couple of pages. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. From 1999 on. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. The XHTML 1.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.jmarshall.htmlgoodies.HTML 3 . namely HTML 1. However.0 draft was released in 01. The first official version – HTML 2.w3c. The newest version of HTML is 4. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.2 (3.0 . Other helpful sites .0) dates from 08.01. The first version of HTML.org/Markup .www. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . Mosaic.ietf. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. check the official HTML site – www.0 and was accepted in December 1997. 3.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. A newer standard. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.99.com/tutors.com/indexdot/html .01) can be found at this address: http://www.HTML 3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.org/rfc/rfc1866. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. As a practical reference site use – www.apps.w3.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a revision of 4. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). a working draft for the next major revision. Originally named Web Applications 1. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. www. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.html.0.blooberry.

3 .-_:" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.

though." (in hexadecimal) .html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.and end at the first occurrence of -->. If you wonder what a character reference is.01 specification. HTML 4. 4. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. This section deals with some of the most common elements. "&#x6C34.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. three DTDs (HTML 4. the specification of HTML 4.the chinese character for water. DYNSRC. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. An example: <!-.0 Transitional DTD.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.acesta este un comentariu.0 contains an SGML declaration. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. HTML 4. BORDER. 3. “&quot”. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.3 . Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. Overall. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. like ALIGN.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 Strict DTD. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.w3. <><> --> 25 . the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. You get the point. 3. CONTROLS. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. VSAPCE are omitted.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. look at these examples: “&lt”. …. Check the address http://www. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.

indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. NAME. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required. etc. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. image.3.uvt.3.info.ro/webmail/src/login.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.5 tables 26 .php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.HTML 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3 . An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.

<THEAD>. columns.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.3 . Here is a an example of a table: 3. Here is their description and attributes. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <TH> and <TD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. its rows. Usually.

allowing user input and parameter submittal.required.3 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.7 forms A form is a basic component container.

since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. after a quotation mark . "reset".if specified.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. Main attributes: 29 . "GET" . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.sends the form values in a single transmission.3 .:. "image". where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. NAME . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.maximum number of options visible to the user. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . 3. "file".8. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .required.required. "submit". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .required.info. "checkbox". SIZE .uvt.8. the browser appends the values to the URL. "button".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . however.HTML • METHOD . allows multiple selections from the choice list. "hidden". may have the values GET or POST.the default value. • 3.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Main attributes: • TYPE .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. specifies how data will be sent to the server.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "password". Example: http://web. "text/plain" • • 3. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.?.8. specifies the parameter name.8 form related elements 3. "radio".

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

java One example of command line compilation: 4. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. jit From source to execution.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.java. Early versions of Java were released in 12. The current version (as of 10.3 java applications 31 .0.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.90. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Java source – a file with extension . following the 1. -g : generate all debugging info. but next time execution is much faster.class file.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. In terms of execution time.class file. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.4 .4.JAVA PRIMER 4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.java 2.2 java the interpreter. the compilation process occurs. a tool named Just In Time compiler.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.JAVA PRIMER 4 . project started in 12.class 3. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.) in 08.class. The current version (as of 10. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.95. To overcome this significant shortage. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Java bytecode – a file with extension . allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. 4.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.C:\TW\mySource.. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. The first time a class is loaded.2 version. Example: Edit the file prog1.95. Inc. javac -classpath .

or that it extends A). In general.4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.4 . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4 object oriented concepts 4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. An example: 32 .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .4.jar file. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). Generally. or is derived from A. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .java. 4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.

That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Long. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. 33 . this is called method overloading. Short.4 . a Java class can extend a single base class. Double. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. In OO jargon. a class can have more than one method with the same name.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Float. Boolean.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).1 bit char .Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. 4. with the root the class Object. Character. In fact. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Integer. called Object. providing its own implementation. Therefore. Therefore. 4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.4. namely: Byte.

method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.access from any class anywhere private . rather than at class instance.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . inherited). class .servlet. 4. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .no access from outside the class itself protected . automatic garbage collection. } declares an abstract class. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. has the same value for all class instances.http.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet.4 . A final: • • • variable . no templates.one which is defined at class level.one which is constant method . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. A final variable (method.the class is visible from any class.. • • • • no specifier .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). Except for the "package" concept.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.does not have any subclasses. anywhere abstract .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.http. 34 .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. which extends the class javax.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .

due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . programmer defined exceptions 4.like invalid cast. as defined in the java.4 . 4.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. division by 0. 2. array index out of bounds.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). code or data errors . In Java.JAVA PRIMER 4. 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. namely class Error and the class Exception. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. not at execution time. Exception categories: 1.7.7. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. 4. standard method exceptions 3.ThreadDeath. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7. java errors . The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.

ccards. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.lang . The names in a package are qualified by the package name. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.rmi java.util. don't have to import java. finally construct.8. All other packages must be explicitly imported. therefore.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. As a general rule. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.lang (automatically available).util .security 36 . catch.java. they have to be unique inside a package. In the example above. the class (the . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. 4.zip .*.event .awt.default.io java.this can be done by providing a try.awt . ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .1 Package names The default package has no name.. date and time info java.net java.awt. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. 4. followed by the import statements.support for java archives creation java.4 . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).by adding the key word throws. 4. import javax.bank11.class file.sql.. import.support for user interface java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . the default package is used). The package containing the standard classes is java.sql java.geom .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. An example: package com.util.servlets.nio java.support for event handling java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. . string analyzers.Properties.support for data collections.

swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.event .accessibility javax.support for event handling 4.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing. 37 . All variables (actually. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. static and final. it must be declared as abstract.swing . All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.text javax.4 . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.

A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. 5. However. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript statement like this: document. The origins of this language date back to 1995.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. then LiveScript and finally. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. as JavaScript. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. This is not always what we want.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.HTML authors are normally not programmers. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . like QtScript or ActionScript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .javaScript 5 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.JAVASCRIPT 5. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.depending on the browser . other 38 . and . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .5 . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .

<html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. </script> </body> 5.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a . To simplify this.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. When you place a script in the head section. 5. go in the head section.3..javaScript times when a user triggers an event. </script> </head> 5. or when an event is triggered.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.3.. without having to write the same script on every page. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js file extension.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.. 39 . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.3. point to the .5 .

in and the try .4.4... break. 5.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.. The code in the body of the for . This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . in loop is executed once for each element/property.. while() it is worth mentioning the for .... switch().1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5.1 JavaScript for.4.5 . continue. else.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while(). 5.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.In statement The for..5. namely – if . for(). catch constructs.....javaScript 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.

catch statement The try.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). mycars[2] = "BMW".0..in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. an array element..3 try. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try...catch statement (available in IE5+. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . The try block contains the code to be run.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.5. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". mycars[0] = "Saab". Example Using for. for (x in mycars) { document. Mozilla 1.. When users see errors. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. so you don't lose your audience. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. or a property of an object. } </script> </body> </html> 5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. mycars[1] = "Volvo".. var mycars = new Array().5 . and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. they often leave the Web page.

7 popup boxes 5.\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.5 .description + "\n\n". strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. 5. Syntax: 42 .7. txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up. alert(txt).javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). Also.

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Syntax: prompt("sometext". in the example above had not been written within a function. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").javaScript alert("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.js file). Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.8 functions 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". Now. When a confirm box pops up.8.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.5 . If the user clicks "OK". the script is not executed before the user hits the button. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.7. in the <head> section. the box returns null.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the box returns false.7."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns true.

