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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. enterprise edition Figure 1. like HTML pages. The web tier.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. 1. processes it (if necessary). might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.7 business components Business code. like the client tier. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.1 . Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. retail. are not considered web components. or finance.java platform. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. 5 . and sends it back to the client program. processes it (if necessary). Figure 1.2 Server communication 1.

multithreading. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. and other legacy information systems. enterprise bean. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. database systems.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).3 Web.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. enterprise edition Figure 1. In addition. For example. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.9. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. 1. 6 . 1. Business and EIS Tiers 1. or application client component can be executed. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.9 java EE Containers Normally.1 .java platform. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. resource pooling. Before a web. mainframe transaction processing. and other complex low-level details.

database connection resource pooling. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. including services such as security. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.java platform. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. After an enterprise bean is created.1 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. data persistence. 1. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. For example.4. transaction management.9. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 7 . and remote connectivity.

Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. develop. or for document-oriented web services. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .1 . video. 8 . all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Applet container . The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. enterprise edition Figure 1. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.manages the execution of application client components. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Web container . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.java platform. text-based standard for representing data. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.manages the execution of applets. When XML data is exchanged between parties.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. or any kind of binary data such as audio. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. 1. program files. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.10. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. XML data. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. For example. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Application clients and their container run on the client.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. extensible. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. maps. Application client container . 1. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. test.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.

enterprise edition 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). 1. 1.10. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.10. 9 . The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.1 . such as Universal Description. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. the location of the service. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.java platform. The description includes the name of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. and ways to communicate with the service.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.10.

allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. enterprise edition Figure 1. or if the server shuts down.11. the session bean and its data are gone. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. standard set of tags. When the client finishes executing.11. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11. 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. or enterprise bean. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.java platform. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. 1.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. In Java EE 5.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. If the client terminates. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .1 .11.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1. and XML) and JSP elements.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. WML. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. Commonly.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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SAAJ. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. JTA. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . and JNDI 1.java platform. or a component. module. JSP page. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. it is ready to be deployed. or better customer support. or component accordingly. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Once deployed on a local platform. No extra coding is needed. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. At runtime. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. the application is ready to run. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file.1 .ear extension. 15 . a module. servlet. better tools. such as better performance. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.

which contain all Java interfaces. which contain servlet class files. Together. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.war (Web ARchive) extension. native libraries. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.jar extension. Application client modules. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. and other documentation. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .1 . classes.jar extension. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. Resource adapter modules. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. For example. supporting class files. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. JSP files. GIF and HTML files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. such as caching directives. and a web application deployment descriptor.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. Web modules.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. for example. • • 16 .

ietf. as follows: 1. check the official HTTP site – www. so far) version. RFC 2616 (06/99). namely HTTP 1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.2 .0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.org/Protocols . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. was the object of several RFCs.. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . we recommend www.w3. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.org/rfc/rfc1945..3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . The second (and last. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). The server answers with a response message.. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.jmarshall. POST. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).HTTP 2 . zero or more header lines 3. HEAD. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. . These messages may have different contents.HTTP 2. The client sends a request message to the server. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.apps. an initial line 2.1. but they also have some common structural elements. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.html).. 2.com/easy/http. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.

as well.2 .Annotation of existing resources. but lack of support makes them obsolete. DELETE 6. GET 2. 18 . there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.Posting a message to a bulletin board.1 specification. mailing list.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. CONNECT 5. HTTP/1.0). All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. HEAD 3. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. PUT 8. GET /path/to/the/file/index. Here is their list: 1.1. POST 4. .html HTTP/1. OPTIONS 7. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. newsgroup. 2. in the HTTP 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. TRACE Three other commands are listed. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.

depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.HTTP or similar group of articles. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. . separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.” On the other side. . either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. or sending E-mail 2. to a data-handling process.8 the status code A three-digit integer. In this case. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. 2. while POST may involve anything. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). like storing or updating data.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.0 404 Not Found 2. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.Providing a block of data. 3.6 differences between GET and POST 1. separated by the character “&” or “. or in the message body. or a record is subordinate to a database. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.2 .Extending a database through an append operation. such as the result of submitting a form. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or ordering a product. When used for form data submission. after the “?” character.

this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. header name and header value. that is.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). The HTTP 1.1 version specifies 46 of them.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 500 Server Error .9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. none of them mandatory. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. If an HTTP message includes a body. Although the header names are not case sensitive. while the HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.an unexpected server error.0 version specifies 16 headers. one (Host) is mandatory. out of which. and the resulting resource (e. or otherwise can't run correctly. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.the request succeeded. 404 Not Found .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. where the requested resource is returned to the client. file or script output) is returned in the message body. such as text/html or image/jpg. separated a semicolon. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and section 10 for HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. In a request.1 only) . header values are. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.g.1).2 .the requested resource doesn't exist.0. In particular. 2. The most common use of the message body is in a response. fails. 2. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 20 .

gif 6. text.html first open a socket to the host web.2 . port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. external-body 4. with subtypes jpeg. 21 .12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.org/rfc/rfc1521. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtype mpeg 2. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . Then. .info. parallel 3.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.apps. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. application.ro/path/file. with subtype plain 2. with subtypes rfc822.ro. 1. alternative.uvt.0 From: someuser@yahoo. partial.uvt. postscript 5. video.info.html HTTP/1.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. message. Here is the list of the seven types. RFC 1521 (www. with subtype basic 7.0 200 OK Date: Fri. image. with subtypes mixed. digest.ietf. with subtypes octet-stream. audio.HTTP 2. multipart.

HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response.2 . the server closes the socket. 22 .

Version 4.99. A newer standard.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.html) and was widely supported. As a practical reference site use – www. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .blooberry.org/rfc/rfc1866.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.ietf.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. From 1999 on. The newest version of HTML is 4.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.org/Markup .www. It is a revision of 4.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.01.html. Since it fits in a couple of pages. HTML 3.2 (3. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 .HTML 3 . we can afford to have a look at this declaration.w3c.HTML 3. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML describes how text.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.0.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.w3. 3.htmlgoodies. However.apps. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0) dates from 08. The latest version (XHTML 2.0. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.jmarshall.3 . images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. namely HTML 1. The first official version – HTML 2. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.com/tutors.0 draft was released in 01. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. Other helpful sites .0 and was accepted in December 1997.com/easy/html . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). Mosaic. The XHTML 1. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. www.com/indexdot/html . Originally named Web Applications 1. a working draft for the next major revision. check the official HTML site – www. The first version of HTML. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.

-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".

An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. “&quot”.01 specification.w3.0 Transitional DTD. the specification of HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.acesta este un comentariu. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. "&#x6C34. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. DYNSRC.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. 3.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. If you wonder what a character reference is. Overall. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH." (in hexadecimal) . three DTDs (HTML 4.the chinese character for water. You get the point. <><> --> 25 . CONTROLS.0 contains an SGML declaration. 4.3 .0 Strict DTD. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. …. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. Check the address http://www. An example: <!-. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. though. HTML 4. like ALIGN. HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements. look at these examples: “&lt”. BORDER. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. VSAPCE are omitted. 3.

HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. etc. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3 . specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required. NAME.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.5 tables 26 .info.3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.ro/webmail/src/login. image. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3.uvt.

Here is a an example of a table: 3.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <TH> and <TD>. columns. its rows. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Usually.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <THEAD>. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. headers and cells are <TABLE>.3 . <TR>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is their description and attributes.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .required.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 . allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .7 forms A form is a basic component container.

Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "file". Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". may have the values GET or POST.required. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .the default value. SIZE .required. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "password".:. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Example: http://web.8.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.sends the form values in a single transmission.info. "submit". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . 3. "text/plain" • • 3. "button". "radio".HTML • METHOD .8. however. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.required.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. • 3. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .maximum number of options visible to the user. NAME . specifies the parameter name. "hidden".?.uvt.3 . Main attributes: 29 . specifies how data will be sent to the server.8 form related elements 3.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8.if specified. Main attributes: • TYPE . "image". the browser appends the values to the URL. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. allows multiple selections from the choice list. "GET" .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "checkbox". "reset". after a quotation mark .

