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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. are not considered web components. 1. processes it (if necessary).2 Server communication 1.7 business components Business code. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. or finance. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. The web tier. processes it (if necessary). is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. enterprise edition Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program.java platform. like the client tier. 5 . JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. Figure 1. retail.1 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. like HTML pages.

database systems.1 . the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. and other legacy information systems. and other complex low-level details. mainframe transaction processing. or application client component can be executed. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.9. For example. enterprise bean. 6 . Business and EIS Tiers 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. 1.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. In addition.9 java EE Containers Normally. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.java platform. 1.3 Web.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). resource pooling. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Before a web. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. enterprise edition Figure 1. multithreading. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.

4. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. database connection resource pooling. data persistence.1 .java platform. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. For example. 1. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 7 . After an enterprise bean is created. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. including services such as security. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.9. transaction management.

Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. For example. 8 .the runtime portion of a Java EE product. When XML data is exchanged between parties. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. enterprise edition Figure 1. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. extensible. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. develop.manages the execution of applets. or any kind of binary data such as audio. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Application clients and their container run on the client.1 .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. 1. Applet container . No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Web container .10. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.java platform. test. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. 1. or for document-oriented web services. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . XML data. video. Application client container . The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.manages the execution of application client components. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. text-based standard for representing data. program files. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . maps. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.

1. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.10.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. enterprise edition 1. The description includes the name of the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. and ways to communicate with the service.10.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.1 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. 9 .4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.java platform. the location of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. such as Universal Description. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).

WML. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11.11. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.11. the session bean and its data are gone. In Java EE 5. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. and XML) and JSP elements. 1. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. If the client terminates.11. enterprise edition Figure 1.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. 1. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. or enterprise bean. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. standard set of tags. or if the server shuts down.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. 1. When the client finishes executing. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.java platform. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.1 . A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . you employ a single. Commonly.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


it is ready to be deployed. JSP page. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.java platform. 15 . Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. No extra coding is needed. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. Once deployed on a local platform. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. or better customer support. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. or component accordingly.1 . module. a module. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or a component. and JNDI 1. better tools. JTA.ear extension. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. SAAJ. At runtime.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. servlet. such as better performance. the application is ready to run. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .

supporting class files.jar extension.jar extension. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. • • 16 . Resource adapter modules. JSP files. such as caching directives. Together. Web modules.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.1 . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .rar (resource adapter archive) extension. GIF and HTML files. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. For example. native libraries. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. and a web application deployment descriptor. for example. which contain servlet class files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Application client modules.java platform. classes. enterprise edition Figure 1. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. and other documentation. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. which contain all Java interfaces. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor.

These messages may have different contents.HTTP 2 .org/rfc/rfc1945. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.w3.. was the object of several RFCs.1.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .jmarshall.ietf.2 . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.. 2. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. POST.apps. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . an initial line 2.com/easy/http. HEAD. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. The server answers with a response message. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). check the official HTTP site – www. but they also have some common structural elements.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. so far) version. as follows: 1. RFC 2616 (06/99). As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2..3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. we recommend www. zero or more header lines 3. The second (and last. . of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). a blank line (CR/LF) 4.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.org/Protocols ..html). namely HTTP 1. The client sends a request message to the server.

but lack of support makes them obsolete. GET /path/to/the/file/index.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.html HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .1 specification. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.2 . If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.Posting a message to a bulletin board. CONNECT 5. HEAD 3. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.0). . Here is their list: 1. TRACE Three other commands are listed. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. mailing list. 2. PUT 8.1. POST 4. newsgroup.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. as well. DELETE 6. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. in the HTTP 1. HTTP/1.Annotation of existing resources. OPTIONS 7. GET 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. 18 .

or in the message body. like storing or updating data. to a data-handling process.Providing a block of data. 2. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.0 404 Not Found 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). or sending E-mail 2. after the “?” character. while POST may involve anything. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. . or ordering a product. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. When used for form data submission. 2.6 differences between GET and POST 1. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . In this case. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.2 . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. such as the result of submitting a form. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.HTTP or similar group of articles.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. . 3. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or a record is subordinate to a database.Extending a database through an append operation.” On the other side.8 the status code A three-digit integer. separated by the character “&” or “.

In a request. 500 Server Error .the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . and should be automatically retrieved by the client.0. while the HTTP 1. 2. such as text/html or image/jpg. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. none of them mandatory. The most common use of the message body is in a response. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. fails.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. one (Host) is mandatory.1 version specifies 46 of them. If an HTTP message includes a body. 404 Not Found . 2.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.2 . where the requested resource is returned to the client.the request succeeded. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.g. 20 . the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. and section 10 for HTTP 1. In particular. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The HTTP 1. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. header values are. out of which. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.the requested resource doesn't exist. header name and header value. Although the header names are not case sensitive.an unexpected server error.0 version specifies 16 headers.1 only) . separated a semicolon. or otherwise can't run correctly. and the resulting resource (e. that is. file or script output) is returned in the message body.1).

0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. 1. with subtypes octet-stream. alternative.ietf.ro/path/file.0 From: someuser@yahoo. Here is the list of the seven types.HTTP 2.0 200 OK Date: Fri.info.apps. postscript 5. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtype basic 7.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtype mpeg 2. video. 21 . application.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. audio. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. with subtypes jpeg. with subtypes mixed. with subtypes rfc822. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. RFC 1521 (www. with subtype plain 2. . Then. image. partial. digest.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.org/rfc/rfc1521.2 .html HTTP/1.ro. text. message.uvt. external-body 4. gif 6.info.uvt. parallel 3. multipart.html first open a socket to the host web. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.

HTTP .2 . the server closes the socket. 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.

HTML 3. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.HTML 3 .org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Originally named Web Applications 1. Mosaic. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. The latest version (XHTML 2.0.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. check the official HTML site – www.01. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. Version 4. Other helpful sites . HTML 3.99. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. 3.www.0 .01) can be found at this address: http://www. It is a revision of 4.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. The first official version – HTML 2. namely HTML 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. A newer standard.w3.0. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.w3c.ietf.3 . The first version of HTML.org/Markup . For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. www.htmlgoodies. However.apps.com/easy/html .02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). a working draft for the next major revision.com/indexdot/html .0 draft was released in 01. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. The XHTML 1. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.org/rfc/rfc1866.2 (3.html. The newest version of HTML is 4.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.0 and was accepted in December 1997. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.0) dates from 08.blooberry. From 1999 on.com/tutors.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. As a practical reference site use – www.html) and was widely supported. Since it fits in a couple of pages.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. HTML describes how text.jmarshall.

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" ".3 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. If you wonder what a character reference is.acesta este un comentariu. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4. An example: <!-. Check the address http://www. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. though. 3. Overall. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. the specification of HTML 4. DYNSRC.0 contains an SGML declaration." (in hexadecimal) .org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. “&quot”. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.0 Transitional DTD. You get the point. HTML 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->.3 .w3.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. 3. like ALIGN. This section deals with some of the most common elements. BORDER. "&#x6C34.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. CONTROLS.0 Strict DTD.the chinese character for water. ….01 specification. 4. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. VSAPCE are omitted. <><> --> 25 . look at these examples: “&lt”.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.

info. image.uvt.3 . Example: <A HREF=”http://web.5 tables 26 . specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.HTML 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.ro/webmail/src/login.3.3. NAME. etc.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.

the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is their description and attributes. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <THEAD>. columns. Here is a an example of a table: 3. its rows.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Usually. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .3 . <TH> and <TD>. <TR>.

3 . allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .required.7 forms A form is a basic component container.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

"text/plain" • • 3. Main attributes: 29 . may have the values GET or POST.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Main attributes: • TYPE .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. allows multiple selections from the choice list.3 .8. "hidden".?. • 3. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "radio".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. specifies the parameter name. "GET" . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . NAME . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.8.the default value.required.:.8. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. 3.maximum number of options visible to the user. "file". "button". after a quotation mark .8 form related elements 3.required. "reset".sends the form values in a single transmission.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . the browser appends the values to the URL. SIZE . "checkbox". Example: http://web. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .uvt.required. "image". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".HTML • METHOD . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "submit".if specified. specifies how data will be sent to the server. however.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.info. "password".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

jit From source to execution. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. The current version (as of 10.) in 08.java One example of command line compilation: 4. but next time execution is much faster.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. In terms of execution time.class file. the compilation process occurs.0.C:\TW\mySource. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. following the 1. Java source – a file with extension .java 2. 4. -g : generate all debugging info.JAVA PRIMER 4. To overcome this significant shortage. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The current version (as of 10. Inc. Java bytecode – a file with extension .class.3 java applications 31 . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. Example: Edit the file prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.90. project started in 12.4 .95. javac -classpath . The first time a class is loaded. a tool named Just In Time compiler. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .class file.4. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Early versions of Java were released in 12.. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.class 3.java.95.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.2 version. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.2 java the interpreter. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.JAVA PRIMER 4 .

an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. An example: 32 .jar file.4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4 .4. In general. or that it extends A).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.java.4 object oriented concepts 4. Generally. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . or is derived from A. 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).

