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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.2 Server communication 1. Figure 1. retail. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. and sends it back to the client program. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.7 business components Business code. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. like the client tier. The web tier. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. are not considered web components.java platform. 1. processes it (if necessary). like HTML pages. 5 . An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.1 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. enterprise edition Figure 1. or finance. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.

9.java platform. multithreading.3 Web.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). mainframe transaction processing. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. 6 . thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. Business and EIS Tiers 1. 1. resource pooling. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. For example. or application client component can be executed.1 . you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Before a web.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. In addition. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. and other complex low-level details. enterprise edition Figure 1. 1. enterprise bean. and other legacy information systems. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. database systems.9 java EE Containers Normally.

4. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. transaction management. After an enterprise bean is created. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. database connection resource pooling. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 7 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. data persistence. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. including services such as security. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.9. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.1 . and remote connectivity.java platform. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 1. For example.

8 . or for document-oriented web services.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web container . develop. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .manages the execution of application client components. text-based standard for representing data. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. video. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. program files. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.1 . Application client container . maps. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. When XML data is exchanged between parties. or any kind of binary data such as audio. enterprise edition Figure 1. extensible.java platform. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Applet container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. 1.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. For example. XML data. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. test. Application clients and their container run on the client. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .manages the execution of applets. 1.10. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.

2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.1 .10. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). and the APIs used in Java EE applications. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. the location of the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. 9 . and ways to communicate with the service.10. 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 1.java platform. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. such as Universal Description. enterprise edition 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10. The description includes the name of the service.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.

Although servlets can respond to any type of request.java platform. WML.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. 1. Commonly. and XML) and JSP elements. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.1 . entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. you employ a single. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. standard set of tags. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . enterprise edition Figure 1. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.11. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.11. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. the session bean and its data are gone. If the client terminates. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. or if the server shuts down. 1.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1. or enterprise bean.11. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. In Java EE 5.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.11. When the client finishes executing. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. At runtime. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. such as better performance. JTA.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. module. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information.java platform. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. No extra coding is needed. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the application is ready to run. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . it is ready to be deployed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.ear extension. better tools. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Once deployed on a local platform. or better customer support. and JNDI 1. SAAJ. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. a module. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or a component. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. 15 . or component accordingly. servlet. JSP page.1 .

enterprise edition Figure 1. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.java platform. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. For example. and other documentation. Together. and a web application deployment descriptor.1 . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . for example. Web modules.war (Web ARchive) extension. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. such as caching directives. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. native libraries.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. JSP files. Resource adapter modules. which contain all Java interfaces. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . supporting class files.jar extension. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. • • 16 . classes. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.jar extension. which contain servlet class files. GIF and HTML files. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Application client modules.

HTTP 2 .html). HEAD. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.ietf.w3. RFC 2616 (06/99). namely HTTP 1. 2.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.org/Protocols . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .org/rfc/rfc1945. . It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.. POST. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. zero or more header lines 3. The client sends a request message to the server.. so far) version.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. The server answers with a response message. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.apps.com/easy/http.. check the official HTTP site – www. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).2 .. but they also have some common structural elements. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2. was the object of several RFCs.jmarshall. we recommend www.1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. These messages may have different contents. The second (and last. as follows: 1. an initial line 2.

in the HTTP 1.0). PUT 8. 2. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. Here is their list: 1. CONNECT 5.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. . there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. OPTIONS 7.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. HTTP/1. GET /path/to/the/file/index.Posting a message to a bulletin board. as well.html HTTP/1. GET 2.Annotation of existing resources. POST 4. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. but lack of support makes them obsolete.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.2 . All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . TRACE Three other commands are listed. newsgroup.1 specification. HEAD 3. 18 . mailing list. DELETE 6. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.

to a data-handling process. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . 2. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. 2. In this case. or a record is subordinate to a database.Providing a block of data. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.2 . as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. or ordering a product. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or sending E-mail 2. . such as the result of submitting a form. separated by the character “&” or “.8 the status code A three-digit integer.0 404 Not Found 2. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. while POST may involve anything. (encoded as multipart/form-data).6 differences between GET and POST 1. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.Extending a database through an append operation. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.” On the other side. like storing or updating data. after the “?” character. When used for form data submission. 3. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). or in the message body. . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.HTTP or similar group of articles. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.

out of which. 500 Server Error . The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. while the HTTP 1. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. 20 . none of them mandatory. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. 2.0. one (Host) is mandatory. 2. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. separated a semicolon. header values are.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . Although the header names are not case sensitive. where the requested resource is returned to the client. In particular. header name and header value.the request succeeded. such as text/html or image/jpg. fails.the requested resource doesn't exist. In a request. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.1 only) .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.an unexpected server error.g. and the resulting resource (e. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The HTTP 1. that is. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.2 .1).0 version specifies 16 headers.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. If an HTTP message includes a body. The most common use of the message body is in a response.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). and should be automatically retrieved by the client. file or script output) is returned in the message body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 404 Not Found .1 version specifies 46 of them. or otherwise can't run correctly. and section 10 for HTTP 1.

0 200 OK Date: Fri. with subtypes mixed. external-body 4. digest. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . Here is the list of the seven types. parallel 3. gif 6.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. 1. with subtype basic 7. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. RFC 1521 (www.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. application. partial.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.apps. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.2 .com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). multipart. image. alternative. with subtype mpeg 2. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. audio. with subtypes rfc822.uvt.org/rfc/rfc1521.HTTP 2. 21 .html first open a socket to the host web.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtype plain 2. with subtypes jpeg.uvt.0 From: someuser@yahoo.ro/path/file.html HTTP/1.info.ro.ietf. Then. postscript 5. text. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. . with subtypes octet-stream.info. video. message.

HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket. 22 .2 .

HTML 3 .com/indexdot/html .01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. Since it fits in a couple of pages.htmlgoodies.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. check the official HTML site – www.org/Markup . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. HTML 3. a working draft for the next major revision.w3c.apps. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. www.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.01. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. A newer standard.99. It is a revision of 4.com/easy/html . 3. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.jmarshall. However.HTML 3. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.org/rfc/rfc1866. From 1999 on. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).blooberry. HTML describes how text.html) and was widely supported. The first version of HTML. Originally named Web Applications 1. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0 draft was released in 01. The XHTML 1.0 and was accepted in December 1997.0. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . Other helpful sites .com/tutors.0 .02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.www. The first official version – HTML 2. As a practical reference site use – www.0) dates from 08. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.w3. The newest version of HTML is 4.0.ietf.2 (3.3 . The latest version (XHTML 2.html. namely HTML 1. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. Mosaic. Version 4.01) can be found at this address: http://www.

HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .

You get the point. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.w3. An example: <!-.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element." (in hexadecimal) . three DTDs (HTML 4. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. though. HTML 4. VSAPCE are omitted.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. look at these examples: “&lt”. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. Check the address http://www. <><> --> 25 . A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Transitional DTD.the chinese character for water. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.01 specification. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. If you wonder what a character reference is. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. Overall. 4. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.0 contains an SGML declaration. CONTROLS. like ALIGN. the specification of HTML 4.0 Strict DTD. “&quot”. BORDER.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. 3.3 . ….and end at the first occurrence of -->. HTML 4. "&#x6C34. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. DYNSRC.acesta este un comentariu. 3.

ro/webmail/src/login.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3. image. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. NAME.HTML 3.3 .php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.info.3.5 tables 26 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.uvt. etc.

6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>. its rows. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is a an example of a table: 3. Here is their description and attributes.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Usually. <TH> and <TD>.3 . columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . allowing user input and parameter submittal.required.7 forms A form is a basic component container.

since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. 3. • 3. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .if specified.8.required.8.required. "hidden".8 form related elements 3. "file".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . however.maximum number of options visible to the user. NAME . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. SIZE . "submit".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "radio".info.:. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "image".used with forms that contain a file-selection field. "checkbox".?. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "text/plain" • • 3. Main attributes: • TYPE .the default value. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .sends the form values in a single transmission.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. may have the values GET or POST. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.required. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . after a quotation mark . the browser appends the values to the URL. "GET" . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".3 .HTML • METHOD . specifies the parameter name.8. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "reset". Example: http://web. specifies how data will be sent to the server.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. "button". "password".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. Main attributes: 29 . allows multiple selections from the choice list.uvt.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

) in 08. Java bytecode – a file with extension . project started in 12.4.90. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.. the compilation process occurs. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.class file. The current version (as of 10.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.JAVA PRIMER 4 . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.JAVA PRIMER 4.2 version.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. In terms of execution time.2 java the interpreter. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class 3.java. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Java source – a file with extension . The first time a class is loaded. 4. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. -g : generate all debugging info.95.3 java applications 31 .java One example of command line compilation: 4.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. jit From source to execution.java 2. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The current version (as of 10.95. To overcome this significant shortage. following the 1.0. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.4 . javac -classpath .class file. Example: Edit the file prog1.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.class.C:\TW\mySource.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. Early versions of Java were released in 12. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Inc. but next time execution is much faster.

the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or is derived from A. In general.jar file. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .4 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.java.4 object oriented concepts 4. An example: 32 .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.4. or that it extends A). A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. Generally. 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.

4. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. 4. namely: Byte. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4 .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters.1 bit char . The return type of a method is not part of this signature.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Therefore.4. Boolean. a class can have more than one method with the same name. with the root the class Object. Therefore. Short.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Float. Integer. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Character.4. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Double. Long. 4. this is called method overloading.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. called Object. a Java class can extend a single base class. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. 33 . providing its own implementation. In fact. In OO jargon.

JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.http.does not have any subclasses. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier ..4 .http. } declares an abstract class. method .access from any class anywhere private .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . 4. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.one which is defined at class level. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . inherited).the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. Except for the "package" concept.servlet. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. which extends the class javax. has the same value for all class instances. anywhere abstract .servlet.no access from outside the class itself protected . A final: • • • variable . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .the class is visible from any class.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. no templates. rather than at class instance.one which is constant method . • • • • no specifier . A final variable (method.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.. class . automatic garbage collection. 34 .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.

2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. namely class Error and the class Exception. 4. 4. Exception categories: 1.7.ThreadDeath.7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. java errors . these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. not at execution time.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. as defined in the java.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 2. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . In Java.JAVA PRIMER 4. division by 0. 4.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.like invalid cast. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.4 . programmer defined exceptions 4. standard method exceptions 3.7. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. code or data errors . array index out of bounds.7.

util. the class (the .nio java.servlets. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . In the example above.8. All other packages must be explicitly imported. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. don't have to import java.lang (automatically available).support for java archives creation java. date and time info java.util. The package containing the standard classes is java.default. therefore.io java. import javax. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. 4. As a general rule.security 36 . they have to be unique inside a package. string analyzers. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. followed by the import statements.class file. . finally construct.1 Package names The default package has no name.sql. import. 4.rmi java.bank11. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). the default package is used).event . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.awt .zip .awt.java.sql java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.4 . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.net java.*.ccards..lang . catch.by adding the key word throws.awt.. An example: package com.support for user interface java.Properties.geom .support for event handling java.util . 4.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.support for data collections.this can be done by providing a try.

10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.accessibility javax.4 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All variables (actually. 37 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. it must be declared as abstract. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.swing. static and final.support for event handling 4.event .text javax. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.

like QtScript or ActionScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. as JavaScript. other 38 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .javaScript 5 . 5. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. Subsequently.HTML authors are normally not programmers.JAVASCRIPT 5. The origins of this language date back to 1995. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. and . However. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. This is not always what we want.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript statement like this: document. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.5 .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .depending on the browser . then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.

When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.. </script> </head> 5. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3.3.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. 5.. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript... or when an event is triggered. go in the head section.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. When you place a script in the head section.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3. To simplify this. point to the . without having to write the same script on every page.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js file extension. </script> </body> 5.. 39 . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .5 .. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .

The code in the body of the for .4. 5.4. in and the try . catch constructs. switch().. namely – if ..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . while() it is worth mentioning the for .2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". while(). else..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs..4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.javaScript 5.5 .In statement The for..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. break.1 JavaScript for. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script... continue. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable..4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object..4. for().5. in loop is executed once for each element/property. 5. 5..

in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.. Mozilla 1. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 ...catch statement The try. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".5. so you don't lose your audience. an array element.. mycars[1] = "Volvo"..0.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. Example Using for.5 . When users see errors. for (x in mycars) { document.5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.3 try. they often leave the Web page. The try block contains the code to be run. var mycars = new Array(). mycars[2] = "BMW". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. or a property of an object. } </script> </body> </html> 5. mycars[0] = "Saab". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.catch statement (available in IE5+.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.

\n\n". the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7. When an alert box pops up. 5. Syntax: 42 . } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.7 popup boxes 5. alert(txt). txt+="Error description: " + err. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). txt+="Click OK to continue.5 .description + "\n\n". Also. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.

If the user clicks "Cancel".7.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. When a prompt box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext". the box returns false."defaultvalue") 5.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. When a confirm box pops up.8 functions 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.js file). in the example above had not been written within a function.7. If the user clicks "OK". the box returns null. the box returns true. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").8. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. in the <head> section. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.5 . the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.

functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.9. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. document.javaScript function functionname(var1. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". So. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . var2.5 .. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.8. and will be stored in the variable called product. 5..2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.var2.write(txt. 5.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.9 javaScript objects 5. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.9.varX) { some code } var1. and how they are used.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. 5. etc are variables or values passed into the function..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.length).

javaScript 5.toUpperCase()). document. which will be specified in the next section.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".write(str.9. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 . The first class consists of browser specific objects.5 . </script> 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

w3schools.11. as well).1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.com/jsref/default. N: Netscape. At its most basic level. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. every Image on the page is an Object. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Properties FF: Firefox. For example. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. When an event message has been triggered. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. every Link on the page is an Object. check the site http://www. Even this Document itself is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.asp 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .5 . which are called Objects. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.

N: Netscape.5 .11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. depending on the browser. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. as a four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.5 . according to Greenwich time.11. to a string. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to universal time. according to local time. according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name.

5 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .11.5 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Properties FF: Firefox. var myNum=new Number(number).4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.

5 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 . Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .

0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0. 2.434) Returns PI (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. N: Netscape.javaScript 5.y) pow(x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .5 . Properties FF: Firefox.y) min(x.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 3. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 1.11. 2.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.

3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().lastname="Doe". and eyecolor as follows: personObj. All persons have these properties. personObj.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. The persons' properties include name.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.lastname="Doe".age=30. height. document.firstname="John".age=50.12.12. personObj.firstname="John". personObj. personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. play(). personObj. age.5 . personObj. skin tone.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. etc. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. lastname. age. with a collection of properties and methods.12. etc. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Objects also have methods. Assume that the personObj already exists .firstname).propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. work().eyecolor="blue". Properties are the values associated with the object. 5.write(personObj. sleep(). Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. weight. The persons' methods could be eat(). eye color.eyecolor="blue". 53 .you can give it properties named firstname.

4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.12.propertyName. this."green").lastname=new_lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. this. 54 . this.lastname. this."blue"). you can create new instances of the object.lastname.48."Rally". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.5 . This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.age=age.firstname=firstname. 5.eyecolor=eyecolor. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this. this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. Once you have the template.eyecolor) { this. You can also add some methods to the person object.eyecolor) { this."Doe". The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. this.age. like this: myFather=new person("John".50.lastname=lastname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Inside the function you need to assign things to this. } Notice that the template is just a function.eat=eat.firstname=firstname.age=age.age. myMother=new person("Sally".newlastname=newlastname.lastname=lastname.

now you can write: myMother. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.". Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .newlastname("Doe"). Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.5 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. So. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. We define the events in the HTML tags.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. 5. For example.

The name is then stored in a cookie. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. 5.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. For example.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .13. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.2 onFocus.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. If it returns true the form will be submitted. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. If the field values are not accepted. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.5 .w3schools. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". 5.13.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').

SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). HTML. CSS.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.g. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .HTML DOM 6. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). 6. However. Right now (oct. structure. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. and style of a document. As of January 2008. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.Html DOM 6 . The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. By October 1998. or WebAPI being among them. particularly those used in Web browsers. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. XML. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SVG. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. 2010). and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.6 . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The W3C 58 . the Document Object Model activity is closed. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.. In other words. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .

Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. 4.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 6. Level 1. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards.6 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. To claim to support a level. each of which contains required and optional modules. and 6. 3. which further enhances the DOM 6. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 2. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. DOM Level 3 Validation. HTML-specific elements are included as well.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 XPath. As of 2005. filtered views and events. Level 2 XML namespace support. 2. a new DOM Core specification. 5. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements).

6. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.x were still widely used in 2000.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. The Window object represents a browser window. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. All HTML elements. support multiple browsers. By 2005. Konqueror. along with their containing text and attributes. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. and Safari. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x and Netscape 4. Opera. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. interoperability problems were numerous. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. In order to be cross-browser compatible. that is. can be accessed through the 60 .0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).6 .

HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 . The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. and VBScript. JavaScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. and new elements can be created.

In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree.9. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The <head> node holds a <title> node.8. 6.6 . 62 .1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <html> node has two child nodes. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. However.Html DOM 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.8. everything in an HTML document is a node. 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. <head> and <body>. the element node <title>.

63 . Parent nodes have children. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. • • • • • In a node tree. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. the top node is called the root Every node. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.6 . You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. By navigating the node tree. and the connections between them. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). Their contents can be modified or deleted. By using the getElementById() method 2.9.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). using the node relationships. child. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and new elements can be created.2 node parents.getElementById('main'). children. The terms parent.getElementsByTagName("p"). except the root. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).

6 . Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x. each node is an object.9.innerHTML). document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).length.write("<br />"). } 6.write(x[i]. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document.Html DOM for (i=0.

6 .nodeValue.9.5 example . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. txt=x.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. 6.firstChild.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro"). A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .

For elements. objects and images. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. frames. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.6 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".

W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. 67 . an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.6 . 6.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). for instance. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.3. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Fires when an element is activated. DOMNodeInserted. through a mouse click or a keypress. When the user clicks on the inner element. During the event flow. also supports these methods. say "click". as of version 1. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Also. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. and then bubbled up. Safari. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.

key pressed.Html DOM 6. etc. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.6 . there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. preventDefault 68 . mouse position. including information about target element. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Unfortunately. mouse button pressed.

before the whole page was sent within the network. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.AJAX 7. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.7 .2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. For improving sharing of resources. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. choices of user. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. 7. 69 . talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. dynamic website. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. using web services or Php scripts. but also to save resources. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. The server does some processing — retrieving data. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. 7. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. For example. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. It is not a technology in itself.AJAX 7 .3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. fields of forms.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. menus. etc. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. crunching numbers.

but the opposite is true. we wouldn’t make users wait around. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. at the start of the session. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. While the server is doing its thing. what’s the user doing? That’s right. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Once an interface is loaded. waiting around for the server to do something. waiting. 70 . Obviously. Instead of loading a web page. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.7 . the user waits some more.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense.

7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. usually using XML. 71 . and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. loading additional interface code. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.

the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . This object provides two methods: . 4: finished. These events are user actions. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. 2: request received. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.200 is ok. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.AJAX 7.7 .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. .holds loaded data as a string of characters.send: send a request to the server. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.for a simple text. DOM's method allows to extract data. thanks to its methods and attributes. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .returned by the server .for a Xml file or . boolean) .open: create a connection. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 3: answer in process. 1: connection established.responseXml . To get data on the server. .url: the location of the file 72 .holds a Xml loaded file.mode: type of request. onreadystatechange . .responseText . url. 404 if the page is not found . It allows the interaction with the servers. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 7. GET or POST . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". and in this purpose.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.

73 ..XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). URL of the document.XMLHTTP").onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.fr/somefile.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . 'http://www.xml'. Safari. for browser compatibility. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. but two options must be tried... // Firefox.7 . the data to send to the server.open: command GET or POST.xul.AJAX . .send(null). true). } else if (window. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. OK } else { // wait. if (request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.readyState == 4) { // received.null for a GET command 7.send: with POST only. The request below reads a document on the server. if (window. http_request.open('GET'. request..6 building a request. . true for asynchronous. http_request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .

7.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.XMLHTTP).setRequestHeader("Content-Type".ajax.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7 . else document.7.ajax.dyn=""Received:" + req.AJAX 7. req.xml".responseText.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ajax. req.dyn="Error code " + req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").dyn="Received:" + req.7 examples 7.open("GET". true). req. else if (window.item(0). req.getElementsByTagName('root'). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().readyState == 4) if(req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.status == 200) document. "data. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.send(null).status. }. if(window.responseXML. by this code: var doc = req.responseText.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
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XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. like what pages are error. 6. 8. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. database connection resource pooling. 2. web. Initialization of parameters for servlets. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. classes.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.class>com. 3.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. Servlet. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. but typical web.. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.)> <web-app> <!-.bank11. servlet classes.servlets. MIME types used by the web application. Here is a small.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . descriptions). data persistence. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. Others. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. For example. 5.. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.8 . welcome pages. like: 1. After an enterprise bean is created.ccards.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 4. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.xml file: <?xml version="1. Servlet. entries related to session configuration. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JSPs and Java Server Faces.

servlets".class" and that it is part of the package "com. However.8 .xml".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.ccards.servlets". Then the "EnrollServlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.xml file of the web application. basicly. Unfortunately. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. whose name is rather long. it is the alias of the real servlet class. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.ccards.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.ccards. For example. Basicly. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Behind a very benign URL. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".xml" file. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.bank11.servlets.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. In general.bank11. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. 1. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.bank11.xml" 2. the name of the web application. for flexibility. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".

5 and is in final state. but at this point.2. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. modular design 9. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . the HttpServlet) class.9 .4. which extend the functionality of the web server. the Java Servlet 3. from BEA Systems. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .SERVLETS 9 . in most cases as part of an application server. tjws spec 2.0 specification.0 specification is available for public review. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. small footprint. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. As of oct.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 9. but through a web container. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . The current Java Servlet specification is 2.SERVLETS 9.4.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. more often. this is just a work in progress. 9.2. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. Technically speaking. 2010. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. platform independent programs. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.

the javax. WebSphere.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from IBM 9. These packages are: • • javax.servlet package. Enterprise Edition. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet javax.servlet. IOException. from Apple Inc. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . 82 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet package are protocol independent.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void service(ServletRequest req. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void destroy() throws ServletException. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().9 .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. while the second one.

without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The method performs all initialization required.9 . This method has two arguments. More on the servlet life cycle. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. as well. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Throwable t) 9. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig. 9. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. 83 . The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). respectively. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. After instantiating the servlet.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. namely the HttpServlet class. before the servlet processes any HTTP request.

9 . service().9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.Exception class.ServletException javax. It also extends the java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). 9.lang. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.lang.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.

Typically.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. 9. Also.SingleThreadModel. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. 85 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. this method contains JDBC driver loading. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. If the servlet does not implement the javax. respectively. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. JSP or JSF. etc. Typically. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.9 . DB connection opening. After instantiation. which will service all incoming requests. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9.9 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.

public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.ccards.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.*.xml file. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.9 .servlets. 87 .io. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.java" file: package com. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. import java. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server.bank11. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.

out. out. out.init(config).println("</html>").println("</head>"). out. IOException { resp.http.println("merge").println("<head>"). out.SERVLETS import javax.*.println("<html>"). // output your page here out. out. } } 88 . HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out.9 .servlet.setContentType(“text/html”).println("</body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.servlet.close().println("<title>Servlet</title>").getWriter(). out.println("<br>").println("<body>"). import javax. out. PrintWriter out = resp.*. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.

0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. as recognized by the DB industry. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. the javax. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .10 .0. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.JdbcOdbcDriver . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.sql package. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. This solution is inefficient. 1997.sql package 2. 89 . These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. Starting with version 3.jdbc.sun. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.JDBC 10. Type 1. 10.odbc. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). the java.JDBC 10 .0 while the current (4.1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). After that. The JDBC 4.

Type 4. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 3. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.JDBC Type 2. 90 . Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. which in turn. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.10 . Part Java. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).