...write(txt. and will be stored in the variable called product.9 javaScript objects 5. So. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .varX) { some code } var1.9.8.var2. 5. 5.5 . In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.length).9. etc are variables or values passed into the function.javaScript function functionname(var1. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. var2. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. document. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.. and how they are used. 5.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.

which will be specified in the next section.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. document. 45 . The other class are the language specific objects.javaScript 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5.write(str.toUpperCase()).9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

asp 5. as well). every Image on the page is an Object. every Link on the page is an Object. which are called Objects.5 . or when the user interacts with a Web page. When an event message has been triggered.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.w3schools. check the site http://www. For example. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.11. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. Even this Document itself is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. At its most basic level.com/jsref/default. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .11.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.5 . N: Netscape.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.

from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. as a four-digit number. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.5 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.

3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .5 . according to local time.11. according to local time. according to universal time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. N: Netscape.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 . var myNum=new Number(number).5 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 4 3 4 .

5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 .11.

1.5 .javaScript 5.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 3. 0.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 1. 2.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.y) min(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. Properties FF: Firefox. 0.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0. 2. N: Netscape. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.11.434) Returns PI (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.y) pow(x.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.

personObj.5 . with a collection of properties and methods.age=30.write(personObj. skin tone.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj.you can give it properties named firstname. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. etc. personObj. 53 . sleep(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. The persons' methods could be eat(). The code above will generate the following output: John 5. height.firstname). Assume that the personObj already exists . age. Properties are the values associated with the object.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. age. personObj. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. personObj. eye color. work(). Objects also have methods.firstname="John". etc. play().12.eyecolor="blue". document.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. All persons have these properties.lastname="Doe".lastname="Doe".age=50.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. The persons' properties include name. 5.12. personObj. lastname.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.firstname="John".eyecolor="blue".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.12. weight.

this.eat=eat.firstname=firstname.12. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."blue"). this.lastname.5 . 5.50.48.lastname.age=age. you can create new instances of the object. this. You can also add some methods to the person object."Rally".lastname=lastname. 54 .newlastname=newlastname. } Notice that the template is just a function."green").eyecolor=eyecolor. this. like this: myFather=new person("John". this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.age.eyecolor) { this.age=age.lastname=lastname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.eyecolor=eyecolor.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname. myMother=new person("Sally". The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.propertyName. Once you have the template. this.age.lastname=new_lastname."Doe". this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.

we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. now you can write: myMother. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. So.. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. For example. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. 5. We define the events in the HTML tags.". Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.5 ..newlastname("Doe"). and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.

The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. For example. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie. If the field values are not accepted.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.w3schools.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.13.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.13. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. the submit should be cancelled. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. If it returns true the form will be submitted. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.5 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".2 onFocus.

5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.HTML DOM 6. structure. the Document Object Model activity is closed. or WebAPI being among them. As of January 2008. 6. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.g. SVG. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.6 . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. The W3C 58 . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.Html DOM 6 . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Right now (oct. HTML. XML. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. By October 1998. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. However.. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. 2010). CSS. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. In other words. particularly those used in Web browsers. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and style of a document. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.

2. DOM Level 3 XPath.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. each of which contains required and optional modules.6 . Level 2. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). filtered views and events. and 6. 3. DOM Level 3 Requirements. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Level 1. Level 2 XML namespace support. As of 2005. which further enhances the DOM 6.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. 5. 4. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Validation. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. a new DOM Core specification. 6. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. To claim to support a level.

A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. and Safari. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. Opera.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.x were still widely used in 2000.6 . along with their containing text and attributes. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Konqueror.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. 6. can be accessed through the 60 . that is. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. support multiple browsers. interoperability problems were numerous.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. In order to be cross-browser compatible. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.x and Netscape 4. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). The Window object represents a browser window. All HTML elements. By 2005.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.

It can be used by any programming language like Java. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript. JavaScript.6 .Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

9. 6.8.6 . the element node <title>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 62 . everything in an HTML document is a node.Html DOM 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. <head> and <body>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The tree structure is called a node-tree. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. However. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node. The <html> node has two child nodes.

getElementsByTagName("p"). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.getElementById('main'). child. By navigating the node tree.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.9. The terms parent. the top node is called the root Every node.getElementsByTagName("p"). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. children.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and new elements can be created. 63 . By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. except the root. Their contents can be modified or deleted. • • • • • In a node tree. Parent nodes have children.6 . By using the getElementById() method 2. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. using the node relationships. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and the connections between them.2 node parents.9. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.

length.Html DOM for (i=0. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.innerHTML).6 . The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. each node is an object.i++) { document.9. } 6. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).write("<br />").write(x[i].i<x. document.

getElementById("intro").firstChild. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.Html DOM 6.nodeValue. txt=x.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 .5 example .

it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.6 . including window.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. objects and images. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements.

Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. 6. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. say "click". as of version 1.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. for instance. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. During the event flow.3. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Fires when an element is activated. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Safari. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. and then bubbled up. through a mouse click or a keypress. 67 . also supports these methods. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. DOMNodeInserted. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Also. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.6 . there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Mozilla.

preventDefault 68 . etc. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. key pressed. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. mouse button pressed.Html DOM 6. Unfortunately. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. including information about target element.6 . Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. mouse position. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.

XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. For example. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network.AJAX 7. menus.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. using web services or Php scripts. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. fields of forms. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. dynamic website. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. etc. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. choices of user. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. The server does some processing — retrieving data.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. For improving sharing of resources. It is not a technology in itself. 7. 7. 69 . but also to save resources. crunching numbers. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. before the whole page was sent within the network. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.AJAX 7 . It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.7 . and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.

the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. 70 . It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. we wouldn’t make users wait around. waiting around for the server to do something. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. the user waits some more. Once an interface is loaded. at the start of the session. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right.7 . This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. While the server is doing its thing. And at every step in a task. Obviously. Instead of loading a web page. but the opposite is true. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. waiting.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense.

71 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.7 . and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory. usually using XML. loading additional interface code. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .for a simple text. These events are user actions. 2: request received. 404 if the page is not found .for a Xml file or .send: send a request to the server.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. GET or POST . 3: answer in process.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.7 . thanks to its methods and attributes. To get data on the server.url: the location of the file 72 . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. onreadystatechange .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.responseXml . 1: connection established.open: create a connection. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. DOM's method allows to extract data.200 is ok.holds a Xml loaded file.mode: type of request.responseText .holds loaded data as a string of characters. boolean) . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. This object provides two methods: . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.AJAX 7. It allows the interaction with the servers. . 7. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. and in this purpose. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. url. 4: finished.returned by the server . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.

true).onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.. the data to send to the server.. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.open('GET'. // Firefox. if (window.XMLHTTP"). true for asynchronous. } else if (window. OK } else { // wait.send(null).boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . 'http://www.readyState == 4) { // received. URL of the document.AJAX . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().xml'.open: command GET or POST. but two options must be tried.7 . Safari. request. . for browser compatibility. 73 . The request below reads a document on the server.fr/somefile. if (request.null for a GET command 7. http_request.send: with POST only.. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. ..xul.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.6 building a request. http_request.

2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".status. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. req.7 .responseXML. true).AJAX 7. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn="Error code " + req.dyn="Received:" + req.responseText.ajax.send(null).getElementsByTagName('root'). by this code: var doc = req.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. }.dyn=""Received:" + req. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . if(window.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.xml". else document.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().7. "data.responseText. else if (window. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").open("GET".7 examples 7. req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.readyState == 4) if(req.ajax.status == 200) document.ajax.item(0).XMLHTTP).7.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
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If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
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XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. like: 1. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 3.ccards. classes. Others. descriptions). For example. like what pages are error. servlet classes.8 . 4.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.servlets. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . and access to the Java EE platform APIs. MIME types used by the web application. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. 8. 2. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. data persistence.class>com. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. 5. Here is a small.bank11. web. After an enterprise bean is created.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JSPs and Java Server Faces. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.. database connection resource pooling.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. Servlet.)> <web-app> <!-. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. Initialization of parameters for servlets.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. Servlet. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.xml file: <?xml version="1. entries related to session configuration. 6. but typical web.

