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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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7 business components Business code. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. like HTML pages. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. 1. 5 . and sends it back to the client program. like the client tier. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. retail. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. are not considered web components. The web tier.1 . Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Figure 1.java platform.2 Server communication 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. processes it (if necessary). Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. processes it (if necessary). enterprise edition Figure 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. or finance.

In addition. For example. enterprise bean. and other complex low-level details. resource pooling.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. or application client component can be executed.3 Web. 6 . Before a web.1 . mainframe transaction processing.9. 1. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Business and EIS Tiers 1. database systems. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.java platform.9 java EE Containers Normally. and other legacy information systems. multithreading. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. enterprise edition Figure 1.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). 1.

data persistence. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. For example. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 7 . The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. 1.4. including services such as security.1 . application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and remote connectivity. After an enterprise bean is created. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.java platform. transaction management. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.9. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. database connection resource pooling.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.

10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Application client container . Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. test. or any kind of binary data such as audio.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. video. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . develop.manages the execution of application client components. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.1 . maps. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Application clients and their container run on the client. Applet container . XML data. 1.10. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.manages the execution of applets. Web container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.java platform. 1. program files.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. text-based standard for representing data. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. extensible. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. or for document-oriented web services. 8 .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. When XML data is exchanged between parties. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.

and ways to communicate with the service.10. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. 9 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). 1. 1.1 . such as Universal Description.10. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The description includes the name of the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. enterprise edition 1. the location of the service. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.java platform.10. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.

This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . In Java EE 5. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.java platform. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. standard set of tags. or enterprise bean. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. 1.11.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. enterprise edition Figure 1. the session bean and its data are gone.11.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11.1 . and XML) and JSP elements. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.11. you employ a single.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. If the client terminates. 1. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. 1. or if the server shuts down. WML. Commonly. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. No extra coding is needed. At runtime. 15 . or component accordingly. module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. and JNDI 1. better tools. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. Once deployed on a local platform. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. or better customer support. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. JTA. JSP page. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. or a component. such as better performance. the application is ready to run.ear extension. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. a module. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. it is ready to be deployed.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. SAAJ.1 .java platform. servlet.

which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. for example. and a web application deployment descriptor.jar extension. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. JSP files. Web modules. which contain all Java interfaces.1 . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. supporting class files. Resource adapter modules. • • 16 .jar extension. GIF and HTML files. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. Application client modules. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. enterprise edition Figure 1.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.java platform. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. and other documentation. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. classes. such as caching directives. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. which contain servlet class files. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. For example. native libraries. Together. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension.

2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. The client sends a request message to the server.1. check the official HTTP site – www.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.html). The server answers with a response message.ietf. These messages may have different contents. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).org/Protocols . RFC 2616 (06/99).3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. namely HTTP 1. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . as follows: 1. The second (and last. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.w3.2 . 2. HEAD. we recommend www. but they also have some common structural elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.apps..HTTP 2 .1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text..HTTP 2. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.jmarshall.org/rfc/rfc1945. . was the object of several RFCs. zero or more header lines 3. an initial line 2. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. POST.. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet..com/easy/http. so far) version.

1 specification. mailing list. HTTP/1. POST 4. TRACE Three other commands are listed. DELETE 6.1.html HTTP/1. but lack of support makes them obsolete. 2. GET 2.0).Annotation of existing resources. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. newsgroup. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. CONNECT 5. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. 18 . HEAD 3. OPTIONS 7. as well. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.2 . The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. PUT 8.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.Posting a message to a bulletin board. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. in the HTTP 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . Here is their list: 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. .

while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.2 . 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. 2. In this case. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. .” On the other side.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . such as the result of submitting a form. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.Providing a block of data. or a record is subordinate to a database.6 differences between GET and POST 1. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. separated by the character “&” or “. or ordering a product. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.Extending a database through an append operation. or sending E-mail 2. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. .8 the status code A three-digit integer. (encoded as multipart/form-data). while POST may involve anything. like storing or updating data. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. after the “?” character. 3. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. to a data-handling process.HTTP or similar group of articles.0 404 Not Found 2. or in the message body. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. When used for form data submission. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).

such as text/html or image/jpg. Although the header names are not case sensitive. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. out of which.2 .0 version specifies 16 headers. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.1).1 version specifies 46 of them. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. 404 Not Found . 2. and the resulting resource (e.the request succeeded.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. The HTTP 1.an unexpected server error.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. while the HTTP 1. or otherwise can't run correctly. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).1 only) . The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. If an HTTP message includes a body. that is. 500 Server Error . The most common use of the message body is in a response. header values are. header name and header value. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. 20 .0.g.the requested resource doesn't exist. file or script output) is returned in the message body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. In a request. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. 2. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . and section 10 for HTTP 1. none of them mandatory. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client. In particular. separated a semicolon. fails. one (Host) is mandatory.

text. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. message. multipart. 21 . digest.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtypes mixed.uvt.ietf. with subtype plain 2.uvt. application. Then.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtype mpeg 2. with subtypes jpeg. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. .org/rfc/rfc1521. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtypes rfc822. alternative. Here is the list of the seven types. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.0 From: someuser@yahoo.2 . gif 6. parallel 3. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. with subtype basic 7.ro. audio. 1. image.info.ro/path/file.info. postscript 5.0 200 OK Date: Fri. external-body 4. with subtypes octet-stream. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).apps.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. video.html HTTP/1.HTTP 2. RFC 1521 (www. partial.html first open a socket to the host web.

2 . the server closes the socket. 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP .

Other helpful sites . The XHTML 1.jmarshall.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.apps. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.01) can be found at this address: http://www. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.0. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. It is a revision of 4. However. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0 draft was released in 01. The newest version of HTML is 4.2 (3.HTML 3. HTML describes how text.0) dates from 08.99. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. Originally named Web Applications 1. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.org/Markup . The first official version – HTML 2. The latest version (XHTML 2.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.com/easy/html . check the official HTML site – www. www. 3. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .org/rfc/rfc1866. A newer standard.html) and was widely supported.0 .0 and was accepted in December 1997. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). The first version of HTML. HTML 3.www.HTML 3 .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.html. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. a working draft for the next major revision. As a practical reference site use – www.com/tutors. Since it fits in a couple of pages.01.w3c.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.ietf.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Version 4.w3. From 1999 on. namely HTML 1.blooberry.htmlgoodies.com/indexdot/html . Mosaic.0.3 .

implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. This section deals with some of the most common elements.01 specification. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. You get the point. Overall. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. An example: <!-. 3. 3. HTML 4. though. CONTROLS.the chinese character for water. 4. like ALIGN.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. …. look at these examples: “&lt”. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. BORDER. If you wonder what a character reference is. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.and end at the first occurrence of -->. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 Transitional DTD.w3. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. DYNSRC. <><> --> 25 .HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. the specification of HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it." (in hexadecimal) . three DTDs (HTML 4. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.acesta este un comentariu. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. VSAPCE are omitted. "&#x6C34.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.0 Strict DTD. Check the address http://www. “&quot”.3 .

4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.uvt. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.5 tables 26 .2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.HTML 3. etc.3 .3.ro/webmail/src/login.3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.info. NAME.

The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <TR>. <THEAD>.3 . Here is their description and attributes. Usually. columns. Here is a an example of a table: 3.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <TH> and <TD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. its rows.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.required.7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .

ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . the browser appends the values to the URL.8.uvt. "text/plain" • • 3. Main attributes: 29 . Main attributes: • TYPE . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .required. allows multiple selections from the choice list. after a quotation mark . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. 3. "submit". "file". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.?.:. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "radio". SIZE .8.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . specifies the parameter name.info.the default value.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.HTML • METHOD .sends the form values in a single transmission. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". specifies how data will be sent to the server. "button". "hidden". "reset".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "GET" .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. however. "image".3 .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . may have the values GET or POST. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.required.maximum number of options visible to the user. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .if specified. NAME . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. • 3. Example: http://web.8. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8 form related elements 3.required. "password". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "checkbox".