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

0.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.class file. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.C:\TW\mySource. The current version (as of 10. Java source – a file with extension . project started in 12. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. 4.class 3. javac -classpath .90. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. but next time execution is much faster..2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Java bytecode – a file with extension . In terms of execution time.) in 08. The current version (as of 10. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Example: Edit the file prog1.class file.2 java the interpreter. -g : generate all debugging info.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.java One example of command line compilation: 4.2 version.4 .95. Inc.JAVA PRIMER 4 . To overcome this significant shortage. jit From source to execution. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. following the 1. The first time a class is loaded.3 java applications 31 .1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. Early versions of Java were released in 12. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.class. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. a tool named Just In Time compiler.java 2. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.4.java.JAVA PRIMER 4. the compilation process occurs.95.

This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.4 .4 object oriented concepts 4.4. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or that it extends A). or is derived from A. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . In general. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. An example: 32 . 4. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).jar file. Generally.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.java.

and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Long.4. with the root the class Object. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.4. namely: Byte. 4. In OO jargon. Integer.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Float. Short. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. a class can have more than one method with the same name.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . 4. Character. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Boolean. 4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Double. 33 .1 bit char . a Java class can extend a single base class.4 . providing its own implementation. Therefore. Therefore. called Object. this is called method overloading. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. In fact. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.

the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . • • • • no specifier . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. } declares an abstract class.4 . class .servlet. automatic garbage collection. anywhere abstract . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .no access from outside the class itself protected .one which is defined at class level. Except for the "package" concept.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . which extends the class javax.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. rather than at class instance.the class is visible from any class. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.. method .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . no templates. A final: • • • variable .one which is constant method . 4.http..the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. has the same value for all class instances. inherited).accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.access from any class anywhere private . 34 .servlet. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. A final variable (method.http.does not have any subclasses. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.

Exception categories: 1.7. standard method exceptions 3. java errors . 4.7.ThreadDeath. not at execution time. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). array index out of bounds. namely class Error and the class Exception. programmer defined exceptions 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.like invalid cast.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. code or data errors . these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.JAVA PRIMER 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.7. division by 0.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 4. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. as defined in the java.4 . In Java.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 2.7.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .

lang (automatically available). the package statement is the first one in a java source file. finally construct.event .Properties.lang .4 .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. As a general rule. The package containing the standard classes is java.net java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.support for java archives creation java.util .geom ..this can be done by providing a try.rmi java.by adding the key word throws.zip . they have to be unique inside a package. don't have to import java. In the example above.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.io java. catch.util.default.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.ccards. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.servlets. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.8. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.sql. string analyzers.bank11.util. An example: package com.sql java. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. 4..awt . 4.*. import. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . import javax. All other packages must be explicitly imported.support for data collections.awt. date and time info java. 4.awt.java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. the default package is used).security 36 . the class (the . ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .support for event handling java.nio java. therefore.class file. followed by the import statements.support for user interface java.1 Package names The default package has no name. .

37 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.4 .support for event handling 4.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.text javax. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.swing.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.event . it must be declared as abstract. All variables (actually.accessibility javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. static and final.

JAVASCRIPT 5. and .depending on the browser . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript statement like this: document. Subsequently. This is not always what we want. The origins of this language date back to 1995. other 38 .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. as JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. 5.5 . like QtScript or ActionScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. However. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.javaScript 5 . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.

2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. To simplify this.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.. </script> </head> 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. 5. When you place a script in the head section. </script> </body> 5.. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.5 ..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .javaScript times when a user triggers an event..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a . go in the head section. or when an event is triggered..3. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3.3. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . without having to write the same script on every page.. 39 . point to the .js file extension. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.

5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.1 JavaScript for. while() it is worth mentioning the for .5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs..4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.4. in and the try . 5....5 . switch().. else.4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. continue.. The code in the body of the for .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. for(). Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5. in loop is executed once for each element/property..javaScript 5.. break. namely – if ..4.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.5. while().In statement The for. catch constructs...

or a property of an object. When users see errors. mycars[1] = "Volvo". var mycars = new Array().write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?"... an array element.. mycars[2] = "BMW". } </script> </body> </html> 5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. The try block contains the code to be run..catch statement The try.5 ... so you don't lose your audience. Example Using for. they often leave the Web page. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.. mycars[0] = "Saab". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.5. for (x in mycars) { document. Mozilla 1.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.3 try..0.catch statement (available in IE5+.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.5.

Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. 5.7 popup boxes 5.\n\n". alert(txt). txt+="Error description: " + err.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. Also.description + "\n\n".7.5 .\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. When an alert box pops up.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.

in the example above had not been written within a function. Syntax: prompt("sometext".5 . If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Now. If the user clicks "OK".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.8. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.7. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!")."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns null. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.js file). Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up.8 functions 5.. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a prompt box pops up. in the <head> section.7. If the user clicks "Cancel".1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns false.

. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.5 .8. and how they are used. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.write(txt.varX) { some code } var1. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.9.var2..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".javaScript function functionname(var1.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9 javaScript objects 5. etc are variables or values passed into the function.length). and will be stored in the variable called product.9. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. document. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. So. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.. 5.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. 5. var2..

3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. which will be specified in the next section. document. 45 . The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5.9.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str.5 .toUpperCase()).javaScript 5. The other class are the language specific objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".

1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. At its most basic level.com/jsref/default. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.11. N: Netscape.asp 5. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. every Link on the page is an Object. Even this Document itself is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. When an event message has been triggered. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. For example. Properties FF: Firefox. as well).w3schools.5 . check the site http://www.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. which are called Objects. every Image on the page is an Object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.5 .11.

1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. depending on the browser. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. as a four-digit number.

according to local time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string. according to Greenwich time. according to universal time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.11. N: Netscape. according to local time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.5 . to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Properties FF: Firefox.

5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 . Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. var myNum=new Number(number).11.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.

5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.5 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

0. N: Netscape.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.y) min(x. 3. 1. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.5 .302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.y) pow(x.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.javaScript 5.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 2. 1.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 0. 2. Properties FF: Firefox.11.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.

lastname="Doe". lastname. 53 .2 Methods An object can also contain methods.age=50. personObj.write(personObj.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. play(). Assume that the personObj already exists . Objects also have methods. etc.lastname="Doe". work().12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.12. age.firstname="John".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). sleep(). personObj.firstname="John".12. 5.5 . personObj. personObj.eyecolor="blue". eye color. Properties are the values associated with the object. with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj.eyecolor="blue".12. etc.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.age=30.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. height.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. document. age.you can give it properties named firstname. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. weight. personObj. skin tone. All persons have these properties. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj.firstname). but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. The persons' properties include name. The persons' methods could be eat().

age.lastname=lastname."Doe"."Rally". You can also add some methods to the person object. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. you can create new instances of the object. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname=lastname.age=age.lastname.firstname=firstname."green").firstname=firstname.lastname=new_lastname.age=age. this.50.age. } Notice that the template is just a function. myMother=new person("Sally". Once you have the template.propertyName.eyecolor=eyecolor. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname. Inside the function you need to assign things to this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.12. this. this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. this. 54 . The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). 5. this.newlastname=newlastname.eyecolor) { this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this.5 .48.eyecolor) { this.eat=eat. this."blue").

.5 . We define the events in the HTML tags.. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. now you can write: myMother. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. So.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.". JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. For example.newlastname("Doe").

5. For example. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. If the field values are not accepted. the submit should be cancelled. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. The name is then stored in a cookie. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.13.w3schools.2 onFocus. 5. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.13. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.5 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .

XML. or WebAPI being among them. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. SVG.Html DOM 6 . It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). The W3C 58 . SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. structure. 2010). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. 6. By October 1998. In other words. CSS.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. HTML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. the Document Object Model activity is closed. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).HTML DOM 6. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and style of a document. As of January 2008. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. particularly those used in Web browsers. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.g.6 . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Right now (oct. However.

DOM Level 3 Validation. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. To claim to support a level. filtered views and events.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. and 6. As of 2005. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. HTML-specific elements are included as well.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. 6. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 3. Level 1. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. each of which contains required and optional modules. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. which further enhances the DOM 6. 4. 2.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. 5. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.6 . a new DOM Core specification. Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 2. DOM Level 3 Core. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 XPath.

