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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. retail.2 Server communication 1.java platform. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.1 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Figure 1. like HTML pages. and sends it back to the client program. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. or finance. 5 . Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. The web tier.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.7 business components Business code. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. like the client tier. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. enterprise edition Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. processes it (if necessary). processes it (if necessary). are not considered web components. 1.

it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.9 java EE Containers Normally. and other complex low-level details.3 Web. or application client component can be executed. 1. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.1 .java platform. Before a web. enterprise bean. mainframe transaction processing. In addition. 6 .8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). multithreading. database systems. Business and EIS Tiers 1. 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. and other legacy information systems.9. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. resource pooling. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.

a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. transaction management. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. 1. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.4. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.1 .java platform. and remote connectivity. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. database connection resource pooling.9. For example. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. After an enterprise bean is created. data persistence. 7 . including services such as security. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.

A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. extensible.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. 8 . 1. text-based standard for representing data. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. 1.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. test.10. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .manages the execution of application client components. develop.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. XML data. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. maps. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Application client container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of applets. program files. enterprise edition Figure 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio. or for document-oriented web services. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Application clients and their container run on the client. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. video. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Web container . To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. When XML data is exchanged between parties. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.1 . Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.java platform. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Applet container . For example.

where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.java platform. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. 9 . WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. such as Universal Description.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The description includes the name of the service. 1.10. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. the location of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.1 . enterprise edition 1.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. and ways to communicate with the service. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10.

11.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. the session bean and its data are gone.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . standard set of tags.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. WML.1 . 1.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. and XML) and JSP elements. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. In Java EE 5.11.java platform. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. 1. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. or enterprise bean. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. 1. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. If the client terminates. or if the server shuts down. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. Commonly. you employ a single.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. enterprise edition Figure 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


No extra coding is needed. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the application is ready to run. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. servlet. and JNDI 1.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or a component. Once deployed on a local platform. such as better performance. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. JSP page.java platform.1 . Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. JTA. module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .ear extension. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . At runtime. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. better tools. or better customer support. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. or component accordingly. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. SAAJ. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. 15 . it is ready to be deployed. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. a module. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code.

and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. For example. Web modules. Application client modules. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .jar extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. native libraries. and other documentation. • • 16 .jar extension. for example. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. supporting class files. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. GIF and HTML files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Together. classes. and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain servlet class files. Resource adapter modules. which contain all Java interfaces.java platform. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. enterprise edition Figure 1.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.1 . such as caching directives.war (Web ARchive) extension.

These messages may have different contents.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.jmarshall. as follows: 1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.2 ..HTTP 2.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. so far) version. The second (and last.1. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .html).org/Protocols . a blank line (CR/LF) 4.HTTP 2 . The first oficial version – HTTP 1. but they also have some common structural elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. RFC 2616 (06/99). an initial line 2.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. The client sends a request message to the server. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).ietf..org/rfc/rfc1945. namely HTTP 1. The server answers with a response message. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. zero or more header lines 3.com/easy/http. 2.. POST.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. HEAD.apps. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.. . It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. check the official HTTP site – www. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. we recommend www.w3. was the object of several RFCs.

OPTIONS 7. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.2 . newsgroup. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. PUT 8. but lack of support makes them obsolete.html HTTP/1. HEAD 3. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . CONNECT 5.1 specification. HTTP/1. GET 2.1. in the HTTP 1. TRACE Three other commands are listed.Posting a message to a bulletin board. DELETE 6. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. Here is their list: 1. . as well. 18 . 2. GET /path/to/the/file/index. mailing list.0).4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.Annotation of existing resources. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. POST 4.

where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .2 . or ordering a product.Extending a database through an append operation. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. In this case.Providing a block of data. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or sending E-mail 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 2. separated by the character “&” or “. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.” On the other side.8 the status code A three-digit integer. When used for form data submission. (encoded as multipart/form-data). a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. after the “?” character. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. . or a record is subordinate to a database. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. like storing or updating data. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). to a data-handling process. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.6 differences between GET and POST 1. . while POST may involve anything. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. such as the result of submitting a form.0 404 Not Found 2. or in the message body. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.HTTP or similar group of articles. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. 3.

the request succeeded. and section 10 for HTTP 1. such as text/html or image/jpg. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.2 .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. fails. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. separated a semicolon. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. while the HTTP 1. 404 Not Found . one (Host) is mandatory. 20 . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. none of them mandatory. In particular. If an HTTP message includes a body. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. file or script output) is returned in the message body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. In a request. 500 Server Error . and the resulting resource (e. that is.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).g.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header name and header value.1 only) .1). this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. where the requested resource is returned to the client.the requested resource doesn't exist. 2. 2.0 version specifies 16 headers.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. out of which. The most common use of the message body is in a response. header values are. or otherwise can't run correctly. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.0. The HTTP 1.1 version specifies 46 of them.an unexpected server error. Although the header names are not case sensitive.

image. with subtypes jpeg.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.html HTTP/1. multipart. partial. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). video.ro/path/file. with subtypes rfc822. with subtype mpeg 2.ietf. .0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. with subtypes octet-stream. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. gif 6. text. external-body 4.2 .0 200 OK Date: Fri. Here is the list of the seven types.uvt. 1.html first open a socket to the host web. message.info. parallel 3. digest. application. RFC 1521 (www.org/rfc/rfc1521.info.apps.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.uvt. with subtype plain 2. with subtypes mixed.HTTP 2. postscript 5. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtype basic 7.0 From: someuser@yahoo.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. 21 . Then. audio. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ro. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. alternative.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.

2 .HTTP . 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket.

2 (3.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. Originally named Web Applications 1.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. Mosaic.0.w3. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. namely HTML 1. a working draft for the next major revision. HTML 3.htmlgoodies.0.w3c. The newest version of HTML is 4.html. As a practical reference site use – www. The XHTML 1. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .com/easy/html . The first official version – HTML 2.com/indexdot/html .99.www. www.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. HTML describes how text.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.01.html) and was widely supported. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.01) can be found at this address: http://www.blooberry.0 and was accepted in December 1997.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.jmarshall.3 . <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. 3.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).org/Markup . From 1999 on.apps. A newer standard. However. The first version of HTML. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0) dates from 08.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/tutors. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. It is a revision of 4.0 draft was released in 01.HTML 3.HTML 3 . Version 4. The latest version (XHTML 2. Since it fits in a couple of pages. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 .org/rfc/rfc1866. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. Other helpful sites . using a variety of tags and their related attributes.ietf. check the official HTML site – www.

-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".

“&quot”. VSAPCE are omitted.3 . CONTROLS. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 Transitional DTD. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. If you wonder what a character reference is. DYNSRC. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.0 Strict DTD. 4. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. HTML 4. 3. An example: <!-. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. Check the address http://www.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. "&#x6C34. HTML 4. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. You get the point. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. …. 3.the chinese character for water.w3. three DTDs (HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. Overall. look at these examples: “&lt”. <><> --> 25 .3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. This section deals with some of the most common elements. BORDER. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. the specification of HTML 4. like ALIGN." (in hexadecimal) .acesta este un comentariu.and end at the first occurrence of -->. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.01 specification. though.

4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.uvt.3.ro/webmail/src/login. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3.HTML 3.5 tables 26 . An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3 . NAME.info. etc.

columns. its rows. <TR>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TH> and <TD>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Usually.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <THEAD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is their description and attributes. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns.3 .

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .7 forms A form is a basic component container.required. allowing user input and parameter submittal.3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .

either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.required.8. "password". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "hidden".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "checkbox".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . 3. however. • 3. "text/plain" • • 3. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .HTML • METHOD .uvt. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "submit".8 form related elements 3. "file". specifies how data will be sent to the server. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". Main attributes: • TYPE .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . may have the values GET or POST.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "GET" . specifies the parameter name. SIZE .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. after a quotation mark .maximum number of options visible to the user. Example: http://web.:. "button".3 . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.info.8. allows multiple selections from the choice list.if specified. Main attributes: 29 . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".the default value. NAME . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.8.required.required. "reset". the browser appends the values to the URL. "radio".?.sends the form values in a single transmission.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "image".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

Example: Edit the file prog1.3 java applications 31 . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.) in The current version (as of 10. following the 1. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.class file. -g : generate all debugging info.java One example of command line compilation: 4. Java bytecode – a file with extension . The first time a class is loaded. Inc. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.2 java the interpreter.class file. javac -classpath .java 2. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. In terms of execution time. The current version (as of 10.95. Early versions of Java were released in 12.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.java. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. 4. the compilation process occurs. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .C:\TW\myPackages -g login.JAVA PRIMER 4.95. jit From source to execution.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. a tool named Just In Time compiler..C:\TW\mySource. To overcome this significant shortage.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.JAVA PRIMER 4 . pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. Java source – a file with extension .class. project started in 12.4 .2 version.class 3. but next time execution is much faster. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.

JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. Generally.java. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. 4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.jar file. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .4. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4 .4. An example: 32 . or is derived from A. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. or that it extends A). use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. In general.4 object oriented concepts 4.

JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Double. Float. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. providing its own implementation.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). a class can have more than one method with the same name. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.4 . Character. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. 33 . called Object. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Short. 4. Boolean. with the root the class Object. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.4. Therefore. Integer.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. this is called method overloading. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.1 bit char .5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . In fact. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Therefore.4. While C++ allows multiple inheritance.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Long. 4. a Java class can extend a single base class. In OO jargon. namely: Byte. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).

4. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. method .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.one which is constant method . A final: • • • variable .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.4 . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.http.. Except for the "package" concept. anywhere abstract .no access from outside the class itself protected .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.servlet.servlet.http. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. no templates.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. which extends the class javax. class . has the same value for all class instances. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. rather than at class instance.access from any class anywhere private . 34 .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . • • • • no specifier .does not have any subclasses. A final variable (method.one which is defined at class level. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the class is visible from any class.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. automatic garbage collection.. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . } declares an abstract class. inherited).

Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .7. not at execution time. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. code or data errors .2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. 4. java errors . In Java. programmer defined exceptions 4.7.7. as defined in the java.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.4 . 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .ThreadDeath. array index out of bounds.JAVA PRIMER 4. Exception categories: 1. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.like invalid cast. division by 0. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 2. namely class Error and the class Exception. standard method exceptions 3.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.

they have to be unique inside a package. catch.by adding the key word throws. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .default.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. finally construct. don't have to import java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.awt . 4. 4. 4. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . The package containing the standard classes is java.Properties.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.net java..sql java.8. import javax.support for data collections.nio java. As a general rule.1 Package names The default package has no name. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. In the example above.security 36 . All other packages must be explicitly imported.rmi java.4 .awt.ccards.geom .zip .bank11. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). the default package is used).servlets. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. followed by the import statements.support for event handling java.util. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.support for java archives creation java.event .. .lang .sql.io java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. import.java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.class file. therefore. An example: package com. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.util. date and time info java. string analyzers.support for user interface java.util .awt.*. the class (the .this can be done by providing a try.lang (automatically available).

4 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.swing.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.accessibility javax.swing .support for event handling 4.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.text javax. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. 37 . All variables (actually. static and final. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. it must be declared as abstract.event .

Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. like QtScript or ActionScript.depending on the browser .JAVASCRIPT 5. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .javaScript 5 . other 38 . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. The origins of this language date back to 1995. as JavaScript. Subsequently. However. 5. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. and . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.5 .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.HTML authors are normally not programmers.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. then LiveScript and finally.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . This is not always what we want. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.

without having to write the same script on every page.. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. To simplify this.3. 5.. go in the head section. 39 .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.3. When you place a script in the head section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .. Save the external JavaScript file with a .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. or when an event is triggered.js file extension.3. </script> </body> 5. point to the . you can write a JavaScript in an external file.5 . </script> </head> 5..

javaScript 5.5..2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. while().3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..1 JavaScript for. 5.... in and the try . This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. in loop is executed once for each element/property. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . switch().4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. 5.5 .4...In statement The for.. else. while() it is worth mentioning the for .4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.4.4. catch constructs. namely – if .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. continue. 5.. break. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". The code in the body of the for .... for().

mycars[2] = "BMW". we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. mycars[0] = "Saab". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. When users see errors.0. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. so you don't lose your audience. for (x in mycars) { document.5 . The try block contains the code to be run. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. an array element.catch statement (available in IE5+. they often leave the Web page.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.5.. var mycars = new Array().2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. mycars[1] = "Volvo". } </script> </body> </html> 5...catch statement The try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. Example Using for. or a property of an object..3 try. Mozilla 1..

When an alert box pops up.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.7 popup boxes 5. Syntax: 42 .1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. 5.\n\n".5 . txt+="Error description: " + err. txt+="Click OK to continue. Also. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.7. alert(txt).description + "\n\n". the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n".

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the box returns null. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "Cancel". When a confirm box pops up.8.. the box returns false. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. in the <head> section. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.7. the box returns true.7. If the user clicks "Cancel".1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.5 .2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Now. If the user clicks "OK". in the example above had not been written within a function.javaScript alert("sometext") 5.8 functions 5."defaultvalue") 5. When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.js file). the script is not executed before the user hits the button.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").

otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.9.javaScript function functionname(var1. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. So. and will be stored in the variable called product.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. var2.8.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.write(txt.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.. 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. 5.varX) { some code } var1.9 javaScript objects 5.5 ..9.length). functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement..b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. etc are variables or values passed into the function. and how they are used.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.var2. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". document. 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.

In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.9. The first class consists of browser specific objects.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. which will be specified in the next section. </script> 5. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 .javaScript 5.write(str.5 .toUpperCase()).

or when the user interacts with a Web page.11.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. For example. At its most basic level.w3schools. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. N: Netscape.com/jsref/default. Properties FF: Firefox.asp 5. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. every Image on the page is an Object.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. check the site http://www. which are called Objects.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Even this Document itself is an Object.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. When an event message has been triggered. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. every Link on the page is an Object. as well). you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.

from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.11. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.

5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.

1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to universal time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .11. according to Greenwich time. according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string.5 .

4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.11.5 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Syntax for creating a new Number object. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. var myNum=new Number(number).5 3 4 .5 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.

11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . N: Netscape.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 .

414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 2.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 1.y) pow(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.javaScript 5. 2.434) Returns PI (approx.y) min(x. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1. 3. 0.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.5 .302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.

eye color. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.lastname="Doe". personObj.firstname="John". etc. The persons' methods could be eat().eyecolor="blue".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. lastname.12. 53 . Properties are the values associated with the object.lastname="Doe". age.12. All persons have these properties.12.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. height. personObj. personObj.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.age=30. sleep(). document. weight. The persons' properties include name. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.age=50. etc.eyecolor="blue". personObj. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. with a collection of properties and methods. personObj.5 .write(personObj.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Assume that the personObj already exists . play().you can give it properties named firstname. work().firstname="John". age. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.firstname). skin tone. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. Objects also have methods. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. 5.

} Notice that the template is just a function. this. this.eyecolor) { this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. 5.lastname=lastname.12.lastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. 54 .age.newlastname=newlastname.lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname.eyecolor) { this.lastname=new_lastname. Once you have the template.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. Inside the function you need to assign things to this."Rally".eyecolor=eyecolor. this.firstname=firstname."green").age=age.eat=eat.firstname=firstname.5 .propertyName. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. you can create new instances of the object. this.age=age.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname."blue"). this."Doe". like this: myFather=new person("John".50. You can also add some methods to the person object. myMother=new person("Sally".age. this.48. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.

5 . we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . 5.newlastname("Doe").0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. So.. now you can write: myMother. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.". Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. For example.. We define the events in the HTML tags.

onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The name is then stored in a cookie. 5.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. the submit should be cancelled. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". For example.13. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . If the field values are not accepted.2 onFocus. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.w3schools. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. 5.5 . The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13.13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.13.

5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and style of a document. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. As of January 2008. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). In other words.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . CSS.Html DOM 6 . However. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. structure. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). XML. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.g.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. 6. the Document Object Model activity is closed. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. The W3C 58 . or WebAPI being among them. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. 2010). SVG. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order.HTML DOM 6. particularly those used in Web browsers. Right now (oct. HTML.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. By October 1998.6 .

5.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. As of 2005. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 2 XML namespace support. each of which contains required and optional modules. 2. DOM Level 3 XPath. and 6. Level 2.6 . filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Core. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. DOM Level 3 Requirements.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . DOM Level 3 Validation. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. which further enhances the DOM 6. a new DOM Core specification.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). 4. 3. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. To claim to support a level. 6. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM.

