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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


processes it (if necessary). retail.1 . like the client tier. and sends it back to the client program. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. 5 . Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. enterprise edition Figure 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. The web tier. are not considered web components. or finance. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Figure 1. 1. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. processes it (if necessary). like HTML pages.java platform.7 business components Business code. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.2 Server communication 1.

3 Web.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. 1. enterprise bean. Business and EIS Tiers 1. mainframe transaction processing.9 java EE Containers Normally. and other legacy information systems. and other complex low-level details. resource pooling. For example.1 .8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. or application client component can be executed. enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. database systems. 6 . Before a web.9. multithreading. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. In addition. 1.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. including services such as security. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.9. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. For example.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. database connection resource pooling. transaction management. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 7 . application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.4. data persistence.1 . 1.java platform. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.

For example. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. maps. extensible.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . video. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. test. or for document-oriented web services. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . 1.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. develop. Application clients and their container run on the client.java platform.1 . the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. program files. 8 .10. XML data. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. text-based standard for representing data. When XML data is exchanged between parties. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. or any kind of binary data such as audio. 1. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.manages the execution of applets. Application client container . Web container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Applet container . Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of application client components.

and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. and ways to communicate with the service.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.java platform. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.10. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. such as Universal Description. 9 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.1 . WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. The description includes the name of the service. enterprise edition 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. the location of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 1.

they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. or if the server shuts down. or enterprise bean.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. and XML) and JSP elements.java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.1 . Although servlets can respond to any type of request. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.11. If the client terminates. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. 1. Commonly.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. In Java EE 5.11.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11. WML.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . standard set of tags. you employ a single.11. When the client finishes executing. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the session bean and its data are gone. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. 1.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


JTA. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the application is ready to run. 15 . or better customer support. SAAJ. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. module. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. At runtime. JSP page. a module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.java platform. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. servlet. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or component accordingly. and JNDI 1. better tools. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. such as better performance. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or a component. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete.ear extension. Once deployed on a local platform.1 . The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. No extra coding is needed. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. it is ready to be deployed.

Resource adapter modules. For example. which contain servlet class files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . enterprise edition Figure 1. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. Together. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.1 . • • 16 . the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Web modules.jar extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. GIF and HTML files.java platform. which contain all Java interfaces. Application client modules. supporting class files. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. such as caching directives.war (Web ARchive) extension.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor. and other documentation. for example. classes. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. native libraries. JSP files.

w3. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. zero or more header lines 3. we recommend www.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).2 .. The server answers with a response message.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.jmarshall. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. namely HTTP 1. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. HEAD. RFC 2616 (06/99). a blank line (CR/LF) 4... The client sends a request message to the server.apps. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . but they also have some common structural elements.1. . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.HTTP 2.ietf. was the object of several RFCs.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. POST. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.org/rfc/rfc1945. 2.com/easy/http. so far) version.org/Protocols . The second (and last.html). These messages may have different contents. check the official HTTP site – www. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. an initial line 2.HTTP 2 . as follows: 1. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).

The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.Posting a message to a bulletin board.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. in the HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. Here is their list: 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.html HTTP/1. 2.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. GET /path/to/the/file/index.1 specification. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . 18 . mailing list.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. HTTP/1. OPTIONS 7. as well.2 . DELETE 6. POST 4. but lack of support makes them obsolete. PUT 8.0). TRACE Three other commands are listed. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. GET 2. .Annotation of existing resources. HEAD 3. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. newsgroup. CONNECT 5.

separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. to a data-handling process. In this case.6 differences between GET and POST 1. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.0 404 Not Found 2. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. like storing or updating data.8 the status code A three-digit integer. separated by the character “&” or “. after the “?” character. or in the message body. such as the result of submitting a form.2 . . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. 2.HTTP or similar group of articles. When used for form data submission. while POST may involve anything. or ordering a product. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . . 3. 2. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. or a record is subordinate to a database.Extending a database through an append operation.” On the other side. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. (encoded as multipart/form-data). The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or sending E-mail 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.Providing a block of data.

or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.an unexpected server error. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.1). • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. or otherwise can't run correctly. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. and the resulting resource (e.the requested resource doesn't exist.the request succeeded. and section 10 for HTTP 1. 2. separated a semicolon. In a request. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header name and header value.1 only) . file or script output) is returned in the message body. one (Host) is mandatory. The most common use of the message body is in a response.2 .0. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. 500 Server Error . the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. fails.1 version specifies 46 of them. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. In particular. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. none of them mandatory. 2. Although the header names are not case sensitive.0 version specifies 16 headers. where the requested resource is returned to the client. 20 . out of which.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. that is.g. The HTTP 1. such as text/html or image/jpg. If an HTTP message includes a body.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. while the HTTP 1. 404 Not Found .HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). header values are.

external-body 4.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. image. application. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .html HTTP/1. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. with subtype plain 2.0 200 OK Date: Fri. partial.2 . message. with subtype mpeg 2. gif 6. 1.ietf.html first open a socket to the host web. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.apps. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.ro/path/file.0 From: someuser@yahoo.info. parallel 3. with subtypes octet-stream. video. 21 . digest. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtypes mixed.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. multipart. postscript 5.info.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. alternative.uvt.ro. . sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.uvt. RFC 1521 (www. text. audio. with subtypes jpeg. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).HTTP 2. Then. with subtype basic 7.org/rfc/rfc1521.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes rfc822.

the server closes the socket.2 . 22 .HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response.

HTML describes how text.html) and was widely supported.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.apps. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.0 and was accepted in December 1997.com/indexdot/html . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).01.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. A newer standard. However. Other helpful sites .0 draft was released in 01.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.99. The newest version of HTML is 4.org/rfc/rfc1866. Version 4.w3c.0.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0) dates from 08.blooberry. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.ietf.HTML 3.html. Since it fits in a couple of pages. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.2 (3.com/tutors. The first version of HTML.0. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. It is a revision of 4. Originally named Web Applications 1.HTML 3 .htmlgoodies.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. namely HTML 1. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.w3. HTML 3. 3. As a practical reference site use – www.3 . For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/easy/html . www.org/Markup .0 . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. a working draft for the next major revision. Mosaic. From 1999 on. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. The XHTML 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www.jmarshall. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. The latest version (XHTML 2. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. The first official version – HTML 2. check the official HTML site – www.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.www.