A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. In order to be cross-browser compatible. support multiple browsers. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.6 .5 web browsers implementation Earlier. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. By 2005. that is. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). 6. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. can be accessed through the 60 . and Safari.x and Netscape 4. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). Konqueror.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x were still widely used in 2000. along with their containing text and attributes. All HTML elements. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. interoperability problems were numerous. The Window object represents a browser window. Opera.

and new elements can be created. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.Html DOM DOM.6 . The contents can be modified or deleted. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and VBScript. JavaScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java.

6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.9. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the element node <title>.8. everything in an HTML document is a node. The <html> node has two child nodes.8. The tree structure is called a node-tree.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. <head> and <body>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.6 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 6.Html DOM 6. 62 . in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The <head> node holds a <title> node. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. However.

children. and new elements can be created. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. child. By navigating the node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted. and the connections between them.2 node parents.9.9. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.6 . The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. Parent nodes have children.getElementsByTagName("p"). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). except the root. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By using the getElementById() method 2. The terms parent. 63 . the top node is called the root Every node.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. • • • • • In a node tree. using the node relationships.getElementById('main').getElementsByTagName("p").

9.length.write(x[i].6 . Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i<x. } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).Html DOM for (i=0. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. each node is an object.write("<br />"). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document.innerHTML).

6 .Html DOM 6.nodeValue. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. 6. txt=x.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.firstChild.getElementById("intro").9.5 example . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .

it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. including window. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. frames. objects and images. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. For elements.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".

Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Safari. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). DOMNodeInserted. 67 . Also. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. for instance. During the event flow. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. say "click". 6. and then bubbled up. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not.3. also supports these methods. Mozilla. When the user clicks on the inner element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event.6 . Fires when an element is activated.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. as of version 1. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. through a mouse click or a keypress. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator.

Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. etc. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. key pressed. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.Html DOM 6. mouse position.6 . including information about target element. Unfortunately. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).

may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. crunching numbers. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.AJAX 7. etc. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. before the whole page was sent within the network. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. For example. The server does some processing — retrieving data. For improving sharing of resources. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. 7. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. dynamic website. 7. fields of forms. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. 69 . JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. It is not a technology in itself. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client.AJAX 7 . • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. choices of user.7 . menus. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. but also to save resources. using web services or Php scripts. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.

This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. Instead of loading a web page. but the opposite is true. waiting. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. the user waits some more. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. waiting around for the server to do something.7 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. 70 . at the start of the session. Once an interface is loaded. While the server is doing its thing. And at every step in a task. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. Obviously. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. what’s the user doing? That’s right. we wouldn’t make users wait around. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact.

usually using XML. loading additional interface code. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory. 71 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

url: the location of the file 72 . 1: connection established. These events are user actions.responseXml . onreadystatechange . It allows the interaction with the servers. 3: answer in process. This object provides two methods: .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. boolean) . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.mode: type of request. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .holds loaded data as a string of characters. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.7 . . 404 if the page is not found .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.AJAX 7. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. . and in this purpose.holds a Xml loaded file. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . they call functions associated to elements of the web page.200 is ok.responseText .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". . 2: request received. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.for a Xml file or .send: send a request to the server. 4: finished.open: create a connection. url. thanks to its methods and attributes. 7.for a simple text. DOM's method allows to extract data. To get data on the server.returned by the server . GET or POST .

AJAX . The request below reads a document on the server. OK } else { // wait.xul. 'http://www.open: command GET or POST. 73 . http_request.6 building a request. but two options must be tried. URL of the document. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.readyState == 4) { // received. request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.send: with POST only. for browser compatibility. if (request. // Firefox. } else if (window. true for asynchronous.7 .null for a GET command 7.xml'.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: ... the data to send to the server. Safari.. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. . true).open('GET'.fr/somefile.XMLHTTP").send(null). if (window.. http_request.

item(0).ajax.AJAX 7. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . by this code: var doc = req. req.responseXML.readyState == 4) if(req.status.dyn="Received:" + req.7 .getElementsByTagName('root'). else if (window. req.status == 200) document.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.send(null). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). }.xml". true).XMLHTTP).responseText. "data. req.7 examples 7. req.7.dyn="Error code " + req.responseText.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.open("GET".1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.7. else document.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. if(window.ajax.dyn=""Received:" + req.ajax.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

6. 8. descriptions).WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.. welcome pages.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. Initialization of parameters for servlets.. Servlet. classes.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. entries related to session configuration. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. like what pages are error. but typical web. 5. JSPs and Java Server Faces. data persistence.class>com. Here is a small. 4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. like: 1. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.)> <web-app> <!-.servlets. 2.xml file: <?xml version="1. database connection resource pooling.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Others. Servlet.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 3. For example. web. servlet classes. After an enterprise bean is created. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.bank11.8 . MIME types used by the web application.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .ccards.

class" and that it is part of the package "com. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.ccards.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. for flexibility. Basicly. In general.bank11. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.xml file of the web application.bank11.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.ccards. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. For example. Then the "EnrollServlet. the name of the web application. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.servlets. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".xml".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. basicly. 1. However. Behind a very benign URL. Unfortunately. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets".bank11.8 . More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" 2.xml" file.servlets". whose name is rather long.

9. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. more often.9 .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. platform independent programs. small footprint. but at this point.2.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.0 specification is available for public review. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. 9. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). which extend the functionality of the web server. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.4. but through a web container. this is just a work in progress. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.4. from BEA Systems. the Java Servlet 3.SERVLETS 9. As of oct. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. in most cases as part of an application server. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . tjws spec 2. modular design 9.SERVLETS 9 .5 and is in final state.0 specification. Technically speaking.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. the HttpServlet) class. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. 2010. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.

from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. IOException. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from Apple Inc. from IBM 9. These packages are: • • javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . WebSphere. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.9 .servlet.servlet javax.servlet package. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. public void service(ServletRequest req. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). while the second one. public void destroy() throws ServletException. 82 .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. Enterprise Edition.servlet.servlet package are protocol independent.

5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. as well. 83 . without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. in a different section. The servlet API provides such a specific class. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. Throwable t) 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. the web container calls its init() method. The method performs all initialization required. namely the HttpServlet class. ServletConfig.9 .6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. More on the servlet life cycle. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). After instantiating the servlet. respectively. 9.

doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.lang.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.Exception class.lang.servlet.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.9 . It also extends the java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. 9. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.

servlet. 85 . which will service all incoming requests. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. respectively. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. 9. Also. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. Typically. Typically. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. If the servlet does not implement the javax. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. DB connection opening. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. method which performs the initialization of the servlet.9 . the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. this method contains JDBC driver loading. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. etc. After instantiation. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. JSP or JSF.SingleThreadModel. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.

9 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: 86 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.

String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.*. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. This is done in server's (container's) server.java" file: package com. 87 .14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.9 .bank11. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.xml file.io.ccards.servlets. import java. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.

servlet.9 . out. out.close(). import javax. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out. out.println("merge"). IOException { resp. out. out.println("<html>").*.println("</html>"). out.println("<head>").println("<body>").println("</head>").init(config).println("</body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.setContentType(“text/html”). } } 88 . PrintWriter out = resp. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("<br>").http. // output your page here out.*.servlet.getWriter().SERVLETS import javax.

odbc.jdbc. 89 .JDBC 10 .10 . The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.sql package. the javax.JDBC 10.0.1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. The JDBC 4. After that.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. This solution is inefficient.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.0 while the current (4. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. 1997. Type 1. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. Starting with version 3.sun.sql package 2. the java. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. 10. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. as recognized by the DB industry.JdbcOdbcDriver . These drivers fall into four standard categories.

Part Java. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Type 4. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. which in turn. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.10 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). 90 . It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Type 3.JDBC Type 2. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access.

10 .Time java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.ResultSet java. java.Array java.SQLException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.0 API.DriverManager java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Struct java.sql.Statement java.Connection java.sql.JDBC 10.sql.0).sql.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.sql.Types java. defined in the JDBC 3. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql.3 the java.sql.Timestamp java.PreparedStatement java.sql.Driver java.SQLData java.Wrapper 91 .Date java.sql.sql.SQLWarning java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.CallableStatement java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.SQLDataException java.Clob java.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.Blob java.sql.

sql.Types java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.sql. java.SQLXML java.sql.PreparedStatement java.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.Statement java.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLException java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.Connection java.StatementEvent javax.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.NClob java.SQLInput java. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1. establishing a database connection 3.sql. querying the database 4.SQLDataException java.CommonDataSource javax.0.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.4 interaction schema in the java. processing the result set 92 .JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.RowId java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.Blob java.sql.SQLWarning java.10 .Clob java.sql.sql.sql package.