In fact. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. Long. 4. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Therefore.4 . Therefore. Boolean. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. called Object. namely: Byte. 33 . Float. with the root the class Object. a Java class can extend a single base class. Integer.1 bit char . all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. 4.4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. In OO jargon. this is called method overloading. a class can have more than one method with the same name.4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Short. Character. Double. 4. The return type of a method is not part of this signature.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. providing its own implementation.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.

which extends the class javax.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the class is visible from any class. automatic garbage collection. 34 .no access from outside the class itself protected .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is constant method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. inherited). } declares an abstract class. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. A final variable (method. Except for the "package" concept.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .4 . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.does not have any subclasses..http.servlet. anywhere abstract . class .servlet. has the same value for all class instances.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).HttpServlet implements Serializable { .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.access from any class anywhere private . method . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. rather than at class instance. A final: • • • variable . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. 4.http. • • • • no specifier .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.one which is defined at class level. no templates.

Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4.7.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. 2. code or data errors . Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7. standard method exceptions 3. 4. division by 0.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .4 .2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. array index out of bounds. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. programmer defined exceptions 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. as defined in the java.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.JAVA PRIMER 4.like invalid cast.7.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).ThreadDeath. Exception categories: 1. In Java. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. java errors . not at execution time.7.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.

8. 4.support for event handling java.this can be done by providing a try. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. the default package is used). Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.zip . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. import javax.sql java.io java. they have to be unique inside a package. don't have to import java.security 36 .ccards. In the example above. the class (the .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java..1 Package names The default package has no name. All other packages must be explicitly imported. 4.by adding the key word throws.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . date and time info java.support for user interface java.servlets.*.net java.lang (automatically available).java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). catch.util .Properties.awt. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.geom .event .awt. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. finally construct.4 .rmi java. string analyzers. therefore.util.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.support for java archives creation java.bank11.default.nio java. The package containing the standard classes is java.class file. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. As a general rule.support for data collections. 4. followed by the import statements.awt .. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . An example: package com.lang .sql. import.util.

swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. All variables (actually.4 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.accessibility javax. it must be declared as abstract. 37 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.support for event handling 4.swing. static and final.swing .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.event .text javax.

write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . However. as JavaScript. like QtScript or ActionScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995. other 38 . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . Subsequently.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.5 . and . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.depending on the browser . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.HTML authors are normally not programmers.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.JAVASCRIPT 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. This is not always what we want.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . 5. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. then LiveScript and finally.

without having to write the same script on every page. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.js file extension.. 39 . </script> </body> 5. or when an event is triggered. go in the head section. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . point to the .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3. When you place a script in the head section. To simplify this. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script..3.3. 5.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.5 . </script> </head> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a .... When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.

4. in loop is executed once for each element/property. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". switch().5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.5 . 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . The code in the body of the for . while() it is worth mentioning the for ...5.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. break.1 JavaScript for. for().4. namely – if .javaScript 5. else.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. catch constructs.In statement The for.. in and the try ..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable...4.. while()....2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4... 5. continue.

Mozilla 1.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. } </script> </body> </html> 5.. mycars[2] = "BMW".. they often leave the Web page. Example Using for.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). When users see errors. so you don't lose your audience. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .5..0.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x..catch statement The try.5. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5 . The try block contains the code to be run. an array element. mycars[1] = "Volvo".. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.catch statement (available in IE5+.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. for (x in mycars) { document. or a property of an object. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. mycars[0] = "Saab".3 try. var mycars = new Array()..

Also. 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.5 .\n\n".7. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up. alert(txt).description + "\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").7 popup boxes 5. Syntax: 42 .\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.

1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. When a confirm box pops up. Now.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.7. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .5 . in the example above had not been written within a function.. If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns null. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.js file).8 functions 5. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. the box returns false.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. in the <head> section. Syntax: prompt("sometext".7. the box returns true. If the user clicks "OK"."defaultvalue") 5. When a prompt box pops up.8.

b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. document. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.5 . otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1. etc are variables or values passed into the function. var2. and how they are used.javaScript function functionname(var1. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.. So.. 5.length).var2.. and will be stored in the variable called product.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.9. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.write(txt.8. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. 5. 5.9 javaScript objects 5. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .

3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. which will be specified in the next section. The first class consists of browser specific objects.toUpperCase()).5 . 45 .write(str. </script> 5.javaScript 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".9. The other class are the language specific objects.

11 javaScript language built in objects 5.11. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. or when the user interacts with a Web page. check the site http://www. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.com/jsref/default. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . At its most basic level. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. When an event message has been triggered.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.w3schools. For example. Even this Document itself is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. every Link on the page is an Object. as well). JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.5 . which are called Objects. N: Netscape. every Image on the page is an Object. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.asp 5.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.

as a four-digit number. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. depending on the browser.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.

1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.11. according to local time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to Greenwich time. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to universal time.5 .3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time. N: Netscape. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .11.5 .5 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. var myNum=new Number(number).5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. Syntax for creating a new Number object.

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .11. N: Netscape.

434) Returns PI (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.11. N: Netscape. 2. 2.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) min(x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 1.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 3.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.y) pow(x. 1.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.5 .y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 0. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript 5. 0.

personObj.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Assume that the personObj already exists .12.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname). lastname. age. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. document.firstname="John". 5.age=50.12. personObj.firstname="John". age. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. etc. personObj.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). play().eyecolor="blue". but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.lastname="Doe".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. skin tone.lastname="Doe".you can give it properties named firstname. with a collection of properties and methods.age=30. personObj. 53 . Objects also have methods. personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. weight. eye color.5 .javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. etc. work().write(personObj. personObj.12. sleep().1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.eyecolor="blue". The persons' methods could be eat(). All persons have these properties. height. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. The persons' properties include name.

The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname=new_lastname.50.firstname=firstname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).propertyName. this.48.eat=eat.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.firstname=firstname."Rally".eyecolor) { this.age=age.age. 5. myMother=new person("Sally". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."Doe". Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. you can create new instances of the object.12.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this.eyecolor=eyecolor. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.age=age.lastname=lastname.lastname. Once you have the template. this. this.age. this.eyecolor) { this.lastname.newlastname=newlastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this."green").eyecolor=eyecolor. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.lastname=lastname.5 ."blue"). You can also add some methods to the person object. 54 . } Notice that the template is just a function.

javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. now you can write: myMother.newlastname("Doe").13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. 5.. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.5 .. So. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. We define the events in the HTML tags. For example. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .".

you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .w3schools. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.13. The name is then stored in a cookie. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. For example.13.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". 5.2 onFocus. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. If it returns true the form will be submitted.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.5 . The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. the submit should be cancelled.13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. 5.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .

and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. However. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. In other words.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. 2010).HTML DOM 6. HTML. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.g. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. or WebAPI being among them. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. By October 1998. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. 6. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. particularly those used in Web browsers. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. XML.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.. the Document Object Model activity is closed. The W3C 58 . after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. structure.Html DOM 6 .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. CSS. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.6 . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). As of January 2008. SVG. Right now (oct. and style of a document. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.

An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. As of 2005.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 4.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels.6 . 6. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 2 XML namespace support. filtered views and events. To claim to support a level. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 2. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. which further enhances the DOM 6. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. DOM Level 3 XPath. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 1. 5. DOM Level 3 Validation. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Core. 3. and 6. Level 2. each of which contains required and optional modules. HTML-specific elements are included as well.