Basicly. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".bank11. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Then the "EnrollServlet.ccards. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. for flexibility. For example. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.bank11.xml" file. However. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.class" and that it is part of the package "com. whose name is rather long. Behind a very benign URL.bank11. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.xml" 2.servlets".EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. the name of the web application. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.ccards. basicly. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.ccards.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.servlets". Unfortunately.xml file of the web application. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml". it is the alias of the real servlet class.8 .servlets. 1. In general.

1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.SERVLETS 9 .9 . but through a web container.5 and is in final state. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.4.4. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. more often. 2010. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. 9. which extend the functionality of the web server. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. the HttpServlet) class. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . modular design 9. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. this is just a work in progress.0 specification. but at this point. in most cases as part of an application server. from BEA Systems.0 specification is available for public review.2. Technically speaking.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. As of oct. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.2. the Java Servlet 3.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. small footprint.SERVLETS 9. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. platform independent programs. 9. tjws spec 2. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.

servlet. from Apple Inc. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.9 .servlet. 82 . WebSphere. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.servlet package are protocol independent. public void destroy() throws ServletException. from IBM 9. public void service(ServletRequest req. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. These packages are: • • javax.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet javax. while the second one. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. IOException. the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.servlet package.

as well. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. in a different section. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. respectively. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. namely the HttpServlet class.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet.9 . 83 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). Throwable t) 9. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. This method has two arguments. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. More on the servlet life cycle. ServletConfig. the web container calls its init() method. 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. After instantiating the servlet. The method performs all initialization required.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. The servlet API provides such a specific class.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.ServletException javax.Exception and can be thrown by the init().lang. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. service().SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.9 .8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. It also extends the java.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. 9.servlet.

10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. which will service all incoming requests.servlet. After instantiation. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. Typically. JSP or JSF. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Typically. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. 85 . respectively. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. If the servlet does not implement the javax.SingleThreadModel. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. etc. Also.9 . There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. DB connection opening. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. 9.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. this method contains JDBC driver loading. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.

SERVLETS 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.

String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.bank11.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.*. import java. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.io. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. This is done in server's (container's) server.ccards. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.xml file.9 .java" file: package com. 87 .servlets.

} } 88 .SERVLETS import javax.init(config).println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</body>").servlet. out. import javax.*. PrintWriter out = resp.println("<body>").servlet. out.println("<html>").println("<head>").println("</head>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out. out. IOException { resp.println("merge").close().println("<br>").9 .http.*. out.setContentType(“text/html”). out. // output your page here out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.getWriter(). out. out.println("</html>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.

Starting with version 3.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.JDBC 10 .0 while the current (4. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.JdbcOdbcDriver . 1997. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.10 .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. as recognized by the DB industry. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.1. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.sql package. The JDBC 4.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). Type 1. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. This solution is inefficient. the java.sun. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. These drivers fall into four standard categories.jdbc. After that. 89 .odbc. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.0. 10.sql package 2.JDBC 10. the javax.

The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. which in turn. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.10 . Type 4. Part Java. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. 90 . Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols.JDBC Type 2. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The DB returns the result of the call to the API.

PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.10 .Time java.SQLWarning java.sql.Wrapper 91 .Blob java.DriverManager java.Connection java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Array java.CallableStatement java.sql.Struct java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.0).sql.Timestamp java.sql. java.sql.sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.3 the java.SQLPermission java.SQLDataException java.Date java.SQLXML java.Statement java.Driver java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.JDBC 10.0 API.SQLData java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.Clob java.Types java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.ResultSet java.sql.sql.SQLException java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.

SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.Connection java.sql.DatabaseMetaData java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql. java.10 .CallableStatement java.PreparedStatement java.RowId java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.Clob java.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.NClob java. processing the result set 92 .SQLException java.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java. loading a database driver 2.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql. querying the database 4.SQLWarning java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.sql.Statement java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.StatementEvent javax.SQLOutput java.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.Types java.SQLDataException java.Wrapper javax.SQLInput java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.0.sql.sql package.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.sql.Blob java.sql.CommonDataSource javax.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.

sybase.SybDriver com.db2.ibm.jdbc.net.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.datastore.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.odbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.driver.DB2Driver oracle.JDBC 10.borland.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .10 . Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.

sql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.mysql. import java. passwd). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.newInstance().Driver"). by using the connection URL. String user = "root".mm.10 .printStackTrace().*.bank11. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). as specified by the driver vendor. 94 . let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.forName("org. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. user.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. Since we just used it.getConnection(connURL. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".util. try { Class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.gjt.*. but let's take it for granted: import java.

int resultSetConcurrency. Connection conn = DriverManager.put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package. Properties prp = new Properties(). prp. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. "true"). The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("create". String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. 10. prp). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . String user.getConnection(connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.util. prp. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. "true").10 .JDBC 10. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. we can use it for various purposes. java.

Statement. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.10 . prepared statements and stored procedures.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. namely. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. respectively. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.JDBC 10.

Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . stmt.sql.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors..10 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.executeUpdate(sqlString). Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..".createStatement(). Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. 10.

not at 0) or the column name. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. a concurrency of read only. PreparedStatement. as the argument. 98 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed.10 .10 ResultSet characteristics By default.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. and CallableStatement objects. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


math. Basic implementation -.Time java.DataSource object. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.sql.sql.produces a standard Connection object 2.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. It is part of the javax.produces a Connection object that will 103 . Connection pooling implementation -.0 optional package.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. This interface is.Big Decimal Object float 10.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql package. secs date. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. mins. basicly. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. There are three types of implementations: 1.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. time.10 .sql. a factory for creating DB connections.

theDataSource = (DataSource) env. 104 .class. 3. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.servlet. java. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.getName()).servlets.*.servlet. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.*. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.*. Distributed transaction implementation -.*. javax. javax. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.lookup("java:comp/env").getLogger(TestDataSource. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.10 .JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.ccards.*.bank11.io.sql.*. import import import import import import java. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".sql. javax.http. javax.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).naming. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. private DataSource theDataSource.

. } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.10 .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { .

The current JSP specification is JSP 2. The javax. the servlet code is regenerated.11 .JSP 11 . The package javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The package javax.2 the java. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp.servlet.servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp.servlet.jsp. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.servlet.1 and is related to the 2.jsp and javax. 11.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.tagext.5 Java Servlet specification.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. 11.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.JSP 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. namely javax. If the JSP is modified.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .11 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. include and taglib.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . 111 .. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11... %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.

11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.7 scripting elements 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. Assigns it to available name or id. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . this code goes to inside the service() method.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.JSP 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.11 .7.7. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. In Tomcat.

Attributes description: • • • name .the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.11 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . you must specify param. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .

While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.only the "true" value is supported.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.the URL of the page.11 . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.13 the forward standard action 114 . flush . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .name of the property to be retrieved 11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . <jsp:plugin> actions. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. same format as the <%@include> directive.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .

class extension in the name following code. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute." . when we want to separate the application into different views. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.. 11.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).a name for the Bean or applet instance.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other...the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. It is used mainly. depending on request. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. If you do not supply a value. name . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . name="instanceName" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . archive="URIToArchive. as this attribute has no default value.the type of object the plugin will execute. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. servlet or to a static resource. You must include the .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . . You must specify either bean or applet. code="classFileName" .the name of a bean instance..11 . as well..

provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .it represents the buffered version of java. pageContext . page . it has javax.PrintWriter. of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents the servlet context. in pixels.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. in pixels.jsp.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. optional port number. 1. objects which are automaticly available.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. The default value is 1. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. session .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.the initial height and width.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. based on the servlet API. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.1" . request .represents server's response to the request. application .JspWriter type and scope page 7.servlet. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . writes to the output stream to the client. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . Must be a small nonzero number.1. request .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. The value is a full URL. response . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.io.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.Object type and scope page 11. out .16 scopes 1.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. and domain name.the amount of space. config . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . with a protocol name.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.11 . it has java. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.lang.

application . if (enrollBean.ccards. session .beans.JSP request object. page .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.bank11.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 2. Object value) method 3.11 . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.init().17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp file. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . Object value) method 4.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.

18.11 . a float. The public constructor could have been omitted.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private String colors[]. private int integer. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). SimpleBean.simple. a software development and consulting company. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.register().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. an int. The SimpleBean class is declared public. 11. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . a boolean and another String). has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.mapping. private boolean flag.java: package com.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private String optional. private SimpleSubBean subBean.string.io.Serializable { private String string. private int list[].devsphere. %> <jsp:forward page="response.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.examples. private float number.

11 . } 119 . } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.string = value.integer = value.flag. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.number = value.integer.colors = values.colors. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.flag = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.number. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors[index].JSP this.

colors[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. int value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } } 120 . } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.optional. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list[index] = value. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.subBean. String value) { this.subBean = value.list[index].optional = value.11 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list.

devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.number = value.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).Serializable { private String string. SimpleSubBean. private float number.18. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.11 .java: package com.string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } } 11.io.simple.number. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.mapping.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .string.examples.

string subBean.JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .

"One or more colors must be selected" }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.list]".util. The default values are defined for a String.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new int[] { 2.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.examples. "One or more items must be selected" }.integer]". These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. "An option must be selected" }. The list of optional properties has a single element. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. SimpleBeanResources.11 . It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. error messages. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.list]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. There are three error messages. new Boolean(true) }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.mapping. a float. 3 } }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.java: package com.18. the form's name and the processor's name.string]".simple. new Float(0. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.devsphere. new String[] { 123 . { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.flag]".colors]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.number]". "abc" }.123) }. the processing order. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. a boolean and an int[]. the list of optional properties.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.

jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").jsp" } }.18. com. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. SimpleHndl.mapping. "integer". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "SimpleForm. "optional".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). The formToBean() method of com.devsphere.mapping.11 .devsphere.*. If necessary. "subBean" } }. } } 11. "colors".mapping. { "[PROC_NAME]".util. For a better understanding of this example.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. "flag".JSP "optional" } }. "list".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. "number". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "SimpleProc.logging.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. new String[] { "string".html" }.simple.devsphere. { "[FORM_NAME]".devsphere. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. string values are converted to numbers.examples. The beanToForm() method of com.mapping.

getRealPath(formPath).trim().equals("POST").substring(0. slashIndex+1) : "". // Process the valid data bean instance application. 125 . // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getString("[FORM_NAME]").trim(). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getServletPath().util.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).forward(request. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getString("[PROC_NAME]").getBeanResources(simpleBean. simpleBean.getClass()). response).io. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.File(formPath)). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).11 . formPath = application.getMethod().lastIndexOf('/'). errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getDocument(). logger).formToBean(formData. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. int slashIndex = basePath.getTemplate(new java.JSP = HandlerUtils.

document. // Send the form document document.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.append("{ ").getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. SimpleProc. strbuf. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.mapping.string = <%= simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getSubBean(). } %> 11.simple. i++) 126 .beanToForm(simpleBean.11 .18.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".getString() %> <P> subBean.devsphere. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().JSP elements logger). if (list.examples.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getSubBean().SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. for (int i = 0.number = <%= simpleBean. i < list.send(out). errorTable.length.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].

11 . strbuf. if (list. ComplexHndl. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append("{ "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.devsphere.append(" ").JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. making the testing and the debugging easier. strbuf. In addition. strbuf.jsp files. A single call to FormUtils.length. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). return strbuf. } %> 11. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.append(list[i]).append("}"). Using the framework.examples.append(" "). It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.toString().toString(list[0]). } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. } strbuf.mapping. for (int i = 0.length == 1) return Integer. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. i++) { strbuf. ComplexForm.length == 0) return "".toString().simple.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. return strbuf. i < list. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.append("}"). In addition. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. The localization of the Complex*.util.18.append(list[i]).formToBean() call.

boolean checked = simpleBean.length.length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". 128 . j < colors. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "Option 2". j++) if (colors[j].length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Green".getInteger() == value. for (int i = 0. i < colorValues. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.11 .equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". i++) { boolean checked = false. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Blue" }. i < integerLabels. "Option 3" }. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". "blue" }. for (int i = 0. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.getColors(). "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

boolean selected = false.getSubBean().JSP break. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. break. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.devsphere.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. j < list.getList().getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . String listItems[] = { "Item 1".examples.mapping. "Item 2".length. "subBean. i < listItems.11 . "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0].string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.length. "Item 3" }.setSubBean( new com. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple. for (int i = 0. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.SimpleSubBean()).string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.

JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.util.getString() == null || simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl.util.simple.mapping.equals("POST").devsphere.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.mapping. boolean isPostMethod = request.11 .number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.simple.getSubBean().examples. 130 .SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getString().examples.getMethod().get(property).devsphere.Hashtable errorTable.setString("abc"). "subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. if (message == null) message = "".getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. return message. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.length() == 0) { simpleBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.

} simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.11 .setFlag(flagValue != null). "string".length() == 0 || flagValue.getParameter("number"). "Must be filled").trim(). "An option must be selected"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. "number".floatValue()). "Must be a number"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length() != 0) simpleBean.setNumber(0.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean. else { simpleBean. "integer". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. if (flagValue. "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.123f).equals("false")) flagValue = null.getParameter("flag").length == 0) { 131 . //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(0.getColors().123f).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.

"subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getString().11 .length == 0) { simpleBean.number"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.getList(). "One or more colors must be selected"). "Must be } //* subBean. 3 }).number : text try { String numberValue = request. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors".string".getList() == null || simpleBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.setString(""). "One or more items must be selected").number".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2.getParameter("subBean. "Must be filled"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. //* subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setOptional(""). 132 .floatValue()). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "list". "subBean.

code=com.jsp.setOptional("").jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. message).initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.devsphere. simpleBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.JSP filled"). which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.devsphere.setList(new int[] { 2. } %> 11.simple. simpleBean. simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.util. "Must be a number").SimpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.examples. } } else { simpleBean.number".setString("abc").put(property.mapping. "subBean.devsphere. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.properties or web.helpers.mapping.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.helpers. simpleBean.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. errorTable.setFlag(true).11 . This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.\ 133 . 3 }). The com.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".xml: SimpleHndl.18.setNumber(0. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.setString(""). That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. String property.Hashtable errorTable.123f). simpleSubBean.

JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.18.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. If you have another bean-form pair. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.11 .examples.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.helpers. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. a servlet is identified with its class.devsphere. In many cases.host.helpers. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.simple.devsphere.AnotherBean.mapping.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.xml) file: ServletName. you could add a few other lines to servlets. 11.host.mapping. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.properties (or web.examples.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.another.code=com.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.host.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. A servlet can be made bean-independent.company.properties: AnotherHndl.