10 .db2.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 . Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com. A database driver is specified by the driver name.SybDriver com.jdbc.sybase.net.jdbc.jdbc.JDBC 10.driver.datastore.DB2Driver oracle.borland.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.OracleDriver sun.odbc.ibm.

String user = "root".mysql.*. passwd). but let's take it for granted: import java.bank11.Driver"). the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.printStackTrace(). the only protocol allowed in JDBC). as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. import java. user. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".getConnection(connURL. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mm. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.10 . as specified by the driver vendor.util.*.gjt.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.forName("org. 94 .newInstance(). try { Class. by using the connection URL.sql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. Since we just used it.

java.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.10 .put("create".sql package.getConnection(connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.JDBC 10. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Properties prp = new Properties(). The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. String user. prp). 10. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . "true"). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. we can use it for various purposes.util. int resultSetConcurrency.put("autocommit". prp. Connection conn = DriverManager. "true"). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.

methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.10 . Statement. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.JDBC 10. respectively. namely. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.

sql.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. 10. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..createStatement(). stmt.".executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.10 .. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .

A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. 98 . PreparedStatement. and CallableStatement objects. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.10 . not at 0) or the column name. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. as the argument. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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It is part of the javax. Connection pooling implementation -.Time java. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.produces a standard Connection object 2.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. Basic implementation -.produces a Connection object that will 103 . The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.sql package. secs date. a factory for creating DB connections. There are three types of implementations: 1. This interface is. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.0 optional package.sql.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.sql. mins.DataSource object.10 .Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Big Decimal Object float 10.math. basicly. time. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql.math.

naming.*. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*. javax.bank11.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*.*.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).http.class. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. javax. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. java.lookup("java:comp/env"). private DataSource theDataSource. javax.servlet.servlets. 104 . import import import import import import java.getLogger(TestDataSource.sql. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().getName()). javax.io.ccards. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlet. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.sql.10 . throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. 3.*. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.

10 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. ServletException { .. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e)..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.

jsp and javax.JSP 11 .servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. If the JSP is modified. the servlet code is regenerated.1 and is related to the 2. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp. The javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. 11.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The package javax.servlet.servlet.11 .servlet. The package javax.tagext. namely javax.servlet.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. 11.5 Java Servlet specification.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.2 the java. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.JSP 11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp.jsp. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

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6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.JSP • if the URL does not start with / .. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.11 . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".. 111 .. include and taglib. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).

1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . this code goes to inside the service() method. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.11 .7.JSP 11. In Tomcat. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11.7 scripting elements 11.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. Assigns it to available name or id.7.

11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. you must specify param.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. Attributes description: • • • name . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance. and if so.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .13 the forward standard action 114 . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.the URL of the page. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. flush .11 .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. <jsp:forward>. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. same format as the <%@include> directive. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:plugin> actions.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .

It is used mainly. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.a name for the Bean or applet instance... The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. You must specify either bean or applet.11 . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.. name="instanceName" .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . You must include the .." . depending on request. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). 11. If you do not supply a value. as well.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. archive="URIToArchive.class extension in the name following code. as this attribute has no default value. code="classFileName" .the type of object the plugin will execute. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . .the name of a bean instance. when we want to separate the application into different views. servlet or to a static resource.

config .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.jsp.PrintWriter. in pixels. The value is a full URL. with a protocol name. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.Object type and scope page 11. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .1" .lang. application .JspWriter type and scope page 7. Must be a small nonzero number. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. and domain name.the amount of space. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .represents the servlet context.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.servlet. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. The default value is 1.io. 1. it has java.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.16 scopes 1. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. in pixels. writes to the output stream to the client.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. out . session .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it has javax. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.1.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. page .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .11 . of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents server's response to the request. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. request .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. response . optional port number.it represents the buffered version of java. objects which are automaticly available.the initial height and width. pageContext . request . based on the servlet API.

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 4.JSP request object.bank11.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp file.ccards. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. session . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 2.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. Object value) method 3.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. if (enrollBean.init().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11. application . page . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.11 .beans.

private String optional.java: package com.mapping.11 . a boolean and another String).simple. private int list[]. The SimpleBean class is declared public.examples. 11. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . SimpleBean. %> <jsp:forward page="response. a float. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. an int.Serializable { private String string. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. a software development and consulting company. private String colors[].io. private SimpleSubBean subBean.18.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private float number.devsphere.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private boolean flag.string. private int integer. The public constructor could have been omitted.register().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

} // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.integer = value.colors.number = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.11 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors[index]. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values.integer.flag = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.string = value.flag.number. } 119 .JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.

String value) { this. } } 120 .subBean.optional.subBean = value.optional = value.list[index] = value. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list[index]. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. int value) { this.colors[index] = value.11 .list = values.

string. } } 11. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.java: package com.io.devsphere.examples. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.18.simple. SimpleSubBean. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .number = value.mapping.Serializable { private String string.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.number.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).string = value. private float number.11 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.

string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

the processing order.simple.integer]".number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. "One or more items must be selected" }. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. "One or more colors must be selected" }. The list of optional properties has a single element. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.list]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. error messages.java: package com.number]". "An option must be selected" }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". There are three error messages. a float.flag]". the list of optional properties.util. new Boolean(true) }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. 3 } }.11 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.examples.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. new Float(0.123) }. the form's name and the processor's name. "abc" }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.devsphere. new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. SimpleBeanResources.list]". The default values are defined for a String.colors]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string]". new int[] { 2. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. a boolean and an int[].mapping. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.18.

{ "[FORM_NAME]".logging. "colors".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.mapping.devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).18.util.devsphere.examples.*.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. "SimpleForm.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.html" }. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").devsphere. new String[] { "string". SimpleHndl.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. "optional". } } 11.jsp" } }. "subBean" } }. The beanToForm() method of com. "number". For a better understanding of this example.mapping. "flag". { "[PROC_NAME]".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping.simple. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.devsphere. com.mapping. string values are converted to numbers.11 . It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The formToBean() method of com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "integer".JSP "optional" } }.devsphere. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. "SimpleProc. If necessary. "list".

// Process the valid data bean instance application.getRealPath(formPath).getServletPath().io.getTemplate(new java.lastIndexOf('/'). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). slashIndex+1) : "".forward(request. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.substring(0. errorTable = HandlerUtils. logger). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getClass()).equals("POST").11 .getDocument(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.getMethod(). 125 .trim(). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.formToBean(formData.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getString("[FORM_NAME]").File(formPath)). formPath = application. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.trim(). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). simpleBean. response). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.JSP = HandlerUtils. int slashIndex = basePath.util.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getBeanResources(simpleBean.

5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.examples. document.getSubBean(). } %> 11.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].beanToForm(simpleBean. strbuf.number = <%= simpleBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. for (int i = 0.string = <%= simpleBean.11 . errorTable.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.send(out).length.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().18. i++) 126 .simple.devsphere.mapping. i < list.getString() %> <P> subBean.append("{ ").SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. SimpleProc. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getSubBean().getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.JSP elements logger). if (list. // Send the form document document.length == 0) return "".