Opera. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. All HTML elements. along with their containing text and attributes. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x and Netscape 4. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. and Safari.6 .x were still widely used in 2000. support multiple browsers. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. can be accessed through the 60 .7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). interoperability problems were numerous. Konqueror. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. By 2005.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. 6. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. The Window object represents a browser window. that is. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.

and new elements can be created.6 . and VBScript. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.Html DOM DOM. It can be used by any programming language like Java.

2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". the element node <title>.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 6. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.9. The <html> node has two child nodes. 62 . However. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. everything in an HTML document is a node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. <head> and <body>.8.6 .Html DOM 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree.8.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 6.

The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).getElementsByTagName("p"). child. Parent nodes have children. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.2 node parents. • • • • • In a node tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.getElementsByTagName("p"). Their contents can be modified or deleted. and new elements can be created. 63 . The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. using the node relationships. By navigating the node tree. The terms parent.9.6 . children. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. the top node is called the root Every node. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.getElementById('main'). and the connections between them. By using the getElementById() method 2.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.9. except the root.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.

• • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).Html DOM for (i=0.9. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.innerHTML).write(x[i]. } 6. document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . each node is an object.write("<br />").6 .length.

9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.5 example .get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6. 6.getElementById("intro"). txt=x.nodeValue.6 .firstChild.

For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".6 . including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . objects and images. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. frames.

Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. During the event flow. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Also. Mozilla. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. for instance. say "click". through a mouse click or a keypress. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. and/or by stopping the event (with method event.3. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. 6. also supports these methods. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. 67 . Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).6 .cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). and then bubbled up.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Safari. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. DOMNodeInserted. Fires when an element is activated. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). When the user clicks on the inner element. as of version 1. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).

Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.6 . Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. etc. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).Html DOM 6. mouse position. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. key pressed.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Unfortunately. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. preventDefault 68 . including information about target element. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area.

7.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. menus. 69 . before the whole page was sent within the network. For improving sharing of resources.7 . • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. fields of forms. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. 7. but also to save resources. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. dynamic website. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. For example. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. The server does some processing — retrieving data. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. choices of user. crunching numbers. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.AJAX 7. It is not a technology in itself. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.AJAX 7 . and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. etc. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. using web services or Php scripts. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.

waiting. Obviously. 70 . This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Once an interface is loaded. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. While the server is doing its thing.7 . we wouldn’t make users wait around. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. but the opposite is true. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. waiting around for the server to do something. And at every step in a task. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the user waits some more. Instead of loading a web page. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. at the start of the session. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. usually using XML. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.7 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 . loading additional interface code.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. editing data in memory. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.

thanks to its methods and attributes.AJAX 7. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.for a Xml file or . It allows the interaction with the servers. . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.for a simple text. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. .mode: type of request.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. 7.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". onreadystatechange .holds loaded data as a string of characters. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 3: answer in process.responseXml . url. and in this purpose. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.url: the location of the file 72 . .send: send a request to the server. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . boolean) . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. 4: finished.7 . 404 if the page is not found . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.returned by the server . 1: connection established. GET or POST .200 is ok.open: create a connection. 2: request received. This object provides two methods: . To get data on the server. DOM's method allows to extract data.responseText . These events are user actions.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.holds a Xml loaded file.

readyState == 4) { // received. http_request. 'http://www.send(null).send: with POST only. true for asynchronous.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. The request below reads a document on the server. request.6 building a request. http_request. .xul. but two options must be tried. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . true).open: command GET or POST. the data to send to the server.fr/somefile.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") ..null for a GET command 7. for browser compatibility.xml'. if (window..XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. Safari.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. .open('GET'.7 . } else if (window. URL of the document. // Firefox.. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. OK } else { // wait.AJAX . 73 .XMLHTTP"). if (request. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.

open("GET".ajax. true). by this code: var doc = req.7 examples 7. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.7 . // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.dyn="Error code " + req.XMLHTTP).readyState == 4) if(req. req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. req. "data.dyn=""Received:" + req.7.responseText.AJAX 7. }. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").status == 200) document. req.ajax. else if (window. req.7.item(0).responseText.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). else document.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.xml".dyn="Received:" + req.responseXML.status. if(window.ajax.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.send(null).setRequestHeader("Content-Type".getElementsByTagName('root').

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.8 . entries related to session configuration. like: 1. data persistence. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. 5. After an enterprise bean is created. 2. database connection resource pooling.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. 6. For example.bank11. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. web. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.ccards. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit..xml file: <?xml version="1. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.servlets. like what pages are error. Here is a small. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . Initialization of parameters for servlets. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. but typical web. 3. 8.. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.)> <web-app> <!-. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Servlet. Servlet. MIME types used by the web application. classes.class>com. Others. servlet classes. 4. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. descriptions).

the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. For example.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.xml" file. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.class" and that it is part of the package "com. it is the alias of the real servlet class. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. In general. Basicly.xml" 2.xml file of the web application. whose name is rather long. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml". basicly.ccards.bank11. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").servlets".8 .servlets.bank11. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. for flexibility. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.ccards. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".bank11. Unfortunately.servlets". To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. Behind a very benign URL. 1.ccards.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. Then the "EnrollServlet. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. However. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. the name of the web application.

As of oct.2. 9.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. but at this point. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. modular design 9. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.4. which extend the functionality of the web server. Technically speaking. more often. the Java Servlet 3. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. tjws spec 2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.0 specification is available for public review. but through a web container. from BEA Systems.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. 2010. in most cases as part of an application server.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.4. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . the HttpServlet) class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .5 and is in final state.SERVLETS 9 . Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). Web containers are implemented by various vendors. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .SERVLETS 9. platform independent programs.9 . small footprint.2.0 specification. 9. this is just a work in progress. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.

Enterprise Edition. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . WebSphere. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet javax. public void service(ServletRequest req.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from IBM 9. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package are protocol independent. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. 82 .servlet package.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . which are part of the Java Platform SDK. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().9 .servlet. while the second one.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public void destroy() throws ServletException.servlet. the javax. IOException. from Apple Inc.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. These packages are: • • javax.

After instantiating the servlet. More on the servlet life cycle. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. namely the HttpServlet class. This method has two arguments. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. in a different section. as well. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.9 . public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The method performs all initialization required. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. 83 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. ServletConfig.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). Throwable t) 9. respectively. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. the web container calls its init() method. before the servlet processes any HTTP request.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.servlet. service().lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.Exception class.lang. It also extends the java.9 .Exception and can be thrown by the init(). The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. 9.servlet.

the container calls the init() method of the servlet. DB connection opening.SingleThreadModel. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. JSP or JSF. After instantiation.servlet. respectively. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Also.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Typically. 9. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. which will service all incoming requests. 85 . The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.9 . the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Typically. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. etc. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.

13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.

ccards.servlets.java" file: package com.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. import java.io.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. 87 . String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.*.9 .xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. This is done in server's (container's) server. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.

public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. PrintWriter out = resp.close().http. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("<body>"). out.println("</body>"). out.println("<head>").println("<br>"). import javax.println("</html>").println("<title>Servlet</title>").*.9 .setContentType(“text/html”).println("merge"). IOException { resp. out.getWriter(). out. out.SERVLETS import javax.init(config).*.println("</head>").println("<html>").servlet. out. } } 88 . out.servlet. // output your page here out. out. out.

It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. 1997.JDBC 10. Starting with version 3. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. The JDBC 4.jdbc. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).odbc.10 . the javax. After that. 89 . This solution is inefficient. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.sql package 2. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.JdbcOdbcDriver .0.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. the java.1. Type 1.sun.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. These drivers fall into four standard categories. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 while the current (4.sql package.JDBC 10 . The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . as recognized by the DB industry.

90 . All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Part Java. because it eliminates one level of indirection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Type 3. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.10 . Type 4. which in turn. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.JDBC Type 2. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.

sql.sql.SQLDataException java.Blob java.sql.sql.0).sql.sql.sql.sql.Date java.sql.Statement java.Wrapper 91 .sql.Types java.sql.Time java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.SQLWarning java. let's remind some of the most important ones.SQLData java.JDBC 10.sql.Timestamp java.sql.Struct java.sql. java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.0 API.sql.10 .ResultSet java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.DriverManager java.SQLXML java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.SQLPermission java.SQLOutput java.Driver java.Array java.3 the java.CallableStatement java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.SQLException java.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLInput java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Clob java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.Connection java.

sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.RowId java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.StatementEvent javax.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java. java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.10 .SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql package.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLTransientException java.ResultSet java.Clob java.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.sql.SQLException java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.Statement java.DatabaseMetaData java.Types java.NClob java. loading a database driver 2.Connection java.Wrapper javax.sql.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql. querying the database 4.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.0.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.Blob java.SQLOutput java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.StatementEventListener 10.ClientinfoStatus java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.SQLXML java.

sybase.jdbc.ibm.odbc.datastore.SybDriver com.net. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.borland.10 .driver.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.JDBC 10.db2. The first one is loading a database driver.OracleDriver sun.DB2Driver oracle.