JSP 135 .11 .

using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 2. 12.JAVASERVER FACES 12.javaserver faces 12 . like input fields. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. buttons. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.12 . links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 supersedes version 1. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. This technology includes: 1. builds a component tree.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. which loads the appropriate view template.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. Version 2.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. Version 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. processes events.

2 of the JFS specification. As of version 1.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.javaserver faces 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.4.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.12 . here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .

A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. columns and rows. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. 12.4. see the column tag documentation. Common formatting techniques.12 . footers. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. For more information about columns. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. such as alternating row colors. respectively.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.

Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. your options include using plain HTML forms. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkout}" /> 139 .4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.12 . and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.

5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". 12.user.</span> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.12 .5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . red for error.user.5.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 . 12.

A component fires a value change event when its input changes. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. can publish value change events. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.javaserver faces 12. Any component that receives user input.5.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .mycompany. but only if the new input is validated successfully.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. validateLength. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.customer.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.12 .5. 12. The body content of this tag must be empty.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. Without this JavaScript event.

By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. Example: welcome_en.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. including images and styles. for each locale you wish to support.javaserver faces 12. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.5. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. If you have not specified a default locale. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. myJSFapp 143 .mycompany. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.12 .jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.

What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.html. Create JSP pages 2. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar – files included in the /lib directory. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar jsf-api. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. and so on. Create managed beans 4. It has a deployment descriptor.xml web.jar faces-config.exadel.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml – the JSF configuration file. Create properties files 144 . Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.javaserver faces /ant build. Define navigation rules 3. jsf-api. static resources. mandatory for any JSF application web. JSP pages.12 .jar.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. custom tag libraries.contains libraries required by the application.

7.jsp is greeting.12 . You only need to create the JSP files. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp file 7.jsp and greeting.javaserver faces 5. 12. The directory structure already exists.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Now that we have the two JSP pages. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. These files will act as place holders for now. You just need to create its contents.xml file. Create an index.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. In our application.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. And that's all there is to this. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . we just want to go from inputname.7. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp. Compile the application 8. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. we can create a navigation rule.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp to greeting.jsp. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. As a diagram. Edit JSP pages 6.

} /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7. To read more about navigation rules.xml Your final faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. 12. public class PersonBean { String personName. we will create a PersonBean. This class is straight-forward. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml Now.3.xml file should look like this: 146 .3. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. Inside this myJFSapp folder.1 PersonBean.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.3 faces-config.7. You can easily create more complex ones.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.java file.7.12 . The next line is the full class name. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. of course. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. a very simple navigation rule. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.javaserver faces This is.) 12. the second part of faces-config.7. 12.3. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. request sets the bean scope in the application. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. myJFSapp.PersonBean.

properties file in the bundle folder. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.sun.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. 12.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.1 messages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12. 12.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.1 inputname.sun.1//EN" "http://java.4. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.7. Inc. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.5. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.12 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .

prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Then.

xml file. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Creates an HTML input text box.bundle. Lines 3-5.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. name! 12. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .jsp page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. The second line will access a Java bean.7.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.</h3> tags. 12. Create the index.greeting_text}" />.7.2 greeting. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Having an index. That's how JSF knows where to go next.12 ..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 6.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. specifically the bean attribute personName..jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.6 creating the index.5.javaserver faces Line 1. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Line 2. The first three lines are identical to our first page. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.sun.

jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12. might possibly be different). 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. because in the web. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. which asks an user for an ID and password. though. 12. This is used here.xml file.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).12 . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsp. This is a "login" application. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. We are almost done with this example. To do this. Of course. To build the application run the build. we need to deploy it. you'll notice the file suffix is .7. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. When Tomcat is done loading. 12. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. verifies the information.7.sourceforge. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.xml file for the application *. and forwards the user to a success or error page. 150 .8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. Your setup.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.9 Running Next.8.jsf and not .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.javaserver faces Now.7.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.html .xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.

Select the Amateras node. say. 12.. 2. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. 7. see Installing & Uninstalling. in the wizard that appears. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.webroot | +-. 10.. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. click Finish 4. click Yes through messages that appear. make sure all checkboxes are checked. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.12 . This folder will contain all "functional" pages.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-..WEB-INF 151 . such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.8.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. click Next d. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. from the menubar select File/New/Other... Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. jsf-login. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.src | +-. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. select the Source tab. 6. name the folder pages. and to add JSF libraries to the project. Select Java Project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. click Add Folder. 9. a. your mileage may vary. click Next. c. 3. The New Project wizard appears.. click Next. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.. name the folder webroot 5. in the Add JSF Support page.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial.xml Editor (see faces-config. Enter project name. and set up folders for a web application. 1. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.

in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.javaserver faces | | | +-.pages 12. Click Finish. The New Java Class wizard appears. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". We then configure it to be a managed bean.8.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".java package login. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.xml Editor.LoginManager. 3. The faces-config. } return action. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. b. else action = "loginFail".12 .xml. input widgets appear d. In the Package field.xml editor opens. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. c. } 4. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. a. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. for scope select 152 .classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. 1. in the Name field enter LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder. enter login. 2. from its context menu select New/Class. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. for class enter login. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. if ( _uid. click Add. click Managed Bean. private String _pwd = "".lib | +-. The Java code editor opens. for name enter mgr.

javaserver faces session. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. save the file and close the editor.jsp and error. e. index.jsp: a. click Finish. so we create them first.8.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. Then we create login.jsp.jsp. enter the following code. success. but in webroot/pages. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp are simple pages with static content. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. 1.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. c. <!-.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Enter the following code: <!-. from its context menu select New/File. Create error.webroot/pages/error. then close the editor 12. Enter the following code: <!-. b. Create success. again. and 3 content pages (login.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. in Package Explorer select webroot. but in webroot/pages. Create index. for File name enter index. the JSP Editor opens.jsp). the New File wizard appears.12 .jsp.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. All pages except login. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. </body> Please try 153 .webroot/pages/success. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.webroot/index.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp.jsp).

click Next c. Create login. and choose default for Template.javaserver faces </html> 4. enter jsf-login e. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.sun. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.completion. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. the New wizard appears. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. and the JSP Editor can help with code... etc. a code-completion window pops up. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. from its context menu select New/Other. now we want to add attributes to this element. (See Show View Dialog) f. g. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.sun. and uses them for code completion as well. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place your cursor in one of these lines. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. click Finish. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . with the following template code. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. <%@ page contentType="text/html. 154 . d.jsp: a. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. To see this in action. and dock it along the right.jsp. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. b. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. as shown below. for File name enter login. Open the JSF palette..

a code-completion window pops up. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . i. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. with bean properties available in mgr. set its value to Login. complete the expression with the closing { k. insert another <h:inputText> element. enter #{mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. this inserts value="" at the cursor.. with the barest presentational formatting. and hit Enter. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.) j. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .loginAction} The final code. insert a <h:commandButton> element.password}" l.sun. select userID from the code-completion window.sun.javaserver faces h. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.

this inserts a page icon into the editor.xml Editor.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.8.xml. 2.12 . 1. Open faces-config. 156 .javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. using a FacesIDE editor. This is shown below. click on Page. then click inside the editor window. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Select the Navigation tab 3.

and set them to /pages/login. add 3 more pages.jsp. 5. select Navigation Case. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. 6. from the palette at left. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp.jsp 4. in the Properties view.jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 . then click first on the icon for login.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp. and is represented by an arrow.jsp and then on the icon for success. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. This is shown below: 157 . This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. /pages/success.

in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.12 . Similarly add a forward-action from login.6 Editing web.xml. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. so uncomment it.jsp.jsp. since we have such a trivial application. We'll set some properties in web. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.javaserver faces 7. 1. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp to error. Once deployed browse to index. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml for the specifics of our application.xml Here we edit web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. open web.8.jsp. We want virtual path-based mapping. 12. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. The application is now complete. or leave it as-is. As it turns out. and you should be sent to the success page. all we need do in web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. any other id/password should send you to the error page.

Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. start Tomcat.CONFIG_FILES 159 . 12.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.html javax.faces.faces.faces. click Deploy 3.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. as file:///. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.faces.faces.el javax. open its Manager application in a browser.validator javax.context javax. that factory is used.component javax. For a given factory class name.faces. Click on its link to launch the application..faces.application javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.lifecycle javax.faces.faces javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.12 .component..0 1. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. the Manager application should reload.webapp 12.8. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.render javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.convert javax..faces.faces.model javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. scroll down to Deploy.10 the javax.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.event javax.javaserver faces 12.faces.

StateManager .Severity .11 the javax. defining page navigation.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. StateManagerWrapper . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). ViewHandler .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. ViewHandlerWrapper . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.12 .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . If none of the above steps yield a match. handling events and input validation.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. ApplicationFactory . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. FacesMessage. 12. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. FacesMessage . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.faces. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. with the last one taking precedence. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. with the last one taking precedence. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. those factories are used.represents a single validation (or other) message.

StateHolder .faces. or a hyperlink.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. UICommand . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. ContextCallBack .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. Here they are: • • UIColumn .restoreView(javax.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. UIComponent . String) results in failure on postback.FacesContext.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. 12. EditableValueHolder . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. ValueHolder .12 . ActionSource2 .12 the javax. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. NamingContainer . when activated by the user. • • 161 . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. a menu item. • ViewExpiredException . String.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. UIComponentBase . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.context.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces.

UINamingContainer .component. it is for display purposes only.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. identified by a clientId. UISelectMany . by storing it as the value property of the component. The user can modify the selected value. Optionally.13 the java. it just serves as the root of the component tree. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. it is for display purposes only. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. The user cannot manipulate this component. UIOutput . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.html package 162 .a UIComponent that has a value. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIInput . UISelectItem . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. The user can modify the selected values. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIForm . UIMessages . This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UISelectBoolean . UISelectOne . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UIParameter . UIPanel . UIMessage .javaserver faces • UIData . Optionally.12 .faces.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIGraphic . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.

HtmlMessage .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. On a redisplay.by default.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlPanelGroup .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlInputText . HtmlForm . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML img element.12 . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlCommandLink .renders the component value as text. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. and renders the result.represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. or not. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlOutputText .renders child components in a table.represents an HTML textarea element. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlOutputFormat . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlGraphicImage .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. This component must be placed inside a form. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlDataTable . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.by default. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlMessages . The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML label element.Message". used to retrieve and render a graphical image.faces.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlColumn . The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlPanelGrid .faces. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML input element of type text. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML form element. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.

ResponseWriterWrapper .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. showing a single available option at a time. FacesContext . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.12 .javaserver faces property. In particular.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. ResponseWriter .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyListbox . HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.14 the java. FacesContextFactory . HtmlSelectOneMenu . ResponseStream . HtmlSelectOneListbox . and potentially modified by.faces.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. • • • • 12.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. HtmlSelectOneRadio . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . and the rendering of the corresponding response.15 the java. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. showing a single available option at a time.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. It is passed to.convert package 164 .

VariableResolver . 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. PropertyResolver .15.faces. ValueBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . Classes: MethodBinding . • • • • 165 .javaserver faces 12.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.16 the java.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.12 . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.

PhaseListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. PhaseId . and event implementation classes.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .AbortProcessingException . MethodNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.12 . ValueChangeListener . FacesListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. • • • • 12.faces.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). • • • • • One exception .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. Interfaces: ActionListener .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. PhaseEvent . FacesEvent .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.17 the java. 166 . PropertyNotFoundException .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ScalarDataModel .20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.19 the java. ListDataModel .18 the java.12 . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. Classes: ArrayDataModel . DataModelEvent . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. • • • • • • • • • 12.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .faces.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. DataModel . 12. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. SelectItemGroup . SelectItem .javaserver faces 12.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Renderer .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ResultDataModel . ResultSetDataModel .

ResponseStateManager .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. together.validator package Interface defining the validator model. RenderKitFactory . Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .faces. LongRangeValidator . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. The package contains an exception. as well. • RenderKit . base classes for JSP custom component tags. and/or user Locale.12 . markup language. • • 12. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.21 the java.22 the java.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. 12. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. AttributeTag . RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. and concrete validator implementation classes.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. including a standard servlet. Typically. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .faces. ConverterTag .

the JSF life cycle does not apply.12 . or some other web technology.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. related to a UIComponent. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. servlets.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. When a web server receives a request. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. Likewise.a base class for all JSP custom actions.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. or when an exception occurs. When using JSF. UIComponentBodyTag . the controller is the 169 . When the user takes some action with the presentation. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. In JSF. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. Also. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. which passes the request to the page class. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. In MVC. the controller sends a message to the model. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). To ensure that the business state is never invalid.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. that need to process their tag bodies. which has several implications. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. UIComponentTag . This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. FacetTag . the life cycle is more complicated. that request is passed to the container. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. telling the model to update its data. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. 12. the process includes a few more components or pages. but basically.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. When the model is updated. • • • • • FacesServlet . telling the view to update its presentation. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. ValidatorTag . the controller sends a message to the view.

javaserver faces JSF implementation. In addition. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. 170 . and the response is sent to the client. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. Data can come from input fields in a web form. not every request will flow through all six phases. it creates UI objects for each view component. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the JSF implementation must create the view. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. As with the previous phase. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. If this is a subsequent request. However. such as components that create HTML input fields. the conversion occurs in this phase. converting a String to a Date object). The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. or from request headers. depending on the request. For a JSF-enabled application. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. The components are stored in a component tree. and the UI components are the view. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. • Invoke Application: During this phase. Data for some components.12 . Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. and a piece of data failed validation. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. In addition. It updates only the UI components with the new data. is validated at this time. These objects update their state with the data values. and what happens during the processing and response. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.

if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. 171 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. skipping any remaining phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 . Also. For example. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases.

1 names To look up an object in a naming system. For example. such as addresses. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").48. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. for example. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. DNS. Using JNDI. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. naming and directory services using a common API. names a file hello in the file directory usr. 13.JNDI 13 .1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. possibly multiple. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. /usr/hello. The DNS entry Wiz. It enables applications to access different.Wiz. and NIS(YP). 172 . when you use an electronic mail system. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.sun.2. NDS. you must supply its name. you supply it the name of the object. you are always naming one object or another.").COM. When using almost any computer program or system.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. 13. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.COM. or objects typically used by computer programs. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.9.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. For example. identifiers. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. To access a file in the computer. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. In addition. such as LDAP. A file system maps a filename (for example. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". The UNIX pathname. c:\bin\autoexec. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. in turn.5). such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.JNDI 13.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. which is located in the root of the file system. For example.13 . Thus the DNS name sales. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.