11 . This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. i < list.jsp files.append(list[i]).6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.mapping.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. if (list. In addition.toString(list[0]). } strbuf.append("{ ").18. return strbuf. Using the framework.length.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. strbuf.append(" ").append(" "). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. strbuf.append(list[i]). } %> 11.length == 0) return "".toString().jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. making the testing and the debugging easier. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. In addition. for (int i = 0. strbuf.append("}"). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().devsphere. ComplexHndl. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. i++) { strbuf.append("}").Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .toString(). Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.length == 1) return Integer. } strbuf.formToBean() call.examples.simple. A single call to FormUtils. ComplexForm.util.

i < colorValues. boolean checked = simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j].JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". i < integerLabels. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }. 128 . String colorLabels[] = { "Red".length. "blue" }.getColors(). "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value. "Green". "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j < colors.length. for (int i = 0. "Blue" }. i++) { boolean checked = false. i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Option 2". for (int i = 0.11 .equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".length. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .length.getList(). if (list != null) for (int j = 0. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".setSubBean( new com.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.devsphere.examples.mapping. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 2". i < listItems. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. "subBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. j < list. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. "Item 3" }.simple.length.getSubBean(). i++) { int value = i+1. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.SimpleSubBean()).JSP break. break. boolean selected = false.

equals("POST"). } %> ComplexHndl.simple. boolean isPostMethod = request.getString() == null || simpleBean.examples.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.Hashtable errorTable.util. if (message == null) message = "".setString("abc").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. return message.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).mapping. 130 .length() == 0) { simpleBean.examples.11 .Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.simple.getString().getSubBean().getMethod(). "subBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.get(property).mapping. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

"number". "An option must be selected").11 .getColors().123f).getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } simpleBean. "Must be filled"). "Must be filled"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "number". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length() != 0) simpleBean.123f).getParameter("flag").length == 0) { 131 . //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer".setFlag(flagValue != null).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.setNumber(0.trim(). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.setNumber(0. if (flagValue. "Must be a number").length() == 0 || flagValue.floatValue()). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.equals("false")) flagValue = null.getParameter("number").

setList(new int[] { 2.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setString(""). "One or more colors must be selected"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be filled").getParameter("subBean. "subBean.number". "colors". "Must be } //* subBean.floatValue()).number").length == 0) { simpleBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.string".getString() == null || simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "list".string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getList().getOptional() == null) simpleBean. 132 .length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. //* subBean. "subBean.getString().setOptional(""). "One or more items must be selected"). else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean. 3 }).

The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.Hashtable errorTable.devsphere.simple. String property.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setList(new int[] { 2.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.18. simpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.helpers. simpleBean.setOptional("").put(property.helpers.mapping.\ 133 .JSP filled"). } %> 11. simpleBean.jsp.setNumber(0. message). "subBean.number". } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. } } else { simpleBean. simpleSubBean.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.setString("abc"). The com.util.devsphere.devsphere.11 . simpleBean.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.properties or web. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".xml: SimpleHndl.setString(""). 3 }).examples.setFlag(true).code=com. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.SimpleBean. "Must be a number").123f).jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.mapping. errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.

11.mapping.18.mapping.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.another.AnotherBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. you could add a few other lines to servlets. A servlet can be made bean-independent.properties (or web. a servlet is identified with its class. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.xml) file: ServletName. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.properties: AnotherHndl.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. If you have another bean-form pair.helpers.company.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.mapping. In many cases.code=com.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.devsphere. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.host.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.code=com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.examples.mapping. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.examples. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.devsphere.11 .helpers. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.devsphere.simple.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.host.

11 .JSP 135 .

2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. This technology includes: 1.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 12. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.12 .1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 supersedes version 1. like input fields.0. builds a component tree. processes events.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. buttons. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. which loads the appropriate view template. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.javaserver faces 12 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Version 2. Version 2. 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.JAVASERVER FACES 12.

12 .2 of the JFS specification. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. As of version 1.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. 12.javaserver faces 12.

we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.12 .4. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. For more information about columns. 12. columns and rows. Common formatting techniques. such as alternating row colors. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. footers. respectively. see the column tag documentation.

binding request parameters to backing bean properties. your options include using plain HTML forms.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.12 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.4.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkout}" /> 139 .jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).

</span> 12. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. red for error. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.12 .username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg." /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.user.user.4.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".

5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. 12. For example.12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

customer. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.5. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.12 . The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. Any component that receives user input. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. can publish value change events. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. 12. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . validateLength.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.5. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Without this JavaScript event.mycompany.javaserver faces 12.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. The body content of this tag must be empty.

MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. for each locale you wish to support.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. myJSFapp 143 .5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Example: welcome_en.12 . If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.mycompany. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If you have not specified a default locale. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.5. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.javaserver faces 12. including images and styles.mycompany. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.

7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml web. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Create properties files 144 .com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.html. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.javaserver faces /ant build. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. jsf-api. JSP pages.jar faces-config.jar. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Create JSP pages 2.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . and so on.jar jsf-api.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.12 . included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Create managed beans 4.jar – files included in the /lib directory. mandatory for any JSF application web. Define navigation rules 3. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. static resources. It has a deployment descriptor. custom tag libraries.exadel.contains libraries required by the application.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.

jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. we just want to go from inputname.7. Now that we have the two JSP pages. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. You only need to create the JSP files. Create an index. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.xml file. And that's all there is to this. Compile the application 8. In our application.jsp is greeting.jsp and greeting.12 . The directory structure already exists.jsp file 7. You just need to create its contents. Deploy and run the application 12. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. As a diagram.jsp to greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. we can create a navigation rule. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. These files will act as place holders for now. 12.jsp.jsp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.javaserver faces 5. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.7.

xml Your final faces-config.PersonBean. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. the second part of faces-config.1 PersonBean.3 faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. 12.3. To read more about navigation rules.xml file should look like this: 146 .3.3. Inside this myJFSapp folder. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7. we will create a PersonBean.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. The next line is the full class name.java file. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.) 12. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.xml Now. public class PersonBean { String personName.javaserver faces This is. a very simple navigation rule. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. myJFSapp. of course. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.12 .3 creating the Managed Bean Next. This class is straight-forward. You can easily create more complex ones.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. 12. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. request sets the bean scope in the application.7.7. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.7.

12.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Inc.properties file in the bundle folder.sun. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.1 inputname.sun.1 messages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.4.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7. 12. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. 12.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.5.12 .javaserver faces <?xml version="1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.1//EN" "http://java. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7.

messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.bundle.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.sun.sun.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.12 . <h:inputText value="#{msg. Then.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.bundle.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.

7.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. specifically the bean attribute personName. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.xml file. 12. Lines 3-5. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Line 6.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.javaserver faces Line 1. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Line 2. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. The first three lines are identical to our first page..jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.sun. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.jsp page.12 . Having an index.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.2 greeting. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Creates an HTML input text box. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.bundle. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.7.</h3> tags.greeting_text}" />.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. name! 12. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.6 creating the index.5. and also print its contents on the page. The second line will access a Java bean. Create the index.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.sun. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.

To do this. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.9 Running Next.jsp.7.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml file for the application *. and forwards the user to a success or error page. verifies the information. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. 150 .javaserver faces Now.7. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. This is a "login" application.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). To build the application run the build.html . though.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. This is used here. which asks an user for an ID and password.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.xml file.12 . might possibly be different). We are almost done with this example. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. we need to deploy it. 12.sourceforge. you'll notice the file suffix is .xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. When Tomcat is done loading. Of course. 12.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. 12. because in the web. Your setup.jsf and not .8.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.7. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. 12.

enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.xml Editor (see faces-config. in the wizard that appears. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. a. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. click Next.. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. 2. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. jsf-login. c. 7.src | +-.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. make sure all checkboxes are checked. name the folder webroot 5. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 1.WEB-INF 151 . and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.webroot | +-. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin..javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Enter project name. your mileage may vary.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. 10. say. click Finish 4. The New Project wizard appears.. and set up folders for a web application. name the folder pages. in the Add JSF Support page. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. and to add JSF libraries to the project.. 12.. 6. select the Source tab. Select Java Project. 3. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). click Yes through messages that appear. click Add Folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.8. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Next.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. see Installing & Uninstalling. 9. from the menubar select File/New/Other. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Select the Amateras node.12 . click Next d.

public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". if ( _uid. for name enter mgr. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The New Java Class wizard appears. for class enter login. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. } 4. Click Finish.java package login. } return action.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". enter login.lib | +-. else action = "loginFail". 1.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. input widgets appear d. In the Package field. The faces-config. from its context menu select New/Class.xml.xml Editor. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.javaserver faces | | | +-.pages 12. click Add. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. b. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.xml editor opens. for scope select 152 . Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. We then configure it to be a managed bean.8. c. private String _pwd = "". click Managed Bean. The Java code editor opens. 2. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder.12 . } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. a. 3.LoginManager.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.