By 2005. interoperability problems were numerous. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.5 web browsers implementation Earlier.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 . Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. Opera. that is. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.x and Netscape 4. 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. The Window object represents a browser window. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). Besides the generic objects listed bellow.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. support multiple browsers. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.x were still widely used in 2000. can be accessed through the 60 . along with their containing text and attributes. and Safari. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. All HTML elements. In order to be cross-browser compatible. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Konqueror. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.

It can be used by any programming language like Java. and new elements can be created. JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. and VBScript.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .Html DOM DOM.

6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. The <head> node holds a <title> node.8. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. <head> and <body>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. the element node <title>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. everything in an HTML document is a node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. However. 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.9. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8. The <html> node has two child nodes. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.Html DOM 6.6 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. 62 .

By navigating the node tree. child. By using the getElementById() method 2. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. and the connections between them.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. except the root.getElementsByTagName("p").9.2 node parents. 63 .getElementsByTagName("p"). children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. • • • • • In a node tree. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. using the node relationships.getElementById('main'). Their contents can be modified or deleted.9. and new elements can be created. Parent nodes have children. The terms parent.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). the top node is called the root Every node.6 . The node tree below shows the set of nodes.

• • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.write(x[i].i++) { document. document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. each node is an object.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.6 .write("<br />").innerHTML). } 6. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).9.Html DOM for (i=0. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .i<x.length.

Html DOM 6. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.getElementById("intro").5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.firstChild. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. txt=x.nodeValue.9.6 .

Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. objects and images. including window. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .

stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.6 .11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and then bubbled up. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Also. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. through a mouse click or a keypress. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. also supports these methods. During the event flow. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Mozilla. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. as of version 1. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. for instance. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. 67 .3. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. say "click". This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. DOMNodeInserted. Safari. When the user clicks on the inner element. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Fires when an element is activated. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). 6.

Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. preventDefault 68 . etc. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). key pressed. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event.Html DOM 6.6 . To cancel the event if it is cancelable. including information about target element. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Unfortunately. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. mouse position. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. mouse button pressed.

For improving sharing of resources. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. For example. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. It is not a technology in itself. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. menus. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. 69 . talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. The server does some processing — retrieving data. etc. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. 7.7 .AJAX 7. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. 7.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. but also to save resources. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.AJAX 7 . dynamic website. using web services or Php scripts. fields of forms. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. crunching numbers. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. choices of user. before the whole page was sent within the network. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.

the user waits some more. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. at the start of the session. 70 . And at every step in a task.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. we wouldn’t make users wait around. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. Obviously. Once an interface is loaded. waiting. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. but the opposite is true. what’s the user doing? That’s right. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting around for the server to do something. While the server is doing its thing. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. Instead of loading a web page.7 .

If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.7 . and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. loading additional interface code. usually using XML. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.

send: send a request to the server.mode: type of request. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.for a simple text. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. . GET or POST . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. thanks to its methods and attributes. 7. 2: request received.AJAX 7. These events are user actions. url.holds loaded data as a string of characters.200 is ok.open: create a connection. 3: answer in process.7 .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". onreadystatechange . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. To get data on the server. This object provides two methods: . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. . boolean) .holds a Xml loaded file. 1: connection established.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. 404 if the page is not found .responseText .responseXml . It allows the interaction with the servers. 4: finished. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .for a Xml file or . . DOM's method allows to extract data.returned by the server .url: the location of the file 72 . and in this purpose.

open('GET'. request.6 building a request. if (window. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.null for a GET command 7. Safari.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().xul.AJAX .. .XMLHTTP"). http_request.fr/somefile. . OK } else { // wait.xml'.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.open: command GET or POST. but two options must be tried. // Firefox. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . the data to send to the server.send: with POST only.send(null). } else if (window...boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . The request below reads a document on the server. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. 73 . http_request. 'http://www.7 . true).. URL of the document. if (request. true for asynchronous. for browser compatibility.readyState == 4) { // received.

send(null). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn=""Received:" + req. req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). else if (window.AJAX 7. "data. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").7 .readyState == 4) if(req.ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . if(window.responseText.dyn="Error code " + req.status.responseXML.7. }. by this code: var doc = req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".dyn="Received:" + req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ajax. else document.7 examples 7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.ajax.open("GET". req.getElementsByTagName('root').onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.status == 200) document. req.xml".ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. true).item(0).XMLHTTP).7.responseText. req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


Servlet. 2. Servlet. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Initialization of parameters for servlets. descriptions). 4.ccards.8 . JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. like: 1. 5. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.. classes. servlet classes. For example. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 3. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. like what pages are error. 6. MIME types used by the web application. database connection resource pooling. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. JSPs and Java Server Faces.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.servlets.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. welcome pages. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.)> <web-app> <!-. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype..class>com. Others. 8. Here is a small.xml file: <?xml version="1. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. but typical web. data persistence. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.bank11. entries related to session configuration. web.

ccards.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. Unfortunately. In general. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.bank11. Basicly.xml". To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. for flexibility.xml file of the web application. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. For example. However. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.bank11. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. 1.servlets". The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml" 2.ccards.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".xml" file. whose name is rather long.class" and that it is part of the package "com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". it is the alias of the real servlet class. Then the "EnrollServlet.servlets". Behind a very benign URL. the name of the web application. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.8 . This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.servlets.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.bank11.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.ccards. basicly. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.

a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. 9.9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.4. modular design 9. the Java Servlet 3. but through a web container.5 and is in final state. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.SERVLETS 9 . tjws spec 2. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from BEA Systems.4. As of oct. Technically speaking. which extend the functionality of the web server. 9.2. but at this point. more often. in most cases as part of an application server. platform independent programs. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.0 specification. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. this is just a work in progress.2. 2010. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. small footprint. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .SERVLETS 9. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. the HttpServlet) class.0 specification is available for public review.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.

the javax. from IBM 9. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet package. Enterprise Edition.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . 82 . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public void service(ServletRequest req. IOException. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet.9 . These packages are: • • javax.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet javax.servlet package are protocol independent. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. while the second one. from Apple Inc. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. WebSphere.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.

ServletConfig.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. in a different section.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. the web container calls its init() method. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. respectively. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. This method has two arguments. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. The method performs all initialization required. 9. as well. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. After instantiating the servlet. Throwable t) 9. The servlet API provides such a specific class. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. 83 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. namely the HttpServlet class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.9 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. More on the servlet life cycle.

7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.9 .lang. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.servlet.lang.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .Exception class.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.ServletException javax.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. service(). It also extends the java. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. 9.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.

If the servlet does not implement the javax. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. 85 . the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Also.9 . But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. After instantiation. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. Typically. this method contains JDBC driver loading. etc. 9. DB connection opening. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.SingleThreadModel. respectively. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. which will service all incoming requests. JSP or JSF.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. Typically. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.servlet.

11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.

io. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. 87 . Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.xml file. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. import java.ccards.servlets. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.*.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.java" file: package com. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.bank11. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.9 .

println("merge"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<br>").println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.servlet. } } 88 .init(config).http. out.9 .setContentType(“text/html”).*. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out. PrintWriter out = resp. IOException { resp. out.getWriter().*.println("</head>"). out. import javax. out.println("<head>").println("<html>").println("</html>"). out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. // output your page here out. out.println("<body>"). out.println("</body>").servlet.close().SERVLETS import javax.

1.JDBC 10.0 while the current (4. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. 10. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.0. 89 . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.sql package 2. These drivers fall into four standard categories.JDBC 10 .sql package. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. After that. the java. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.odbc. This solution is inefficient. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.JdbcOdbcDriver .sun.jdbc.10 . as recognized by the DB industry. the javax. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. 1997. The JDBC 4. Starting with version 3. Type 1.

Type 4. Part Java. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.JDBC Type 2. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 3.10 . 90 . forwards them to the JDBC driver. which in turn. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.

org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.SQLOutput java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Struct java.sql.sql.SQLData java.sql.sql.sql.3 the java.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.Driver java.sql.sql. java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Blob java.Types java.0).Array java.CallableStatement java.Statement java.SQLInput java.SQLWarning java.Clob java.10 .sql.Time java.PreparedStatement java.sql.Timestamp java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.DriverManager java.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.0 API.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.JDBC 10.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.Date java.sql.sql.Wrapper 91 . defined in the JDBC 3.sql.SQLDataException java.Connection java.ResultSet java.

SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.Statement java.4 interaction schema in the java.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.ClientinfoStatus java.NClob java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLInput java.PreparedStatement java.SQLWarning java.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.Clob java.RowId java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.Connection java.sql. loading a database driver 2.Wrapper javax.SQLTimeoutException java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.SQLClientInfoException java.StatementEventListener 10.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql package.Types java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.ResultSet java.sql. establishing a database connection 3. java.sql.sql.0. processing the result set 92 .Blob java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLDataException java.SQLTransientConnectionException java. querying the database 4.sql.sql.sql.10 .DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.

jdbc.SybDriver com.odbc.ibm.borland. The first one is loading a database driver.net.DataStoreDriver com.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.db2.datastore. A database driver is specified by the driver name.driver.jdbc. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.jdbc.JDBC 10.sybase.DB2Driver oracle.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .10 .

com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. user. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.sql. Since we just used it.mysql. 94 . String user = "root". } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). try { Class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.newInstance().bank11.*. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".10 .mm. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. but let's take it for granted: import java. import java.Driver").forName("org.util. passwd). let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).*.gjt. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.printStackTrace().getConnection(connURL. as specified by the driver vendor. by using the connection URL. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.

"true"). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. "true"). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp.JDBC 10. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetConcurrency.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. we can use it for various purposes.util. Connection conn = DriverManager. 10. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp).10 . prp. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. String user. Properties prp = new Properties().put("autocommit". java.put("create".getConnection(connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.sql package. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.

JDBC 10. namely.10 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. Statement. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. respectively. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .

". Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .createStatement(). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . stmt..executeUpdate(sqlString).9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.sql.10 .. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. 10.

10 ResultSet characteristics By default. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. as the argument. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. not at 0) or the column name. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. 98 . all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. PreparedStatement. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. and CallableStatement objects. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.10 . A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql. Connection pooling implementation -. There are three types of implementations: 1. This interface is. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. a factory for creating DB connections.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql.Big Decimal Object float 10. mins.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.math.0 optional package.sql. basicly.Time java. Basic implementation -.produces a Connection object that will 103 .produces a standard Connection object 2.DataSource object.math.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.10 . It is part of the javax.sql package. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. secs date. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. time.

This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. Distributed transaction implementation -. javax. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. private DataSource theDataSource.*.*. javax. java. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax.servlets.class.servlet.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. 104 .lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.bank11. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.servlet.*.getName()).sql.naming.lookup("java:comp/env"). } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. import import import import import import java.*.sql.ccards. 3.*. javax. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".io.10 .http. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.getLogger(TestDataSource.

ServletException { .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource")... } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.10 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } 105 .

the servlet code is regenerated.servlet. The package javax.tagext.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. If the JSP is modified.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp and javax. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.11 . The package javax. The javax.servlet.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .jsp. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. namely javax.5 Java Servlet specification.2 the java.1 and is related to the 2.JSP 11.servlet. 11.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. 11.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.JSP 11 . The current JSP specification is JSP 2.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false"....11 . 111 . The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . include and taglib.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .

1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. Assigns it to available name or id.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11.7.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. In Tomcat.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.JSP 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7 scripting elements 11.7. this code goes to inside the service() method. 11.

The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.11 .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance. Attributes description: • • • name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . you must specify param. and if so.

JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:forward>.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. flush .11 . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .the URL of the page.13 the forward standard action 114 . 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . converts them to string and displays the output to the client.only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.

the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. as well. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .. You must specify either bean or applet.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. You must include the .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used." . . If you do not supply a value. It is used mainly. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.class extension in the name following code. 11.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. code="classFileName" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. servlet or to a static resource.the name of a bean instance. name .a name for the Bean or applet instance... which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. when we want to separate the application into different views.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. as this attribute has no default value.11 .the type of object the plugin will execute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . name="instanceName" .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).. depending on request. archive="URIToArchive.

provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. The value is a full URL. with a protocol name. config .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.11 . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. out .1" . pageContext . based on the servlet API.the amount of space.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.jsp. writes to the output stream to the client. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .Object type and scope page 11.it represents the buffered version of java. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .servlet.16 scopes 1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has java. and domain name.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.the initial height and width.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. in pixels. optional port number. response .lang. page . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . request . 1. session .represents server's response to the request.PrintWriter.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. objects which are automaticly available.io. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. The default value is 1.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . of the image the applet or Bean displays.1.represents the servlet context. in pixels. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. Must be a small nonzero number. request .JspWriter type and scope page 7. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has javax. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. application .

jsp file. session .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. if (enrollBean.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .init().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 4.beans.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. application .ccards.bank11. page .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 2.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.11 .EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 3.

SimpleBean. a software development and consulting company. private String optional. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). an int. private int list[].11 . private int integer.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.mapping. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.java: package com.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private String colors[].devsphere.string. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private SimpleSubBean subBean. The public constructor could have been omitted. a boolean and another String).register().Serializable { private String string. The SimpleBean class is declared public. a float. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.simple. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . 11. private boolean flag.examples.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private float number.io. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.18.

11 .flag.integer = value.number = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.number.integer.colors = values.flag = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.colors[index].string = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.colors. } 119 . } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.

String value) { this.list = values.subBean.list[index].subBean = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. int value) { this.optional.list[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.colors[index] = value.11 . } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.optional = value.

SimpleSubBean.mapping.number = value. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } } 11.examples.io.string = value.11 .string.java: package com. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.simple.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.Serializable { private String string. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.18.devsphere. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. private float number.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.number.

11 .string subBean.number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

123) }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.11 .ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "One or more colors must be selected" }. new Boolean(true) }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. SimpleBeanResources.18. the processing order.integer]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.java: package com. "One or more items must be selected" }. The default values are defined for a String.colors]". a boolean and an int[].number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. There are three error messages. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.list]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the form's name and the processor's name. error messages. "abc" }.examples.flag]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.simple. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.mapping. new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string]". Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.devsphere. 3 } }.list]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. the list of optional properties. "An option must be selected" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. new Float(0. The list of optional properties has a single element. new int[] { 2. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. a float.util.number]".JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.

*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.18.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .11 . a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. The formToBean() method of com. "colors".util. "optional". com. "list". The beanToForm() method of com. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.logging. string values are converted to numbers.mapping.html" }.mapping. } } 11.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. new String[] { "string".examples.*. If necessary.JSP "optional" } }. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. "flag". { "[PROC_NAME]". { "[FORM_NAME]". "subBean" } }.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "SimpleProc. "integer".devsphere.jsp" } }. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "SimpleForm. "number".mapping. For a better understanding of this example.devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.mapping.devsphere. SimpleHndl.devsphere.simple.

errorTable = HandlerUtils.getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.File(formPath)).trim(). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. 125 .io.formToBean(formData.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. logger). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getTemplate(new java. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getMethod(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.trim().11 .getString("[FORM_NAME]"). simpleBean. response). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. int slashIndex = basePath.getBeanResources(simpleBean.getRealPath(formPath).lastIndexOf('/'). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getServletPath().util.substring(0. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).equals("POST"). formPath = application.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getClass()).forward(request. slashIndex+1) : "".getDocument().JSP = HandlerUtils.

// Send the form document document.length. errorTable.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.devsphere. document.getString() %> <P> subBean.send(out).getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. if (list.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.11 .getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.number = <%= simpleBean.simple.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].mapping.string = <%= simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.beanToForm(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".append("{ ").getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. strbuf.JSP elements logger).5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. i < list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } %> 11. SimpleProc. for (int i = 0. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().examples.getSubBean(). i++) 126 .18.

append(" ").examples.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.18. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.length == 1) return Integer.devsphere.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. for (int i = 0. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.append(" ").mapping. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.append(list[i]).simple. making the testing and the debugging easier.toString().length. ComplexHndl.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. strbuf. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.toString(list[0]). In addition. } %> 11.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.length == 0) return "".11 .append("}"). i < list. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. strbuf. Using the framework. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append(list[i]).SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.formToBean() call. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. strbuf.toString(). In addition. A single call to FormUtils. return strbuf.jsp files. if (list.util.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. i++) { strbuf. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("{ "). } strbuf.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. ComplexForm. } strbuf.append("}").

i++) { int value = i+1. "Green". "Blue" }.getColors(). boolean checked = simpleBean.length. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "green". "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 . "Option 3" }. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .length. i < colorValues. j < colors. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. for (int i = 0. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "Option 2".getInteger() == value.length. i < integerLabels. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. String colorValues[] = { "red". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. j++) if (colors[j].