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

java. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.java One example of command line compilation: 4. The current version (as of 10.90. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. -g : generate all debugging info. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The first time a class is loaded.) in 08. In terms of execution time.2 version. project started in 12.3 java applications 31 . but next time execution is much faster. jit From source to execution. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.class file. The current version (as of 10. 4.0.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Inc.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.. Example: Edit the file prog1.4 .class 3. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. Java source – a file with extension . Java bytecode – a file with extension . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. the compilation process occurs.java 2. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.2 java the interpreter. javac -classpath . which accounts for a pretty slow execution.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. To overcome this significant shortage.95.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.class.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.class file.4.JAVA PRIMER 4 . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. Early versions of Java were released in 12.C:\TW\mySource. a tool named Just In Time compiler. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .95.JAVA PRIMER 4. following the 1.

2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.java. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.jar file.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .4 .4. or that it extends A). Generally. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. An example: 32 . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4. or is derived from A. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). 4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.4 object oriented concepts 4. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. In general. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.

4. a Java class can extend a single base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Integer. Short. Therefore. Float. In fact. Boolean.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. called Object. Therefore.4. Character. 4. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. with the root the class Object.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. namely: Byte. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. In OO jargon. Double. a class can have more than one method with the same name. 33 .4 . and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. providing its own implementation. this is called method overloading.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . 4.4. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Long. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.1 bit char .

A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. anywhere abstract . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.access from any class anywhere private .http..HttpServlet implements Serializable { .. } declares an abstract class. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .4 . inherited).servlet.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. • • • • no specifier .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.the class is visible from any class. automatic garbage collection. A final: • • • variable .does not have any subclasses. which extends the class javax.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .one which is constant method . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.http. no templates. Except for the "package" concept. class . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. rather than at class instance.no access from outside the class itself protected . method . 34 . 4.servlet.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. has the same value for all class instances. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.one which is defined at class level.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). A final variable (method.

4 . In Java. java errors .7. as defined in the java.JAVA PRIMER 4. not at execution time. 4.7.ThreadDeath. standard method exceptions 3. programmer defined exceptions 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 2. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Exception categories: 1. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.like invalid cast.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. namely class Error and the class Exception. code or data errors . division by 0.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . array index out of bounds.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.7. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.7.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). 4.

All other packages must be explicitly imported.ccards. 4.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.8.servlets. they have to be unique inside a package. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .util. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. string analyzers.1 Package names The default package has no name. In the example above.*..sql.zip . As a general rule.default.support for java archives creation java. The package containing the standard classes is java.java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.security 36 .4 . date and time info java.util .sql java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. import javax.lang . . finally construct.awt.. followed by the import statements.net java.geom . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.awt . don't have to import java.support for data collections.support for user interface java. An example: package com.rmi java.class file.util. 4. the default package is used). therefore. 4.nio java. the class (the .bank11.lang (automatically available).support for event handling java.this can be done by providing a try.awt. import.event .Properties. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. catch. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.io java.by adding the key word throws.

If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. static and final. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All variables (actually.text javax. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. 37 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.support for event handling 4.swing . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing.accessibility javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. it must be declared as abstract.event . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).4 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.

depending on the browser . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .A JavaScript statement like this: document.javaScript 5 . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. other 38 .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. The origins of this language date back to 1995. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.5 . like QtScript or ActionScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. This is not always what we want.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. However. then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . and . as JavaScript. 5.JAVASCRIPT 5. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.HTML authors are normally not programmers.

you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. 39 . point to the . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .5 .4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.3. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . When you place a script in the head section.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3. To simplify this. without having to write the same script on every page... </script> </body> 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.javaScript times when a user triggers an event..js file extension. 5. </script> </head> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. go in the head section. or when an event is triggered.

5 .4.5..2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. break.. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".1 JavaScript for.4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.. catch constructs. continue.. switch(). in and the try .. in loop is executed once for each element/property. for().javaScript 5. while()... namely – if . while() it is worth mentioning the for .4.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. else. 5. The code in the body of the for ..4.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. 5.In statement The for. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.

. or a property of an object.. Mozilla 1.catch statement The try.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. mycars[0] = "Saab".in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . When users see errors.5. an array element.3 try. The try block contains the code to be run. Example Using for. mycars[2] = "BMW".catch statement (available in IE5+.5 .. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. they often leave the Web page. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.0. so you don't lose your audience. mycars[1] = "Volvo".. for (x in mycars) { document. var mycars = new Array().. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.5.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.

alert(txt).7 popup boxes 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. txt+="Click OK to continue.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. Syntax: 42 .7. txt+="Error description: " + err. Also.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).\n\n".description + "\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. 5.5 . When an alert box pops up.\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").

If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.7.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.8."defaultvalue") 5. Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.8 functions 5. If the user clicks "OK".. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the box returns false.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.7. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .5 .1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the box returns null. in the example above had not been written within a function. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. When a confirm box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext".js file).javaScript alert("sometext") 5. in the <head> section. the box returns true.

var2. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. document.9. var2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.9. and how they are used. etc are variables or values passed into the function.8.. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". So.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.javaScript function functionname(var1. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. 5.. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. 5..varX) { some code } var1. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.5 . An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.length).. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.write(txt. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . and will be stored in the variable called product.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9 javaScript objects 5.

write(str. document. The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. which will be specified in the next section.toUpperCase()). The other class are the language specific objects. 45 .javaScript 5.9.

Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.5 . Even this Document itself is an Object. At its most basic level. N: Netscape. every Link on the page is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. or when the user interacts with a Web page. as well).1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.asp 5. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.com/jsref/default. When an event message has been triggered. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. which are called Objects. every Image on the page is an Object.w3schools. For example.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. check the site http://www. Properties FF: Firefox. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.

Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .11.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.

1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a four-digit number. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.

according to Greenwich time. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to universal time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string.11. according to local time. N: Netscape. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.5 .

11. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 .5 3 4 .5 4 .5 4 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. var myNum=new Number(number). The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .

11.5 . 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 2.javaScript 5. 2. 1. 0.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.y) pow(x.434) Returns PI (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) min(x. 3.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 0.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.

skin tone.firstname="John".javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. lastname. Objects also have methods. eye color.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. play(). personObj. personObj. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. personObj. sleep(). personObj. The persons' methods could be eat(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. work(). Properties are the values associated with the object.firstname="John". 5. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.age=30. height. with a collection of properties and methods.firstname).12. 53 .5 . personObj. etc.write(personObj. etc.age=50.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj.lastname="Doe". document.lastname="Doe".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Assume that the personObj already exists . The persons' properties include name.eyecolor="blue". age. age. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. weight.you can give it properties named firstname.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.eyecolor="blue".12. All persons have these properties.12. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.

lastname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).eyecolor=eyecolor. you can create new instances of the object.firstname=firstname.age=age.age.lastname=lastname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.eyecolor=eyecolor. 5.eyecolor) { this. like this: myFather=new person("John". Inside the function you need to assign things to this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.50.age. this.5 .newlastname=newlastname. this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."Rally".eyecolor) { this."blue").lastname=new_lastname. } Notice that the template is just a function."green")."Doe". this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. this.propertyName. this.age=age. this.12. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.lastname=lastname.lastname. this.eat=eat.firstname=firstname. Once you have the template.48. You can also add some methods to the person object. myMother=new person("Sally". This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. 54 .javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.

javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.". now you can write: myMother. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.5 .. For example. So. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .newlastname("Doe"). We define the events in the HTML tags. 5.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.

The name is then stored in a cookie.w3schools. If the field values are not accepted.5 .13. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.2 onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.13. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. the submit should be cancelled. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. For example. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.13. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .

the Document Object Model activity is closed. CSS. and style of a document. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. 6. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Right now (oct. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. 2010). W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . HTML. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.Html DOM 6 . The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.. In other words. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. or WebAPI being among them. By October 1998. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. structure.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.6 . The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. XML. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. As of January 2008. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. SVG. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. However.g. The W3C 58 . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).HTML DOM 6. particularly those used in Web browsers. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.

Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. DOM Level 3 Core. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it.6 . Level 2. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 6. 2. Level 2 XML namespace support.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. To claim to support a level. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). DOM Level 3 Validation. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. a new DOM Core specification. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 1. As of 2005. and 6. DOM Level 3 XPath. 5. HTML-specific elements are included as well.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. each of which contains required and optional modules. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 4. which further enhances the DOM 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. 3.