Create error. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp and error. and 3 content pages (login. the New File wizard appears.jsp.jsp.jsp are simple pages with static content. Create success. from the menubar select File/Save.8. but in webroot/pages.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. b. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. c. </body> Please try 153 .jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.javaserver faces session. the JSP Editor opens.webroot/pages/error. Then we create login. so we create them first.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp).jsp). All pages except login.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File.jsp. then close the editor 12. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp: a. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. e.jsp is placed directly in webroot.webroot/index.jsp. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. enter the following code.12 . success. <!-. in Package Explorer select webroot. click Finish.webroot/pages/success. Create index. for File name enter index. index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-. 1. again. save the file and close the editor.

select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Create login. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and the JSP Editor can help with code. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. <%@ page contentType="text/html. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. from its context menu select New/Other. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. enter jsf-login e.12 . you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. a code-completion window pops up.javaserver faces </html> 4. and uses them for code completion as well.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. as shown below. for File name enter login. To see this in action. (See Show View Dialog) f.completion. d. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.sun. now we want to add attributes to this element. b. 154 .. click Finish. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. the New wizard appears. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. with the following template code. etc. place your cursor in one of these lines..jsp. and dock it along the right.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. click Next c.sun. g.. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.jsp: a. Open the JSF palette. and choose default for Template.

12 . set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. i. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.sun.) j.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and hit Enter.password}" l. insert another <h:inputText> element. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.javaserver faces h. complete the expression with the closing { k.. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. enter #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.loginAction} The final code.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. with the barest presentational formatting.sun. select userID from the code-completion window. this inserts value="" at the cursor. with bean properties available in mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element. a code-completion window pops up. set its value to Login.

userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. using a FacesIDE editor. 156 . Select the Navigation tab 3.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.xml. This is shown below. click on Page.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 2. then click inside the editor window. Open faces-config. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.12 .javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. 1.xml Editor. this inserts a page icon into the editor.8.

This is shown below: 157 . in the Properties view. change the value of path to /index. 5. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp and then on the icon for success. 6. select Navigation Case. and is represented by an arrow.12 . from the palette at left. and set them to /pages/login. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. then click first on the icon for login.jsp.jsp and /pages/error.jsp 4. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. notice that the warning triangle disappears. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp. /pages/success. add 3 more pages. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp.

scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.12 . since we have such a trivial application. We want virtual path-based mapping. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.jsp. 1. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.xml. Once deployed browse to index. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. and you should be sent to the success page.xml Here we edit web.jsp.jsp. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).xml.8. We'll set some properties in web. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . so uncomment it. The application is now complete. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. As it turns out. open web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.jsp to error.6 Editing web. or leave it as-is. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. 12.xml for the specifics of our application.javaserver faces 7. all we need do in web. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Similarly add a forward-action from login. and extension-based mapping is turned on.

convert javax.faces.faces javax.faces. 12.faces.. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.webapp 12.faces.javaserver faces 12.context javax.faces.render javax.faces.el javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. open its Manager application in a browser.html javax. For a given factory class name. that factory is used. as file:///.lifecycle javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages..faces.validator javax.component javax.event javax. click Deploy 3.component.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.CONFIG_FILES 159 . start Tomcat.faces.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. the Manager application should reload.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name..application javax.faces.model javax.0 1.8. scroll down to Deploy.12 .faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.10 the javax.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.

with the last one taking precedence.Severity . defining page navigation. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. 12.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. ViewHandler .12 .faces. FacesMessage. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. If none of the above steps yield a match.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . FacesMessage . ApplicationFactory . with the last one taking precedence. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. those factories are used. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. StateManager . ViewHandlerWrapper . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . handling events and input validation.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.represents a single validation (or other) message.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.11 the javax. StateManagerWrapper . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.

UICommand . String. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. ActionSource2 . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.restoreView(javax. UIComponentBase .12 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces. NamingContainer .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.context. Here they are: • • UIColumn . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. • ViewExpiredException . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . UIComponent . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. a menu item.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.12 the javax.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. StateHolder . triggers an application specific "command" or "action". The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. • • 161 . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. or a hyperlink.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. when activated by the user. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.faces.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. 12.FacesContext. ContextCallBack . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. String) results in failure on postback.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. EditableValueHolder . ValueHolder .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.

UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. it just serves as the root of the component tree. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UISelectOne . UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIForm . The user can modify the selected value. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.13 the java. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.12 . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UISelectItem .javaserver faces • UIData . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UISelectMany . Optionally.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UIPanel . by storing it as the value property of the component. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.component. that is displayed to the user. The user can modify the selected values.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. it is for display purposes only.html package 162 .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIInput . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. Optionally. UINamingContainer . UIGraphic . This component has no rendering. UIMessage .faces. identified by a clientId.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIParameter . UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UIViewRoot .

the rendererType property must be set to "javax.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlForm .represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlInputTextarea .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML input element of type password. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. On a redisplay. HtmlOutputText .renders the component value as text.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputText .12 .faces.Message".represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML input element of type text.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlColumn .represents an HTML img element. HtmlOutputFormat . The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlPanelGrid . but the application wishes to render more than one.represents an HTML label element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlPanelGroup .renders child components in a table. This component must be placed inside a form. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlMessages .represents an HTML form element.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.faces. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. and renders the result. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlOutputLink . or not. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlDataTable . HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.by default. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.by default. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.

convert package 164 .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. ResponseStream .faces. and the rendering of the corresponding response.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing a single available option at a time.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectOneListbox . HtmlSelectOneRadio .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.14 the java. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing a single available option at a time. ResponseWriterWrapper . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectManyListbox .15 the java. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. ResponseWriter . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. It is passed to.faces.javaserver faces property. FacesContext . FacesContextFactory . In particular.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneMenu .12 .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectManyMenu . • • • • • • 12.

15. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. Classes: MethodBinding .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. PropertyResolver . VariableResolver .faces. ValueBinding .javaserver faces 12.12 . • • • • 165 .16 the java.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. 12.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.

MethodNotFoundException . and event implementation classes.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. • • • • • One exception . ValueChangeEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . PhaseEvent . FacesListener .17 the java.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.AbortProcessingException . Interfaces: ActionListener . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. FacesEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • 12. PhaseId .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.faces.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .12 . ValueChangeListener . PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ReferenceSyntaxException .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.20 the java.faces.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.18 the java.12 . SelectItem . Classes: ArrayDataModel .19 the java. • • • • • • • • • 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. ResultSetDataModel .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ScalarDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModelEvent .faces. SelectItemGroup . ResultDataModel . 12.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. DataModel . ListDataModel .

represents a collection of Renderer instances that.21 the java.faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . Typically. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. including a standard servlet. markup language. AttributeTag . as well. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.12 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and/or user Locale. base classes for JSP custom component tags.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . • • 12.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. together. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.faces. The package contains an exception. and concrete validator implementation classes. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.validator package Interface defining the validator model. ResponseStateManager . • RenderKit . 12. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. ConverterTag . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.22 the java. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). RenderKitFactory .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.

the process includes a few more components or pages. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. When a web server receives a request. Also. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. or when an exception occurs. 12.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). which has several implications. In JSF. • • • • • FacesServlet . the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the controller sends a message to the view. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. When the model is updated.12 . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded.a base class for all JSP custom actions. or some other web technology.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. UIComponentBodyTag . but basically. which passes the request to the page class. When using JSF. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. that need to process their tag bodies. FacetTag . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. Because this does not involve JSF in any way.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. UIComponentTag . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. In MVC. that request is passed to the container. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. servlets. ValidatorTag . To ensure that the business state is never invalid. telling the view to update its presentation. related to a UIComponent. When the user takes some action with the presentation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the controller is the 169 . telling the model to update its data. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. the controller sends a message to the model. Likewise. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the life cycle is more complicated. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established.

the conversion occurs in this phase. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. depending on the request. For a JSF-enabled application. converting a String to a Date object). any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. However. from cookies sent as part of the request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. the JSF implementation must create the view.12 . If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. As with the previous phase. is validated at this time. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. In addition. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and what happens during the processing and response. not every request will flow through all six phases. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. If this is a subsequent request. The components are stored in a component tree. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. it creates UI objects for each view component. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. These objects update their state with the data values. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Invoke Application: During this phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. In addition. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). this does not yet update the business objects in the application. or from request headers. 170 . and the UI components are the view. Data for some components. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. and the response is sent to the client. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase.javaserver faces JSF implementation. and a piece of data failed validation. Data can come from input fields in a web form.

if errors occur during any of the phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. 171 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. Also. skipping any remaining phases.12 . For example.