String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. by using the connection URL. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.printStackTrace(). user. String user = "root". as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.mysql. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. try { Class. Since we just used it. import java. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.util.10 . } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.*.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). passwd). 94 .forName("org. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).bank11.mm.sql. but let's take it for granted: import java. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.*.Driver").getConnection(connURL.gjt.newInstance(). as specified by the driver vendor.

String user. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.put("autocommit". The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. prp. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. "true").getConnection(connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.JDBC 10. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Properties prp = new Properties(). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp). we can use it for various purposes.util. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. int resultSetConcurrency.10 .sql package.put("create". 10. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . java. Connection conn = DriverManager.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp. "true").

respectively. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.JDBC 10. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. prepared statements and stored procedures. Statement.10 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. namely.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.

sql. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. stmt. 10.executeUpdate(sqlString).9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.".10 . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer ..createStatement().

all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. 98 . An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. not at 0) or the column name.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. a concurrency of read only. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. PreparedStatement. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.10 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


mins.sql. secs date. time.produces a Connection object that will 103 . It is part of the javax.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.10 . nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.Time java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. Connection pooling implementation -. basicly.math.DataSource object. a factory for creating DB connections.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal Object float 10.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.sql package. This interface is.sql. Basic implementation -.math. There are three types of implementations: 1.0 optional package.produces a standard Connection object 2. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.

*.io. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.sql.servlet.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). javax. javax. private DataSource theDataSource. javax. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.class.*. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.servlet.ccards.http. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". 3.*. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. 104 . } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). java.servlets. javax. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. import import import import import import java.sql.naming.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.lookup("java:comp/env"). throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. Distributed transaction implementation -.getLogger(TestDataSource.bank11.*.*.getName()).10 . String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.

. ServletException { . } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).10 .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp.JSP 11 . JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. If the JSP is modified.jsp.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.1 and is related to the 2. namely javax.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. 11.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .tagext. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.jsp.servlet.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The JSP specific interfaces. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).11 .jsp and javax. The package javax. The package javax.servlet.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.2 the java. The javax.JSP 11.5 Java Servlet specification.servlet.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. 111 . include and taglib.. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).JSP • if the URL does not start with / .11 . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .

Assigns it to available name or id. this code goes to inside the service() method.7 scripting elements 11. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.7.7. In Tomcat. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.11 .JSP 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.

stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.11 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. you must specify param.the name of a bean instance.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . Attributes description: • • • name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . and if so.

An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. flush . same format as the <%@include> directive.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.only the "true" value is supported. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . <jsp:plugin> actions.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.name of the property to be retrieved 11.the URL of the page.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.13 the forward standard action 114 . 11. <jsp:forward>.11 . converts them to string and displays the output to the client.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.

.class extension in the name following code. You must include the .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. when we want to separate the application into different views.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.. ." . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .the name of a bean instance. It is used mainly.the type of object the plugin will execute. You must specify either bean or applet. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. servlet or to a static resource. If you do not supply a value. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. name . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. depending on request.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.a name for the Bean or applet instance.. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . code="classFileName" .. as well. 11.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). archive="URIToArchive.11 . as this attribute has no default value. name="instanceName" ..JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.

nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .1. Must be a small nonzero number. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . writes to the output stream to the client.PrintWriter.io. objects which are automaticly available.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.it represents the buffered version of java. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. and domain name.1" .jsp. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . it has javax. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. in pixels. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.the amount of space. 1. The default value is 1. in pixels. config .Object type and scope page 11. optional port number.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . page .the initial height and width.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. response .represents server's response to the request. pageContext .it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. out . The value is a full URL. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. request . with a protocol name.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.11 . request .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. session . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.represents the servlet context. of the image the applet or Bean displays. application . based on the servlet API. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it has java.servlet.16 scopes 1.lang.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.JspWriter type and scope page 7.

page .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.init(). Object value) method 3. Object value) method 11.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .beans. Object value) method 2. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.ccards.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. application . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.11 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 4.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. if (enrollBean.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.bank11.jsp file.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. session .an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.

devsphere. private boolean flag. private float number.mapping.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. %> <jsp:forward page="response. a float.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. 11. private String optional. a boolean and another String). has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. The public constructor could have been omitted.examples. private String colors[]. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.Serializable { private String string.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private int integer.simple. private int list[]. a software development and consulting company.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.string.18. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .java: package com.11 . The SimpleBean class is declared public. private SimpleSubBean subBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. an int.register(). SimpleBean. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).io.

colors = values. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } 119 .flag = value.colors.colors[index]. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.flag.number.integer. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.integer = value.string = value.11 .JSP this.number = value. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

} // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional = value.list[index]. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.colors[index] = value.list[index] = value. String value) { this.optional.11 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. int value) { this.subBean = value. } } 120 .JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.

Serializable { private String string.number. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.string = value.mapping.io.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .11 .devsphere.number = value.string.simple. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. private float number. SimpleSubBean.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.18.examples. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } } 11. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).java: package com.

11 .string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.

mapping. "An option must be selected" }.flag]". a boolean and an int[]. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. 3 } }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. a float.devsphere. the processing order.simple. The default values are defined for a String. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.11 .string]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.integer]". The list of optional properties has a single element. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.java: package com. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. "One or more colors must be selected" }.util.list]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Float(0. error messages. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. "abc" }.number]".JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.123) }.list]". new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.18.colors]". "One or more items must be selected" }. new int[] { 2.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. new Boolean(true) }. the list of optional properties. the form's name and the processor's name. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". SimpleBeanResources. There are three error messages. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.examples.

devsphere. { "[FORM_NAME]".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. com.*.devsphere.mapping.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). string values are converted to numbers. If necessary.examples.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).logging.devsphere. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.JSP "optional" } }. "integer". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "subBean" } }. SimpleHndl.devsphere.devsphere.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . new String[] { "string". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.simple. { "[PROC_NAME]".mapping.util.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. The beanToForm() method of com. "flag". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.jsp" } }.html" }. The formToBean() method of com.mapping. "SimpleForm.mapping.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.18. "optional".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. } } 11.11 . "SimpleProc. For a better understanding of this example. "list". "colors".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. "number".

getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).File(formPath)). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.forward(request.getString("[PROC_NAME]").getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getRealPath(formPath). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.trim().equals("POST").getString("[FORM_NAME]").JSP = HandlerUtils.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.11 . logger). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.substring(0. slashIndex+1) : "". // Process the valid data bean instance application.util.formToBean(formData. formPath = application. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getTemplate(new java.getDocument().getClass()).removeUserErrors(errorTable). simpleBean.lastIndexOf('/').getMethod(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. int slashIndex = basePath. errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getServletPath().io. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. 125 .trim(). response).

i++) 126 .18.mapping.simple.length == 0) return "". errorTable.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getSubBean().getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.JSP elements logger). if (list. for (int i = 0. SimpleProc. // Send the form document document.string = <%= simpleBean.number = <%= simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.11 .length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.getString() %> <P> subBean.examples.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean(). strbuf.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.send(out). document.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } %> 11. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("{ ").devsphere.length. i < list.beanToForm(simpleBean.

strbuf.append("}"). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. } strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.append(" "). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). Using the framework.append(list[i]). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.toString(list[0]).SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere.length == 0) return "". return strbuf. } strbuf.append(" ").jsp files. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.append(list[i]). In addition. making the testing and the debugging easier. ComplexForm.formToBean() call.toString(). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.length == 1) return Integer. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.examples. i++) { strbuf.18. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.11 . ComplexHndl. The localization of the Complex*. A single call to FormUtils. strbuf.simple. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("{ "). } %> 11.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.append("}").util.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.mapping.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .toString(). strbuf. i < list. In addition.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.length. return strbuf. if (list. for (int i = 0.

i < colorValues. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors(). "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".length. boolean checked = simpleBean. j < colors. i++) { int value = i+1. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. String colorValues[] = { "red". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Option 2". 128 .11 . "Option 3" }. i < integerLabels. j++) if (colors[j]. for (int i = 0. "green". for (int i = 0. "Blue" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. "Green". if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.length.length.getInteger() == value. "blue" }. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].