3 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".

DYNSRC." (in hexadecimal) .and end at the first occurrence of -->.0 contains an SGML declaration. “&quot”.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. BORDER. HTML 4. 3.0 Transitional DTD.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.3 .3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. <><> --> 25 .0 Strict DTD.01 specification.acesta este un comentariu. VSAPCE are omitted. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. Check the address http://www. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. ….html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. "&#x6C34. look at these examples: “&lt”. An example: <!-. three DTDs (HTML 4. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. If you wonder what a character reference is. like ALIGN. CONTROLS. 3. the specification of HTML 4. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. You get the point. though. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. This section deals with some of the most common elements.w3. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.the chinese character for water. Overall. HTML 4.

image.info.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.3. etc. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.3 . Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.uvt.ro/webmail/src/login. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.5 tables 26 .HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. NAME.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.

6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Here is their description and attributes. Usually. Here is a an example of a table: 3.3 . its rows. <THEAD>. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TH> and <TD>.

required.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .7 forms A form is a basic component container.

specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. NAME .sends the form values in a single transmission.:.info. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . "reset".8. "GET" . "checkbox".3 . SIZE .if specified.required.required.the default value. "password". "image". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.HTML • METHOD . may have the values GET or POST. • 3. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Main attributes: 29 .8. "file". Main attributes: • TYPE . "hidden".used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.8.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . allows multiple selections from the choice list. after a quotation mark . Example: http://web.?. "text/plain" • • 3. however. specifies the parameter name.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "submit". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.uvt. specifies how data will be sent to the server. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .8 form related elements 3. "button". "radio". 3. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.required. the browser appends the values to the URL.maximum number of options visible to the user.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .C:\TW\myPackages -g login. a tool named Just In Time compiler.3 java applications 31 .2 java the interpreter.class.java One example of command line compilation: 4.C:\TW\mySource. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Java source – a file with extension . Example: Edit the file prog1. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Inc. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The current version (as of 10. but next time execution is much faster.4. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Early versions of Java were released in 12.95.90. javac -classpath . The first time a class is loaded..95.) in 08. the compilation process occurs.class file.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. following the 1. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.0. The current version (as of 10.2 version. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.4 . To overcome this significant shortage.JAVA PRIMER 4 . -g : generate all debugging info.class 3. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.java 2. 4.JAVA PRIMER 4. Java bytecode – a file with extension . project started in 12. jit From source to execution.class file. In terms of execution time.java. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.

The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or that it extends A).java. 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.jar file. An example: 32 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. Generally. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . or is derived from A. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. In general. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4 object oriented concepts 4.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.4 . namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.

a class can have more than one method with the same name. Double. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. this is called method overloading. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). a Java class can extend a single base class. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. 4.4. Therefore. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. namely: Byte. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Integer.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. In OO jargon. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Boolean.4 . Therefore. Long. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.4. called Object. In fact.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Float. 33 . providing its own implementation.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Short. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. with the root the class Object. Character.1 bit char . 4.

servlet. which extends the class javax.the class is visible from any class. no templates.access from any class anywhere private . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . has the same value for all class instances. • • • • no specifier . Except for the "package" concept. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.http. rather than at class instance. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . class . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. 4. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. method .one which is constant method . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . } declares an abstract class.http.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. A final: • • • variable .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.no access from outside the class itself protected . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. anywhere abstract .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.. inherited)..all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.4 .one which is defined at class level.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. automatic garbage collection. 34 .does not have any subclasses.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet. A final variable (method.

due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. java errors .7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.7. as defined in the java. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. programmer defined exceptions 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. In Java. 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. not at execution time. 4.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 2.like invalid cast.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. standard method exceptions 3. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).7. division by 0. Exception categories: 1. 4. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. code or data errors . array index out of bounds.4 .JAVA PRIMER 4.ThreadDeath.

util .JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . The package containing the standard classes is java.lang . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).4 .geom .*. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .awt.rmi java.security 36 .nio java. All other packages must be explicitly imported.event . 4..support for java archives creation java.awt. followed by the import statements.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. the default package is used). don't have to import java.zip . they have to be unique inside a package.sql java.default.class file.util.io java.this can be done by providing a try.ccards. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.lang (automatically available).java. the class (the .by adding the key word throws. date and time info java. import javax. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. catch.1 Package names The default package has no name. string analyzers.bank11.net java.sql. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.util.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. finally construct..8. therefore. 4. An example: package com.awt . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. .support for user interface java.support for data collections. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. In the example above. 4.servlets.Properties.support for event handling java. As a general rule. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. import.

While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.event .support for event handling 4.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing .4 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. 37 .swing.text javax. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. it must be declared as abstract. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. All variables (actually. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.accessibility javax. static and final.

like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . The origins of this language date back to 1995. 5.A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.depending on the browser . other 38 .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. However.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.JAVASCRIPT 5.5 . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. This is not always what we want. as JavaScript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. then LiveScript and finally.javaScript 5 . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . and . like QtScript or ActionScript.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.

1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. Save the external JavaScript file with a . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. 39 . go in the head section. </script> </body> 5.. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .. To simplify this. 5..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.3.3. point to the .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .5 . or when an event is triggered.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </head> 5.js file extension.3... When you place a script in the head section..

.javaScript 5. while().. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.5 .1 JavaScript for.. The code in the body of the for . in and the try . while() it is worth mentioning the for . continue.. 5.4. in loop is executed once for each element/property.. for().... switch().In statement The for.5..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. 5. catch constructs.4.4. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. else.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.. 5. break.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. namely – if ..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.

5 . and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. Example Using for. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. mycars[0] = "Saab". The try block contains the code to be run. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.catch statement The try. an array element.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. Mozilla 1.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. var mycars = new Array(). When users see errors..catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). they often leave the Web page. mycars[2] = "BMW". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. } </script> </body> </html> 5..catch statement (available in IE5+..5.. so you don't lose your audience. for (x in mycars) { document. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".3 try.. or a property of an object.5..0. mycars[1] = "Volvo".