These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. For example. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. naming and directory services using a common API. when you use an electronic mail system.COM. When using almost any computer program or system. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations."). 13. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. For example. you must supply its name.JNDI 13. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. NDS. DNS. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.9. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. Using JNDI. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. possibly multiple.COM. for example. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13 . JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.5). such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. 172 . A file system maps a filename (for example. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. To access a file in the computer.48. In addition. identifiers. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.13 . The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".2. such as addresses. or objects typically used by computer programs. It enables applications to access different. you are always naming one object or another.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. you supply it the name of the object. /usr/hello.sun. The DNS entry Wiz. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. 13. c:\bin\autoexec. names a file hello in the file directory usr. Thus the DNS name sales. and NIS(YP). in turn.Wiz. which is located in the root of the file system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. For example.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. such as LDAP. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. The UNIX pathname.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file.

Instead. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. Typically. Every context has an associated naming convention. and fuel and instrument status. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. on the other hand. For example. is a context. is a context. For example. A printer object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). its flight plan. a file directory. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. unbinding names. For example. in the DNS domain Sun. that is. A file object. is accessed using a file reference. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. and its flight number and departure time. a file name is bound to a file. they must be stored by reference. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. in the UNIX file system is a context. such as COM. might contain the state of the printer. such as its print server name and printing protocol. also called a file handle. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. such as c=us."). that is. By contrast. for example. Finally. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object.c=us. such as /usr. in a file directory /usr/bin. is relative to c=us. For example. while the object itself might contain more state information. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. some objects cannot be stored directly. for example.COM. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. A printer object reference. 173 . For simplicity. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. which in turn. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. delimited by the comma character (". For example.2.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information.2. A reference is information about how to access an object. 13. a DNS domain. o=Sun.2. Using the reference. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. relative to the entry o=Sun. 13. That is.13 .4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. an LDAP entry. In another example. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. and listing bound names.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. 13. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.

A directory object can be used. and computer account information. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. For example. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. a computer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. a person. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. 13. For example. programs. And it kind of makes sense. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. For example.13 . two different computer 174 .JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. Thus. For example.3. 13. however. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. postal mail address. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). An example is the telephone company's directory service. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. and color. a name is unique 13. or a network. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. resolution.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. for example. For example.2.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. to represent a printer. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. one context can be viewed. and even the computer itself and other computers. because we can. various telephone numbers. to some extent. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.

Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. and users. adding.smith@somewhere. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. 13. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. can use the directory in the traditional way. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.113. The email address. 13. 175 . the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. an organization object.com". Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. networks. When directory objects are arranged in this way. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. that is. such as the file and print services. support the notion of searches. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.13 .3.4.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. 13. For example. When you search. For example. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. called a directory information tree (DIT). Alternatively.3. such as that relating to machines. By using a directory service. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.3. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. The service is accessed through its own interface. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. A Java mail client program.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. 13. for example. The query is called a search filter. Similarly. Many examples of directory services are possible. printers. for example.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. like any other program running on the network.50". for example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. 13. removing. such as those based on the LDAP. "mail" is the attribute identifier. many directories. Within the DIT. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. the ability to access directory services will become essential.

3 and later releases. 13.naming.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. 13. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It extends the v1.2.event javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1.5.13 .1 and the Java 2 SDK. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.ldap 176 . printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Thus a variety of directories--new. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. The Java 2 SDK. For example.naming. For example.naming javax. To use the JNDI. more coherent and manageable. 13.naming.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. and even the network. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. v1. emerging.1 and v1.1 and Java 2 SDK.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1.2. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.4.directory javax. 13. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.5.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.

) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. A java.6.13 . 13.naming.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .lookup("treekiller"). A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.6 the naming package The javax. and the object itself. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. binding/unbinding. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.String name. a 177 .String name argument represents a composite name.lang. that is. list() is similar to listBindings().6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . However. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.naming package defines a Context interface. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.6.spi 13.JNDI • javax. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. In this case. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. which is the core interface for looking up. for some objects in the directory. and it returns the object bound to that name. The overloads that accept java. the name of the object's class. 13. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. 13.1 context The javax. For the methods in the Context interface. comparing components.6. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. For example. printer. composing them.lang. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.print(report). the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. Furthermore. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. 13.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lang. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. and so on.

2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. 178 . 13.7. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.7. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. they should catch NamingException. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. In the simplest and most common form of usage.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. You can add. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). There are no absolute roots.6. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Once you have an initial context. 13. 13.7 directory package The javax.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. replace.6. 13.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. Otherwise. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.naming.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. For example.13 .directory package extends the javax. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. 13. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. InitialContext. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.

Once registered.directory package. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 ." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.naming.9. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.naming. such as "object added." and those that do not. such as information about the object before and after the change. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. For example. To receive event notifications. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. 13.ldap package at all. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. 13.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .9.naming.8 event package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. called controls .9.9 LDAP package The javax. 13. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. or unsolicited notifications.naming. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. For example. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. that is. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. such as "object changed. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.JNDI 13. controls. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. and vice versa. In fact. 13. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. These operations are called "extended" operations.13 .

JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.10. 13.naming. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. For example.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13. 13.Context. and receiving response controls.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.13 .naming. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.10 service provider package The javax. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. 13.naming package. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. import javax.9.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.10. sending request controls. 180 . one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. implementors of Context. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.10.11. In the process of completing an operation.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.1 plug-In architecture The javax. 13.2 java object support The javax.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.spi package supports implementors of Context. This support is provided in the form of state factories. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.java. That is. create a file named Lookup. This support is provided in the form of object factories.

NamingException. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. 181 . then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.sun. If the compilation succeeds. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.lookup(name).lookup() to look up an object. // Print it System. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).err.JNDI import javax.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.naming.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. use Context. 13.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. 13.InitialContext. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.11.5 compiling the program Next.fscontext. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). For this reason.java).jndi.naming. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.3. If you are still having problems. as follows.13 . try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. v1. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Otherwise. 13. you must have access to the JNDI classes.11.RefFSContextFactory"). To compile to program. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. create an initial context. } 13.11. "com. env.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). using the capitalization shown.out. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Object obj = ctx.jar as an installed extension. import javax. } catch (NamingException e) { System. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.11. then the JNDI classes are already included.lookup(name).3 looking up an Object Next.put(Context. If the compilation fails.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.

naming.naming. then you will see something like the following.fscontext. create a file named Getattr. and your example class (Lookup.naming. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().bat If you supply a file directory. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. env. javax.PROVIDER_URL.class).directory packages.directory.LdapCtxFactory"). create an initial directory context.sun.DirContext. include the directory that contains your Lookup.JNDI 13. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.NamingException. To run the program. supply the name of a file in your file system.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.put(Context.3. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13.naming.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.jar and providerutil.jndi.put(Context. javax.jar).11.directory.naming.InitialDirContext.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.12. 182 . the file system service provider.13 . as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.directory. "com. you need access to the JNDI classes. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. javax. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. Finally. v1.naming.Context.ldap.6 running the program To run the program. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.sun.jndi. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). javax.Attributes. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. import import import import import javax.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.12. env.naming and javax.java.

// Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. If the compilation succeeds. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. 183 . you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. 13.err.out. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. compile the source file using the Java compiler. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.6 compiling the program Next.java).4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).get("sn"). The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.12. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. If the compilation fails. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.12. using the capitalization shown. ou=People"). For now.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. If you are still having problems. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). 13.12.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. For this reason. } catch (NamingException e) { System.println("sn: " + attrs.13 . 13. ou=People").3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. As with the naming example. } 13.get() and then from that attribute get its value. Similar to the naming example.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. Attributes.get()). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.get().get() on it to get its value: attrs.

you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.class. If you have any trouble running this example. Getattr. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. Once it has the attributes.jar and providerutil.3.13 .PROVIDER_URL.12.put(Context. ou=People". "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). 184 . Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. v1. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.7 running the program As with the naming example. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.jar).JNDI 13. env. With this configuration. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. then these classes are already included.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. then see the Common Problems lesson. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").