2. o=Sun. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. is relative to c=us. such as c=us. and its flight number and departure time. For example. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. For example. That is. which in turn. and listing bound names. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. in the DNS domain Sun. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray.c=us. also called a file handle. in a file directory /usr/bin. Typically. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. a file directory.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding.2. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. for example. is a context. might contain the state of the printer. such as COM. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). For example. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. delimited by the comma character (".COM. A printer object reference. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. a DNS domain. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). In another example. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. relative to the entry o=Sun."). such as its print server name and printing protocol. For example. they must be stored by reference. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. on the other hand. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. A reference is information about how to access an object. By contrast. while the object itself might contain more state information. its flight plan. unbinding names. such as /usr. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. for example. that is. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. a file name is bound to a file. Finally. For simplicity. A file object. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. Using the reference. 13. Every context has an associated naming convention. in the UNIX file system is a context. For example. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext.2. Instead. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. is accessed using a file reference. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. an LDAP entry.13 . the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. 13. A printer object. 13. some objects cannot be stored directly. is a context.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. 173 .3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. that is. and fuel and instrument status.

the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. and color. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree).5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a person. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. For example. to represent a printer.3. for example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. 13. to some extent. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. and even the computer itself and other computers. or a network. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. And it kind of makes sense. because we can. postal mail address. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter.2.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. Thus. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. For example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. For example. programs. however. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. An example is the telephone company's directory service. various telephone numbers. resolution. For example. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). For example. two different computer 174 . a computer. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a name is unique 13.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. 13. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. A directory object can be used.13 . one context can be viewed. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. and computer account information. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.

For example. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. 13. 175 .JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.3.com". When you search. for example. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. Similarly. The query is called a search filter. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. printers. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. support the notion of searches. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. By using a directory service. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects.13 . you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.smith@somewhere. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. for example. Within the DIT. such as that relating to machines.4. removing. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. like any other program running on the network. such as the file and print services. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. and users. for example. the ability to access directory services will become essential.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. such as those based on the LDAP. Many examples of directory services are possible. many directories. A Java mail client program.3.3. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. 13. 13. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. can use the directory in the traditional way.113. an organization object. For example. that is.50". called a directory information tree (DIT). you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. The email address.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. 13. 13.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. The service is accessed through its own interface. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. "mail" is the attribute identifier. networks. Alternatively. adding.

v1. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. and even the network.5.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. To use the JNDI. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. v1. 13. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.3 and later releases. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.13 . This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.1 and the Java 2 SDK.naming.5.naming javax.1 and v1.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. The Java 2 SDK. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. 13. For example.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.2. 13.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming. v1.directory javax.4.1 and Java 2 SDK.naming. 13. more coherent and manageable. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.event javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It extends the v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.2. For example.ldap 176 . emerging.

lang. for some objects in the directory.naming. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. A java. composing them.String name argument represents a composite name.naming package defines a Context interface.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.String name. 13. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. that is. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. For example.print(report).6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .JNDI • javax.spi 13. 13. a 177 . printer. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. which is the core interface for looking up.6. However. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. and the object itself.6.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. comparing components. The overloads that accept java. 13. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. and it returns the object bound to that name. For the methods in the Context interface. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. list() is similar to listBindings().naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lookup("treekiller"). A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Furthermore.lang. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. In this case. 13. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.6.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.1 context The javax.13 .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. and so on.6 the naming package The javax. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. binding/unbinding. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. the name of the object's class.

DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.directory package extends the javax. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. You can add. Otherwise. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.6.6.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. Once you have an initial context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. InitialContext. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.7. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().13 . 13.7. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. replace. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. they should catch NamingException. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. 178 . There are no absolute roots.naming. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.7 directory package The javax. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. For example. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 13.

called controls .9." and those that do not. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control ." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. For example. controls. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. 13. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13.8 event package The javax.directory package. or unsolicited notifications. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.13 . This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.JNDI 13. 13. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .naming. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. To receive event notifications. such as "object changed.9 LDAP package The javax. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. such as information about the object before and after the change. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. 13. and vice versa.ldap package at all. These operations are called "extended" operations.9.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. that is.9.naming. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Once registered.naming. For example. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.naming. such as "object added. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming. In fact.

1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming package.spi package supports implementors of Context.13 .9. 13. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.naming. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13. and receiving response controls. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. In the process of completing an operation. sending request controls.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.Context. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 180 . This support is provided in the form of state factories. It uses a service provider for the file system. if you look up a printer name from the directory. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.10. 13.java.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. That is.naming.10 service provider package The javax.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. For example.10. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. implementors of Context.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. import javax.naming. create a file named Lookup. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. This support is provided in the form of object factories.11. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.2 java object support The javax.10.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.

then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.RefFSContextFactory"). 13.lookup(name). try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).InitialContext. as follows.out.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. env.put(Context.11.JNDI import javax.lookup(name).2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.3 looking up an Object Next. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.11. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.jar as an installed extension. Otherwise. Object obj = ctx.jndi. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. // Print it System. 181 . If you are still having problems. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.fscontext.5 compiling the program Next.13 . See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.err. If the compilation fails. create an initial context.NamingException. using the capitalization shown. you must have access to the JNDI classes. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.java). 13. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). use Context. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. } 13. then the JNDI classes are already included.naming. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. v1.3. import javax.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).11. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.naming. } catch (NamingException e) { System. "com.lookup() to look up an object. To compile to program.11.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).sun. For this reason. 13. If the compilation succeeds.

naming.3. env. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.directory.put(Context. javax. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.sun.jndi.naming and javax.Context. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jndi.PROVIDER_URL. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.jar).ldap.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.naming. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.6 running the program To run the program. 13. the file system service provider.directory. import import import import import javax. 182 .sun.Attributes. javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. 13.jar and providerutil.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.11.java.naming.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. create an initial directory context. javax. then you will see something like the following.class). Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). supply the name of a file in your file system. javax.InitialDirContext.bat If you supply a file directory.naming. v1. you need access to the JNDI classes.directory packages. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. and your example class (Lookup.naming.LdapCtxFactory"). create a file named Getattr. include the directory that contains your Lookup.13 .fscontext. env.JNDI 13.put(Context.12. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. "com.NamingException.directory.12. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. To run the program.DirContext.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.naming. Finally.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.

For now. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. 13.err. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } 13. As with the naming example. 13.println("sn: " + attrs.get() and then from that attribute get its value.12. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.get()). If the compilation fails.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. ou=People"). to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. If the compilation succeeds. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.java).get("sn"). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.12.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.out.12.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. 183 . then see the Common Problems lesson for help. 13.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. using the capitalization shown.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).6 compiling the program Next. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. For this reason.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.12. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Attributes.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).get() on it to get its value: attrs.get("sn"). compile the source file using the Java compiler.13 . ou=People"). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If you are still having problems. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.get(). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. Similar to the naming example.

serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.12. With this configuration. Once it has the attributes. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.JNDI 13. Getattr.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. then see the Common Problems lesson.7 running the program As with the naming example. If you have any trouble running this example. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). env.3.jar and providerutil.class. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. then these classes are already included.put(Context.jar). 184 . Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. ou=People".PROVIDER_URL.13 . v1.

a JMS client that receives messages.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. the messages are delivered in the order sent. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS client . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. JMS message .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. In this model. As the name queue suggests. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. JMS topic .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. Enterprise Edition. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS producer . JMS is a part of the Java Platform. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.14 .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. Here. • 14.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. unless it has established a durable 185 . JMS consumer . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . JMS queue . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.

Using Java. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. On the receiving side. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.jms.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.4. In that case.14 . JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.3 the JMS API programming model 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 186 . JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Depending on the type of message.

the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. It receives messages sent to a destination. you call the stop() method. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.4. connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. Before an application completes. Depending on the connection type. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. It is either a queue or a topic. For example. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. 14. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. you must call the connection's start() method. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Before your application can consume messages.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.14 .lookup("jms/MyQueue"). and users discover them using JNDI. In a J2EE application. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Connections implement the Connection interface. Like the connection factory.4.createConnection(). which is where messages are delivered and consumed.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. 14. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. For example.4. you must close any connections that you have created.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").close(). Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. The JMS administrator creates these objects.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). a connection to a JMS provider can be created. 14.