"Item 3" }.mapping.examples. i++) { int value = i+1.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. j < list.getList(). boolean selected = false.simple.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .length. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getSubBean(). if (list == null) list = new int[0]. for (int i = 0. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. break.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.setSubBean( new com.length. "Item 2". if (list != null) for (int j = 0. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.11 . "subBean.JSP break.SimpleSubBean()). i < listItems.

get(property).number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.setString("abc").simple.devsphere.Hashtable errorTable.util.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. return message.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples. boolean isPostMethod = request. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.getString() == null || simpleBean.mapping. "subBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.devsphere.length() == 0) { simpleBean.getString().mapping.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getMethod().getSubBean().simple.util. } %> ComplexHndl.equals("POST").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.examples. if (message == null) message = "".number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.11 .Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. 130 .

} simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "An option must be selected"). "string". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.123f).getColors(). "Must be filled").setNumber(0.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { simpleBean.floatValue()).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).setNumber(0.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getParameter("flag").length() != 0) simpleBean.length() == 0 || flagValue. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "Must be filled"). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "number".getParameter("number"). "integer".getColors() == null || simpleBean.11 . "Must be a number").trim().length == 0) { 131 .setFlag(flagValue != null). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number". setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null.

getList() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean. "list". } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.floatValue()).string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "subBean. "Must be filled").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString().getParameter("subBean.setList(new int[] { 2. "subBean.getList().string". //* subBean. 3 }).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.11 .length() != 0) simpleSubBean. "colors".number : text try { String numberValue = request.number". } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). "One or more items must be selected"). 132 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("").number").setOptional(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.

} if (isPostMethod && errorTable. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. errorTable.JSP filled").util. "subBean.simple.123f).setList(new int[] { 2.jsp.mapping. simpleBean. simpleBean.SimpleBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.helpers. } } else { simpleBean.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. } %> 11.mapping.devsphere. simpleBean.setNumber(0.helpers. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. String property.devsphere. simpleSubBean.setOptional("").xml: SimpleHndl.\ 133 .jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.18. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". 3 }).11 .jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.setString(""). simpleBean.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.devsphere. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.number". "Must be a number").properties or web.setString("abc").setFlag(true).put(property. message).code=com.examples. The com.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.Hashtable errorTable.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.

A servlet can be made bean-independent.another.devsphere.devsphere. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. In many cases. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.properties (or web. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.examples. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. you could add a few other lines to servlets.host. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.simple.mapping.code=com.company. 11.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.code=com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. a servlet is identified with its class.xml) file: ServletName.11 .JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.helpers. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.devsphere.properties: AnotherHndl. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.helpers.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.mapping.mapping.18.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.host.host.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. If you have another bean-form pair.AnotherBean.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .examples.

11 .JSP 135 .

0.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. Version 2. buttons.12 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. which loads the appropriate view template.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.javaserver faces 12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. processes events. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. This technology includes: 1. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.JAVASERVER FACES 12. Version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. builds a component tree. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. like input fields.0 supersedes version 1. 12. 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.

there are 25 HTML JSF tags.4.javaserver faces 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.12 . here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .2 of the JFS specification. As of version 1.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.

01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. see the column tag documentation. 12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.12 . respectively.4. footers.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . For more information about columns. Common formatting techniques. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. such as alternating row colors. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. columns and rows. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.

and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. your options include using plain HTML forms. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.12 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkout}" /> 139 .4.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.

user.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.4.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.user. 12.4. red for error.12 .5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".</span> 12." /> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .

5. 12.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. For example. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

such as one of the HTML select or text input components.5.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.5. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Without this JavaScript event.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.mycompany. can publish value change events. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The body content of this tag must be empty. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. validateLength.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Any component that receives user input.javaserver faces 12. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.customer.12 . 12.

jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.mycompany. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.12 .5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.5.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. including images and styles. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.javaserver faces 12. for each locale you wish to support. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.mycompany.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. myJSFapp 143 . You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. Example: welcome_en. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.

xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Create properties files 144 . jsf-api. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. and so on. custom tag libraries. static resources. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. JSP pages.xml – the JSF configuration file. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.html.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.jar.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.contains libraries required by the application.jar jsf-api. Define navigation rules 3. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. mandatory for any JSF application web.jar faces-config. It has a deployment descriptor. Create JSP pages 2.jar – files included in the /lib directory.xml web.exadel. like third party jar files jsf-impl.javaserver faces /ant build.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create managed beans 4.12 .

In our application. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp and greeting. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp to greeting. we can create a navigation rule.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . You only need to create the JSP files.javaserver faces 5. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp is greeting.jsp. The directory structure already exists.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. You just need to create its contents. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp. And that's all there is to this. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. Compile the application 8.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. As a diagram. These files will act as place holders for now. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.7.jsp file 7.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. we just want to go from inputname. 12.7. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Edit JSP pages 6.12 .xml file. Create an index.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.

myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName. 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. 12. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.javaserver faces This is. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. the second part of faces-config.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. Inside this myJFSapp folder.7.7. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.1 PersonBean.3 faces-config.12 . This section defines a bean name PersonBean. This class is straight-forward. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.xml file should look like this: 146 .xml Now. request sets the bean scope in the application.3.3. To read more about navigation rules. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.java file. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.7.3. a very simple navigation rule. The next line is the full class name.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.7.xml Your final faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.) 12.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. we will create a PersonBean.PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones. of course.

7.5.sun.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.1 messages.sun.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.7.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. Inc. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.1//EN" "http://java.4. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.1 inputname.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.properties file in the bundle folder.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.sun.

messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. Then. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.12 . <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.sun.</h3> tags.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.2 greeting. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.javaserver faces Line 1. Having an index. Creates an HTML input text box. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.sun. Create the index.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.6 creating the index. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.7..personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 6. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.. 12. Lines 3-5.12 .jsp page. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.bundle. The second line will access a Java bean.greeting_text}" />.7. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. name! 12. Line 2.xml file.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. That's how JSF knows where to go next.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and also print its contents on the page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .5. specifically the bean attribute personName.

When Tomcat is done loading.8. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. 12. 150 . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.7. which asks an user for an ID and password. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. and forwards the user to a success or error page.xml file for the application *. We are almost done with this example. To do this. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsp.9 Running Next.html . C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). might possibly be different). because in the web.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). verifies the information. This is used here.jsf and not . you'll notice the file suffix is . though.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. Of course.xml file.12 .xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. Your setup.7. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. 12.javaserver faces Now.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. we need to deploy it. 12.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.7.sourceforge.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. To build the application run the build. This is a "login" application.

. Select the Amateras node. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.src | +-.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 3. click Next. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. click Add Folder. your mileage may vary. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. see Installing & Uninstalling.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder..WEB-INF 151 .webroot | +-. 12. from the menubar select File/New/Other. and to add JSF libraries to the project.8.. and set up folders for a web application. Enter project name. in the Add JSF Support page. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. make sure all checkboxes are checked. jsf-login. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. in the wizard that appears. 10. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. The New Project wizard appears. c.. click Next d. 9. select the Source tab. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. say. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). 6. a.. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. name the folder webroot 5. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-..12 .xml Editor (see faces-config. 1.. name the folder pages. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 7. Select Java Project. 2. click Finish 4. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. click Next. click Yes through messages that appear.

for scope select 152 . The faces-config. We then configure it to be a managed bean. input widgets appear d.javaserver faces | | | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. b. } 4. } return action. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.LoginManager. if ( _uid. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.8. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. 1. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. private String _pwd = "".xml editor opens. from its context menu select New/Class. The New Java Class wizard appears. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The Java code editor opens.xml Editor. click Add. for class enter login. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".pages 12. for name enter mgr.12 . In Package Explorer select the src folder.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. else action = "loginFail".lib | +-. c. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. 2.java package login. In the Package field. click Managed Bean. 3. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. a. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. Click Finish. enter login.xml.