Struct java.sql.Timestamp java.3 the java.JDBC 10.sql.sql.Date java.SQLInput java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Wrapper 91 .CallableStatement java.SQLXML java.sql.0).sql.sql.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.10 . Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Driver java. let's remind some of the most important ones.ResultSet java.sql.Types java.Blob java.sql.SQLWarning java.Time java.sql.sql.DriverManager java.sql.sql. java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.0 API.sql.Statement java.Clob java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql.sql.SQLData java.Connection java.SQLPermission java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLOutput java.Array java.

sql. java.SQLException java.sql.sql.Statement java.SQLTimeoutException java.SQLInput java.4 interaction schema in the java.PreparedStatement java.sql.Wrapper javax.StatementEvent javax.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.SQLOutput java.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLDataException java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.StatementEventListener 10.SQLXML java.ResultSet java.10 .Connection java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.CallableStatement java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql. loading a database driver 2.0.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.NClob java.Blob java.sql.sql.sql.sql.RowId java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql package. querying the database 4.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.Types java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.sql.Clob java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.

DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.borland.JDBC 10.odbc.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.db2.net. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .DataStoreDriver com.driver.datastore.10 .5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.ibm. A database driver is specified by the driver name.sybase. The first one is loading a database driver.SybDriver com.

passwd).sql.bank11. String user = "root". 94 .forName("org.*.Driver"). the only protocol allowed in JDBC).JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.mysql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.10 . Since we just used it.*. by using the connection URL. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.gjt.util. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).newInstance(). try { Class.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. import java.printStackTrace().mm. user.getConnection(connURL. as specified by the driver vendor. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. but let's take it for granted: import java. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.

int resultSetConcurrency. prp. prp). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. String user.util. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. "true").getConnection(connURL. java. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.JDBC 10. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. 10. "true").put("autocommit". Properties prp = new Properties().7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. Connection conn = DriverManager.10 .Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.put("create". String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.sql package. we can use it for various purposes. prp.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.

8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.JDBC 10. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. respectively. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.10 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. namely.

executeUpdate(sqlString).9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. 10.sql. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .". Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. stmt..10 .createStatement(). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.

and CallableStatement objects. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. PreparedStatement.10 . not at 0) or the column name. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. 98 . One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. as the argument. a concurrency of read only. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


10 . mins.Time java. a factory for creating DB connections.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql.produces a standard Connection object 2.0 optional package.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. secs date. Connection pooling implementation -.sql. time. This interface is. There are three types of implementations: 1.sql package. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql.math.produces a Connection object that will 103 .math. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. Basic implementation -. It is part of the javax.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.Big Decimal Object float 10. basicly.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.DataSource object. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.

java.http. javax.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). theDataSource = (DataSource) env.*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax. private DataSource theDataSource.io. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlet.*. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.*. 3.*.lookup("java:comp/env").10 . throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax.bank11.getLogger(TestDataSource.sql.sql. import import import import import import java.getName()).servlet.class.servlets. javax.ccards.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*.naming. 104 .produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.

} catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. ServletException { .10 .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } } 105 ..

2 the java.5 Java Servlet specification. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The javax.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The package javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The JSP specific interfaces.JSP 11 . 11. The package javax. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. namely javax. 11.servlet.servlet.11 .servlet.JSP 11.servlet.1 and is related to the 2. the servlet code is regenerated.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.jsp.tagext.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet. If the JSP is modified. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp and javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" ..JSP • if the URL does not start with / . include and taglib. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.11 . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope... in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". 111 .

It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7. 11. In Tomcat. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. this code goes to inside the service() method.7.7 scripting elements 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11. Assigns it to available name or id.7.11 .

The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. you must specify param. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . and if so.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.11 .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.the name of a bean instance.

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.13 the forward standard action 114 . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.the URL of the page.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .11 . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . <jsp:forward>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. 11. flush .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions.

the type of object the plugin will execute.class extension in the name following code. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . If you do not supply a value.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . You must include the ... The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.11 . when we want to separate the application into different views.. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. 11." .a name for the Bean or applet instance. It is used mainly.. as well. as this attribute has no default value. name .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . code="classFileName" .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. You must specify either bean or applet. archive="URIToArchive.the name of a bean instance. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. servlet or to a static resource.. . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. name="instanceName" . depending on request.

The default value is 1.Object type and scope page 11. out . response . objects which are automaticly available.PrintWriter. config . request .represents the servlet context.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. in pixels. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.io.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.JspWriter type and scope page 7.1. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . based on the servlet API. Must be a small nonzero number.11 . it has javax.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.jsp.servlet. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. in pixels. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.it represents the buffered version of java.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. page . writes to the output stream to the client. session . with a protocol name. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . request . it has java. and domain name. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . of the image the applet or Bean displays.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.16 scopes 1.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.the initial height and width.1" . 1. The value is a full URL. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . pageContext . optional port number.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.represents server's response to the request.lang.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. application .the amount of space. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.

jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp file. session . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.ccards.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. if (enrollBean. Object value) method 3.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. page .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 2.JSP request object. Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. application . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.beans. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.11 .init(). Object value) method 4.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.

examples.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. The public constructor could have been omitted. %> <jsp:forward page="response. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .simple. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private int list[]. private String optional.string. private float number.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.java: package com. private int integer. private String colors[]. a float. a software development and consulting company. 11.io.Serializable { private String string.devsphere. The SimpleBean class is declared public.18. SimpleBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).mapping. a boolean and another String). has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private boolean flag.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private SimpleSubBean subBean. an int.11 .register().

integer = value.11 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.flag.number.flag = value. } 119 .colors[index]. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.JSP this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.colors.string = value.integer.number = value.

} // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values. int value) { this.list[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list.11 .subBean.subBean = value.optional. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. String value) { this.list[index].JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.optional = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.colors[index] = value.

// No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.mapping. } } 11. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.number = value.11 .Serializable { private String string.simple.examples.devsphere.18.io.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).string. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. SimpleSubBean. private float number. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number.string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.java: package com.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. a float. The list of optional properties has a single element.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The default values are defined for a String. new int[] { 2.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.java: package com.list]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "One or more colors must be selected" }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.list]". a boolean and an int[]. "An option must be selected" }.simple.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.123) }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Float(0.string]".11 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.flag]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. 3 } }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. error messages. SimpleBeanResources.mapping.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.util. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.examples. new String[] { 123 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]".colors]". the processing order.number]". "One or more items must be selected" }. "abc" }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. the list of optional properties.18. There are three error messages. new Boolean(true) }.devsphere. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. the form's name and the processor's name.

"SimpleForm.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).*. { "[PROC_NAME]". SimpleHndl.mapping. If necessary. "flag".devsphere.logging.JSP "optional" } }. "SimpleProc.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . "colors". "subBean" } }.mapping.jsp" } }. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.devsphere. For a better understanding of this example. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "integer". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The formToBean() method of com. "optional". new String[] { "string". string values are converted to numbers. { "[FORM_NAME]".util.18.devsphere.examples. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.devsphere.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } } 11.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. "list".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. "number". The beanToForm() method of com.simple.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.mapping.html" }.11 .mapping.

// Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.trim(). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).JSP = HandlerUtils.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).trim(). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. response).lastIndexOf('/').formToBean(formData. errorTable = HandlerUtils. logger).getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).removeUserErrors(errorTable).substring(0. // Process the valid data bean instance application. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.File(formPath)).getServletPath(). formPath = application.getString("[FORM_NAME]").getMethod(). slashIndex+1) : "". simpleBean. int slashIndex = basePath.getDocument().getRealPath(formPath). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.io.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. 125 .getBeanResources(simpleBean.getClass()). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.forward(request.equals("POST"). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.util.11 .getTemplate(new java.

beanToForm(simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].append("{ "). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. i < list. errorTable.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.length == 0) return "". SimpleProc.devsphere.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. // Send the form document document. document. for (int i = 0.11 .getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.string = <%= simpleBean. strbuf.getSubBean().number = <%= simpleBean.simple. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().mapping.getSubBean(). } %> 11.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. i++) 126 .SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. if (list.send(out).JSP elements logger).examples.length.18.getString() %> <P> subBean.

toString(). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. Using the framework.append(list[i]). i < list. In addition.length == 0) return "". if (list.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . The localization of the Complex*. In addition. ComplexForm.toString().18.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier.length. strbuf. return strbuf. strbuf. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.simple. ComplexHndl. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(" "). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. return strbuf. A single call to FormUtils.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.formToBean() call.toString(list[0]).devsphere.append(" ").6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. } strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. for (int i = 0. } %> 11. i++) { strbuf.jsp files.append("{ ").jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().11 . } strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.examples.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.util.append("}").length == 1) return Integer. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.mapping.append(list[i]). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.append("}"). strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.

j < colors.length. i < colorValues. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". 128 . for (int i = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j]. "Blue" }. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.length. boolean checked = simpleBean. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors().getInteger() == value. i++) { boolean checked = false. String colorValues[] = { "red". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i < integerLabels. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "Option 2". for (int i = 0. "Green". "Option 3" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.length.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1.11 . "blue" }.

i++) { int value = i+1.length. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". boolean selected = false.SimpleSubBean()).devsphere. "subBean.setSubBean( new com. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. break. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.mapping.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list == null) list = new int[0].getSubBean().JSP break. "Item 2".string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "Item 3" }.simple. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < listItems.examples.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.11 . j < list.getList(). "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.length.