5 . the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.description + "\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err. Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. 5. Also.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").7 popup boxes 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.\n\n". When an alert box pops up. alert(txt).7.

the script is not executed before the user hits the button. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. in the example above had not been written within a function.8.8 functions 5. If the user clicks "Cancel".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something."defaultvalue") 5. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .5 . the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. Now.7. the box returns false.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK". Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. in the <head> section.7.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up. the box returns true. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the box returns null. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. When a prompt box pops up.js file). Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.. If the user clicks "Cancel". Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").

5.write(txt. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". etc are variables or values passed into the function.. So. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.javaScript function functionname(var1. document. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .varX) { some code } var1. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.9 javaScript objects 5.9. var2.8. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. and how they are used. and will be stored in the variable called product. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.length). We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.5 ..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object..2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.var2. 5.

</script> 5.9. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document. The other class are the language specific objects.5 . The first class consists of browser specific objects. which will be specified in the next section.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. 45 .javaScript 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.write(str.toUpperCase()).

javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. which are called Objects. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Properties FF: Firefox. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. At its most basic level.com/jsref/default. N: Netscape. as well). check the site http://www. When an event message has been triggered.5 . every Link on the page is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.11. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.asp 5. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . every Image on the page is an Object. Even this Document itself is an Object. or when the user interacts with a Web page. For example.w3schools.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. as a four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser.5 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.

according to Greenwich time.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to universal time. N: Netscape. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. according to local time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox.

5 4 . Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 .5 .5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. var myNum=new Number(number).11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 .5 .11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . N: Netscape.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.

707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 3.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.y) pow(x. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 2.y) min(x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 0.javaScript 5.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.434) Returns PI (approx. 0.11. Properties FF: Firefox.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. N: Netscape. 2. 0. 1.5 .442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1.

Objects also have methods. age. The persons' methods could be eat(). The code above will generate the following output: John 5.12. play().age=30. lastname. personObj. document.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. height.firstname). etc. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. personObj.eyecolor="blue". personObj. personObj. personObj. work(). personObj. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.age=50. eye color.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). sleep(). Assume that the personObj already exists .lastname="Doe".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. skin tone. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. 5. etc.5 .lastname="Doe". The persons' properties include name. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. with a collection of properties and methods.12.firstname="John". Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. All persons have these properties.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.write(personObj.12.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.eyecolor="blue". Properties are the values associated with the object. age. 53 .2 Methods An object can also contain methods. weight.firstname="John".you can give it properties named firstname.

like this: myFather=new person("John".propertyName. myMother=new person("Sally".12. this.lastname=lastname. 54 . you can create new instances of the object.firstname=firstname. 5."green").eyecolor=eyecolor. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.newlastname=newlastname.lastname. You can also add some methods to the person object. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.48."Rally".4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname=new_lastname."blue"). The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.50. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.age=age.eyecolor) { this."Doe".age=age.lastname. Once you have the template.5 .age.lastname=lastname.age. this. this.firstname=firstname. } Notice that the template is just a function. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this. this.eat=eat.eyecolor) { this.

Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. For example.newlastname("Doe"). We define the events in the HTML tags. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. now you can write: myMother. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.5 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser... we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . 5.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. So. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.".

3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. For example.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. The name is then stored in a cookie. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.2 onFocus. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. If the field values are not accepted. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13.5 .4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The function checkForm() returns either true or false. the submit should be cancelled. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.13. 5.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. 5.w3schools. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .javaScript event').

2010). SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. structure.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.6 . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. and style of a document. the Document Object Model activity is closed. The W3C 58 . or WebAPI being among them. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.Html DOM 6 . 6. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. CSS. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . However. XML. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).g. By October 1998. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.HTML DOM 6. SVG. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. particularly those used in Web browsers. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. In other words. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. Right now (oct. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. HTML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. As of January 2008.

Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. HTML-specific elements are included as well. 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 Validation. which further enhances the DOM 6. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. each of which contains required and optional modules. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Level 1. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 XPath. 2. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 4. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. 3.6 . 5. a new DOM Core specification. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). and 6. Level 2.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . As of 2005. To claim to support a level. DOM Level 3 Core.

W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. along with their containing text and attributes. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. In order to be cross-browser compatible.6 . Konqueror. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). 6. Opera. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). and Safari.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. that is. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.x were still widely used in 2000. can be accessed through the 60 . the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. interoperability problems were numerous. All HTML elements. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. support multiple browsers.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. The Window object represents a browser window. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. Besides the generic objects listed bellow.x and Netscape 4. By 2005. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.

6 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.Html DOM DOM. JavaScript. and new elements can be created. It can be used by any programming language like Java. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript.

"DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.Html DOM 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.6 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. 6.8. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The <html> node has two child nodes. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The <head> node holds a <title> node. 62 .1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. 6. <head> and <body>. The tree structure is called a node-tree. the element node <title>.8. everything in an HTML document is a node.9. However.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.

the top node is called the root Every node. By navigating the node tree.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. using the node relationships. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.6 .getElementsByTagName("p"). and the connections between them. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and new elements can be created. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. child. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. children. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.getElementById('main').Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.2 node parents. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).9. By using the getElementById() method 2. • • • • • In a node tree. 63 . except the root. The terms parent.

The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .Html DOM for (i=0.write("<br />").innerHTML). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.write(x[i].length. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. document.6 . Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). each node is an object.i<x. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document.9.

getElementById("intro").10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . 6.nodeValue.6 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.Html DOM 6.9.firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.5 example . txt=x.

including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. objects and images. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including window. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . For elements.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.

also supports these methods. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).6 . DOMNodeInserted. Also. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. and then bubbled up.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. When the user clicks on the inner element. for instance. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. 67 . Fires when an element is activated. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Safari. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. say "click". and/or by stopping the event (with method event. through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). as of version 1. 6.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together.3.

Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).6 . including information about target element. preventDefault 68 .Html DOM 6. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. etc. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. key pressed. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. mouse position. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Unfortunately. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched.

without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. before the whole page was sent within the network. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. For example. choices of user. For improving sharing of resources. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.AJAX 7. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. using web services or Php scripts. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 69 .3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. 7. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.AJAX 7 . fields of forms. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. 7. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. crunching numbers. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. menus. The server does some processing — retrieving data. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. but also to save resources. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.7 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. dynamic website. It is not a technology in itself. etc.

the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. we wouldn’t make users wait around.7 . Obviously. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. at the start of the session. Instead of loading a web page.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. While the server is doing its thing. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. but the opposite is true. what’s the user doing? That’s right. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the user waits some more. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Once an interface is loaded. And at every step in a task. waiting. 70 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. waiting around for the server to do something.

Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. 71 . loading additional interface code. editing data in memory. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.7 . and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. usually using XML. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

send: send a request to the server.200 is ok. To get data on the server. This object provides two methods: .holds loaded data as a string of characters. . 4: finished. .for a Xml file or .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . thanks to its methods and attributes. boolean) .responseXml . 404 if the page is not found . url. .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.returned by the server . they call functions associated to elements of the web page. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.7 .for a simple text. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. These events are user actions. It allows the interaction with the servers. 3: answer in process. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.holds a Xml loaded file.url: the location of the file 72 . 2: request received. GET or POST .open: create a connection.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.responseText . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . 7. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. 1: connection established.mode: type of request. and in this purpose.AJAX 7. onreadystatechange . DOM's method allows to extract data. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.

true). if (window.. request. but two options must be tried. for browser compatibility. URL of the document.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.xul. OK } else { // wait.open('GET'.send: with POST only.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). http_request. } else if (window.7 ..fr/somefile. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . Safari.null for a GET command 7. 73 .xml'. .. true for asynchronous. The request below reads a document on the server. if (request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created..send(null).AJAX .readyState == 4) { // received. http_request.open: command GET or POST.6 building a request. 'http://www.XMLHTTP"). the data to send to the server.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. . // Firefox.

else if (window.send(null). req.status. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn=""Received:" + req.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7. true).readyState == 4) if(req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. else document. by this code: var doc = req. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").getElementsByTagName('root').status == 200) document.responseXML.dyn="Error code " + req. req.responseText. "data.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .ajax.open("GET". req.xml". if(window.ajax.dyn="Received:" + req.responseText.7.ajax.7 .7 examples 7. }.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.AJAX 7.item(0).XMLHTTP).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


entries related to session configuration.. but typical web. like what pages are error. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 5. 8. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Servlet. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. Here is a small. Others. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.bank11. servlet classes. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. web. 2.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. After an enterprise bean is created. Servlet.xml file: <?xml version="1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. For example..0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.class>com.)> <web-app> <!-. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. like: 1. welcome pages. classes. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.8 .xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 6. data persistence.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Initialization of parameters for servlets.servlets. 4. 3. MIME types used by the web application. database connection resource pooling.ccards.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. descriptions). JSPs and Java Server Faces.

bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.servlets". This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.servlets". the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Basicly. the name of the web application. Then the "EnrollServlet.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml".xml" file. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards.ccards.ccards. whose name is rather long. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. In general. basicly. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.servlets. for flexibility. For example. Unfortunately. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. However.xml" 2. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.xml file of the web application. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.8 . The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. Behind a very benign URL.bank11. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". it is the alias of the real servlet class. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.bank11. 1.

9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.0 specification is available for public review. which extend the functionality of the web server. Technically speaking. 9. in most cases as part of an application server. more often. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. small footprint.4. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .9 .2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. modular design 9. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. but through a web container.0 specification.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. but at this point. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.2.2.SERVLETS 9 . the HttpServlet) class. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . tjws spec 2.5 and is in final state. As of oct.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.4.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. this is just a work in progress. the Java Servlet 3.SERVLETS 9. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). The current Java Servlet specification is 2. from BEA Systems. platform independent programs. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. 2010.

from Apple Inc. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet package. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. the javax.servlet package are protocol independent. 82 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK. Enterprise Edition.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet.9 . from IBM 9.servlet.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. public void destroy() throws ServletException. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. while the second one. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. These packages are: • • javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). WebSphere.servlet javax. public void service(ServletRequest req.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. IOException.

ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. respectively. The method performs all initialization required.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface.9 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. ServletConfig.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. Throwable t) 9. the web container calls its init() method. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. namely the HttpServlet class. This method has two arguments. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. After instantiating the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. as well. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. 83 .5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. 9. in a different section. The servlet API provides such a specific class.

ServletException javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.lang.servlet. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . It also extends the java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. 9. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.servlet.9 .SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception class. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.

9 . There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Also. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. JSP or JSF. etc. which will service all incoming requests. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. respectively.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. After instantiation.servlet. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.SingleThreadModel. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Typically. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. this method contains JDBC driver loading. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. If the servlet does not implement the javax. 9. DB connection opening. Typically. 85 .SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 .

9 . This is done in server's (container's) server.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.ccards. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.java" file: package com. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.io. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. import java. 87 . Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.servlets.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.*.bank11.xml file. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.

servlet.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.println("</body>"). PrintWriter out = resp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("<br>").println("</head>").http.println("<head>").setContentType(“text/html”). IOException { resp.println("</html>").9 .servlet.*. out.init(config).*.SERVLETS import javax. out. // output your page here out. out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. import javax.println("merge"). } } 88 .println("<html>").println("<body>"). out.close(). out. out. out. out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.getWriter().

which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.JDBC 10 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. Starting with version 3. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .sql package. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. Type 1. as recognized by the DB industry.sun. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. After that.0 while the current (4. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.JDBC 10.0. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. The JDBC 4.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.odbc. 89 . the java. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.JdbcOdbcDriver .jdbc.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.10 . 1997. These drivers fall into four standard categories. 10. This solution is inefficient. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.sql package 2.1. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. the javax.

10 . which in turn. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Type 3. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). 90 . It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.JDBC Type 2. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 4. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Part Java. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. forwards them to the JDBC driver. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.

let's remind some of the most important ones.Connection java.DriverManager java.sql.SQLXML java.SQLWarning java.sql.Date java.Statement java.10 . java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.Clob java.sql.SQLException java.SQLInput java.JDBC 10.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLData java.SQLOutput java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.0 API.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.Array java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.Wrapper 91 .sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLDataException java.sql.Driver java.sql.SQLPermission java.sql.ResultSet java.Timestamp java.sql.Time java.3 the java.sql.Struct java.Blob java.0).sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.Types java.sql.sql.