jsp. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp: a.8. for File name enter index.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp is placed directly in webroot.12 .jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. All pages except login. but in webroot/pages. success.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Create error. the New File wizard appears. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. 1. the JSP Editor opens. but in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp and error.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Create index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. enter the following code. e. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. <!-.jsp.webroot/pages/error. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. save the file and close the editor. then close the editor 12.jsp). c. and 3 content pages (login. from its context menu select New/File.jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/success.javaserver faces session. again. b. Then we create login. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. index. Create success. </body> Please try 153 .webroot/index. Enter the following code: <!-. so we create them first. click Finish.

and the JSP Editor can help with code. To see this in action. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. (See Show View Dialog) f. and uses them for code completion as well. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets..sun.completion.javaserver faces </html> 4. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.12 . and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. a code-completion window pops up. d. click Next c.. enter jsf-login e.sun. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. place your cursor in one of these lines. the New wizard appears. <%@ page contentType="text/html. Create login. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 154 .jsp: a.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. etc. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. g. and choose default for Template. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. from its context menu select New/Other. for File name enter login. click Finish. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and dock it along the right. b. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html..jsp. now we want to add attributes to this element. Open the JSF palette. with the following template code. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. as shown below.

insert another <h:inputText> element. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. select userID from the code-completion window.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".javaserver faces h. with the barest presentational formatting.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor.. i.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . insert a <h:commandButton> element. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.loginAction} The final code. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. complete the expression with the closing { k. enter #{mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. a code-completion window pops up. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.password}" l. with bean properties available in mgr.12 . is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and hit Enter. set its value to Login.) j. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.

it should open in the faces-config. this inserts a page icon into the editor. click on Page. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 156 .xml. 1. This is shown below.xml Editor. Open faces-config.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.8. using a FacesIDE editor. 2. then click inside the editor window.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Select the Navigation tab 3.12 .

then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. notice that the warning triangle disappears. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. This is shown below: 157 . then click first on the icon for login.jsp and then on the icon for success. in the Properties view. and is represented by an arrow.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. add 3 more pages. 5. Its properties appear in the Properties view. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). /pages/success.12 . and set them to /pages/login.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. change the value of path to /index. select Navigation Case.jsp 4. 6. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. from the palette at left.jsp.

jsp.jsp. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. We'll set some properties in web.xml Here we edit web.xml.jsp. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. since we have such a trivial application. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. so uncomment it. all we need do in web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.xml for the specifics of our application. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.8.jsp to error. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. 12. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. As it turns out. open web. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .xml. or leave it as-is.12 . any other id/password should send you to the error page.javaserver faces 7.6 Editing web. We want virtual path-based mapping. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). Similarly add a forward-action from login. and you should be sent to the success page. Once deployed browse to index. and extension-based mapping is turned on. The application is now complete. 1.

For a given factory class name. scroll down to Deploy.faces.event javax.context javax. as file:///.html javax.application javax.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.model javax.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces.faces.8...0 1. open its Manager application in a browser. 12. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.validator javax.10 the javax. click Deploy 3.faces.javaserver faces 12.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.lifecycle javax.component javax. start Tomcat..faces.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.component.render javax.convert javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.el javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces.webapp 12.faces javax. the Manager application should reload.12 . we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. that factory is used.

defining page navigation.faces.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.12 . If none of the above steps yield a match. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.Severity .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. those factories are used. handling events and input validation. FacesMessage. StateManagerWrapper . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.represents a single validation (or other) message.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . FacesMessage . with the last one taking precedence. ViewHandler .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. 12.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.11 the javax. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. ApplicationFactory .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. with the last one taking precedence. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . ViewHandlerWrapper .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. StateManager . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).

and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. ValueHolder . StateHolder .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. Here they are: • • UIColumn . UIComponentBase . a menu item.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.12 the javax.context.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. UICommand . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. UIComponent . EditableValueHolder . when activated by the user.FacesContext. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. ContextCallBack . or a hyperlink. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. NamingContainer .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. String) results in failure on postback. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .restoreView(javax.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. • ViewExpiredException . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. 12.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.faces. String. ActionSource2 . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. • • 161 .12 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.faces. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.

UISelectOne . UISelectItem .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. UIMessages . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UIGraphic .component.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. Optionally.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.faces. UIInput .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. it is for display purposes only. by storing it as the value property of the component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. The user can modify the selected values.html package 162 . This component has no rendering. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. identified by a clientId. UISelectBoolean .12 . it is for display purposes only. that is displayed to the user. Optionally. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIViewRoot . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIForm . The user can modify the selected value. UINamingContainer .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.13 the java.a UIComponent that has a value. UIOutput . it just serves as the root of the component tree. The user cannot manipulate this component. UIMessage .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIPanel . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UISelectMany . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIParameter .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.

represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.faces. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlPanelGroup . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML input element of type text.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML img element. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. but the application wishes to render more than one. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. On a redisplay. and renders the result.represents an HTML form element.Message". HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML label element. HtmlForm .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML input element of type password. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputTextarea . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlColumn .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.renders child components in a table. HtmlMessages .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlCommandLink . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. or not.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlPanelGrid .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlOutputLabel .renders the component value as text. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputHidden . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputText . HtmlMessage .by default. HtmlGraphicImage .by default.faces.represents an HTML textarea element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. This component must be placed inside a form. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlOutputLink .12 . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputText .

15 the java. In particular. • • • • • • 12. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.javaserver faces property. • • • • 12. ResponseWriter . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . showing a single available option at a time. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. and the rendering of the corresponding response.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. ResponseStream . ResponseWriterWrapper . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.14 the java. HtmlSelectOneListbox . HtmlSelectManyListbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.convert package 164 .12 . It is passed to. FacesContextFactory .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. FacesContext . HtmlSelectOneMenu . and potentially modified by.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.

ValueBinding . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. VariableResolver . Classes: MethodBinding .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.15. PropertyResolver . 12.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.12 . • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.javaserver faces 12.faces.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.

Interfaces: ActionListener . ValueChangeEvent .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseEvent . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.AbortProcessingException .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . PhaseId .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). and event implementation classes.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. • • • • • One exception .17 the java. FacesEvent .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.12 . ReferenceSyntaxException . 166 .faces. ValueChangeListener .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12. MethodNotFoundException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. PropertyNotFoundException . PhaseListener .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.

12 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.javaserver faces 12. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. ScalarDataModel .faces. DataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.18 the java. ResultSetDataModel . ResultDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. SelectItemGroup . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. SelectItem .faces.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.20 the java. Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. • • • • • • • • • 12. ListDataModel . DataModelEvent . Classes: ArrayDataModel . 12.19 the java.

validator package Interface defining the validator model.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.22 the java. including a standard servlet.21 the java. The package contains an exception.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. • • 12. base classes for JSP custom component tags. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.12 . markup language. and concrete validator implementation classes. ConverterTag . as well.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . together.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. • RenderKit . RenderKitFactory . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. ResponseStateManager . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. and/or user Locale. LongRangeValidator . Typically. 12.faces.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). AttributeTag .faces.

a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When the user takes some action with the presentation. that need to process their tag bodies. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). but basically.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. Also.a base class for all JSP custom actions. the JSF life cycle does not apply. Likewise. When the model is updated. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. 12. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. UIComponentTag . telling the view to update its presentation. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server.12 . The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. that request is passed to the container. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. servlets. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the controller sends a message to the model. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. ValidatorTag . This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. In JSF. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the controller is the 169 . which has several implications. In MVC. or some other web technology. When using JSF. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the life cycle is more complicated. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). related to a UIComponent.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. or when an exception occurs. FacetTag . UIComponentBodyTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way. When a web server receives a request. the controller sends a message to the view. telling the model to update its data. • • • • • FacesServlet . the process includes a few more components or pages. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. which passes the request to the page class.

converting a String to a Date object). However. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). this does not yet update the business objects in the application. It updates only the UI components with the new data. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. Data for some components. and the UI components are the view. the JSF implementation must create the view. and a piece of data failed validation. and what happens during the processing and response. and the response is sent to the client. depending on the request. or from request headers. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. In addition.javaserver faces JSF implementation. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. is validated at this time. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. it creates UI objects for each view component. In addition. The components are stored in a component tree. the conversion occurs in this phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is a subsequent request. Data can come from input fields in a web form. These objects update their state with the data values. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. For a JSF-enabled application. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. As with the previous phase. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.12 . 170 . This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated.