130 .examples.Hashtable errorTable.util.getSubBean().devsphere.examples.devsphere.11 .jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.util.equals("POST"). boolean isPostMethod = request.length() == 0) { simpleBean.getMethod().Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.simple. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.setString("abc"). return message.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. "subBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.mapping.get(property).setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. if (message == null) message = "".JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> ComplexHndl.getString().mapping.simple.

getParameter("number").setFlag(flagValue != null). "number". if (flagValue. "Must be filled"). "number".getColors(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number").123f). "string".setNumber(new Float(numberValue). else { simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.length == 0) { 131 .trim().length() == 0 || flagValue. } simpleBean.123f).11 .setNumber(0. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("flag"). "Must be filled"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.equals("false")) flagValue = null.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "An option must be selected"). "integer".length() != 0) simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(0.floatValue()). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.

string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.number".number").setString("").getString(). "One or more items must be selected"). "subBean. "One or more colors must be selected").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.getList().length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. 3 }).number : text try { String numberValue = request.11 .getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean. 132 . "colors".setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("subBean. "Must be filled"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.string". "subBean.setOptional("").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "list".floatValue()).setList(new int[] { 2. //* subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.

\ 133 . "subBean.SimpleBean.mapping.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.code=com. simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. simpleBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.18.JSP filled").setString("").initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.jsp. simpleSubBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.setList(new int[] { 2. simpleBean. 3 }).jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.Hashtable errorTable. String property. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.properties or web.devsphere. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".examples. } } else { simpleBean. errorTable.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.util. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. simpleBean.number".setFlag(true).setOptional(""). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. } %> 11. "Must be a number").devsphere.put(property.helpers.simple.xml: SimpleHndl. The com.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.123f).mapping. message).setString("abc").helpers.setNumber(0.11 .

\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.host. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.simple.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.devsphere.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. a servlet is identified with its class.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .xml) file: ServletName.helpers.properties: AnotherHndl.18.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.devsphere. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.helpers.mapping.code=com. In many cases. you could add a few other lines to servlets.examples.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.host.examples.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A servlet can be made bean-independent.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.devsphere.11 .com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. 11. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.host. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.AnotherBean.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.company.devsphere. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.properties (or web.another. If you have another bean-form pair.

11 .JSP 135 .

JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. This technology includes: 1.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.0 supersedes version 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. builds a component tree. buttons.JAVASERVER FACES 12.12 .0. Version 2. 12.javaserver faces 12 . There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. like input fields. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. Version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. which loads the appropriate view template. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. processes events. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.

javaserver faces 12. 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.12 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.2 of the JFS specification.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. As of version 1. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .

2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.4. columns and rows.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. Common formatting techniques. respectively. footers.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns. see the column tag documentation.12 . 12. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.

checkout}" /> 139 . and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.4. your options include using plain HTML forms.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.12 .checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).

username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required." /> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.</span> 12.12 .6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. 12. red for error.4.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.5.user. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.12 .5. 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Any component that receives user input.12 .4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.customer. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. The body content of this tag must be empty.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.5.5. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Without this JavaScript event. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. 12.javaserver faces 12. can publish value change events. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. validateLength. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.mycompany.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.

JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. including images and styles. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.12 .mycompany.5. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.javaserver faces 12. for each locale you wish to support.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. myJSFapp 143 .jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. If you have not specified a default locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. Example: welcome_en. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.mycompany. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.

A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. and so on.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar faces-config. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml – the JSF configuration file.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. static resources. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. JSP pages. Define navigation rules 3. Create managed beans 4.xml web. custom tag libraries. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.javaserver faces /ant build. Create properties files 144 . Create JSP pages 2. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.12 .jar.contains libraries required by the application.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. mandatory for any JSF application web. It has a deployment descriptor. like third party jar files jsf-impl.html.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. jsf-api. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.exadel.jar – files included in the /lib directory.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar jsf-api.

These files will act as place holders for now. The directory structure already exists.jsp to greeting. You just need to create its contents. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Now that we have the two JSP pages.12 . it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. Compile the application 8. And that's all there is to this.7. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.javaserver faces 5.jsp file 7.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp. In our application. As a diagram. we just want to go from inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. we can create a navigation rule. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp and greeting.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.xml file. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Create an index.jsp is greeting. Edit JSP pages 6. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.7. 12.

The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. You can easily create more complex ones.xml Now. 12. of course. To read more about navigation rules.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.3.xml file should look like this: 146 . This section defines a bean name PersonBean. The next line is the full class name.xml Your final faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. This class is straight-forward.7. the second part of faces-config.7. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.java file.7. a very simple navigation rule. we will create a PersonBean. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. 12.javaserver faces This is. request sets the bean scope in the application.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.3.PersonBean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.) 12.12 . Inside this myJFSapp folder.3 faces-config. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.1 PersonBean. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.3.

0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.5.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7. 12. 12.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .sun.1 inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.4.12 .7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.sun.1//EN" "http://java.sun.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.1 messages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. 12.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.properties file in the bundle folder. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. Inc.7.

<h:inputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.bundle. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.sun.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.12 . The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.

6 creating the index. That's how JSF knows where to go next.sun. Line 6.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle.jsp page. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.7.12 . Having an index. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. name! 12.javaserver faces Line 1. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page..xml file. Lines 3-5. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Creates an HTML input text box. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. specifically the bean attribute personName. The first three lines are identical to our first page. 12.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.2 greeting.. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.5.</h3> tags.greeting_text}" />. Create the index. The second line will access a Java bean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. and also print its contents on the page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Line 2.7.

We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.xml file for the application *.sourceforge.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.9 Running Next. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. This is a "login" application. which asks an user for an ID and password.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml file. Of course. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. 12. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. might possibly be different).8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. When Tomcat is done loading. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. 12. you'll notice the file suffix is .html .8. We are almost done with this example. because in the web.7.7.jsf and not . To build the application run the build. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). Your setup. though. and forwards the user to a success or error page. we need to deploy it. 150 .xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.7. 12. This is used here. 12. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jsp. verifies the information. To do this. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.12 .javaserver faces Now.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.

note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.. click Finish 4. click Next d. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. 2.12 ..src | +-.. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. name the folder pages. c. make sure all checkboxes are checked. your mileage may vary. 12. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. click Add Folder. click Yes through messages that appear. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. 9. 1. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. Enter project name. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.WEB-INF 151 . in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). 3.xml Editor (see faces-config. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. click Next. and set up folders for a web application.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. Select the Amateras node. name the folder webroot 5..webroot | +-. 6.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. from the menubar select File/New/Other. and to add JSF libraries to the project.. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. jsf-login. select the Source tab. click Next. a. Select Java Project. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. The New Project wizard appears. in the Add JSF Support page. say. in the wizard that appears. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled..8. 7. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. 10. see Installing & Uninstalling.