Statement java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLXML java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.ResultSet java. processing the result set 92 .SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.Blob java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.Clob java.SQLException java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.StatementEventListener 10.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java. java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLOutput java. querying the database 4.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.0.sql. loading a database driver 2.NClob java.Wrapper javax.sql package.sql.sql.Types java.Connection java.10 .sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql.RowId java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLWarning java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.StatementEvent javax.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.

jdbc.jdbc.borland.odbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.net.sybase.jdbc.ibm.10 . A database driver is specified by the driver name.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.datastore.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .driver.SybDriver com.jdbc.JDBC 10.db2. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.DataStoreDriver com.OracleDriver sun. The first one is loading a database driver.

10 . but let's take it for granted: import java. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.getConnection(connURL.newInstance(). 94 . String user = "root". as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.printStackTrace().gjt. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.bank11. user.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.mysql. Since we just used it.*. as specified by the driver vendor.util. try { Class. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.forName("org. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".Driver"). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.*. by using the connection URL. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.mm. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).sql. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. import java. passwd).

Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.util. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.JDBC 10.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. "true").10 . Connection conn = DriverManager.sql package. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. prp.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("autocommit". 10. "true"). String user. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .put("create". java.getConnection(connURL. Properties prp = new Properties(). we can use it for various purposes. prp). String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. int resultSetConcurrency. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.

methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.10 .8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. namely. respectively. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . Statement. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.JDBC 10. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. prepared statements and stored procedures. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.

Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .sql. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.createStatement().ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.executeUpdate(sqlString). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .10 .". Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.. stmt. 10.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java..JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.

as the argument.10 . a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. PreparedStatement. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. and CallableStatement objects. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. 98 . What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql.sql. This interface is.Time java.math. basicly. a factory for creating DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. There are three types of implementations: 1. Connection pooling implementation -.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. time.10 .sql package. secs date. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.produces a standard Connection object 2. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.produces a Connection object that will 103 . Basic implementation -.DataSource object. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. mins.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. It is part of the javax.math.sql.Big Decimal Object float 10.0 optional package. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.

import import import import import import java. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.servlet. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.getName()). String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.class.*.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". 3. 104 .sql.io.servlet.sql. Distributed transaction implementation -. private DataSource theDataSource.*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). java. javax.10 .ccards.getLogger(TestDataSource.http. javax. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().*.*. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.bank11. javax.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.naming.lookup("java:comp/env").servlets.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.10 . ServletException { . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException..

servlet.1 and is related to the 2. The package javax. namely javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.11 .JSP 11.servlet.jsp.tagext. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The javax.jsp and javax. The package javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .5 Java Servlet specification. 11.JSP 11 .1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.2 the java.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet.servlet.servlet. If the JSP is modified.jsp. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


. 111 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".11 .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. include and taglib. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" ... it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.

7.7. 11. 11. Assigns it to available name or id.7. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7 scripting elements 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .11 . In Tomcat.7.JSP 11. 11.

The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. you must specify param.11 . Attributes description: • • • name . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . and if so. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.the name of a bean instance. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.

While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.the URL of the page.13 the forward standard action 114 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. <jsp:plugin> actions. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. <jsp:forward>. 11.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.only the "true" value is supported. flush .

the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. when we want to separate the application into different views.a name for the Bean or applet instance.. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . name="instanceName" ..the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. archive="URIToArchive.. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.the name of a bean instance. servlet or to a static resource.the type of object the plugin will execute. If you do not supply a value. code="classFileName" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. depending on request.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. name .. It is used mainly.11 ." . You must specify either bean or applet. .class extension in the name following code..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). You must include the . as well. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. as this attribute has no default value. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . 11.

it has javax. page .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. The value is a full URL.1.16 scopes 1. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. application .1" .represents the servlet context. session .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.lang. based on the servlet API.represents server's response to the request. it has java. request . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. pageContext .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. response .Object type and scope page 11. and domain name.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.JspWriter type and scope page 7.it represents the buffered version of java. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . request . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.jsp.servlet.11 .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.io. The default value is 1.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.the amount of space.the initial height and width. out .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. writes to the output stream to the client. of the image the applet or Bean displays. config . in pixels. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. objects which are automaticly available. 1.PrintWriter. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. optional port number. in pixels. with a protocol name. Must be a small nonzero number. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .

jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. session .an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.ccards. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.bank11.JSP request object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 3. application . page . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 4.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.init(). Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.beans. Object value) method 2.11 . <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.

18. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private float number. %> <jsp:forward page="response. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).io. an int.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private boolean flag. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. SimpleBean. The public constructor could have been omitted.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private int integer. private String colors[]. private int list[].devsphere. a boolean and another String).Serializable { private String string. private String optional. The SimpleBean class is declared public. private SimpleSubBean subBean.simple.java: package com. a float. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.11 .mapping. 11. a software development and consulting company.string.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.register().examples.

} // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.integer = value. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.colors = values.flag = value.colors. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.number = value.11 . } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.flag.integer. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.string = value.JSP this.colors[index]. } 119 .

int value) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.11 . } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list.optional.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. String value) { this.colors[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list[index] = value.optional = value.list[index].subBean = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.subBean.list = values.

java: package com.string.devsphere. private float number.number = value.simple. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. SimpleSubBean. } } 11.io.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.examples. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.Serializable { private String string.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).11 .number.mapping.18.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .string = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .

util.mapping.devsphere. There are three error messages. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.18. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. The list of optional properties has a single element. 3 } }.java: package com. the processing order.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.colors]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.integer]". { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". new Float(0. new Boolean(true) }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "abc" }.flag]". new int[] { 2.11 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.list]". No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. a boolean and an int[]. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. the form's name and the processor's name.string]". "An option must be selected" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the list of optional properties. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. "One or more items must be selected" }.123) }. a float. The default values are defined for a String.list]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. new String[] { 123 .examples. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. error messages.number]". "One or more colors must be selected" }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.simple. SimpleBeanResources.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

devsphere.mapping.devsphere.util.examples.11 .jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. "SimpleProc.mapping. SimpleHndl. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "optional".simple. If necessary. new String[] { "string".*.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. { "[PROC_NAME]".devsphere. "colors". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.devsphere. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. string values are converted to numbers.18.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } } 11.JSP "optional" } }.jsp" } }. "number". com. The formToBean() method of com.html" }. "flag".mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.mapping.logging. "integer". "subBean" } }. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. { "[FORM_NAME]". "SimpleForm. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). For a better understanding of this example. "list". The beanToForm() method of com. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.