For example.12 . skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. 171 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

COM names a DNS entry with the name sales.13 . 13. When using almost any computer program or system. In addition. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. when you use an electronic mail system. and NIS(YP). The UNIX pathname. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.48. Using JNDI. you supply it the name of the object. It enables applications to access different. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.COM. names a file hello in the file directory usr. for example. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". c:\bin\autoexec.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. A file system maps a filename (for example. Thus the DNS name sales. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. you must supply its name. 172 . For example."). the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. in turn.Wiz.9. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13.1 names To look up an object in a naming system.2. or objects typically used by computer programs. which is located in the root of the file system.5). A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. identifiers. 13. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. For example. To access a file in the computer. The DNS entry Wiz. For example. DNS. NDS.JNDI 13 .com) to IP addresses (such as 192.COM. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. possibly multiple. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. you are always naming one object or another. naming and directory services using a common API. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. such as addresses. such as LDAP.sun.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. /usr/hello.

in the UNIX file system is a context.2. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. some objects cannot be stored directly. a DNS domain. For example. That is. such as its print server name and printing protocol. in a file directory /usr/bin. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.c=us.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. relative to the entry o=Sun. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. might contain the state of the printer. that is. such as COM. is relative to c=us. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. is a context. A printer object reference.2. delimited by the comma character (". a file directory. such as /usr. Every context has an associated naming convention. might contain only information on how to reach the printer.13 .4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. Typically. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. 13. while the object itself might contain more state information. they must be stored by reference. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. for example. is a context. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. Finally. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. which in turn. Using the reference. and its flight number and departure time. in the DNS domain Sun. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. o=Sun. In another example. and listing bound names. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). Instead. For example. and fuel and instrument status. 13. for example. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. By contrast. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. an LDAP entry. For example. its flight plan. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee.COM. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. unbinding names. on the other hand. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. A printer object. a file name is bound to a file. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. is accessed using a file reference.2. For simplicity. such as c=us. A file object. also called a file handle. 13. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. that is. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. 173 ."). For example. A reference is information about how to access an object. For example. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention.

5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. however. a name is unique 13. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. one context can be viewed. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to some extent. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). resolution. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. 13.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. For example. and even the computer itself and other computers. 13. to represent a printer. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.3. and computer account information. For example. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). programs. for example. For example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. And it kind of makes sense. a person. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. because we can.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. An example is the telephone company's directory service. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. various telephone numbers. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. two different computer 174 . A directory object represents an object in a computing environment.13 . postal mail address. Thus. A directory object can be used. For example. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. For example. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. a computer. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. and color. or a network.2.

Within the DIT. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. such as the file and print services. The email address. many directories. For example. removing. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Many examples of directory services are possible.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.50".3. and users. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. Alternatively. an organization object. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. Similarly. 13. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. like any other program running on the network. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. 13. 13.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.13 . might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. for example. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.113. 13. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. networks. When you search. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. adding. for example. that is. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service.4. The query is called a search filter. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. "mail" is the attribute identifier.3. printers.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. the ability to access directory services will become essential. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. support the notion of searches.smith@somewhere. For example. A Java mail client program.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. for example. 175 . called a directory information tree (DIT).1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. such as those based on the LDAP. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. such as that relating to machines. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. The service is accessed through its own interface.com". to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. By using a directory service. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.3.

1 and v1. 13.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. For example. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.naming javax. v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. 13.naming. v1. It extends the v1.1 and Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).3 and later releases. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.2. The Java 2 SDK. Thus a variety of directories--new. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.2. 13. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. 13. For example.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming.directory javax. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.13 . you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. more coherent and manageable. v1.naming.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.ldap 176 .event javax.5.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. To use the JNDI. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. emerging.1 and the Java 2 SDK. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.4. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. and even the network.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.

renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.lookup("treekiller"). However.13 . Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.spi 13. A java. that is. The overloads that accept java. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. binding/unbinding. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. In this case.lang.naming.6.print(report). and it returns the object bound to that name. printer.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.String name. 13. Furthermore. a 177 . 13.6 the naming package The javax.1 context The javax. For example. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.JNDI • javax.lang.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.6. and the object itself. the name of the object's class. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. for some objects in the directory. composing them. 13. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. which is the core interface for looking up. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. 13.lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.naming package defines a Context interface.6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . list() is similar to listBindings().String name argument represents a composite name.6. comparing components. For the methods in the Context interface. and so on. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.

6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. InitialContext. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.6. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. In the simplest and most common form of usage.7. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.7.6. they should catch NamingException. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. 178 . This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.13 . Once you have an initial context. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.naming. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. Otherwise.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. 13. 13. 13. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. You can add. 13. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. For example. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. There are no absolute roots.directory package extends the javax. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. 13. replace.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.7 directory package The javax.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.

In fact." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. that is. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events." and those that do not. For example.naming.13 . 13. Once registered. or unsolicited notifications. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.9. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming.naming. such as "object added.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. 13.naming.ldap package at all. 13.9.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. For example. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. such as "object changed.8 event package The javax. controls. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. 13. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. such as information about the object before and after the change.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.9 LDAP package The javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.naming. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.JNDI 13. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. To receive event notifications. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .9. and vice versa. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.directory package. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. called controls . These operations are called "extended" operations.

10. This support is provided in the form of state factories.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.10.java.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.11. 13. implementors of Context. if you look up a printer name from the directory. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.spi package supports implementors of Context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13.Context.10 service provider package The javax. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.13 . It uses a service provider for the file system. 13. import javax. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.1 plug-In architecture The javax.9.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.naming package. 180 . You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. and receiving response controls. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.10.naming. create a file named Lookup. That is. 13.naming. 13. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13.naming.2 java object support The javax. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.naming. For example. sending request controls. In the process of completing an operation. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13.

lookup(name).err. create an initial context. 13. you must have access to the JNDI classes. then the JNDI classes are already included.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.11. For this reason. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.sun. using the capitalization shown. env.put(Context.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. If you are still having problems.lookup(name).4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.java).11. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.InitialContext. "com. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.3. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Otherwise. To compile to program. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.lookup() to look up an object. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.naming. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.jndi.jar as an installed extension.NamingException. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). v1.13 .2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.JNDI import javax. 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. as follows. 181 .11.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). use Context.5 compiling the program Next.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. If the compilation fails.3 looking up an Object Next. Object obj = ctx. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. If the compilation succeeds. import javax. } 13. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.11.out. 13.fscontext. // Print it System.naming.RefFSContextFactory").

6 running the program To run the program. "com.naming.sun.sun.naming and javax. env. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. 182 .jndi.java.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.Context.naming. the file system service provider.11. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.directory packages.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.jar and providerutil. then you will see something like the following.Attributes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.12. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.13 . include the directory that contains your Lookup.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. import import import import import javax.LdapCtxFactory"). javax. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.InitialDirContext. 13.put(Context. you need access to the JNDI classes. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. and your example class (Lookup.naming. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. v1.12.directory.put(Context.naming. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. javax.bat If you supply a file directory. javax.jar).RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.3.naming. To run the program. 13. javax. env. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. Finally. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. supply the name of a file in your file system. create a file named Getattr.fscontext. create an initial directory context.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.naming.directory.PROVIDER_URL.DirContext.jndi.ldap.class).JNDI 13.directory.NamingException.

class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If the compilation succeeds. 183 . Attributes.get()).12.get() on it to get its value: attrs. using the capitalization shown. ou=People"). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. If you are still having problems.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).get() and then from that attribute get its value. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. As with the naming example. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. For this reason. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.12. Similar to the naming example.java). } catch (NamingException e) { System. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.6 compiling the program Next. ou=People").4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. 13. If the compilation fails.get().12. 13. For now.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.err.12. 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). } 13. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. compile the source file using the Java compiler. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.get("sn").println("sn: " + attrs.13 .get("sn"). use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.out.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.

3. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. then these classes are already included. 184 . Once it has the attributes. v1.12. env.7 running the program As with the naming example.jar and providerutil. Getattr. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.PROVIDER_URL. then see the Common Problems lesson. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. With this configuration.put(Context.JNDI 13. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). ou=People".class. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. If you have any trouble running this example.jar). # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.13 .

As the name queue suggests. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. Enterprise Edition. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS topic . Here.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. In this model. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS consumer . JMS message . JMS queue . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. JMS client . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. unless it has established a durable 185 . the messages are delivered in the order sent.a JMS client that receives messages.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. • 14.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. JMS producer .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.