The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.a JMS client that receives messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS client . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS topic . Here. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS message . JMS producer . the messages are delivered in the order sent.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.14 . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. JMS queue .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. In this model. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS consumer . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . As the name queue suggests. Enterprise Edition. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. • 14.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. unless it has established a durable 185 .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.

In that case. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 14. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.3 the JMS API programming model 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. On the receiving side. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.14 .1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.jms. 186 . JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Depending on the type of message. Using Java.4.

4.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. and users discover them using JNDI. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. For example.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. It is either a queue or a topic. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().close(). Depending on the connection type. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. In a J2EE application. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.createConnection(). Before your application can consume messages. Connections implement the Connection interface. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. 14. 14. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. The JMS administrator creates these objects. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). you must close any connections that you have created. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Before an application completes. It receives messages sent to a destination. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.14 . connection.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. For example. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Like the connection factory. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.4. you must call the connection's start() method. you call the stop() method.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").

) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. usually expect a specific message type and format.14 . it becomes active. 14. you are likely to miss messages. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.receive(1000). For example.createConsumer(myTopic).createConsumer(myQueue). You use the Session. however. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. Moreover. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). connection. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. MessageConsumer consumer = session. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. which contains one method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. consumer. In the onMessage() method. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. After you have created a message consumer. if it needs to reply to messages. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.) When message delivery begins. For example. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.receive(). Message m = consumer. onMessage(). This object implements the MessageListener interface.start(). and you can use it to receive messages. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. After you register the message listener. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. A message listener does. Message m = consumer. a message listener object may be used. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.4. (Remember always to call the start() method.start(). the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.setMessageListener(myListener). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. 188 . a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.

send(message). bytes message. stream message. message.4. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.createProducer(null).setText(msg_text). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. if you created an unidentified producer. 14. At the consuming end.createProducer(myQueue). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. For example. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.4.receive(). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. After you have created a message producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. message).createProducer(myTopic). you do not specify a destination until you send a message. from one application to another. 3.14 . 189 . to create and send a TextMessage. With an unidentified producer. Here. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. and object message). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. map message. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. You must first create the messages. anon_prod. MessageProducer producer = session. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.send(myQueue. // msg_text is a String producer.send(message).createTextMessage(). that is. A message has three main parts: 1.

A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. 0). Session. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. and message consumers to receive messages. the first argument means that the session is transacted. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.14 . Sessions implement the Session interface.createSession(true. Here. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.getText()).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 190 . To create a transacted session.4. Before committing the transaction.createSession(false. After you create a Connection object. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. then delivers the messages. } else { // Handle error } 14.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).println("Reading message: " + message. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. use the following code: Session session = connection. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. If the user selects transaction support.out.

no developer coding. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.jar file into the application server. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . message-driven beans The 2. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. 15.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .consistent error handling framework . Version 1.object oriented representation of data in a DB. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.transaction management can be complex.logging. the container lives (in general) in an application server. The component lives inside a container. component recovery scalability portability 191 . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.15 . improved performance security .0.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.DB interaction transactions . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . On the other side. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.0. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . server which provides an execution environment for containers.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). container which offers services to the component. bundled into a single unit.

the home interface of the bean 3. called ejb-jar. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.15 . the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor.xml 15. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. as follows: 1.

ejb.RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. int custId) throws RemoteException.rmi.15 . import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.*.RemoteException.ejb.javax. String lastName.*. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. } 193 . the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. The developer does not implement this interface.javax. import java.rmi. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. } 15. import.

INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. this can be done (for example) through SSL.put(Context.interfaces. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). how to create or find the bean 2. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.NamingContextFactory". "localhost:1099").ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.PROVIDER_URL. if the client executes outside the container. creating them for the client application. } 194 . Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context. In the case of an web application. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. "org.15 . prop. prop.jnp. we need to know: 1.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.

15 . Why? For EJB. This is done through the javax. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. using the narrow() method. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. MyBeanHome. 195 .PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the client has a stub). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. • if the client executes outside the container.Remote interface). The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.rmi. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. do implements the java. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").narrow(homeRef. more specifically. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. but for generic languages. IIOP has not been designed for Java. in fact.class). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.rmi. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.. that is part of CORBA standards. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.rmi. do not have the concept of casting. in fact. and this means that there are some limitations. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.e. to the appropriate type.lookup("MyBean"). cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Problem is. Some languages.PortableRemoteObject class and.

call business methods on the bean myObject. as well). remove the bean instance myObject. int custId) { // method implementation .ejbeans.. String lastName. import javax.remove(). "Vasile". public class MyBean implements javax. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.ejb.15 . } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.create().processEntry("Dumitrascu".ccards. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .bank11.ejb.. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). 1102). the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.SessionContext...

public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 15. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 197 .15 . The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. that is.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. the object is activated. A stateless bean does not. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.

The ejbCreate method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. Figure 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. (Typically. For example. 15.1 are invoked by the EJB container. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. or passivate. the EJB container activates the bean. the client invokes the remove method. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. All other methods in Figure 15. 198 .) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. and then moves it to the ready stage. for example.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. is inside the bean class.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.

13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. support for concurrent access 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). stored in a Database). equals() 199 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.15 .

String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. all throwing RemoteException. Update and Delete. in the same order. We can have more create() methods.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. methods which have the same parameters. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. an instance of that bean is created.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).ccards. as the parameters in the original create() method.14. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().bank11. On the other side. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. 200 . Read.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. CreateException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. state data is stored into data store (usually. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.lang. 15.15 .

14. in BMP.15 . The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. but the developer returns null for CMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. it's business methods can be invoked. On the first path. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. for BMP. On the second path. 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. for BMPs. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.14. After the EJB container creates the instance. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. a client can invoke the remove method. the client invokes the create method. it is empty.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).2 read • • • ejbLoad(). ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. All instances in the pool are identical. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the programmer will create actual SQL code.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. Second. 201 . causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. After instantiation. First. actual SQL update code.14. left empty most of the time in CMP. While in the pooled stage. but in general. 15. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. not null. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.

which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. 202 . the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . another enterprise bean. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. If the primary key is incorrect. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.an application client.getPrimaryKey().3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.15 . Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. With bean-managed persistence. or a Web component . In the pooled state. 15. Therefore.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. it does not automatically set the primary key.

all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.for example. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.16. Unlike a session or entity bean. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.16. For more information on this element see.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. To avoid tying up server resources. Previously. the message will be redelivered. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. max-beans-infree-pool. In several respects.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. To ensure concurrency. an open database connection. 15.15 . allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. When a message arrives. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. 203 . If message processing is rolled back. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 15. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. The onMessage method may call helper methods. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.16. 15. but not asynchronously. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. message-driven bean can be used. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. If this element is set to more than one. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. a JMS API connection.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.

If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. Obtain a new bean instance.ejb. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.0 specification. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.jms. 3. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. and it must not // accept parameters. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.16. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. finalize{}.jms. Note: These instances can be pooled. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. Classes. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. public void onMessage(javax.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. 15.}.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class...6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. 2. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.Message. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior....16. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. As with other EJB types.. methods.16. public void ejbRemove() {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. or create a new one.} // onMessage() is required. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . // An EJB constructor is required.15 . 15.Message MessageName) {.

or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . getUserTransaction(). The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. getRollbackOnly() .11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. 15. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. 15.16.onMessage() for more information. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. If any method throws such an exception. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. 15.16.jms. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.This is not a client context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). 15. See javax.16. However. For example. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. even in onMessage(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).16.MessageListener. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.15 .9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.

WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.xml. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. In either case. as described in the EJB 2. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. as required by the EJB 2.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.15 . 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).16.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.

2. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 207 .4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. 15.message.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries..0 specification. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. </message-driven> .15 .xml deployment file. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.jms. the weblogic-ejb-jar.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. For each instance.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.xml elements. as described in the EJB 2. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1...ejb20. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.

At the end of the life cycle. control descriptors . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. a message-driven bean is never passivated.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. attributes .specifies control attributes for transactions 4.15 . here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. environment properties 6. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.security issues. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. isolation level. security 208 . entity specific elements 10.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. bean home name .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.like transaction. EJB class name 5. the home interface name 7. the remote interface name 8. access control entries . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. 15. the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9.

ccards.ccards.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.bank11.ccards.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.lang.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ejb.ejb.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.15 .

15 ...Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .lang.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

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