W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. The Window object represents a browser window. By 2005. In order to be cross-browser compatible.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. interoperability problems were numerous.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x and Netscape 4. Opera. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x were still widely used in 2000. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. that is. All HTML elements.6 . can be accessed through the 60 . including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. along with their containing text and attributes. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. 6. support multiple browsers. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. and Safari. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. Konqueror.

6 . It can be used by any programming language like Java. and new elements can be created. and VBScript. JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .

8. 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 62 .1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The tree structure is called a node-tree. The <html> node has two child nodes. The <head> node holds a <title> node.9.8. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. everything in an HTML document is a node. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. <head> and <body>.6 . the text of an element node is stored in a text node. 6.Html DOM 6. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. However. the element node <title>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.

The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.6 . Parent nodes have children. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. • • • • • In a node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted. child.getElementById('main'). The terms parent. By navigating the node tree.9. and the connections between them. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.getElementsByTagName("p"). and new elements can be created. 63 . By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.2 node parents. the top node is called the root Every node.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. children. using the node relationships. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). except the root. By using the getElementById() method 2.

i<x.write("<br />"). each node is an object.9.write(x[i]. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.6 .innerHTML). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .Html DOM for (i=0. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.i++) { document. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). document.length.

5 example .getElementById("intro"). 6. txt=x.Html DOM 6. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.nodeValue.firstChild. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.9.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.6 .get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.

For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. including window. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames.6 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. objects and images.

Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. as of version 1. Fires when an element is activated. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. also supports these methods. Mozilla. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). for instance. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. say "click". W3C takes a middle position in this struggle.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. 67 . through a mouse click or a keypress. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Also. and then bubbled up. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. When the user clicks on the inner element. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. DOMNodeInserted.3. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.6 . Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. 6. Safari.

12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Unfortunately. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.6 .Html DOM 6. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. including information about target element. mouse position. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. preventDefault 68 . key pressed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.

XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. but also to save resources.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. For example. The server does some processing — retrieving data. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. before the whole page was sent within the network. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. dynamic website. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. fields of forms.AJAX 7 . JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. menus. choices of user.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. etc. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. 7. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. crunching numbers. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.7 .AJAX 7. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. 7. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 69 . Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. For improving sharing of resources. using web services or Php scripts. It is not a technology in itself. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.

but the opposite is true. what’s the user doing? That’s right. 70 . While the server is doing its thing. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. waiting.7 . So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. at the start of the session. waiting around for the server to do something. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. Obviously. And at every step in a task. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around. Once an interface is loaded. the user waits some more. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Instead of loading a web page.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. usually using XML.7 . loading additional interface code.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. editing data in memory.

It allows the interaction with the servers.send: send a request to the server.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".holds loaded data as a string of characters.7 . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. . 4: finished.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. and in this purpose.holds a Xml loaded file. GET or POST . This object provides two methods: . 3: answer in process.open: create a connection.200 is ok.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. thanks to its methods and attributes.returned by the server . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. These events are user actions. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. DOM's method allows to extract data. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.mode: type of request. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 1: connection established. boolean) . they call functions associated to elements of the web page.for a Xml file or . url. 404 if the page is not found . .url: the location of the file 72 . To get data on the server. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. 7.for a simple text. .responseText .AJAX 7.responseXml . 2: request received. onreadystatechange . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.

xul. URL of the document.open: command GET or POST.XMLHTTP").boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. OK } else { // wait.AJAX . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .fr/somefile.open('GET'.send: with POST only. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. The request below reads a document on the server. for browser compatibility. the data to send to the server.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. 73 . .readyState == 4) { // received.xml'. } else if (window. . http_request. but two options must be tried. if (request...send(null).onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. true). request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. http_request.. 'http://www. Safari. true for asynchronous.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().6 building a request. // Firefox. if (window.7 .null for a GET command 7.

responseText.ajax. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). if(window. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.item(0).7 examples 7.dyn=""Received:" + req.7.responseText.ajax.AJAX 7.getElementsByTagName('root').ajax. req. req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7 .XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). else document.status == 200) document. }.open("GET". // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.responseXML.7. true). req. "data. req.status.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.send(null).2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. by this code: var doc = req.readyState == 4) if(req.dyn="Error code " + req. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .xml".XMLHTTP). else if (window.dyn="Received:" + req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

servlet classes. Here is a small. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.xml file: <?xml version="1. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. descriptions). For example. 8.bank11. entries related to session configuration.8 . After an enterprise bean is created. 6. classes. like: 1. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. database connection resource pooling. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.)> <web-app> <!-. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have..4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. 2. web. 4.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.servlets.class>com.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. 3. JSPs and Java Server Faces.ccards. but typical web. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. welcome pages. Servlet. Servlet. data persistence. Initialization of parameters for servlets. like what pages are error. Others. 5. MIME types used by the web application.

8 .xml". it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" 2. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Behind a very benign URL.ccards. the name of the web application.servlets".bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com.bank11. whose name is rather long.servlets. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. for flexibility. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Basicly. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. 1. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml file of the web application.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.servlets".bank11.ccards. basicly. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. In general. Unfortunately. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. However. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Then the "EnrollServlet. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. For example.xml" file.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.

small footprint.2.4. the HttpServlet) class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. Technically speaking.9 .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. in most cases as part of an application server. modular design 9.5 and is in final state.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. 9. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.4. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.0 specification is available for public review. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. from BEA Systems.SERVLETS 9 . tjws spec 2.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . the Java Servlet 3. this is just a work in progress. which extend the functionality of the web server. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). but at this point. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. 9. 2010. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.SERVLETS 9. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. more often. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . As of oct. but through a web container.0 specification.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. platform independent programs.

public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). which are part of the Java Platform SDK.9 . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. WebSphere. These packages are: • • javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. Enterprise Edition. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet package.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.servlet javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . the javax. while the second one. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. from IBM 9. IOException. 82 .servlet package are protocol independent.servlet. from Apple Inc. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. public void service(ServletRequest req.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.

The method performs all initialization required. namely the HttpServlet class. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. 83 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. 9. in a different section. Throwable t) 9. After instantiating the servlet.9 . Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. as well. This method has two arguments. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. The servlet API provides such a specific class. ServletConfig.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. respectively. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg.

servlet. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.Exception class. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.9 .7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.lang.ServletException javax. It also extends the java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init().lang. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.servlet.

Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. If the servlet does not implement the javax. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. respectively. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.servlet.SingleThreadModel. DB connection opening.9 . the container calls the init() method of the servlet. Typically. etc. this method contains JDBC driver loading. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. 9. which will service all incoming requests. 85 . JSP or JSF. Typically. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. After instantiation. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Also. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.

12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.9 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.SERVLETS 9.

xml file. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.servlets.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.io.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.bank11. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. import java.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.9 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. This is done in server's (container's) server. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.*. 87 .java" file: package com.ccards.

out. out.setContentType(“text/html”). PrintWriter out = resp.servlet. out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.init(config).http.println("merge"). out.println("</head>").close(). out.*. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.getWriter(). import javax.println("<title>Servlet</title>").9 .println("<html>").println("</body>").println("</html>").*. out.println("<head>").SERVLETS import javax. out. // output your page here out.println("<br>").println("<body>"). out. IOException { resp.servlet. } } 88 .

0.JDBC 10. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). the javax.1. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. 1997. This solution is inefficient.sql package 2. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. Starting with version 3. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.jdbc. as recognized by the DB industry. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . 10. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.JdbcOdbcDriver .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. the java. After that.sun. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.sql package. These drivers fall into four standard categories. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.0 while the current (4. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. The JDBC 4. Type 1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. 89 .JDBC 10 . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.10 .odbc.

The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 4. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.10 . 90 . It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Java. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Type 3. which in turn. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.JDBC Type 2.

sql.Array java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.Driver java.Time java.sql.Date java.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.Clob java.sql.Struct java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.Blob java.Connection java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.SQLXML java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.0 API. defined in the JDBC 3.10 .SQLException java.Types java.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.3 the java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.JDBC 10.sql.sql.sql.Timestamp java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.0).CallableStatement java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.Statement java.SQLData java.sql. java.DriverManager java.ResultSetMetaData java.

sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.10 .0.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLException java.sql.SQLInput java.sql. loading a database driver 2.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.Clob java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql. processing the result set 92 .4 interaction schema in the java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLTransientException java.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.NClob java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql. querying the database 4.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLDataException java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.Statement java.ResultSet java.Connection java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.Blob java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.RowId java. java.sql.sql.sql.Types java.sql.sql package.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.StatementEvent javax.sql.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.sql.

driver.borland.OracleDriver sun.SybDriver com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.jdbc.odbc.jdbc.10 .sybase. A database driver is specified by the driver name.DataStoreDriver com. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.ibm. The first one is loading a database driver.datastore.net.DB2Driver oracle.JDBC 10.db2.jdbc.

Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". import java. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. Since we just used it.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.sql.bank11. String user = "root".*. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.mysql.10 .util. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).getConnection(connURL. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. user.Driver"). try { Class.mm. as specified by the driver vendor. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).*.gjt. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.printStackTrace().forName("org. passwd). by using the connection URL. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.newInstance().JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. 94 . but let's take it for granted: import java.

prp. prp. java. prp). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.util.put("create". but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Properties prp = new Properties(). "true"). Once we get the hold of a Connection object. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.10 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . "true").getConnection(connURL. String user. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetConcurrency. Connection conn = DriverManager.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.put("autocommit".6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.JDBC 10. 10. we can use it for various purposes.sql package.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.

respectively. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.JDBC 10. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 . Statement.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

10 .".sql. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . stmt.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects..ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.executeUpdate(sqlString).9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(). Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. 10. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.

all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.10 . as the argument. a concurrency of read only. and CallableStatement objects. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. PreparedStatement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. 98 . What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.Big Decimal Object float 10. mins.sql. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a standard Connection object 2. time.sql package. Basic implementation -. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. secs date.0 optional package. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.Time java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. It is part of the javax. a factory for creating DB connections.sql.DataSource object.math.sql.10 . This interface is.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math.produces a Connection object that will 103 . Connection pooling implementation -.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. basicly.

private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". javax.class. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.sql.http. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().naming.*.servlets.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. private DataSource theDataSource. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.sql. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. import import import import import import java. Distributed transaction implementation -.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).servlet. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.bank11. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.io.ccards.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. javax.*.*. java.getLogger(TestDataSource. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. 3.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax.servlet.*.getName()).*.10 . 104 .

ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } 105 .10 ...

11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The package javax. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The package javax.servlet.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.1 and is related to the 2.servlet.JSP 11. the servlet code is regenerated. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JSP 11 .jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.jsp and javax. namely javax.11 . The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.tagext.servlet.jsp.5 Java Servlet specification.jsp. 11.servlet.jsp. If the JSP is modified. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.servlet. The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.2 the java. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

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6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). 111 . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.11 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". include and taglib. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".JSP • if the URL does not start with / .. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.

1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7.JSP 11.11 . this code goes to inside the service() method. 11. Assigns it to available name or id. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7 scripting elements 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7. In Tomcat.

The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . you must specify param. and if so. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .11 .the name of a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. Attributes description: • • • name .

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.13 the forward standard action 114 . <jsp:plugin> actions.only the "true" value is supported. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .the URL of the page. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . flush . <jsp:forward>. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. 11.11 .

name . If you do not supply a value..the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code..the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. You must include the . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . name="instanceName" .. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .11 .. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).a name for the Bean or applet instance.. as this attribute has no default value. 11. archive="URIToArchive. when we want to separate the application into different views. It is used mainly. as well.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 ." . . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. code="classFileName" .the name of a bean instance. servlet or to a static resource. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. You must specify either bean or applet. depending on request.the type of object the plugin will execute.class extension in the name following code.

request .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. config . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.servlet. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.jsp. page . session . and domain name.11 .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the amount of space. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. based on the servlet API.the initial height and width. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.16 scopes 1. in pixels. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . response .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . it has javax.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. optional port number.it represents the buffered version of java. of the image the applet or Bean displays. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .represents server's response to the request.io. The value is a full URL.1. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . with a protocol name.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. writes to the output stream to the client. it has java.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.JspWriter type and scope page 7. objects which are automaticly available. request . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.1" . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.PrintWriter.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. out .Object type and scope page 11. pageContext .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. in pixels. The default value is 1.lang. application . 1.represents the servlet context. Must be a small nonzero number.

jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. page . if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 3. session . Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.beans.jsp file.init(). the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. application .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. Object value) method 4.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 2.bank11.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.11 .ccards. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.

a software development and consulting company. private String colors[]. an int. a float. private boolean flag. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. 11. SimpleBean.register(). a boolean and another String).mapping. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).devsphere.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. The SimpleBean class is declared public.string.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.simple.18. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private String optional. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private int list[].java: package com. private int integer.examples. The public constructor could have been omitted. private SimpleSubBean subBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.11 .io.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .Serializable { private String string. private float number.

colors[index].JSP this.flag. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.string = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.11 .colors = values. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.colors.integer = value.number.flag = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.number = value.integer. } 119 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.

optional = value. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.colors[index] = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list = values.list. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.11 .subBean. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. String value) { this.list[index]. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. int value) { this. } } 120 . } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional.subBean = value.list[index] = value.

// No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.string = value.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.examples. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.Serializable { private String string. SimpleSubBean.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .java: package com.mapping. private float number.11 .number = value.simple.devsphere.number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.18. } } 11.io. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).string.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.

3 } }.java: package com. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. error messages. The list of optional properties has a single element.mapping. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "One or more items must be selected" }. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.number]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "An option must be selected" }.list]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.18. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Boolean(true) }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.simple. new Float(0.string]".util. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. "abc" }.123) }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. a boolean and an int[]. "One or more colors must be selected" }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. the processing order. There are three error messages.devsphere. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]".number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.flag]". the list of optional properties. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.examples.11 . The default values are defined for a String.colors]". new String[] { 123 . These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. SimpleBeanResources. a float. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. the form's name and the processor's name.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new int[] { 2.

JSP "optional" } }. "integer".devsphere.devsphere. com.examples. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.logging.devsphere.util. { "[FORM_NAME]". "SimpleForm. SimpleHndl.*.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.mapping.jsp" } }. string values are converted to numbers. new String[] { "string". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. "number".devsphere.11 .ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. "SimpleProc.mapping.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.html" }. "flag". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. { "[PROC_NAME]".simple. "list".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). For a better understanding of this example. The beanToForm() method of com. If necessary. } } 11.mapping. "subBean" } }.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. "colors".18. "optional".

response). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getRealPath(formPath).forward(request. formPath = application.getTemplate(new java. logger).removeUserErrors(errorTable).JSP = HandlerUtils.11 . simpleBean.getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. int slashIndex = basePath. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.util.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).trim().getMethod(). 125 . // Construct the base path String basePath = request.lastIndexOf('/').formToBean(formData. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getClass()).equals("POST").getDocument(). slashIndex+1) : "".File(formPath)).getString("[PROC_NAME]").getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Process the valid data bean instance application. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).trim().getServletPath(). errorTable = HandlerUtils.io.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.substring(0.

getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. if (list.examples.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.append("{ ").getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. // Send the form document document. i < list.mapping. errorTable.length == 0) return "". } %> 11. for (int i = 0.JSP elements logger).jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.beanToForm(simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.simple. document. i++) 126 . StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().getSubBean().11 .18.getSubBean(). SimpleProc. strbuf.length.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].devsphere.getString() %> <P> subBean.send(out).string = <%= simpleBean.number = <%= simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.

for (int i = 0.toString(). strbuf. } strbuf. } strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. if (list.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append(list[i]). In addition.length. ComplexForm.append(" ").jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.simple.formToBean() call.length == 1) return Integer. return strbuf.append("}"). i < list.toString().append(list[i]).mapping. making the testing and the debugging easier. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. strbuf. ComplexHndl. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append(" ").length == 0) return "".11 . Using the framework.18.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } %> 11.jsp files. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append("}"). In addition. A single call to FormUtils. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.devsphere.util. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.examples.toString(list[0]). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). return strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.append("{ "). i++) { strbuf.

String colorLabels[] = { "Red". j++) if (colors[j]. "Option 3" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.length. "green". "blue" }. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". i < colorValues. "Option 2".getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.getColors(). "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 . "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". for (int i = 0.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.11 .equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.length. for (int i = 0. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Green".getInteger() == value. j < colors. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }. boolean checked = simpleBean.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. i++) { int value = i+1. i < integerLabels.