String listItems[] = { "Item 1".length. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.11 . i < listItems.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.simple.SimpleSubBean()).getSubBean(). if (list == null) list = new int[0].setSubBean( new com. i++) { int value = i+1. "Item 2". %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "Item 3" }.JSP break.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.length. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.examples. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean selected = false.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . "subBean.getList(). "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.devsphere. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. j < list. break.mapping. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

getString() == null || simpleBean. return message.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "subBean.simple. 130 .getSubBean(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere.getMethod().setString("abc").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.util.get(property).getString().number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.examples.simple.equals("POST").Hashtable errorTable. boolean isPostMethod = request.mapping.length() == 0) { simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.util.11 .Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.examples. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl.

length() != 0) simpleBean. "Must be a number").11 . } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.length == 0) { 131 . "An option must be selected"). "number".123f).setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.trim().getColors(). "Must be filled").123f).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled").setNumber(0.setNumber(0.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean.getParameter("number"). else { simpleBean.setFlag(flagValue != null). "string". if (flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "integer".getParameter("flag"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.equals("false")) flagValue = null. } simpleBean.length() == 0 || flagValue.

3 }).11 . "list".getString() == null || simpleSubBean.getString(). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length == 0) { simpleBean. "colors". "subBean. "subBean.number". setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional("").getList().floatValue()).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.string".number"). "Must be filled"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* subBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getParameter("subBean. "One or more colors must be selected").setList(new int[] { 2.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean. 132 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.setString("").number : text try { String numberValue = request. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "One or more items must be selected").

} if (isPostMethod && errorTable.properties or web.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.Hashtable errorTable.util.examples.18. simpleBean.put(property. simpleBean.helpers. "Must be a number"). The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. } } else { simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.123f).setNumber(0.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. simpleBean.devsphere.11 .mapping.helpers.code=com.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. 3 }). which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. simpleSubBean. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.devsphere.setFlag(true). String property. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".devsphere.setList(new int[] { 2.JSP filled").isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.\ 133 . That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.simple. errorTable. The com.mapping.number".xml: SimpleHndl. message). simpleBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setOptional("").setString("abc").SimpleBean.jsp.setString(""). } %> 11. "subBean.

The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.host. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. a servlet is identified with its class.company.examples.mapping.11 .host. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.helpers. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.code=com. In many cases. you could add a few other lines to servlets. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.mapping.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.AnotherBean.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.devsphere.mapping.code=com. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.another. 11.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. A servlet can be made bean-independent.properties: AnotherHndl.devsphere.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.xml) file: ServletName.examples.devsphere.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.properties (or web.helpers. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.host.18.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.simple.devsphere. If you have another bean-form pair.

11 .JSP 135 .

built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. 12. This technology includes: 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Version 2. like input fields.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.0.12 . processes events. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.JAVASERVER FACES 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 supersedes version 1.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. which loads the appropriate view template. buttons. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. builds a component tree.javaserver faces 12 . 2. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. Version 2.

3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. 12.4.2 of the JFS specification.12 . As of version 1. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.javaserver faces 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.

A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. columns and rows. 12. see the column tag documentation. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. Common formatting techniques.12 . Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. such as alternating row colors. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. respectively. For more information about columns.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.4. footers.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.

00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkout}" /> 139 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.4.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. your options include using plain HTML forms.12 .4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.

user.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.4.user.12 ." /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().5. red for error. 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.</span> 12.

dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.5. 12. For example.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.12 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.

A component fires a value change event when its input changes.customer.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Without this JavaScript event.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.5.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. 12.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .mycompany.javaserver faces 12.5. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. validateLength. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. but only if the new input is validated successfully. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. can publish value change events.12 . the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. The body content of this tag must be empty. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.

Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.javaserver faces 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.5. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. myJSFapp 143 .mycompany.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. for each locale you wish to support.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. including images and styles.12 . This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. Example: welcome_en. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. If you have not specified a default locale. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.

What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. It has a deployment descriptor. static resources.javaserver faces /ant build.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Create managed beans 4. custom tag libraries. mandatory for any JSF application web.jar jsf-api.xml web.jar faces-config. Create properties files 144 .contains libraries required by the application.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Define navigation rules 3. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. like third party jar files jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .xml – the JSF configuration file.12 . Create JSP pages 2.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.exadel. JSP pages. jsf-api.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.html. and so on.

jsp go to the view (page) greeting. And that's all there is to this.javaserver faces 5. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Now that we have the two JSP pages.xml file. Create an index.jsp file 7.7.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. You just need to create its contents.jsp is greeting. 12. Edit JSP pages 6. As a diagram. Compile the application 8.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp and greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.7.12 .jsp. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. we can create a navigation rule. You only need to create the JSP files. In our application. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp to greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. The directory structure already exists. we just want to go from inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .jsp. Deploy and run the application 12. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. These files will act as place holders for now.

This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. myJFSapp. 12. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. we will create a PersonBean. To read more about navigation rules. a very simple navigation rule.7.xml Your final faces-config. This class is straight-forward. of course. the second part of faces-config.) 12. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. request sets the bean scope in the application.3 faces-config.7.xml file should look like this: 146 .3 creating the Managed Bean Next. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. 12. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. Inside this myJFSapp folder.3. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.12 . You can easily create more complex ones. public class PersonBean { String personName.7. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.PersonBean. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.java file.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.3.1 PersonBean. The next line is the full class name.xml Now.javaserver faces This is.7.

properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. Inc. 12.4.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.1 messages. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.sun.sun.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. 12.12 .1 inputname. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7.properties file in the bundle folder.7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.sun.1//EN" "http://java.

The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.sun.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.12 . The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.sun.bundle. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <h:inputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.

com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp page.bundle. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Line 6. The second line will access a Java bean. 12.2 greeting.</h3> tags. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Having an index. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.7.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.xml file. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.5. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.7.. Creates an HTML input text box. The first three lines are identical to our first page..6 creating the index.sun.12 .javaserver faces Line 1. name! 12.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. and also print its contents on the page. Create the index.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.greeting_text}" />. Line 2. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Lines 3-5.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . specifically the bean attribute personName.sun.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.

150 .jsf and not . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. you'll notice the file suffix is . 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. 12. which asks an user for an ID and password. and forwards the user to a success or error page.7.xml file. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.javaserver faces Now. Your setup.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. 12. Of course.8.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.7. because in the web. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. 12. might possibly be different).html . We are almost done with this example.jsp. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. When Tomcat is done loading. To do this.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.sourceforge.7. though.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. This is a "login" application.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.xml file for the application *. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. verifies the information. This is used here. To build the application run the build.12 . we need to deploy it.9 Running Next.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.

and to add JSF libraries to the project. name the folder webroot 5. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. in the wizard that appears. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. click Next. 9.src | +-. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. say. The New Project wizard appears. 10.. name the folder pages.. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.. select the Source tab. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.8. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. Select the Amateras node. jsf-login. see Installing & Uninstalling. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).webroot | +-. click Finish 4. a.. 7. and set up folders for a web application. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click Yes through messages that appear. in the Add JSF Support page.12 . 3.xml Editor (see faces-config. 2.. c. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.. click Next. click Next d.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. 6. 1. click Add Folder. your mileage may vary. Select Java Project. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. make sure all checkboxes are checked. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Enter project name... 12.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial.WEB-INF 151 .

2.8. The New Java Class wizard appears. private String _pwd = "". c.javaserver faces | | | +-. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. for name enter mgr. We then configure it to be a managed bean. click Managed Bean. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. for class enter login.LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. b. In the Package field. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.java package login. } 4. } return action. Click Finish. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". 3.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. a. for scope select 152 . enter login. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.lib | +-.xml editor opens.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The Java code editor opens. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. from its context menu select New/Class. click Add. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". else action = "loginFail". if ( _uid. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder.xml. 1.pages 12.12 .xml Editor. input widgets appear d. The faces-config.