We then configure it to be a managed bean.8. from its context menu select New/Class.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Add. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". else action = "loginFail". Click Finish. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. b.xml editor opens.12 . for scope select 152 .javaserver faces | | | +-. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.pages 12.xml. The faces-config. for class enter login. } 4.lib | +-. c.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. private String _pwd = "". input widgets appear d. a. in the Name field enter LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder. 3. } return action. The New Java Class wizard appears. enter login. for name enter mgr. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. The Java code editor opens. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. click Managed Bean.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".LoginManager. 2. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.xml Editor. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login. if ( _uid.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. In the Package field. 1. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.

e.jsp: a.12 . save the file and close the editor. b.javaserver faces session. Create index. success. <!-. the JSP Editor opens.webroot/pages/success. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.8. All pages except login.webroot/pages/error.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. from the menubar select File/Save. and 3 content pages (login.jsp are simple pages with static content. from its context menu select New/File.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp and error. </body> Please try 153 .jsp.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. so we create them first.jsp is placed directly in webroot. Create error. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. again. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. in Package Explorer select webroot. Then we create login.jsp). click Finish. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. enter the following code. Create success. c. but in webroot/pages. the New File wizard appears. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index. then close the editor 12.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. Enter the following code: <!-.webroot/index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. index. 1. for File name enter index.jsp).

the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens.. <%@ page contentType="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and uses them for code completion as well. for File name enter login. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and dock it along the right. with the following template code. g. Create login. now we want to add attributes to this element.jsp. the New wizard appears.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. 154 . and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. (See Show View Dialog) f. place your cursor in one of these lines.javaserver faces </html> 4. and the JSP Editor can help with code.12 . Open the JSF palette. b. click Finish. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. To see this in action. d.jsp: a. enter jsf-login e. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.sun.. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. as shown below. click Next c. and choose default for Template. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. from its context menu select New/Other. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. a code-completion window pops up. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.completion. etc.

set its value to Login.) j.password}" l. insert a <h:commandButton> element.12 . and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. insert another <h:inputText> element. with bean properties available in mgr. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.sun. and hit Enter.loginAction} The final code. i.javaserver faces h. a code-completion window pops up. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. with the barest presentational formatting. this inserts value="" at the cursor.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .sun.. complete the expression with the closing { k. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". select userID from the code-completion window. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. enter #{mgr.

password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.8.xml.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. click on Page. this inserts a page icon into the editor. 1.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 156 . and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. then click inside the editor window. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. This is shown below. Select the Navigation tab 3.xml Editor. it should open in the faces-config.12 . Open faces-config. using a FacesIDE editor. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. 2.

"Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.12 .jsp. then click first on the icon for login.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. /pages/success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp 4. and set them to /pages/login. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. change the value of path to /index. in the Properties view.jsp. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp and then on the icon for success. and is represented by an arrow. 5. notice that the warning triangle disappears. add 3 more pages. This is shown below: 157 . 6. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. from the palette at left. select Navigation Case. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.

jsp. The application is now complete. As it turns out. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).xml Here we edit web. any other id/password should send you to the error page.jsp to error. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. and you should be sent to the success page. since we have such a trivial application. open web. 12.6 Editing web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. Once deployed browse to index. all we need do in web.jsp. 1. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Similarly add a forward-action from login.javaserver faces 7. or leave it as-is.8. We'll set some properties in web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.xml. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.xml.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.12 . Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . We want virtual path-based mapping. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml for the specifics of our application. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.jsp. and extension-based mapping is turned on. so uncomment it.

for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.8.javaserver faces 12.faces.faces.application javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces.webapp 12. Click on its link to launch the application.faces javax.faces. click Deploy 3.CONFIG_FILES 159 .. that factory is used. open its Manager application in a browser.faces. scroll down to Deploy. the Manager application should reload. start Tomcat. as file:///. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.lifecycle javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.convert javax.html javax.0 1.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.10 the javax. For a given factory class name.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. 12.faces..faces.model javax.el javax.event javax.render javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.12 .component.context javax.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.component javax.faces.. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.validator javax.

Severity . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. those factories are used. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. ApplicationFactory . with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. StateManagerWrapper . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. 12. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.represents a single validation (or other) message.faces.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.11 the javax. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. FacesMessage.12 . ViewHandlerWrapper .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. ViewHandler .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. StateManager . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). handling events and input validation. defining page navigation. with the last one taking precedence. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. If none of the above steps yield a match.

a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. • • 161 . StateHolder . UIComponent .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. UICommand .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. ActionSource2 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. String. a menu item.12 . String) results in failure on postback. Here they are: • • UIColumn .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. NamingContainer . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.12 the javax.FacesContext. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . 12. EditableValueHolder . ContextCallBack .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. when activated by the user.faces.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.faces.restoreView(javax. • ViewExpiredException . or a hyperlink. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". ValueHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.context. UIComponentBase .

it is for display purposes only. UIPanel . UISelectOne . UIGraphic . The user can modify the selected values.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIOutput . UISelectMany .a UIComponent that has a value. UIParameter .html package 162 . by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIMessage . The user can modify the selected value.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.13 the java. UINamingContainer . UIForm . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). Optionally. identified by a clientId. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. it just serves as the root of the component tree.12 . UIInput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.faces.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UISelectBoolean . The user cannot manipulate this component. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces • UIData . UIViewRoot . it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIMessages . UISelectItem . Optionally. that is displayed to the user. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.

represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . The checkbox will be rendered as checked.renders child components in a table. or not.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlOutputLink .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML label element.faces. HtmlInputSecret . This component must be placed inside a form. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlCommandLink . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlMessages . but the application wishes to render more than one.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlPanelGroup . and renders the result.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlInputHidden . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML form element. HtmlOutputText . HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.renders the component value as text. HtmlColumn .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.by default. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlInputTextarea . The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlDataTable . HtmlMessage . HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML input element of type text.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.12 .represents an HTML textarea element.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlInputText . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.Message".represents an HTML img element. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.faces. HtmlForm . HtmlCommandButton .by default.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. On a redisplay. HtmlPanelGrid . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.

a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. ResponseStream .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. ResponseWriterWrapper . It is passed to.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. • • • • 12. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.12 .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. ResponseWriter . In particular.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.javaserver faces property.14 the java. HtmlSelectOneListbox . and potentially modified by. and the rendering of the corresponding response. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneMenu .convert package 164 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectManyListbox . HtmlSelectManyMenu . • • • • • • 12.faces.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. FacesContext . showing a single available option at a time.15 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneRadio . FacesContextFactory .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.

• • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . PropertyResolver .12 . VariableResolver . ValueBinding . 12.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.javaserver faces 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.faces.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.16 the java. Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.15.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.

listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesEvent .17 the java. PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. ValueChangeListener . 166 .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. and event implementation classes.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.AbortProcessingException .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.12 . MethodNotFoundException . • • • • • One exception . Interfaces: ActionListener . PhaseEvent . • • • • 12. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ValueChangeEvent . ReferenceSyntaxException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseListener . FacesListener .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . PhaseId .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.19 the java.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . ResultDataModel .18 the java.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModelEvent .20 the java. 12.faces.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ScalarDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. SelectItem . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.faces. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. ResultSetDataModel . DataModel . ListDataModel . Renderer .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).12 . • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces 12. SelectItemGroup . Classes: ArrayDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.

validator package Interface defining the validator model. markup language.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. • • 12.21 the java. 12.22 the java. ResponseStateManager .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. and concrete validator implementation classes. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).faces.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. LongRangeValidator . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. • RenderKit .faces. AttributeTag . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. as well.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. together. base classes for JSP custom component tags. Typically. RenderKitFactory . Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.12 . and/or user Locale. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. The package contains an exception. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. including a standard servlet.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. ConverterTag . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.

the controller sends a message to the view. • • • • • FacesServlet .javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. which has several implications. Likewise. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). servlets. 12. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. UIComponentBodyTag . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). To ensure that the business state is never invalid.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. or some other web technology. When using JSF. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. When a web server receives a request.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. that need to process their tag bodies. When the user takes some action with the presentation. UIComponentTag . the controller sends a message to the model. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response.a base class for all JSP custom actions. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. but basically. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. FacetTag . related to a UIComponent. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. or when an exception occurs. which passes the request to the page class. telling the model to update its data. that request is passed to the container. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. When the model is updated. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response.12 . the process includes a few more components or pages. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. telling the view to update its presentation. Also. the life cycle is more complicated. In JSF. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. In MVC. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. ValidatorTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the controller is the 169 . the JSF life cycle does not apply.

any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. such as components that create HTML input fields. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. and the response is sent to the client. • Invoke Application: During this phase. These objects update their state with the data values. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. not every request will flow through all six phases. it creates UI objects for each view component. If this is a subsequent request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called.12 . 170 . However. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. or from request headers. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the conversion occurs in this phase. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. As with the previous phase. converting a String to a Date object). the JSF implementation must create the view. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. Data for some components. and a piece of data failed validation. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. For a JSF-enabled application. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. In addition. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. from cookies sent as part of the request. and what happens during the processing and response. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. Data can come from input fields in a web form. In addition.javaserver faces JSF implementation. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. depending on the request. The components are stored in a component tree.