"list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.SimpleSubBean()). j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. "Item 2".11 .mapping.length.getList(). "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getSubBean().getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.devsphere.setSubBean( new com. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.length.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.JSP break. "Item 3" }. break. "subBean. i++) { int value = i+1. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". j < list. i < listItems. for (int i = 0. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. boolean selected = false.examples. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.

Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. "subBean. 130 .setSubBean(simpleSubBean).devsphere.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getSubBean().examples.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getString() == null || simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.getMethod(). return message.get(property).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples.Hashtable errorTable.equals("POST"). if (message == null) message = "".setString("abc").mapping.simple.simple. } %> ComplexHndl.mapping.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.11 . if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.util.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.length() == 0) { simpleBean. boolean isPostMethod = request.devsphere.util.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getString().

length() == 0 || flagValue.getParameter("number").getParameter("flag").getColors().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setFlag(flagValue != null).trim(). else { simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 .setNumber(0. "Must be filled").equals("false")) flagValue = null.123f). if (flagValue. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f). "Must be filled"). "string". "Must be a number").length() != 0) simpleBean.floatValue()). "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "An option must be selected"). "number".setNumber(0.11 . "integer".setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.

getString() == null || simpleSubBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string". setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString(). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.11 . "One or more colors must be selected"). 3 }). "One or more items must be selected"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "list". "subBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.number".setList(new int[] { 2.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.setOptional(""). 132 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors".setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be filled"). "subBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.floatValue()).string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getList().length == 0) { simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean.number").getParameter("subBean. //* subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.setString("").

A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. String property. "Must be a number").jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. simpleBean.setString("").7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.setFlag(true). simpleBean.mapping. errorTable.Hashtable errorTable. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setNumber(0.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.11 . } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.examples.setOptional("").number". } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".helpers. "subBean.\ 133 .put(property.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.xml: SimpleHndl. 3 }). simpleBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. message).code=com. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.simple.devsphere.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. simpleSubBean.mapping. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.properties or web.jsp. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. simpleBean.util.123f).devsphere.devsphere.setString("abc"). } %> 11. The com. } } else { simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2.SimpleBean.helpers. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.18.JSP filled").

helpers.properties (or web. If you have another bean-form pair.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.mapping.host.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.examples.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.helpers.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.devsphere. A servlet can be made bean-independent.xml) file: ServletName.another.mapping.company. 11.code=com. you could add a few other lines to servlets.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.devsphere. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.examples.code=com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.devsphere.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.mapping. In many cases.devsphere. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. a servlet is identified with its class.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.simple.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.host.11 .host.18.AnotherBean.

JSP 135 .11 .

0 supersedes version 1. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. which loads the appropriate view template. processes events.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. This technology includes: 1.0. builds a component tree. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.12 . like input fields.JAVASERVER FACES 12. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 2. buttons.javaserver faces 12 .0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. Version 2. Version 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. 12.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.

The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. As of version 1. 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.12 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.javaserver faces 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.2 of the JFS specification.4.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.

Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. columns and rows. For more information about columns. 12. footers.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. respectively.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. Common formatting techniques.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.12 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.4. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. see the column tag documentation. such as alternating row colors. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.

JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.12 .4.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).checkout}" /> 139 . Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. your options include using plain HTML forms.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.4.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.

5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.4. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.4.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. red for error.</span> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.user.user." /> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example. 12.5. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.

An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.12 .3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Without this JavaScript event.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The body content of this tag must be empty. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. validateLength.5. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.customer.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. can publish value change events. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.javaserver faces 12. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. 12. Any component that receives user input. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.mycompany.5.

MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. myJSFapp 143 . for each locale you wish to support. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.5.javaserver faces 12. including images and styles. Example: welcome_en. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.12 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. If you have not specified a default locale. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.mycompany. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.

contains libraries required by the application. mandatory for any JSF application web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.12 . JSP pages.html.exadel. like third party jar files jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.jar – files included in the /lib directory.javaserver faces /ant build. jsf-api. and so on.jar jsf-api. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.xml – the JSF configuration file. Create JSP pages 2. Create properties files 144 . custom tag libraries.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar.xml web. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Create managed beans 4.jar faces-config.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . static resources. Define navigation rules 3. It has a deployment descriptor.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.

Edit JSP pages 6. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. Compile the application 8. Now that we have the two JSP pages. we just want to go from inputname. 12. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. As a diagram.javaserver faces 5.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . And that's all there is to this.jsp. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp file 7. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.7. Deploy and run the application 12.7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. In our application. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.12 . You just need to create its contents.jsp is greeting.jsp and greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. You only need to create the JSP files. The directory structure already exists.jsp to greeting. Create an index. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. we can create a navigation rule.jsp. These files will act as place holders for now.xml file.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.

3 faces-config.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3.java file.7.xml Now. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This class is straight-forward. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.3. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. You can easily create more complex ones.) 12.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. a very simple navigation rule.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.xml Your final faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. Inside this myJFSapp folder. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. To read more about navigation rules. 12. of course.7.3. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. 12.javaserver faces This is.7. The next line is the full class name.PersonBean. the second part of faces-config.1 PersonBean. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp.12 . we will create a PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml file should look like this: 146 .

7. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.1 inputname.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.4.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . Inc.sun. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.sun.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. 12.5.12 .7. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.1//EN" "http://java. 12. 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.properties file in the bundle folder.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1 messages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.sun.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.bundle. <%@ taglib uri="http://java. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.bundle.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. Then.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.12 . 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .sun.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.

specifically the bean attribute personName.6 creating the index.sun. Having an index.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. and also print its contents on the page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Line 2. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.12 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sun.2 greeting. Creates an HTML input text box.jsp page. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.7.xml file.. The second line will access a Java bean.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Lines 3-5. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. 12. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. That's how JSF knows where to go next..greeting_text}" />.</h3> tags. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .7.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5. Line 6.bundle. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Create the index.javaserver faces Line 1. The first three lines are identical to our first page. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. name! 12.

jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. To do this.xml file for the application *. and forwards the user to a success or error page.javaserver faces Now.7.7. which asks an user for an ID and password.xml file.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.9 Running Next. we need to deploy it. When Tomcat is done loading. though.8.12 . To build the application run the build.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). because in the web. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsp. 150 . Of course. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. We are almost done with this example. 12. 12. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. Your setup.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.jsf and not . insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. might possibly be different). you'll notice the file suffix is . verifies the information.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. This is used here.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.sourceforge.html . put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. This is a "login" application. 12.7.

in the Add JSF Support page. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. see Installing & Uninstalling. click Next.src | +-.. 7. from the menubar select File/New/Other.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. click Yes through messages that appear. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. say. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. click Next d. Select the Amateras node. a. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. and to add JSF libraries to the project.8. in the wizard that appears... Select Java Project.WEB-INF 151 . Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. name the folder pages. click Next. 10. 9.xml Editor (see faces-config. c. 2. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. The New Project wizard appears. 6. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. make sure all checkboxes are checked.. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. Enter project name. click Add Folder. 3.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. select the Source tab. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 12.12 .. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. your mileage may vary. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.webroot | +-. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). and set up folders for a web application. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. name the folder webroot 5.. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click Finish 4. 1. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. jsf-login.

equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. input widgets appear d. The faces-config.lib | +-. private String _pwd = "". if ( _uid. 3. in the Name field enter LoginManager. b. 2. Click Finish.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. The Java code editor opens.8.xml. for scope select 152 . Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. We then configure it to be a managed bean. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".12 . } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. } 4. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. for name enter mgr. else action = "loginFail".pages 12. from its context menu select New/Class.java package login. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.xml editor opens. click Add. for class enter login. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. enter login. 1. click Managed Bean. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". The New Java Class wizard appears. a. c.xml Editor.LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.javaserver faces | | | +-. } return action. In the Package field.

jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp: create this file similarly to index. so we create them first. b. </body> Please try 153 . 1. Create error. click Finish. the New File wizard appears. and 3 content pages (login. success. index.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Enter the following code: <!-. Then we create login.jsp.webroot/pages/success. e. again. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. from its context menu select New/File. in Package Explorer select webroot. Enter the following code: <!-. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.javaserver faces session.jsp.jsp. All pages except login. c.jsp: a.jsp and error. for File name enter index.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.webroot/pages/error. then close the editor 12. but in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.8. enter the following code. <!-. save the file and close the editor. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp. but in webroot/pages.12 . We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp).webroot/index. Create index. the JSP Editor opens.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Create success.