12 . </body> Please try 153 .jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. success.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. e.jsp. enter the following code. <!-. from the menubar select File/Save. save the file and close the editor.jsp).jsp. and 3 content pages (login. Create error. in Package Explorer select webroot. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp. Then we create login.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. the New File wizard appears. 1.8. Create index.jsp).jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. from its context menu select New/File. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. so we create them first.webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Create success.jsp and error. but in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp is placed directly in webroot.webroot/pages/error. index. c.webroot/index. click Finish. again. b.jsp are simple pages with static content. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. but in webroot/pages. for File name enter index.jsp: a. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.javaserver faces session. then close the editor 12. All pages except login. the JSP Editor opens.

make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. 154 . with the following template code. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.jsp: a. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. b. (See Show View Dialog) f. a code-completion window pops up. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and choose default for Template.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. click Finish. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. from its context menu select New/Other. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. click Next c.. Create login. as shown below. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.javaserver faces </html> 4. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. the New wizard appears. Open the JSF palette.. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.sun. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.completion.12 . for File name enter login. g. d. now we want to add attributes to this element.jsp. and dock it along the right.sun. and uses them for code completion as well. <%@ page contentType="text/html. enter jsf-login e. To see this in action. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. etc.. place your cursor in one of these lines.

with the barest presentational formatting.javaserver faces h.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.12 .loginAction} The final code. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. insert another <h:inputText> element.sun. a code-completion window pops up. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. i. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. with bean properties available in mgr. enter #{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k.) j. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value to Login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .password}" l.. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and hit Enter.

password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.xml. Open faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. then click inside the editor window.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. click on Page.8. this inserts a page icon into the editor.12 . Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. Select the Navigation tab 3. 2. using a FacesIDE editor. This is shown below. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml Editor. 1.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. 156 . it should open in the faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.

5. change the value of path to /index. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. then click first on the icon for login.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. notice that the warning triangle disappears. from the palette at left.jsp. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). Its properties appear in the Properties view. in the Properties view. /pages/success. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.12 . 6. and is represented by an arrow.jsp 4. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. select Navigation Case.jsp and then on the icon for success. add 3 more pages. and set them to /pages/login.jsp.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.

As it turns out. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.jsp. so uncomment it. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. We'll set some properties in web.6 Editing web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. any other id/password should send you to the error page.jsp. since we have such a trivial application.xml.jsp. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and extension-based mapping is turned on. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. Similarly add a forward-action from login.xml Here we edit web. The application is now complete. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.8. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml. 12.xml for the specifics of our application.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. We want virtual path-based mapping. open web. 1. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. and you should be sent to the success page. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. or leave it as-is.12 .javaserver faces 7. Once deployed browse to index.jsp to error. all we need do in web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .

For a given factory class name.event javax. open its Manager application in a browser..render javax.faces.10 the javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces.validator javax.0 1.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.javaserver faces 12.faces. start Tomcat. 12..html javax.8.convert javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces javax. Click on its link to launch the application.application javax. as file:///.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.12 .faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.model javax. that factory is used.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces.component.lifecycle javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.component javax. the Manager application should reload. click Deploy 3.faces. scroll down to Deploy.context javax.el javax.faces.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces.webapp 12. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.

A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. If none of the above steps yield a match. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. FacesMessage.12 . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. FacesMessage .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. StateManagerWrapper . 12.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. with the last one taking precedence.Severity .represents a single validation (or other) message. StateManager . with the last one taking precedence. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. those factories are used. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. handling events and input validation.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.11 the javax. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. ViewHandler . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. defining page navigation. ViewHandlerWrapper . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. ApplicationFactory . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.

NamingContainer . triggers an application specific "command" or "action". Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . UICommand .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. ValueHolder . String.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. 12.faces. String) results in failure on postback. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. EditableValueHolder .faces. ActionSource2 . StateHolder .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.FacesContext.12 . Here they are: • • UIColumn . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.restoreView(javax.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. UIComponentBase . UIComponent . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. or a hyperlink.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. when activated by the user.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. ContextCallBack . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.context.12 the javax. • • 161 . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. a menu item. • ViewExpiredException . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.

a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. Optionally. it just serves as the root of the component tree. it is for display purposes only.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UISelectMany . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. The user can modify the selected values. that is displayed to the user. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.component. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIMessage . UIMessages . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UINamingContainer . UISelectItem . by storing it as the value property of the component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UIParameter .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.12 . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). identified by a clientId. This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIForm .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.13 the java. UIInput . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user can modify the selected value. it is for display purposes only.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UISelectBoolean .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.faces.html package 162 . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIViewRoot . The user cannot manipulate this component. UIGraphic .javaserver faces • UIData . UISelectOne . UIOutput . UIPanel . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.

and renders the result.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlOutputText . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.renders the component value as text. HtmlInputHidden .faces. HtmlForm . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlInputTextarea . The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlOutputLink . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This component must be placed inside a form.by default.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.12 . HtmlColumn .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlMessage . HtmlPanelGroup . used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlInputText . but the application wishes to render more than one. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML img element.faces.renders child components in a table. HtmlPanelGrid .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlGraphicImage . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . or not. HtmlMessages . HtmlDataTable . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML form element.Message". HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML label element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlOutputLabel .by default.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. On a redisplay. HtmlOutputFormat .

12 .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.15 the java.convert package 164 . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. • • • • • • 12. ResponseStream .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. It is passed to. and potentially modified by. HtmlSelectManyListbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext . • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectOneMenu . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.javaserver faces property. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. showing a single available option at a time.faces. ResponseWriter . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. showing a single available option at a time.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. ResponseWriterWrapper . each phase of the request processing lifecycle.14 the java. HtmlSelectOneListbox . In particular.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.faces. HtmlSelectOneRadio .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. FacesContextFactory . HtmlSelectManyMenu . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.

an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.16 the java. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.faces.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. Classes: MethodBinding .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.javaserver faces 12. PropertyResolver .15. 12.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.12 .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. ValueBinding .

typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.AbortProcessingException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12.faces. • • • • • One exception .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.17 the java. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. MethodNotFoundException .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. Interfaces: ActionListener . FacesListener . 166 . ValueChangeEvent . PhaseId .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.12 .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . and event implementation classes. ValueChangeListener . ReferenceSyntaxException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. FacesEvent . PropertyNotFoundException . PhaseEvent . PhaseListener .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.

ResultDataModel .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. DataModelEvent . ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. DataModel .19 the java. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. SelectItem . ScalarDataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Renderer . • • • • • • • • • 12.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.18 the java. Classes: ArrayDataModel .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.12 . SelectItemGroup . ResultSetDataModel .faces.javaserver faces 12. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.faces. 12.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".20 the java.

validator package Interface defining the validator model. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.12 . • • 12.faces.22 the java.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. as well. together. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. and concrete validator implementation classes. 12.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Typically. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . The package contains an exception. and/or user Locale. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.21 the java. LongRangeValidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. RenderKitFactory . markup language. ResponseStateManager .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.faces.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. including a standard servlet.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. AttributeTag . ConverterTag . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). • RenderKit .

related to a UIComponent.a base class for all JSP custom actions. • • • • • FacesServlet .23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. In MVC. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. When using JSF. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded.12 . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. ValidatorTag . which has several implications. that need to process their tag bodies. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the process includes a few more components or pages.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. telling the model to update its data. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. servlets. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. but basically.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. telling the view to update its presentation. 12.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the controller is the 169 . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. When a web server receives a request. FacetTag . When the model is updated.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. UIComponentBodyTag . User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. Likewise. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. Also. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. or when an exception occurs. the controller sends a message to the model.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. or some other web technology. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. which passes the request to the page class. the life cycle is more complicated. the controller sends a message to the view. that request is passed to the container. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. UIComponentTag . In JSF. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.

• Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. These objects update their state with the data values. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. 170 . the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. In addition. converting a String to a Date object).javaserver faces JSF implementation. the conversion occurs in this phase. For a JSF-enabled application. it creates UI objects for each view component. Data can come from input fields in a web form. If this is a subsequent request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. such as components that create HTML input fields. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.12 . and the response is sent to the client. from cookies sent as part of the request. not every request will flow through all six phases. In addition. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. and what happens during the processing and response. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. As with the previous phase. Data for some components. the JSF implementation must create the view. However. depending on the request. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. or from request headers. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. The components are stored in a component tree. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and a piece of data failed validation. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example.