14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. In that case. Using Java. 14. On the receiving side. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. 186 . JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.14 .jms. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.4. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. Depending on the type of message. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.3 the JMS API programming model 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.

Before your application can consume messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. For example. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. you must call the connection's start() method. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. In a J2EE application. 14. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must close any connections that you have created. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.4. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. connection. Before an application completes.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. 14. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . It is either a queue or a topic. Like the connection factory.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.4.4. and users discover them using JNDI. The JMS administrator creates these objects.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. Connections implement the Connection interface.createConnection().lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. For example. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. you call the stop() method.close().lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Depending on the connection type. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. It receives messages sent to a destination.14 .

Moreover.createConsumer(myTopic). you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.receive(1000). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. onMessage().14 .start(). a message listener object may be used.createConsumer(myQueue). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. which contains one method. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. connection. You use the Session. however.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. This object implements the MessageListener interface. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.) When message delivery begins. and you can use it to receive messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.setMessageListener(myListener).4.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. In the onMessage() method.receive(). MessageConsumer consumer = session. A message listener does. After you register the message listener.start().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. Message m = consumer. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 14. it becomes active. (Remember always to call the start() method. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). you are likely to miss messages. consumer. if it needs to reply to messages. For example. 188 . Message m = consumer. After you have created a message consumer. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. usually expect a specific message type and format.

189 . and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.send(message). you do not specify a destination until you send a message. message).createProducer(myTopic). bytes message.createTextMessage(). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. For example. stream message.4. A message has three main parts: 1. At the consuming end. After you have created a message producer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.send(message).receive(). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. 14.setText(msg_text). MessageProducer producer = session. message. from one application to another. that is. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. With an unidentified producer.4. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. You must first create the messages. Here. anon_prod.createProducer(null). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. 3. if you created an unidentified producer.send(myQueue. and object message). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).14 . the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. map message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. // msg_text is a String producer.createProducer(myQueue). to create and send a TextMessage.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.

getText()). the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.out. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. the first argument means that the session is transacted. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.println("Reading message: " + message. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. 0). To create a transacted session. 190 . Here. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.createSession(true. If the user selects transaction support.4. and message consumers to receive messages. Before committing the transaction.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. } else { // Handle error } 14.createSession(false.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. then delivers the messages. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).14 . After you create a Connection object. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. Sessions implement the Session interface. Session. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. use the following code: Session session = connection.

The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. Version 1. On the other side. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .object oriented representation of data in a DB. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .jar file into the application server. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. container which offers services to the component. 15. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . improved performance security .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .no developer coding.logging. server which provides an execution environment for containers. the container lives (in general) in an application server.0.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.consistent error handling framework .15 .DB interaction transactions .2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. component recovery scalability portability 191 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). bundled into a single unit. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. message-driven beans The 2. The component lives inside a container.0.transaction management can be complex.

xml 15. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the remote interface of the bean 4.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. called ejb-jar.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the home interface of the bean 3. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the deployment descriptor. which is an xml file. as follows: 1.15 .3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.

import java.ejb. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. } 193 .javax. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. The developer does not implement this interface. import. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.RemoteException.rmi. String lastName. import.15 . } 15. import java. While the Remote interface declares no methods. RemoteException.*.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException.RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.ejb.javax. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.*.rmi.

put(Context. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. "localhost:1099").6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. "org. if the client executes outside the container. prop. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. how to create or find the bean 2. prop. this can be done (for example) through SSL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().NamingContextFactory". } 194 .15 . getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.PROVIDER_URL. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. In the case of an web application. we need to know: 1. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. creating them for the client application.interfaces.jnp. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).

class).PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. in fact. using the narrow() method.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). that is part of CORBA standards..rmi. Problem is. in fact. more specifically. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. and this means that there are some limitations.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.15 . the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. MyBeanHome.rmi. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. to the appropriate type. Why? For EJB. do implements the java. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.e. but for generic languages. do not have the concept of casting. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. Some languages.narrow(homeRef. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. 195 . IIOP has not been designed for Java. • if the client executes outside the container.Remote interface).rmi. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. This is done through the javax. the client has a stub).PortableRemoteObject class and.lookup("MyBean").

set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.ejbeans. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. public class MyBean implements javax. String lastName. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ccards.processEntry("Dumitrascu". int custId) { // method implementation .remove(). "Vasile".SessionContext.. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com...create().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.bank11. as well). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ejb.ejb. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. 1102). import javax..15 . remove the bean instance myObject. call business methods on the bean myObject. 15.

it can evict stateful session beans from memory. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 197 . This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. 15. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. A stateless bean does not. namely stateful and stateless beans.15 . The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 15. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. that is.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.

1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. 15. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. At the end of the life cycle. the client invokes the remove method. (Typically. for example. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. is inside the bean class. the EJB container activates the bean. or passivate. 198 . The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.1 are invoked by the EJB container. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.15 . you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. All other methods in Figure 15. The ejbCreate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. Figure 15. For example. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.

container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. stored in a Database). equals() 199 .2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). support for concurrent access 3. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.

Read. We can have more create() methods. an instance of that bean is created. 15.14.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. as the parameters in the original create() method.lang.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. methods which have the same parameters. CreateException. in the same order.bank11. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ccards. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. state data is stored into data store (usually.15 . On the other side.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. 200 .14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Update and Delete. all throwing RemoteException. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.

the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. actual SQL update code. After instantiation. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. 15. it's business methods can be invoked. not null. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. On the second path. for BMP. Second. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.15 . the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.14. the programmer will create actual SQL code. but in general. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. 15. for BMPs. First. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. On the first path.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. All instances in the pool are identical. a client can invoke the remove method. While in the pooled stage. but the developer returns null for CMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. left empty most of the time in CMP.14. 201 . The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it is empty. the client invokes the create method. in BMP. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.

it does not automatically set the primary key. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. or a Web component . the values of the instance variables are not needed. Therefore. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. If the primary key is incorrect.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.15 . another enterprise bean.an application client. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. In the pooled state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. In the pooled state. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 202 .getPrimaryKey(). With bean-managed persistence. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. It acts as a JMS message listener.

the message will be redelivered. a JMS API connection.16. Previously.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. To ensure concurrency. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. For more information on this element see. When a message arrives. but not asynchronously. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. 15. Unlike a session or entity bean.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. max-beans-infree-pool. To avoid tying up server resources.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. If message processing is rolled back. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. message-driven bean can be used. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.15 . by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. 203 . 15. an open database connection. The onMessage method may call helper methods. In several respects. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.for example.16. 15. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.16. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.

use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. 15. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.15 . // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception..16.}. 3. 2. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). Note: These instances can be pooled. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. public void onMessage(javax. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances..0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. finalize{}. Obtain a new bean instance. methods. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class..Message MessageName) {.Message.jms. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.16..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.} // onMessage() is required.16. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. and it must not // accept parameters..7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. or create a new one.ejb.0 specification.jms. // An EJB constructor is required. public void ejbRemove() {.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. 15.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. As with other EJB types. Classes. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .

because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. 15. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().16. getUserTransaction().8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. even in onMessage(). although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. getRollbackOnly() .16.This is not a client context. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16.16.MessageListener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. See javax. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. 15. However.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). For example. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.jms. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15.onMessage() for more information.15 .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. If any method throws such an exception. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.

0 specification.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .xml. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.15 . Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. as required by the EJB 2. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.16. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. as described in the EJB 2.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.16. 15.0 specification. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). In either case. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.

17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.ejb20.15 .message.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. </message-driven> .xml elements.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. 2. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.xml deployment file..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. the weblogic-ejb-jar.0 specification.jms.. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. For each instance. 207 .. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. 15.. as described in the EJB 2. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.

name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. session specific elements 9. isolation level. the home interface name 7. EJB class name 5. bean home name .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. environment properties 6. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the container calls the ejbRemove method. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. entity specific elements 10. control descriptors . attributes . the remote interface name 8. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.security issues. 15. a message-driven bean is never passivated. access control entries .specifies control attributes for transactions 4. At the end of the life cycle.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. security 208 .like transaction. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.

bank11.ccards.ccards.15 .AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.ccards.ejb.bank11.ejb.bank11.bank11.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.lang.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ejb. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.lang...5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.15 .


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