Also. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. skipping any remaining phases.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. 171 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. For example.javaserver faces In the above figure. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.

Thus the DNS name sales.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. When using almost any computer program or system. The UNIX pathname. you must supply its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.COM. 13.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. which is located in the root of the file system.Wiz. c:\bin\autoexec. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. The DNS entry Wiz. and NIS(YP). For example. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.13 . DNS.9. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. For example. In addition.JNDI 13 . The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". relative to the DNS entry Wiz. when you use an electronic mail system.48. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. A file system maps a filename (for example. naming and directory services using a common API. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. possibly multiple. or objects typically used by computer programs. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. in turn.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. For example. 13. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. you supply it the name of the object. 172 . identifiers.").5).JNDI 13. Using JNDI.2. such as LDAP. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").sun. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.COM. you are always naming one object or another. such as addresses. names a file hello in the file directory usr. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. /usr/hello. NDS. It enables applications to access different. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. To access a file in the computer. for example.

For example. might contain the state of the printer. for example. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. Every context has an associated naming convention. which in turn. is relative to c=us.2. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). A printer object reference. A reference is information about how to access an object. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. on the other hand.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.2. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. Instead."). the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Finally. while the object itself might contain more state information. A file object. 13. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. unbinding names. For example. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. such as COM. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). in the UNIX file system is a context. For simplicity.2. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. For example. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. relative to the entry o=Sun. some objects cannot be stored directly.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. and its flight number and departure time. is accessed using a file reference. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. such as c=us. 13. For example. By contrast. is a context. 13. such as its print server name and printing protocol. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. Typically. A printer object. o=Sun. That is. Using the reference. in the DNS domain Sun. for example. that is. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. In another example. an LDAP entry. and listing bound names. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. a file name is bound to a file. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. delimited by the comma character (". a file directory. is a context. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information.13 . such as /usr. also called a file handle. its flight plan. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. and fuel and instrument status. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. in a file directory /usr/bin.c=us. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. For example. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. they must be stored by reference.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. 173 . that is. a DNS domain.COM. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention.

Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. For example. programs. however. various telephone numbers. 13.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. because we can. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. Thus. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. and even the computer itself and other computers. resolution. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.3. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. and color. one context can be viewed. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. 13. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. a person. to represent a printer. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. A directory object can be used. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.13 . A directory object represents an object in a computing environment.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. a name is unique 13. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. two different computer 174 . for example. and computer account information. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.2. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. or a network. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. For example. For example. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. For example. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. postal mail address. a computer.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. And it kind of makes sense. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. to some extent. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. For example.

Alternatively. 175 . that is. Similarly.smith@somewhere. Within the DIT. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. For example. many directories. can use the directory in the traditional way. like any other program running on the network.13 . printers. for example. 13. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. support the notion of searches. By using a directory service. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. When you search. When directory objects are arranged in this way. 13. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.50". for example. Many examples of directory services are possible. the ability to access directory services will become essential. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.113. an organization object. for example. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. removing.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. The query is called a search filter. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. 13. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. such as the file and print services. adding. such as that relating to machines. The email address. 13.com". you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. The service is accessed through its own interface. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. "mail" is the attribute identifier.3.3.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. called a directory information tree (DIT). might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. and users. such as those based on the LDAP.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. For example. A Java mail client program. networks.4. 13. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.3.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.

Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. To use the JNDI. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. v1.naming javax. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. Thus a variety of directories--new. 13.13 .5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. 13.naming. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.directory javax. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.5.3 and later releases. v1.1 and Java 2 SDK.event javax. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. 13.2.naming.5. For example. more coherent and manageable. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The Java 2 SDK.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).naming.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1. It extends the v1.ldap 176 .2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.2. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.1 and the Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. and even the network.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.4. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. 13. For example. emerging. v1.

naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.print(report). In this case.13 . A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.String name.lang. 13. 13. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. comparing components.String name argument represents a composite name.6 the naming package The javax.6. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. binding/unbinding. the name of the object's class.6. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.naming package defines a Context interface.naming. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. 13. and the object itself.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. list() is similar to listBindings(). The most commonly used operation is lookup() . it is potentially a much more expensive operation. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.6.lookup("treekiller"). except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. and it returns the object bound to that name. composing them. that is.lang. a 177 . Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. and so on. for some objects in the directory. The overloads that accept java.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. For the methods in the Context interface.lang. However.spi 13.JNDI • javax. Furthermore.6. A java. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.1 context The javax. printer. 13. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . For example.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. which is the core interface for looking up.

a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. There are no absolute roots. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. they should catch NamingException. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 13. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.6. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. Otherwise. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. For example. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. replace. 178 .7.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. 13. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. You can add. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 13.naming. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.7. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).directory package extends the javax. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. 13.7 directory package The javax. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. 13. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.6. InitialContext.13 .naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. Once you have an initial context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.

called controls .9. For example. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control ." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. controls. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.ldap package at all. In fact. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. These operations are called "extended" operations. such as information about the object before and after the change. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. or unsolicited notifications.naming.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.9. To receive event notifications. and vice versa. 13. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.8 event package The javax.JNDI 13.directory package. 13. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.13 .9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. For example. 13." and those that do not. such as "object added. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. 13.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. Once registered. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming.9 LDAP package The javax. such as "object changed. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.naming. that is.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.

create a file named Lookup. import javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories. That is.1 plug-In architecture The javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.java.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.10 service provider package The javax. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. 13.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.13 . 13. 13.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.11. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. implementors of Context. and receiving response controls. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.9.10. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This support is provided in the form of state factories. sending request controls. For example.spi package supports implementors of Context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13.2 java object support The javax. It uses a service provider for the file system. 13.10. if you look up a printer name from the directory. 180 .Context.10. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.naming package. In the process of completing an operation.

// Print it System.11. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().3 looking up an Object Next. v1. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. create an initial context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). 181 .4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. } catch (NamingException e) { System. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).lookup(name).11.11.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. import javax. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. "com. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. If you are still having problems. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. Otherwise. To compile to program.lookup() to look up an object. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. env. If the compilation fails.5 compiling the program Next.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).jndi.13 . 13. use Context. 13. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.NamingException. you must have access to the JNDI classes. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).RefFSContextFactory").class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.err. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.fscontext. For this reason. then the JNDI classes are already included.sun. } 13. using the capitalization shown. as follows.jar as an installed extension. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.lookup(name). Object obj = ctx. If the compilation succeeds.JNDI import javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.naming. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. 13.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.11.3.InitialContext.naming.put(Context.java).out.

class). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.naming. To run the program.jndi. 182 . It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.3.ldap. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. then you will see something like the following.12.directory. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). and your example class (Lookup.naming and javax. env. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").11. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. create a file named Getattr. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.PROVIDER_URL.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.put(Context.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. the file system service provider.naming. javax.naming.java. create an initial directory context.sun.13 .naming. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.fscontext.Context. include the directory that contains your Lookup. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.directory.NamingException.6 running the program To run the program.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. javax.JNDI 13.jar and providerutil. import import import import import javax. you need access to the JNDI classes.naming.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.DirContext. 13. Finally. javax. supply the name of a file in your file system. "com. v1. env.12. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.Attributes.sun.LdapCtxFactory").put(Context.jar).naming.directory.InitialDirContext.directory packages.bat If you supply a file directory.jndi. javax.

// Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. 183 . The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get()). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If you are still having problems. If the compilation succeeds. For now. } 13.13 . to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.get() on it to get its value: attrs. 13. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.get() and then from that attribute get its value.err. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).6 compiling the program Next.get("sn"). compile the source file using the Java compiler. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. using the capitalization shown.12. As with the naming example. Attributes. } catch (NamingException e) { System. If the compilation fails. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.println("sn: " + attrs. ou=People").println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).12. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Similar to the naming example.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. For this reason.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn").12.out. 13.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. 13. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.get().12.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. ou=People").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.java).

then see the Common Problems lesson. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. Getattr. With this configuration. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").12.PROVIDER_URL. If you have any trouble running this example.3.7 running the program As with the naming example.jar). ou=People".jar and providerutil. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. then these classes are already included. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.class. env. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.13 . serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. 184 . If you are using the Java 2 SDK. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.JNDI 13.put(Context. v1. Once it has the attributes. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").

Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS message . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. unless it has established a durable 185 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS topic . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.14 . JMS producer . Enterprise Edition. • 14. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. the messages are delivered in the order sent. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. Here. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. As the name queue suggests. JMS queue .a JMS client that receives messages. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS client . JMS consumer .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. In this model. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.

messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Depending on the type of message.3 the JMS API programming model 14. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 14. 14. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. On the receiving side. Using Java.jms. In that case.14 .4.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 186 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.

14 . In a J2EE application. and users discover them using JNDI. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface. Like the connection factory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must call the connection's start() method. you call the stop() method.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. It is either a queue or a topic. Before your application can consume messages. Depending on the connection type. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. you must close any connections that you have created. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. 14. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.4.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. For example. connection.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). Before an application completes.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. For example.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). It receives messages sent to a destination.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. 14. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.close(). which is where messages are delivered and consumed.createConnection(). Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The JMS administrator creates these objects. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.4. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.

which contains one method. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. Message m = consumer. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. This object implements the MessageListener interface. usually expect a specific message type and format. it becomes active. MessageConsumer consumer = session. if it needs to reply to messages. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.start(). 14. (Remember always to call the start() method. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. a message listener object may be used. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. You use the Session. A message listener does. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. Message m = consumer.receive(). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.createConsumer(myQueue).) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. After you have created a message consumer. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. For example. For example. consumer. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. In the onMessage() method. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.createConsumer(myTopic).receive(1000). and you can use it to receive messages.4. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. you are likely to miss messages. Moreover. After you register the message listener. connection. however.start().setMessageListener(myListener). a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.14 . onMessage(). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.) When message delivery begins.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. 188 .

After you have created a message producer. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.createProducer(null).send(message). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. 14. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). to create and send a TextMessage. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. message). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. At the consuming end.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. and object message). 189 .setText(msg_text). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.14 .send(myQueue. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. A message has three main parts: 1.4. 3. MessageProducer producer = session. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer.createProducer(myQueue).send(message). With an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer. map message. that is. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.receive().createProducer(myTopic). message. anon_prod. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. You must first create the messages.4. from one application to another. if you created an unidentified producer. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. stream message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. For example.createTextMessage().7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. Here. bytes message.

out.println("Reading message: " + message. 0). } else { // Handle error } 14. Sessions implement the Session interface. If the user selects transaction support.createSession(false. 190 . the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. then delivers the messages. Before committing the transaction. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. Here. To create a transacted session.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.4. Session. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. After you create a Connection object.getText()).14 . The first argument means that the session is not transacted. use the following code: Session session = connection. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. the first argument means that the session is transacted.createSession(true. and message consumers to receive messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.

server which provides an execution environment for containers.object oriented representation of data in a DB. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.0. On the other side.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).logging. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .consistent error handling framework .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.jar file into the application server.0. 15. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. The component lives inside a container. improved performance security . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.15 .DB interaction transactions . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. the container lives (in general) in an application server. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .transaction management can be complex. bundled into a single unit. message-driven beans The 2.no developer coding.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. container which offers services to the component.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Version 1. component recovery scalability portability 191 . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .

15 . RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. which is an xml file. the home interface of the bean 3. the remote interface of the bean 4. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. as follows: 1. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. called ejb-jar. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the deployment descriptor.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.xml 15.

javax. RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.RemoteException.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. String lastName. import java. While the Remote interface declares no methods.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.javax.rmi. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import java.RemoteException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.*. import. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi.ejb. } 193 . import. } 15.ejb.*.

creating them for the client application. prop.interfaces. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.PROVIDER_URL. prop. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. In the case of an web application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.jnp. } 194 . how to create or find the bean 2.15 .NamingContextFactory". Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). "localhost:1099"). if the client executes outside the container. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context. we need to know: 1. "org. this can be done (for example) through SSL. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.put(Context. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.

15 . to the appropriate type.rmi. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.narrow(homeRef. Why? For EJB. MyBeanHome. more specifically. do not have the concept of casting. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).lookup("MyBean"). do implements the java. 195 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.rmi. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. in fact. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. IIOP has not been designed for Java. and this means that there are some limitations. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.PortableRemoteObject class and. that is part of CORBA standards. the client has a stub). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.e.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.Remote interface).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. in fact. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. This is done through the javax. Problem is.rmi. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. • if the client executes outside the container.. Some languages. using the narrow() method.class). Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. but for generic languages. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.

the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. 1102).ejb. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ejbeans. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejb.ccards.bank11. 15...processEntry("Dumitrascu".SessionContext. int custId) { // method implementation .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.remove(). import javax. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . remove the bean instance myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. call business methods on the bean myObject.15 .. public class MyBean implements javax. as well).create(). "Vasile". String lastName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.

To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. the object is activated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. that is. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 197 . The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. namely stateful and stateless beans.15 . A stateless bean does not.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. 15. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.

) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. All other methods in Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle.15 . its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. or passivate. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. (Typically. 198 . is inside the bean class. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. for example. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. For example. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. Figure 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. the client invokes the remove method. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the EJB container activates the bean.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. The ejbCreate method.

The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 .2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. support for concurrent access 3. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.15 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. stored in a Database).

Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. an instance of that bean is created.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().ccards. all throwing RemoteException.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.15 .String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. as the parameters in the original create() method. methods which have the same parameters.14. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. Read. state data is stored into data store (usually. CreateException. in the same order.lang.bank11. 15. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. On the other side.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. Update and Delete. 200 . a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). We can have more create() methods.

15.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. On the first path. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. 15. All instances in the pool are identical.14. but the developer returns null for CMP. Second. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the programmer will create actual SQL code.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. While in the pooled stage. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. it's business methods can be invoked. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. After the EJB container creates the instance.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. it is empty.15 . but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). After instantiation. a client can invoke the remove method. in BMP.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. but in general. for BMP. left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMPs. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. actual SQL update code. the client invokes the create method. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. 201 . First. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. On the second path. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. not null.14.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.14.

The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Therefore.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. In the pooled state.15 . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. In the pooled state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . or a Web component .or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.an application client.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.getPrimaryKey(). it does not automatically set the primary key. 202 . 15. It acts as a JMS message listener. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. With bean-managed persistence. another enterprise bean. the values of the instance variables are not needed. If the primary key is incorrect. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.

16. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. The onMessage method may call helper methods.for example. 203 .3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. To ensure concurrency. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.16. a JMS API connection. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. For more information on this element see. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. max-beans-infree-pool.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. In several respects.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. but not asynchronously. message-driven bean can be used. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.15 . Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.16. If message processing is rolled back.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. When a message arrives. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. To avoid tying up server resources. an open database connection. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. Unlike a session or entity bean. 15. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. 15. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. the message will be redelivered. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. Previously. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. If this element is set to more than one.

. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. Classes. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .16.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. // An EJB constructor is required..jms. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. public void ejbRemove() {. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. 15. As with other EJB types. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. 2. 3. 15. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. methods..MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.ejb.0 specification. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and it must not // accept parameters.Message MessageName) {. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. Note: These instances can be pooled. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. public void onMessage(javax.Message.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.16.jms. or create a new one..6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.16.}. finalize{}.} // onMessage() is required.

16. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.16. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.MessageListener. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. See javax. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. For example. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . from the client perspective the EJB still exists. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.This is not a client context. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. If any method throws such an exception.onMessage() for more information. getUserTransaction().16. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. However.jms.15 . 15.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. even in onMessage(). if the EJB throws a runtime exception).16. getRollbackOnly() . 15. 15.

16. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.0 specification.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.15 . In either case. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. 15. as required by the EJB 2. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.0 specification. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.16.16.

This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml deployment file. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.xml elements. </message-driven> ..17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .0 specification. For each instance.ejb20.. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. the weblogic-ejb-jar. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.15 .. 15.message. 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. 207 .jms. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. as described in the EJB 2.

security issues.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle.like transaction. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. the home interface name 7. the remote interface name 8. environment properties 6. a message-driven bean is never passivated. security 208 . 15. access control entries . the container calls the ejbRemove method. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. control descriptors . attributes . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.15 . session specific elements 9. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. isolation level.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. entity specific elements 10.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. EJB class name 5. bean home name .

ccards.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ejb.ccards.bank11.bank11.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ejb.15 .ccards.ejb.bank11.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.lang.bank11.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.bank11.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.

Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..lang.15 .


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