For example. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if errors occur during any of the phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. skipping any remaining phases.12 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. Also. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. 171 .javaserver faces In the above figure. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.

5).COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. 172 .2. For example.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. you must supply its name. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").com) to IP addresses (such as 192."). /usr/hello. 13. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. possibly multiple. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.COM.COM. NDS. in turn. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. c:\bin\autoexec.JNDI 13. DNS. and NIS(YP). names a file hello in the file directory usr. In addition. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. Thus the DNS name sales. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.JNDI 13 . For example. To access a file in the computer. 13. or objects typically used by computer programs.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.13 . JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.48. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. Using JNDI. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file.9. It enables applications to access different. you supply it the name of the object. identifiers. For example. when you use an electronic mail system. The DNS entry Wiz. you are always naming one object or another. such as LDAP. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. which is located in the root of the file system. When using almost any computer program or system. for example.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. A file system maps a filename (for example. The UNIX pathname.Wiz. such as addresses.sun. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. naming and directory services using a common API.

An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. A printer object. delimited by the comma character (".COM. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. For simplicity. also called a file handle. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. o=Sun. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).13 . Instead. Finally. such as COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. is relative to c=us.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For example. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. relative to the entry o=Sun. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). its flight plan. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. might contain the state of the printer.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. is accessed using a file reference. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. For example. 13. and its flight number and departure time. that is. is a context. and fuel and instrument status. For example. some objects cannot be stored directly. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. for example. unbinding names. in the UNIX file system is a context. for example. 173 . For example. 13. such as its print server name and printing protocol. Using the reference.c=us. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. A reference is information about how to access an object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. while the object itself might contain more state information. Typically. That is. A printer object reference. By contrast. such as /usr. Every context has an associated naming convention. and listing bound names. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. which in turn.").2. in a file directory /usr/bin. in the DNS domain Sun.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. on the other hand. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.2. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. an LDAP entry. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.2. that is. is a context. a file directory. A file object. such as c=us.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. a file name is bound to a file. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. For example. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. In another example. 13. a DNS domain. they must be stored by reference.

Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. For example. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). because we can. however. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. programs. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. For example. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. 13. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. A directory object can be used. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.3.2. various telephone numbers. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. resolution. And it kind of makes sense.13 . in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. postal mail address. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. a person. and even the computer itself and other computers.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. a name is unique 13. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. one context can be viewed. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. for example. to some extent. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. a computer.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. 13. For example. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. and color. to represent a printer. two different computer 174 . For example. Thus. An example is the telephone company's directory service. or a network. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. and computer account information. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.

A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.3. support the notion of searches.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. many directories. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. the ability to access directory services will become essential. like any other program running on the network. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. such as the file and print services. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. networks. "mail" is the attribute identifier. for example. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. adding. called a directory information tree (DIT).3. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. The service is accessed through its own interface. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. The query is called a search filter.50". And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. When directory objects are arranged in this way.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. such as that relating to machines. A Java mail client program. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. 13. Alternatively. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.com". 13. such as those based on the LDAP. When you search. By using a directory service. for example.13 . 175 . For example. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. Similarly. 13. an organization object. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. printers.113. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. that is. for example. 13. and users. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. For example. can use the directory in the traditional way.3.4. Within the DIT. The email address. removing. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. 13.smith@somewhere. Many examples of directory services are possible.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.

Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.naming. v1.directory javax. 13. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. 13. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.naming. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. v1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. For example. and even the network.event javax. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2.5. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. For example. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.naming.2.ldap 176 .5. It extends the v1. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). To use the JNDI. more coherent and manageable.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. 13.4.1 and v1.3 and later releases. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1. The Java 2 SDK. emerging.1 and Java 2 SDK. v1.13 . This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.naming javax. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.1 and the Java 2 SDK.

However. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.naming. For the methods in the Context interface. In this case.lang. printer.6.String name argument represents a composite name. 13. and it returns the object bound to that name.6 the naming package The javax. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.String name. the name of the object's class. 13. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. list() is similar to listBindings().6. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .print(report).4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.1 context The javax.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lang. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . and so on. For example.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The overloads that accept java. Furthermore.lang. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.13 . for some objects in the directory. which is the core interface for looking up. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. and the object itself.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. composing them.6. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. A java. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. comparing components.6. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.spi 13. 13. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.JNDI • javax. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. binding/unbinding. 13.lookup("treekiller"). a 177 .naming package defines a Context interface. that is. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.

The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.6. There are no absolute roots. they should catch NamingException. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 178 .7 directory package The javax. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. For example. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.6.directory package extends the javax. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Once you have an initial context. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Otherwise. InitialContext.7.13 . 13.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 13. 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.naming. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. You can add. replace. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.7.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.

An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.ldap package at all. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. To receive event notifications. 13. or unsolicited notifications.9 LDAP package The javax.directory package.naming." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.naming.9. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. 13.9.naming.9. For example. Once registered. and vice versa. 13. such as "object added.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming." and those that do not. called controls . A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. These operations are called "extended" operations. In fact. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.8 event package The javax. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . such as information about the object before and after the change. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.13 . such as "object changed. For example. that is.JNDI 13. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. controls.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.

2 java object support The javax.naming package. 13. That is. This support is provided in the form of object factories.10. 13.naming.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.10 service provider package The javax.11. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.Context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. and receiving response controls. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. create a file named Lookup.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.13 . import javax.1 plug-In architecture The javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13. 13. This support is provided in the form of state factories. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.java.spi package supports implementors of Context.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.naming. if you look up a printer name from the directory. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 180 .10. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.10. 13. In the process of completing an operation. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. 13. sending request controls.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. For example.9. implementors of Context.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.

Hashtable env = new Hashtable().java).sun. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.jndi. If the compilation fails. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).lookup(name). import javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. Object obj = ctx.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.lookup(name).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.naming.fscontext.InitialContext.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).NamingException. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). 13.out. create an initial context.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.RefFSContextFactory"). then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.11.naming.11.err. 13.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.lookup() to look up an object.11. } catch (NamingException e) { System. env. } 13. For this reason. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. using the capitalization shown.JNDI import javax. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. Otherwise.5 compiling the program Next. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.3 looking up an Object Next. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. use Context. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. "com. you must have access to the JNDI classes. 181 . v1. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. If you are still having problems. then the JNDI classes are already included. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. as follows. To compile to program.put(Context.11. // Print it System.13 .jar as an installed extension. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13. If the compilation succeeds.3.

See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. then you will see something like the following. env. 13.naming.directory.InitialDirContext. javax. v1. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.naming.LdapCtxFactory").naming. and your example class (Lookup.12.put(Context.sun. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. create a file named Getattr.sun.13 . javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.jar and providerutil.DirContext.fscontext.class).12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.put(Context. To run the program. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().NamingException. create an initial directory context. import import import import import javax.JNDI 13.jar).jndi.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. "com. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.jndi.directory. 13.naming.directory packages. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.bat If you supply a file directory.6 running the program To run the program.Attributes.PROVIDER_URL.naming.3. include the directory that contains your Lookup.ldap.naming.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. javax. Finally. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. the file system service provider.directory. 182 .RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. env. javax.naming and javax.12. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.java.Context. supply the name of a file in your file system. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. you need access to the JNDI classes.11.

out.get("sn").4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. If you are still having problems.get("sn").3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.err.12.get()). 13. ou=People"). For now. 13. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. Similar to the naming example.get() on it to get its value: attrs.12.get(). If the compilation fails. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. As with the naming example. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.java).get() and then from that attribute get its value.13 . } 13. For this reason. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.println("sn: " + attrs. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. Attributes. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. using the capitalization shown.12. compile the source file using the Java compiler. } catch (NamingException e) { System. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. ou=People"). 183 . If the compilation succeeds.6 compiling the program Next. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.12.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. 13. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.

Getattr. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.PROVIDER_URL. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. then these classes are already included.class. If you have any trouble running this example.12. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.JNDI 13. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.put(Context. With this configuration. ou=People". it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").13 . Once it has the attributes.jar). env. 184 . (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.jar and providerutil.7 running the program As with the naming example.3.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. v1. then see the Common Problems lesson.

unless it has established a durable 185 . JMS client . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. Enterprise Edition. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. JMS message . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . JMS consumer . JMS is a part of the Java Platform. As the name queue suggests. In this model. JMS topic . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS producer .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. JMS queue .14 . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. the messages are delivered in the order sent.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.a JMS client that receives messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. Here. • 14.

and then use populate and send or publish the messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. Depending on the type of message. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. On the receiving side.4.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. Using Java. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.jms. 14. 186 .1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. In that case. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.14 .3 the JMS API programming model 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. 14.