etc.javaserver faces </html> 4. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. from its context menu select New/Other. click Next c. (See Show View Dialog) f. Create login. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. g. b.12 . and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.completion.sun. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. d.. and dock it along the right. for File name enter login. and uses them for code completion as well. as shown below. place your cursor in one of these lines. enter jsf-login e. click Finish. a code-completion window pops up. To see this in action. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and choose default for Template. Open the JSF palette. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. with the following template code. the New wizard appears. now we want to add attributes to this element. 154 . <%@ page contentType="text/html.jsp: a.jsp.

charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. with the barest presentational formatting.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. a code-completion window pops up. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. complete the expression with the closing { k.loginAction} The final code. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . and hit Enter.password}" l. this inserts value="" at the cursor. set its value to Login. i. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. select userID from the code-completion window. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.) j. insert another <h:inputText> element. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".javaserver faces h. with bean properties available in mgr.sun. insert a <h:commandButton> element. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.12 .. enter #{mgr.

userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. this inserts a page icon into the editor.xml Editor. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. Open faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. 2.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.8.12 . 1. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Select the Navigation tab 3. 156 . it should open in the faces-config. click on Page. using a FacesIDE editor. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml. then click inside the editor window. This is shown below.

then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. in the Properties view. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. notice that the warning triangle disappears. /pages/success. 6.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. select Navigation Case. and is represented by an arrow. add 3 more pages.jsp. change the value of path to /index. from the palette at left. 5. Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 .jsp.jsp 4. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). then click first on the icon for login. This is shown below: 157 .jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp. and set them to /pages/login.

xml. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Similarly add a forward-action from login.xml Here we edit web. We'll set some properties in web.xml.jsp. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.jsp. all we need do in web. open web.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. We want virtual path-based mapping. As it turns out. so uncomment it. since we have such a trivial application. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. any other id/password should send you to the error page.6 Editing web.jsp to error. and you should be sent to the success page. 12. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). or leave it as-is. 1.javaserver faces 7. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. The application is now complete. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and extension-based mapping is turned on.8. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.jsp.xml for the specifics of our application.12 . Once deployed browse to index.

faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 . 12. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.8. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. for Context path enter /jsf-login.validator javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.faces.lifecycle javax.faces.10 the javax..javaserver faces 12.render javax.faces.faces.faces javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces. as file:///.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. that factory is used. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.12 .el javax. For a given factory class name.component.webapp 12. the Manager application should reload.model javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces.component javax.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.html javax.event javax. open its Manager application in a browser. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax..faces.context javax. start Tomcat. scroll down to Deploy.faces.. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. click Deploy 3.faces.0 1. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.convert javax.application javax.

ViewHandler . with the last one taking precedence. defining page navigation.Severity .represents a single validation (or other) message. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). StateManagerWrapper . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . FacesMessage .11 the javax. ApplicationFactory . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. 12. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. FacesMessage. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. ViewHandlerWrapper . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.application package Contains the following classes: • Application .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. handling events and input validation. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.faces. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. If none of the above steps yield a match. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. StateManager .12 . with the last one taking precedence.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. those factories are used.

FacesContext. UIComponent .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. • • 161 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. a menu item. UICommand . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. String.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.12 . 12.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. when activated by the user. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. ActionSource2 .12 the javax. UIComponentBase . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.faces.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. String) results in failure on postback.restoreView(javax. ContextCallBack . NamingContainer .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. or a hyperlink. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. • ViewExpiredException . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.context.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. EditableValueHolder . StateHolder .faces. ValueHolder . Here they are: • • UIColumn .

it is for display purposes only.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. identified by a clientId. UIMessage . by storing it as the value property of the component. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIOutput .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UISelectBoolean . it just serves as the root of the component tree. UIPanel . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.12 . UINamingContainer . UISelectItem .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIGraphic .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.html package 162 .faces. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIMessages . that is displayed to the user. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. This component has no rendering. UIInput . Optionally.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UISelectOne . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). Optionally.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.component. it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. The user cannot manipulate this component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIViewRoot .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.13 the java. UIParameter . UIForm .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UISelectMany . The user can modify the selected values.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that has a value.

the rendererType property must be set to "javax.Message". This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlGraphicImage .by default. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. or not. HtmlOutputLink . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlColumn . HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlInputSecret . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.by default. HtmlInputHidden . The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlOutputFormat .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlPanelGrid . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML label element. HtmlOutputText . HtmlInputText .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML img element.represents an HTML input element of type password. and renders the result. On a redisplay. HtmlCommandLink . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputTextarea .causes all child components of this component to be rendered.12 .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlForm . HtmlMessages .renders child components in a table. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlPanelGroup . used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML form element.faces.renders the component value as text. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.faces.

14 the java. ResponseWriter .faces. HtmlSelectOneListbox . FacesContext . and the rendering of the corresponding response. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • • • 12. ResponseStream .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. It is passed to.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.javaserver faces property. HtmlSelectOneRadio . In particular.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. HtmlSelectManyListbox . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. ResponseWriterWrapper .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneMenu .faces.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.15 the java. • • • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. FacesContextFactory . HtmlSelectManyMenu . and potentially modified by. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing a single available option at a time. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .convert package 164 .12 . showing a single available option at a time. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.

16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. PropertyResolver .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.12 . ValueBinding . Classes: MethodBinding . • • • • 165 .javaserver faces 12.15.faces. VariableResolver . 12.

a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. ReferenceSyntaxException . PhaseId . FacesEvent . MethodNotFoundException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. Interfaces: ActionListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). 166 . ValueChangeListener .AbortProcessingException . PropertyNotFoundException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . PhaseEvent . • • • • • One exception .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseListener . FacesListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.faces.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. and event implementation classes. • • • • 12.12 .17 the java.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ValueChangeEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.

converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . • • • • • • • • • 12. ScalarDataModel .20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. ListDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. Renderer . Classes: ArrayDataModel .12 .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. DataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. SelectItem . ResultSetDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.faces. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).faces.18 the java.javaserver faces 12.19 the java. 12.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". SelectItemGroup .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.faces. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. ResultDataModel .

ConverterTag .validator package Interface defining the validator model. including a standard servlet. LongRangeValidator .faces. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. AttributeTag . RenderKitFactory . base classes for JSP custom component tags. markup language. The package contains an exception. and/or user Locale. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. as well. together. ResponseStateManager . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.faces. and concrete validator implementation classes.22 the java. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.12 . • • 12.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . • RenderKit . 12. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. Typically.21 the java.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.

the JSF life cycle does not apply. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. Also. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. When the user takes some action with the presentation.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When a web server receives a request. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When the model is updated. 12. UIComponentBodyTag . that request is passed to the container. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. but basically. In JSF. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the life cycle is more complicated. telling the model to update its data. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. ValidatorTag . Likewise. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.12 . When using JSF. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the controller sends a message to the model.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. FacetTag . the controller sends a message to the view. or some other web technology. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. which passes the request to the page class. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the process includes a few more components or pages. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the controller is the 169 . • • • • • FacesServlet . or when an exception occurs. In MVC. servlets. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. related to a UIComponent. UIComponentTag . which has several implications. telling the view to update its presentation.a base class for all JSP custom actions. that need to process their tag bodies.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.

• Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). or from request headers. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. from cookies sent as part of the request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. The components are stored in a component tree. not every request will flow through all six phases.12 . 170 . in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. it creates UI objects for each view component. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the JSF implementation must create the view. If this is a subsequent request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. depending on the request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and what happens during the processing and response.javaserver faces JSF implementation. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the conversion occurs in this phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. In addition. As with the previous phase. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. and a piece of data failed validation. However. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. In addition. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. • Invoke Application: During this phase. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. For a JSF-enabled application. converting a String to a Date object). the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. and the response is sent to the client. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. These objects update their state with the data values. Data for some components. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. If this is the client’s first visit to a page.