For example. Message m = consumer. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. if it needs to reply to messages.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. however. A message listener does. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. and you can use it to receive messages. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.4. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. This object implements the MessageListener interface. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. a message listener object may be used. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. In the onMessage() method. MessageConsumer consumer = session. you are likely to miss messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.start(). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. it becomes active.setMessageListener(myListener).14 . the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.createConsumer(myTopic). consumer. (Remember always to call the start() method. For example. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.receive(). (If you call start() before you register the message listener. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. After you register the message listener. Message m = consumer. After you have created a message consumer. onMessage(). you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. usually expect a specific message type and format. 14.) When message delivery begins. 188 . You use the Session. which contains one method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.start(). connection. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.createConsumer(myQueue). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.receive(1000). Moreover.

A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.14 .receive(). stream message.send(myQueue.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. After you have created a message producer. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.setText(msg_text).send(message). For example. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. that is. map message. // msg_text is a String producer.createProducer(myTopic). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. A message has three main parts: 1.createProducer(myQueue). and object message). MessageProducer producer = session. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. message). bytes message. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.4. message.send(message). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. to create and send a TextMessage. anon_prod.4. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).createProducer(null). 3. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 189 .createTextMessage().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. 14. At the consuming end. Here. With an unidentified producer. from one application to another. if you created an unidentified producer. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. You must first create the messages.

The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. 0).createSession(true.out.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 190 .createSession(false. then delivers the messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. If the user selects transaction support. } else { // Handle error } 14. use the following code: Session session = connection. Here. the first argument means that the session is transacted. To create a transacted session. and message consumers to receive messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. Before committing the transaction.println("Reading message: " + message. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Sessions implement the Session interface. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.14 .getText()).4. Session. After you create a Connection object.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).

It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .no developer coding. On the other side. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. bundled into a single unit. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. container which offers services to the component.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .consistent error handling framework . server which provides an execution environment for containers. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .DB interaction transactions . 15.15 .transaction management can be complex. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .logging. The component lives inside a container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. Version 1. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. component recovery scalability portability 191 .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0. the container lives (in general) in an application server.jar file into the application server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . message-driven beans The 2. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. improved performance security .0. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.object oriented representation of data in a DB. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.

the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . as follows: 1. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.15 . the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. which is an xml file. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the remote interface of the bean 4. called ejb-jar.xml 15. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.

RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. import java.javax. import. } 193 . RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.rmi.ejb. String lastName. } 15. import.*.javax.rmi. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. While the Remote interface declares no methods. The developer does not implement this interface. import java. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException.RemoteException.*.15 .

how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. this can be done (for example) through SSL.15 . how to create or find the bean 2. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. "org. we need to know: 1. } 194 . Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.interfaces.PROVIDER_URL. creating them for the client application. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().jnp. "localhost:1099"). prop. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. prop. In the case of an web application. if the client executes outside the container.NamingContextFactory". Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.put(Context.put(Context. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.

. IIOP has not been designed for Java. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. in fact. do implements the java. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. Some languages. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. more specifically. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.Remote interface).e. the client has a stub).rmi. but for generic languages. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. to the appropriate type.narrow(homeRef. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.lookup("MyBean"). MyBeanHome.PortableRemoteObject class and. in fact. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. • if the client executes outside the container.rmi. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.class). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. do not have the concept of casting. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. 195 .rmi. Why? For EJB. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). and this means that there are some limitations. Problem is. that is part of CORBA standards.15 . This is done through the javax. using the narrow() method.

15.remove(). as well).ejb. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ejbeans. public class MyBean implements javax..15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.. 1102).. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).processEntry("Dumitrascu". remove the bean instance myObject. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .bank11. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.ccards.SessionContext.. String lastName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. import javax. int custId) { // method implementation . "Vasile". Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.create().ejb.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. call business methods on the bean myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.

9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. A stateless bean does not.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.15 . When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. 15.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. that is. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the object is activated. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.

and then moves it to the ready stage.15 .1 are invoked by the EJB container. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. or passivate. the client invokes the remove method.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. For example. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. The ejbCreate method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. 198 .1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. Figure 15. for example. (Typically.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. 15. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle. All other methods in Figure 15. is inside the bean class. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.

container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. support for concurrent access 3. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. stored in a Database).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. equals() 199 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.15 .

in the same order. We can have more create() methods. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.15 . namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). Read.lang. 200 . all throwing RemoteException. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. an instance of that bean is created. as the parameters in the original create() method. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.ccards. Update and Delete.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. state data is stored into data store (usually.14.bank11. On the other side.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. 15.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. methods which have the same parameters. CreateException.

left empty most of the time in CMP. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.14. the client invokes the create method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. 15. 201 . the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.14. After the EJB container creates the instance.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). it's business methods can be invoked. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. All instances in the pool are identical. but the developer returns null for CMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. After instantiation. the programmer will create actual SQL code. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. actual SQL update code. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. First. Second. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. not null. On the first path. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. it is empty. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. On the second path. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. for BMP. for BMPs. While in the pooled stage. but in general.15 . in BMP. a client can invoke the remove method.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.

or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 202 .getPrimaryKey(). If the primary key is incorrect. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.15 . it does not automatically set the primary key. or a Web component . With bean-managed persistence. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. In the pooled state.an application client. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the values of the instance variables are not needed. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. It acts as a JMS message listener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. In the pooled state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . another enterprise bean. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. 15. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. Therefore. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.

The onMessage method may call helper methods. In several respects. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. If this element is set to more than one. but not asynchronously. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. 15. Previously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. If message processing is rolled back. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.15 .16. For more information on this element see.16.16.for example. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. When a message arrives. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. 15. 15. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. To ensure concurrency. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . a JMS API connection. To avoid tying up server resources. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. the message will be redelivered. Unlike a session or entity bean. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. max-beans-infree-pool. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. 203 . a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. an open database connection. message-driven bean can be used. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16.

// The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.Message MessageName) {.. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. 3. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .ejb. or create a new one. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().. 15. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. Note: These instances can be pooled. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior..}. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.jms.} // onMessage() is required. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.Message.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Classes. public void ejbRemove() {.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. Obtain a new bean instance. finalize{}.16..0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. As with other EJB types.16. methods. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. // An EJB constructor is required. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.jms.15 . and it must not // accept parameters.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 2.16. 15.0 specification. public void onMessage(javax..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15..

WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. 15.MessageListener.16. See javax. 15. For example. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. 15. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . 15. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). If any method throws such an exception. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().16. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().jms. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. getRollbackOnly() . getUserTransaction().16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.onMessage() for more information. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. However.This is not a client context.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. even in onMessage().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.

15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.0 specification.xml.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2. as required by the EJB 2.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.16. In either case.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.15 . WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16.0 specification. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.

ejb20.. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.xml elements. </message-driven> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.. 15. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 2.0 specification. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. For each instance. 207 .17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. as described in the EJB 2.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.15 .. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml deployment file. the weblogic-ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.jms.message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.

the container calls the ejbRemove method. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. At the end of the life cycle. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. entity specific elements 10. 15.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. isolation level. control descriptors .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. the home interface name 7. environment properties 6. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. session specific elements 9. a message-driven bean is never passivated. security 208 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. attributes .like transaction. bean home name . the remote interface name 8. EJB class name 5.15 . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. access control entries .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.security issues.

ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.bank11.15 .bank11.ccards.lang.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ccards.bank11.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.ejb.ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.

Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.15 .


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