A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.14 . Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. Like the connection factory. Before your application can consume messages. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. The JMS administrator creates these objects.4.close().lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. connection. and users discover them using JNDI. 14. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). For example. It is either a queue or a topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.4. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. It receives messages sent to a destination.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). Before an application completes.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you call the stop() method.4. For example.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. 14.createConnection(). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. In a J2EE application. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must close any connections that you have created. Depending on the connection type. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface. you must call the connection's start() method.

which contains one method. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example. This object implements the MessageListener interface. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.setMessageListener(myListener). 14. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. connection. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. it becomes active. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. MessageConsumer consumer = session. a message listener object may be used. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. if it needs to reply to messages. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.receive(). A message listener does. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. and you can use it to receive messages. 188 . Moreover. usually expect a specific message type and format. For example. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().createConsumer(myQueue). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. however. You use the Session. (Remember always to call the start() method. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. you are likely to miss messages. After you have created a message consumer. onMessage().start().) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.4.start(). After you register the message listener. In the onMessage() method.14 . if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.createConsumer(myTopic). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.receive(1000). consumer.) When message delivery begins. Message m = consumer. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. Message m = consumer.

It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). For example. You must first create the messages. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.send(message). A message has three main parts: 1. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. to create and send a TextMessage. message). With an unidentified producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. Here.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. if you created an unidentified producer. bytes message. 189 .createProducer(null). and object message). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.createProducer(myQueue).7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. stream message. anon_prod. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.4. At the consuming end.send(message). from one application to another. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.createTextMessage(). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. 14. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer.setText(msg_text). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. After you have created a message producer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.14 . 3. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.receive(). map message. MessageProducer producer = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.createProducer(myTopic).4. message. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.send(myQueue. that is. // msg_text is a String producer. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.

Here. To create a transacted session. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. use the following code: Session session = connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. 0). If the user selects transaction support. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. then delivers the messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.4. and message consumers to receive messages. After you create a Connection object. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.14 .createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. } else { // Handle error } 14.getText()). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Before committing the transaction. Session. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).createSession(false. Sessions implement the Session interface. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.out. 190 .println("Reading message: " + message. the first argument means that the session is transacted.

DB interaction transactions . improved performance security . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.15 .logging. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .object oriented representation of data in a DB. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. Version 1.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. container which offers services to the component. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . the container lives (in general) in an application server.no developer coding. server which provides an execution environment for containers. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. The component lives inside a container.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.transaction management can be complex.consistent error handling framework . component recovery scalability portability 191 . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. bundled into a single unit. message-driven beans The 2. 15. On the other side.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .0.jar file into the application server.

the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.15 . the home interface of the bean 3. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the remote interface of the bean 4. as follows: 1. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. which is an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. called ejb-jar. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the deployment descriptor.xml 15.

*.ejb. The developer does not implement this interface.javax. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.RemoteException.javax. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. } 15.ejb. String lastName.rmi. import. RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.15 . } 193 .rmi.RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.*. import java. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. import java.

getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. we need to know: 1. prop. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.15 . this can be done (for example) through SSL.NamingContextFactory". This object acts like a factory for EJBs.interfaces. In the case of an web application. } 194 . Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). what methods to use (know its interface) 3.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. creating them for the client application. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "org.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). "localhost:1099"). how to create or find the bean 2. if the client executes outside the container.put(Context.jnp. prop.

The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. that is part of CORBA standards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do implements the java. in fact.. but for generic languages. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.rmi.e. to the appropriate type. This is done through the javax. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.PortableRemoteObject class and. using the narrow() method.rmi.Remote interface). Some languages. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. 195 .lookup("MyBean"). do not have the concept of casting. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). IIOP has not been designed for Java. and this means that there are some limitations. MyBeanHome. more specifically. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. the client has a stub). Why? For EJB. Problem is. • if the client executes outside the container. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.class).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.narrow(homeRef. in fact.rmi.15 . the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.

as well). } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.processEntry("Dumitrascu". "Vasile". we concentrate now on the bean class itself. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.. import javax.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. int custId) { // method implementation .. remove the bean instance myObject.create(). 15. String lastName.ejb. call business methods on the bean myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. 1102). the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.remove().ejbeans. public class MyBean implements javax.bank11.15 .. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ejb.ccards.SessionContext..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).

15. 15. A stateless bean does not.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.15 .9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. that is. 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. namely stateful and stateless beans. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. the object is activated. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 197 . A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.

the EJB container activates the bean. All other methods in Figure 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. For example. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. (Typically. 198 . If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. At the end of the life cycle. is inside the bean class. the client invokes the remove method. Figure 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. The ejbCreate method. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. or passivate. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.1 are invoked by the EJB container.15 . for example. 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.

12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. support for concurrent access 3. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database).15 . • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. equals() 199 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4.

15. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. an instance of that bean is created. Update and Delete. methods which have the same parameters.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. CreateException. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.14. in the same order. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. all throwing RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.ccards. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. We can have more create() methods. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). as the parameters in the original create() method.15 . 200 . state data is stored into data store (usually.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.lang. Read.bank11. On the other side. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.

the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. Second. 201 . the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.14. actual SQL update code.15 . 15. All instances in the pool are identical. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. left empty most of the time in CMP.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). for BMP. but the developer returns null for CMP. On the first path. After the EJB container creates the instance.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the programmer will create actual SQL code. While in the pooled stage. First. for BMPs.14. in BMP. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. After instantiation. it's business methods can be invoked. the client invokes the create method. it is empty. 15. not null. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. On the second path. but in general. a client can invoke the remove method. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).14. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.

or a Web component . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. In the pooled state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. 202 . the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. 15. With bean-managed persistence. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the values of the instance variables are not needed.getPrimaryKey().or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . In the pooled state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. If the primary key is incorrect.an application client.15 . Therefore. it does not automatically set the primary key. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. another enterprise bean.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. It acts as a JMS message listener.

2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. To avoid tying up server resources. message-driven bean can be used. The onMessage method may call helper methods.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. the message will be redelivered. 15. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. but not asynchronously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.16. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. Previously. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.for example.16. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. a JMS API connection. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. For more information on this element see.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. 203 . A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. max-beans-infree-pool. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. In several respects. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. When a message arrives.16. an open database connection. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15. Unlike a session or entity bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. If message processing is rolled back. To ensure concurrency. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.15 . 15. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . If this element is set to more than one.

use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. or create a new one.} // onMessage() is required. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.ejb. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.16... and must take a single parameter of // type javax.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.15 . 15. 3.jms. Note: These instances can be pooled. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.16. // An EJB constructor is required. public void onMessage(javax.Message MessageName) {. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. Classes. 15. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. As with other EJB types.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. methods.. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. Obtain a new bean instance. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. public void ejbRemove() {. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2... call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.}. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.. and it must not // accept parameters.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.jms. 2. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.0 specification.Message.16. finalize{}.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.

15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). from the client perspective the EJB still exists. If any method throws such an exception. 15.MessageListener. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().15 . However.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. getUserTransaction(). so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.16. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.16. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.jms.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. even in onMessage(). 15. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15.onMessage() for more information.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. See javax.16. getRollbackOnly() .This is not a client context. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . For example. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.

Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.16. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. 15.0 specification. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16.16.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.15 . as required by the EJB 2. In either case. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .0 specification.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.xml.

The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.message. 15. 2.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. </message-driven> . jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.0 specification. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. For each instance. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. the weblogic-ejb-jar.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .jms... The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.15 ...ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.ejb20.xml deployment file. 207 .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml elements. as described in the EJB 2.

15.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. access control entries . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the container calls the ejbRemove method. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. a message-driven bean is never passivated. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.security issues.15 . EJB class name 5.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. control descriptors . isolation level.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. attributes . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. At the end of the life cycle.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. security 208 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.like transaction. entity specific elements 10. the remote interface name 8. environment properties 6.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. the home interface name 7. bean home name . session specific elements 9.

ejb.lang.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.bank11.ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.bank11.15 .bank11.ejb.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.

.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.15 .lang.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.


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