12 . skipping any remaining phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. For example. 171 .javaserver faces In the above figure. Also. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

A file system maps a filename (for example.Wiz. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. The UNIX pathname. NDS. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.2. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file.5). JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.COM. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.48.").2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. possibly multiple.13 . In addition. For example. 13. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. for example. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. DNS. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. The DNS entry Wiz. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). When using almost any computer program or system. identifiers. c:\bin\autoexec. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. or objects typically used by computer programs. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. Thus the DNS name sales.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. you supply it the name of the object.1 names To look up an object in a naming system.JNDI 13.sun. such as addresses. naming and directory services using a common API. 13. you are always naming one object or another. 172 . This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. you must supply its name. /usr/hello.COM. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. For example. in turn. such as LDAP. For example. when you use an electronic mail system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. and NIS(YP).JNDI 13 . This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. Using JNDI. It enables applications to access different. To access a file in the computer.9. which is located in the root of the file system.

its flight plan. Every context has an associated naming convention. Using the reference. which in turn. is a context. A printer object reference. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. 13. For example. such as its print server name and printing protocol. A printer object.2.COM. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time."). A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. such as c=us. in the UNIX file system is a context. in the DNS domain Sun. o=Sun. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. Typically. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.2. and fuel and instrument status. Instead. that is. on the other hand. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. an LDAP entry. In another example. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("=").c=us. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. 13. and its flight number and departure time. is accessed using a file reference. For example. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. That is. also called a file handle. For example. For example. they must be stored by reference.2. For simplicity. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. might contain the state of the printer. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. A reference is information about how to access an object. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For example. 13. such as /usr. relative to the entry o=Sun. for example. unbinding names. while the object itself might contain more state information.13 . the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Finally. and listing bound names. some objects cannot be stored directly. is relative to c=us. a file name is bound to a file. A file object. delimited by the comma character (". Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. a DNS domain. 173 .JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. in a file directory /usr/bin. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. that is. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. such as COM. a file directory. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. is a context.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. By contrast. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. for example.

Thus. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). For example. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. For example. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. for example.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.3. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. a person. to some extent. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. to represent a printer. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. 13. and even the computer itself and other computers. a name is unique 13.13 . A directory object can be used. however. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. And it kind of makes sense. postal mail address. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. 13. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. resolution.2. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. various telephone numbers.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). two different computer 174 . or a network. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. An example is the telephone company's directory service. and color. For example. because we can. For example. a computer. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. one context can be viewed.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. programs. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. For example. and computer account information. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.

for example. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. A Java mail client program. For example.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. that is. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. for example. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.13 . The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.50". 175 . printers. 13.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. called a directory information tree (DIT). such as the file and print services. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. 13. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. such as those based on the LDAP. 13. Alternatively. support the notion of searches.3. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects.smith@somewhere.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. can use the directory in the traditional way.com".1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. and users. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. removing. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. When you search. The query is called a search filter. By using a directory service. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. "mail" is the attribute identifier. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.113. for example. Within the DIT. an organization object. the ability to access directory services will become essential. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. like any other program running on the network. The email address. Similarly. many directories.3. 13. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. Many examples of directory services are possible. such as that relating to machines. When directory objects are arranged in this way.4. adding. networks. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.3. The service is accessed through its own interface. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. For example. 13. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.

2. 13.5.3 and later releases. v1.directory javax. For example. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. v1.naming javax.naming. and even the network. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.1 and v1.4. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. Thus a variety of directories--new. emerging.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. 13. v1.5.13 . and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.ldap 176 . 13. To use the JNDI. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. 13.naming. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.naming.2. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. It extends the v1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. The Java 2 SDK.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. For example. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.1 and the Java 2 SDK. v1.event javax.1 and Java 2 SDK. more coherent and manageable.

(Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. and so on. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. In this case. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.String name.6 the naming package The javax.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. and the object itself. for some objects in the directory. A java. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. list() is similar to listBindings(). 13. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. Furthermore.6. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. printer. a 177 . renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . which is the core interface for looking up.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. 13. that is.6. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.13 .6. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.JNDI • javax.lang.lang.spi 13. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .6. comparing components. For example.String name argument represents a composite name.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.naming. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. 13. The overloads that accept java. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.1 context The javax.lookup("treekiller"). For the methods in the Context interface. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. However.naming package defines a Context interface. the name of the object's class.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.print(report). and it returns the object bound to that name.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. 13.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.lang. binding/unbinding. composing them. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.

you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. replace. 178 . all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. 13. 13. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. There are no absolute roots. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. Otherwise.7. You can add.7 directory package The javax. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).6. In the simplest and most common form of usage. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.naming. For example. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. Once you have an initial context. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.13 .2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. they should catch NamingException.7. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. 13. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.6. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13.directory package extends the javax. InitialContext.

and vice versa.9. To receive event notifications. 13. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.8 event package The javax.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.ldap package at all. 13. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.9 LDAP package The javax. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. For example. 13.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. such as information about the object before and after the change. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.JNDI 13. Once registered.9.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. 13.9.naming. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming." and those that do not.directory package.naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. controls. that is. called controls .13 .2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. such as "object added. such as "object changed. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. For example. These operations are called "extended" operations.naming. or unsolicited notifications. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. In fact.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.naming.

These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.10. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. import javax.10 service provider package The javax.13 . 13.java. create a file named Lookup.naming. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.naming package. 13. This support is provided in the form of state factories. This support is provided in the form of object factories. and receiving response controls.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.11.Context.9.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.10. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. For example. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory.spi package supports implementors of Context.1 plug-In architecture The javax. 13. That is.naming.2 java object support The javax. 180 .naming. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming. sending request controls. 13. implementors of Context. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.10. In the process of completing an operation. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13.

you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. v1.3.err. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().jar as an installed extension. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.RefFSContextFactory").11. // Print it System.InitialContext. For this reason.lookup(name). Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). import javax. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).jndi.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. 13.put(Context. Object obj = ctx. using the capitalization shown.JNDI import javax. env.3 looking up an Object Next. If the compilation succeeds. } 13.5 compiling the program Next.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 181 .println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Otherwise.naming. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. To compile to program.11. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.java).11. then the JNDI classes are already included. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.fscontext.13 . as follows. If the compilation fails. 13. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).naming. 13. create an initial context. you must have access to the JNDI classes.out.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.sun. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. "com. } catch (NamingException e) { System.lookup() to look up an object. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.11.lookup(name). use Context. If you are still having problems.NamingException.

and your example class (Lookup.13 . include the directory that contains your Lookup. javax.naming and javax.LdapCtxFactory").Attributes. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. To run the program.InitialDirContext.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. the file system service provider. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. env.jndi. javax.java. javax.Context.11.naming. Finally.sun.naming.12. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.directory. create an initial directory context. you need access to the JNDI classes. create a file named Getattr.class).directory packages.JNDI 13.6 running the program To run the program. then you will see something like the following.sun. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.jar). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.put(Context.ldap. 13.jar and providerutil.directory. javax.12.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. supply the name of a file in your file system.PROVIDER_URL. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.fscontext. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.naming.put(Context. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. v1.3. env.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. "com. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().bat If you supply a file directory.naming. 182 . See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13.naming.DirContext.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.NamingException.jndi. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). import import import import import javax. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.naming.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.directory.

JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. If the compilation succeeds.java). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.get("sn"). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Similar to the naming example. using the capitalization shown. } 13. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get()). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. 13.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). compile the source file using the Java compiler.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs. Attributes. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get("sn").6 compiling the program Next.get() on it to get its value: attrs.out. ou=People").13 .get() and then from that attribute get its value. 13. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.12. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. For now. ou=People"). 13.get(). 183 . try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). As with the naming example. } catch (NamingException e) { System.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If you are still having problems. If the compilation fails.12. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. For this reason.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.12.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.err. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.

Getattr. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.JNDI 13.jar). it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). then these classes are already included. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. If you have any trouble running this example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. ou=People".class. Once it has the attributes. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.3. v1.12.put(Context.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.jar and providerutil. then see the Common Problems lesson. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. env.7 running the program As with the naming example.13 . 184 .PROVIDER_URL. With this configuration.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. Enterprise Edition. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. • 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS queue .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. As the name queue suggests. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .a JMS client that receives messages. In this model. JMS consumer . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. the messages are delivered in the order sent.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. JMS client .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. Here. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS topic . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS producer . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. unless it has established a durable 185 . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.14 . JMS message . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.

186 . JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. Depending on the type of message.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. On the receiving side. 14.14 . and then use populate and send or publish the messages. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4.jms. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. In that case. Using Java. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.3 the JMS API programming model 14.

For example.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. Before an application completes. In a J2EE application. you call the stop() method. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .createConnection(). Depending on the connection type. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. you must call the connection's start() method.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. Connections implement the Connection interface. Like the connection factory.4.close(). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. For example. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14.14 . you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. 14. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. and users discover them using JNDI. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). Before your application can consume messages. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.4. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.4. The JMS administrator creates these objects. It is either a queue or a topic.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). connection. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. you must close any connections that you have created. 14. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. It receives messages sent to a destination.

) When message delivery begins. if it needs to reply to messages. You use the Session. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. For example. This object implements the MessageListener interface. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. After you register the message listener.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. For example. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.receive(1000). You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. In the onMessage() method.createConsumer(myQueue). (If you call start() before you register the message listener. connection.start(). Moreover.receive(). onMessage(). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.start(). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().14 . A message listener does. which contains one method.setMessageListener(myListener). Message m = consumer. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. usually expect a specific message type and format. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. however. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. you are likely to miss messages. consumer.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. Message m = consumer. it becomes active. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.createConsumer(myTopic). 188 .4. (Remember always to call the start() method. After you have created a message consumer. and you can use it to receive messages. 14. a message listener object may be used.

if you created an unidentified producer. 14. MessageProducer producer = session. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. You must first create the messages. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). // msg_text is a String producer. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.setText(msg_text). that is. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. Here. to create and send a TextMessage.4. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.createTextMessage(). With an unidentified producer. For example.send(message).4. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.send(message). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. 189 . A message has three main parts: 1.createProducer(myQueue). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. and object message). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. message. map message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. message). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.receive(). At the consuming end. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.createProducer(myTopic). You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.createProducer(null). bytes message. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.14 .6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.send(myQueue.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. After you have created a message producer. anon_prod. from one application to another. stream message. 3. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.

the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.getText()). use the following code: Session session = connection. 0). you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. 190 . Sessions implement the Session interface. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. After you create a Connection object.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. then delivers the messages. To create a transacted session. and message consumers to receive messages. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.createSession(true.4.createSession(false. the first argument means that the session is transacted.14 . Before committing the transaction.out. Session. } else { // Handle error } 14.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). Here.println("Reading message: " + message. If the user selects transaction support. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.

the container lives (in general) in an application server. The component lives inside a container. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.jar file into the application server.transaction management can be complex. message-driven beans The 2.15 . Version 1.no developer coding. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . On the other side.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. improved performance security . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . container which offers services to the component. 15.consistent error handling framework .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . bundled into a single unit.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.object oriented representation of data in a DB.0. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .0.DB interaction transactions . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. component recovery scalability portability 191 . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. server which provides an execution environment for containers. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .

as follows: 1.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.xml 15. which is an xml file. called ejb-jar. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the remote interface of the bean 4.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.15 . The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .

javax.javax. } 193 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. While the Remote interface declares no methods.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.15 . public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.ejb. } 15. String lastName. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.rmi.*.rmi. import java. int custId) throws RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.RemoteException. RemoteException.*. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. import. import java. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. import.RemoteException.

"localhost:1099").jnp. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().NamingContextFactory". prop. prop.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. creating them for the client application. this can be done (for example) through SSL. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 . we need to know: 1. } 194 .6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.interfaces.PROVIDER_URL. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. In the case of an web application.put(Context. "org. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. how to create or find the bean 2. if the client executes outside the container. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context.

the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Some languages.narrow(homeRef.rmi. that is part of CORBA standards. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. using the narrow() method. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. • if the client executes outside the container. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. This is done through the javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.lookup("MyBean"). more specifically.. IIOP has not been designed for Java. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.class).e. in fact. Why? For EJB. Problem is. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. and this means that there are some limitations. but for generic languages. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). to the appropriate type.rmi. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. in fact.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. do implements the java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.Remote interface). 195 . MyBeanHome.PortableRemoteObject class and. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.15 . the client has a stub). the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. do not have the concept of casting.

} // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .create().ccards. 1102). public class MyBean implements javax. int custId) { // method implementation . as well).ejb.SessionContext.. 15.. call business methods on the bean myObject.bank11. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ejb. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. remove the bean instance myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ejbeans.remove().15 . String lastName.. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.processEntry("Dumitrascu". set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). import javax. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . "Vasile".7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.

When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. that is. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. the object is activated. 15.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. A stateless bean does not. namely stateful and stateless beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.15 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.

All other methods in Figure 15. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. The ejbCreate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. (Typically.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and then moves it to the ready stage. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. or passivate. the client invokes the remove method. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. for example. Figure 15. is inside the bean class. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.15 .2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle. For example.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. 198 .1 are invoked by the EJB container. the EJB container activates the bean.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.

13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. equals() 199 . The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. support for concurrent access 3. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. stored in a Database).15 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().

Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). 15. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. all throwing RemoteException. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. Read. an instance of that bean is created. CreateException.14. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. On the other side.15 . in the same order. state data is stored into data store (usually. We can have more create() methods. as the parameters in the original create() method.lang.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).bank11. methods which have the same parameters.ccards. 200 . These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Update and Delete.

the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. not null. 15.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. On the second path. in BMP. On the first path. the client invokes the create method. First. a client can invoke the remove method. After the EJB container creates the instance.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).14. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. for BMP. it's business methods can be invoked.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. but in general.14. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. After instantiation. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.14. 15.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. 201 . but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. for BMPs. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. left empty most of the time in CMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. While in the pooled stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the programmer will create actual SQL code.15 . it is empty. actual SQL update code. All instances in the pool are identical.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. Second. but the developer returns null for CMP.

The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. it does not automatically set the primary key. It acts as a JMS message listener.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. If the primary key is incorrect. With bean-managed persistence. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. or a Web component . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. the values of the instance variables are not needed. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. 202 . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. Therefore.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.15 . another enterprise bean. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.getPrimaryKey(). 15. In the pooled state. In the pooled state.an application client. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.

by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. If message processing is rolled back.15 . The onMessage method may call helper methods.16. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. the message will be redelivered. Unlike a session or entity bean. message-driven bean can be used. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. 203 . message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. 15. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. but not asynchronously. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. max-beans-infree-pool.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. Previously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. If this element is set to more than one. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. 15. In several respects. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. an open database connection. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.16. When a message arrives. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. For more information on this element see. a JMS API connection. To ensure concurrency. To avoid tying up server resources.for example. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. 15.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.16. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.

// An EJB constructor is required. public void ejbRemove() {.16. Note: These instances can be pooled. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static..} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.0 specification. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. 15.. As with other EJB types.. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic..Message MessageName) {..jms. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. 2. and it must not // accept parameters.jms. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. public void onMessage(javax. finalize{}. 3. Obtain a new bean instance.Message. methods. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.15 .16. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. or create a new one. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.}.. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. 15.ejb.} // onMessage() is required. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. Classes.

jms. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. 15. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. 15. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.15 . the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. If any method throws such an exception.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.onMessage() for more information.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).This is not a client context. getRollbackOnly() . or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. getUserTransaction(). 15. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). See javax. even in onMessage().16.MessageListener. For example. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16.16. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. However. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.

16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. as required by the EJB 2.15 . but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.16. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.16.0 specification. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.xml. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.0 specification. In either case. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.

ejb20.jms. For each instance. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.15 . as described in the EJB 2.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.. 207 . </message-driven> . 2..xml deployment file.xml elements. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.message.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 15.. the weblogic-ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.0 specification.

the remote interface name 8.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. access control entries . security 208 . entity specific elements 10. the home interface name 7. the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9.like transaction. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.security issues.15 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. 15. control descriptors .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. a message-driven bean is never passivated. EJB class name 5. attributes .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. At the end of the life cycle. isolation level. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. bean home name . environment properties 6. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.

Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.lang.ccards.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.ejb.bank11.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ejb.ejb.bank11.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.bank11.bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.ccards.15 .1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ccards.

15 .. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .lang. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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