getString("[PROC_NAME]").substring(0.util.File(formPath)). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).JSP = HandlerUtils.removeUserErrors(errorTable).getDocument(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getClass()).formToBean(formData.trim(). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. logger). // Process the valid data bean instance application.11 . formPath = application. slashIndex+1) : "".lastIndexOf('/'). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getServletPath().getBeanResources(simpleBean. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. int slashIndex = basePath. simpleBean.getRealPath(formPath). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).equals("POST").trim().getRequestDispatcher(procPath). errorTable = HandlerUtils.getString("[FORM_NAME]").getMethod(). response).io.getTemplate(new java.forward(request. 125 . if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.

getString() %> <P> subBean. for (int i = 0.11 .jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].simple.length.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean().examples. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().string = <%= simpleBean.beanToForm(simpleBean. if (list.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. } %> 11. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.JSP elements logger).send(out).SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.number = <%= simpleBean. // Send the form document document.18.devsphere.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.length == 0) return "". strbuf. i++) 126 . SimpleProc. errorTable.mapping.getSubBean().append("{ "). i < list. document.

} public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.append("}"). Using the framework.append("}").append(list[i]). i++) { strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append(" "). strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier. } %> 11. if (list.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.length == 1) return Integer.toString().SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. for (int i = 0. In addition. ComplexForm.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.toString(). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. return strbuf. In addition. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.util. return strbuf.simple. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.length.append(list[i]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.length == 0) return "". A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. A single call to FormUtils.11 . } strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . i < list.mapping. } strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.jsp files. strbuf.formToBean() call.examples. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.devsphere.toString(list[0]).append("{ "). strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.18. ComplexHndl. The localization of the Complex*.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.append(" ").

"Blue" }.length. "green".length. 128 . "Option 3" }. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].length. j++) if (colors[j].getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. for (int i = 0. boolean checked = simpleBean.getInteger() == value.getColors(). "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. j < colors.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }.11 . i < integerLabels. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "Option 2". "Green". i < colorValues. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".

"Item 3" }.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. break.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".mapping. j < list. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1.length. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.11 .getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "subBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.length.SimpleSubBean()).getSubBean().devsphere.setSubBean( new com.simple. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples. boolean selected = false.JSP break. i < listItems. "Item 2".getList().

devsphere.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getMethod().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getString() == null || simpleBean. 130 .mapping.Hashtable errorTable.mapping.util.examples.simple.devsphere.examples.length() == 0) { simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. return message.getSubBean().Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.getString().equals("POST"). boolean isPostMethod = request. "subBean.setString("abc").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.simple. if (message == null) message = "".get(property).11 .getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.util.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } %> ComplexHndl.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.

if (flagValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getParameter("number"). "string".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getColors() == null || simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("flag"). "Must be a number").123f).length() == 0 || flagValue.floatValue()). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.setFlag(flagValue != null). "An option must be selected").setNumber(0. "integer". "Must be filled"). else { simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleBean.trim().123f). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(0. "number".11 . setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . "number".getColors().setNumber(new Float(numberValue).

getList() == null || simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. 3 }).number : text try { String numberValue = request.string".getList().floatValue()).11 .number".getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "colors".length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "Must be filled"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* subBean. "subBean.setString(""). else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.setOptional("").getParameter("subBean. "list". "One or more colors must be selected").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. 132 . setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.number").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be } //* subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.getString().

7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.setNumber(0.mapping. } } else { simpleBean.code=com.number". A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".11 .util.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.devsphere.123f).jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.xml: SimpleHndl. simpleBean. "subBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.devsphere. simpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. simpleBean. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.JSP filled").SimpleBean.\ 133 . errorTable.Hashtable errorTable. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.examples. The com. simpleBean.setString("abc").devsphere.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. simpleSubBean.helpers.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. "Must be a number").setString("").18. } %> 11.helpers.simple.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.mapping. String property.setFlag(true). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.properties or web.setList(new int[] { 2.jsp. message). 3 }).setOptional("").put(property.

code=com.18.devsphere.properties: AnotherHndl. In many cases.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .another.examples.xml) file: ServletName.helpers. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A servlet can be made bean-independent.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.host. 11.devsphere.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. a servlet is identified with its class.simple.properties (or web.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.host.AnotherBean. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.devsphere.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. you could add a few other lines to servlets.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.examples.helpers.mapping.devsphere.mapping. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.host.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.11 .company. If you have another bean-form pair.

11 .JSP 135 .

0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. Version 2.javaserver faces 12 . JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.0. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.JAVASERVER FACES 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . 2.0 supersedes version 1. which loads the appropriate view template. buttons. like input fields.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.12 . Version 2.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. builds a component tree. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. processes events. This technology includes: 1. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. 12. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.

JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.12 .3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.javaserver faces 12. As of version 1. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.2 of the JFS specification. 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.

see the column tag documentation. Common formatting techniques.12 . The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. footers.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. For more information about columns.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. such as alternating row colors. columns and rows.4. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. respectively. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. 12. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.

JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.12 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. your options include using plain HTML forms.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.checkout}" /> 139 .4. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.

1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.5.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). red for error.12 ." /> 12.4.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.user.user. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.4.</span> 12.

12 .5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . 12. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.

can publish value change events. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.javaserver faces 12. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. validateLength.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. The body content of this tag must be empty.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.customer.12 .5. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.5. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Without this JavaScript event.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.mycompany.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.

The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. including images and styles.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.javaserver faces 12. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.mycompany.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.5.12 . If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If you have not specified a default locale. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. for each locale you wish to support. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. myJSFapp 143 . Example: welcome_en.

xml – the JSF configuration file.html.jar jsf-api.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. mandatory for any JSF application web.javaserver faces /ant build.jar.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. JSP pages.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Create managed beans 4.exadel. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. static resources.xml web.12 . Create properties files 144 . like third party jar files jsf-impl. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Define navigation rules 3.jar faces-config. Create JSP pages 2. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. custom tag libraries. It has a deployment descriptor. and so on.jar – files included in the /lib directory.contains libraries required by the application. jsf-api. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .

7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Create an index. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. You just need to create its contents. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. we just want to go from inputname. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. Deploy and run the application 12. Edit JSP pages 6. The directory structure already exists. we can create a navigation rule. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. Compile the application 8. Now that we have the two JSP pages. As a diagram.jsp is greeting.jsp.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. In our application.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. And that's all there is to this.jsp and greeting. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.javaserver faces 5.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.7.12 .jsp file 7.jsp.xml file. These files will act as place holders for now. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp to greeting.

PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.javaserver faces This is.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml file should look like this: 146 . This class is straight-forward. The next line is the full class name. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. 12.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.1 PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones. request sets the bean scope in the application.) 12. To read more about navigation rules.3. we will create a PersonBean.7. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.xml Now. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.7.xml Your final faces-config.7. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. the second part of faces-config. 12. myJFSapp.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.12 .3. a very simple navigation rule. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. Inside this myJFSapp folder. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.7. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.3.3 faces-config.PersonBean.java file. of course. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.

com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.sun.1 inputname.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.4.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.5.sun.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Inc.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.sun.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.1//EN" "http://java.12 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.properties file in the bundle folder.7.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.1 messages. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.

<%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 .sun. Then.bundle.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.

Creates an HTML input text box.12 .sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . and also print its contents on the page.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Line 6.. 12. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Having an index.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.6 creating the index. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.</h3> tags. That's how JSF knows where to go next. The first three lines are identical to our first page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.bundle. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. name! 12. Create the index.javaserver faces Line 1.xml file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.7.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Line 2.greeting_text}" />. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.2 greeting.sun.5.7.jsp page. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Lines 3-5. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. specifically the bean attribute personName. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. The second line will access a Java bean..sun. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.

7.sourceforge. This is used here. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.jsp. though. Your setup. 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.7.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). 12.html .jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.jsf and not . Of course. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. and forwards the user to a success or error page. We are almost done with this example.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. This is a "login" application. To do this.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.xml file for the application *. 150 . C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). because in the web. we need to deploy it. 12. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. which asks an user for an ID and password.7.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.xml file.javaserver faces Now. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.8. 12. When Tomcat is done loading.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. verifies the information. might possibly be different). you'll notice the file suffix is . To build the application run the build.12 .

WEB-INF 151 . This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.8. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 7. Select Java Project. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.. name the folder pages.. The New Project wizard appears..xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. click Next. 12.. your mileage may vary. jsf-login..xml Editor (see faces-config. and set up folders for a web application. 3. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. click Next. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.webroot | +-. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. in the wizard that appears. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. 6. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom..javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. a.12 . The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. 10. in the Add JSF Support page. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Next d. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.. see Installing & Uninstalling. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. click Yes through messages that appear. 2. c. 1. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Enter project name. click Add Folder.src | +-. select the Source tab. say. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 9. Select the Amateras node. click Finish 4. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). and to add JSF libraries to the project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. name the folder webroot 5.

Click Finish. if ( _uid.xml. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. 1. a. b.lib | +-. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".pages 12. click Add. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. else action = "loginFail". private String _pwd = "".equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. for class enter login. input widgets appear d.xml editor opens. The New Java Class wizard appears. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.12 . The Java code editor opens. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. In the Package field. in the Name field enter LoginManager. for scope select 152 . public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login. for name enter mgr.LoginManager. } 4. 3.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.javaserver faces | | | +-. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". click Managed Bean. The faces-config. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. } return action. from its context menu select New/Class. In Package Explorer select the src folder. We then configure it to be a managed bean. c. 2. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.xml Editor.8. enter login.

click Finish.8.jsp and error. the JSP Editor opens.javaserver faces session.jsp: create this file similarly to index. enter the following code. for File name enter index.jsp. b. but in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.webroot/pages/success. save the file and close the editor.12 .webroot/index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. e.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp). </body> Please try 153 . index.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. 1. then close the editor 12. Then we create login. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp: a. All pages except login.jsp. but in webroot/pages.jsp are simple pages with static content. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. again. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp. Create success. Create error. Enter the following code: <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp). <!-.jsp: create this file similarly to index. the New File wizard appears. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. from its context menu select New/File.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. in Package Explorer select webroot.webroot/pages/error.jsp. so we create them first. and 3 content pages (login. Enter the following code: <!-. c. Create index. success.

sun. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. as shown below. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. click Next c. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.. now we want to add attributes to this element. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. with the following template code. and choose default for Template. and uses them for code completion as well. place your cursor in one of these lines. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.jsp.jsp: a. a code-completion window pops up. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.12 .. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.sun. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and dock it along the right. click Finish. d. the New wizard appears.completion. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. b.javaserver faces </html> 4. and the JSP Editor can help with code. g. Create login. To see this in action. enter jsf-login e. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. from its context menu select New/Other. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. etc. (See Show View Dialog) f.. for File name enter login. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. 154 . and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Open the JSF palette. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. <%@ page contentType="text/html.

and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. enter #{mgr. with the barest presentational formatting. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.password}" l. set its value to Login. insert another <h:inputText> element.sun.loginAction} The final code. complete the expression with the closing { k. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.javaserver faces h. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. a code-completion window pops up. and hit Enter. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". this inserts value="" at the cursor. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. with bean properties available in mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. i. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .) j..sun. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.

Open faces-config. This is shown below. then click inside the editor window. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 1.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. 2.12 . and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml Editor.8. using a FacesIDE editor. Select the Navigation tab 3. 156 .5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.xml.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. it should open in the faces-config. click on Page. this inserts a page icon into the editor.

and is represented by an arrow. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. add 3 more pages. /pages/success. and set them to /pages/login. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp. 5.jsp and /pages/error.jsp 4. then click first on the icon for login. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success. select Navigation Case. 6.12 . from the palette at left.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. Its properties appear in the Properties view. change the value of path to /index. in the Properties view. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. This is shown below: 157 . "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp.

Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.xml. and extension-based mapping is turned on. 1. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.xml. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.8.javaserver faces 7. As it turns out.6 Editing web. Once deployed browse to index. and you should be sent to the success page. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. so uncomment it. open web. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. or leave it as-is.xml for the specifics of our application. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. any other id/password should send you to the error page. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. The application is now complete.xml Here we edit web.12 . and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. since we have such a trivial application. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).jsp.jsp. We want virtual path-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web. 12.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Similarly add a forward-action from login. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp to error. all we need do in web.jsp. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .

render javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. scroll down to Deploy. Click on its link to launch the application.javaserver faces 12.webapp 12.html javax. For a given factory class name. click Deploy 3.context javax.component javax.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.12 .faces.model javax.validator javax.. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.faces javax.faces.lifecycle javax. start Tomcat.faces.0 1. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. that factory is used.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.el javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. open its Manager application in a browser.8.faces.faces.faces..faces.faces.application javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.event javax..faces.10 the javax.component. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.convert javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces. as file:///. the Manager application should reload.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. 12.CONFIG_FILES 159 .

Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. those factories are used. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. StateManager . If none of the above steps yield a match. ViewHandlerWrapper . 12. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. defining page navigation. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.12 . with the last one taking precedence. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). with the last one taking precedence.Severity .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. ApplicationFactory . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.represents a single validation (or other) message. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. FacesMessage .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. FacesMessage. ViewHandler . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. handling events and input validation.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.faces.11 the javax. StateManagerWrapper . which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.

String. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.restoreView(javax.FacesContext. NamingContainer .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. Here they are: • • UIColumn .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. or a hyperlink. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. UICommand .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".faces.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. a menu item. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. String) results in failure on postback. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . ValueHolder .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. StateHolder . ContextCallBack . UIComponent . UIComponentBase .context.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.12 the javax. • ViewExpiredException .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. 12. EditableValueHolder . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces. • • 161 . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. ActionSource2 .12 .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. when activated by the user.

identified by a clientId.12 . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. Optionally. UIForm .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UISelectItem .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. Optionally. UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UIParameter .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIInput .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. The user can modify the selected value. UIViewRoot . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. UISelectMany . This component has no rendering. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.html package 162 . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.javaserver faces • UIData . that is displayed to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UINamingContainer . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. it is for display purposes only. UIGraphic .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIMessages . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. The user cannot manipulate this component. The user can modify the selected values. UISelectOne .13 the java. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIOutput . it just serves as the root of the component tree. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. it is for display purposes only.faces. UIPanel . UIMessage . by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.

HtmlMessages . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlInputText .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlPanelGroup .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlMessage . The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML input element of type password. On a redisplay. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlCommandLink .faces. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlDataTable . The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML label element. and renders the result. HtmlInputTextarea .Message". Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.12 . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.faces. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlPanelGrid .renders child components in a table. HtmlInputHidden . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlColumn .represents an HTML img element. HtmlOutputText . HtmlCommandButton .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.by default. HtmlOutputFormat .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlOutputLink . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents an HTML textarea element. but the application wishes to render more than one.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML form element. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlForm . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.renders the component value as text. HtmlInputSecret . This component must be placed inside a form. or not. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.by default.

HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. • • • • 12. HtmlSelectOneListbox . and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. In particular. ResponseWriter .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectManyListbox . showing a single available option at a time.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.14 the java. FacesContextFactory .faces.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. It is passed to.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . and the rendering of the corresponding response.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.convert package 164 .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyMenu . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.faces.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseWriterWrapper . HtmlSelectOneMenu .javaserver faces property. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. FacesContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.15 the java. ResponseStream .12 . showing a single available option at a time. • • • • • • 12.

• • • • 165 .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.16 the java. ValueBinding .12 . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. Classes: MethodBinding .15. 12. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.javaserver faces 12.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. VariableResolver .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. PropertyResolver .faces.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.

an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. ValueChangeListener . • • • • • One exception .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.12 . PhaseListener . Interfaces: ActionListener .faces. FacesListener .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . PhaseId . 166 .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. and event implementation classes.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PropertyNotFoundException . • • • • 12.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.AbortProcessingException .17 the java. PhaseEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. MethodNotFoundException .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. FacesEvent . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.

depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.19 the java.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.12 .javaserver faces 12.faces.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". ResultDataModel .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ListDataModel . ScalarDataModel . Renderer . DataModelEvent . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. SelectItem . SelectItemGroup .faces.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. DataModel .18 the java. ResultSetDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.faces. • • • • • • • • • 12. 12.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.

RenderKitFactory .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.22 the java. The package contains an exception.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. and/or user Locale. including a standard servlet.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java. and concrete validator implementation classes. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.faces. LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. ConverterTag .12 . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .represents a collection of Renderer instances that. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). ResponseStateManager . base classes for JSP custom component tags.faces. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. AttributeTag .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. Typically.validator package Interface defining the validator model. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. • • 12. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. as well. • RenderKit .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. 12. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. together. markup language.

UIComponentTag . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. 12.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. UIComponentBodyTag . • • • • • FacesServlet . which has several implications. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. telling the model to update its data. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the controller sends a message to the model. which passes the request to the page class. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the process includes a few more components or pages. When the model is updated. Likewise. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. Also. When a web server receives a request. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. related to a UIComponent.a base class for all JSP custom actions. When using JSF. or some other web technology. that need to process their tag bodies. FacetTag . This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the JSF life cycle does not apply. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the controller sends a message to the view. the controller is the 169 . In JSF. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. or when an exception occurs. that request is passed to the container. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. In MVC. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the life cycle is more complicated. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When the user takes some action with the presentation. telling the view to update its presentation. servlets. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). but basically.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.12 . ValidatorTag . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model).

The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. and what happens during the processing and response. Data can come from input fields in a web form. If this is a subsequent request. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. The components are stored in a component tree. is validated at this time. For a JSF-enabled application. it creates UI objects for each view component. As with the previous phase. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. 170 . from cookies sent as part of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. Data for some components. and the UI components are the view. depending on the request. In addition. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. not every request will flow through all six phases. and the response is sent to the client. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. In addition. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). • Invoke Application: During this phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. or from request headers.12 . the conversion occurs in this phase. the JSF implementation must create the view. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. and a piece of data failed validation. converting a String to a Date object). These objects update their state with the data values. It updates only the UI components with the new data. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. However.javaserver faces JSF implementation.

12 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. skipping any remaining phases. 171 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. For example. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases.javaserver faces In the above figure. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

you are always naming one object or another.5).com) to IP addresses (such as 192. when you use an electronic mail system. To access a file in the computer. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.48. A file system maps a filename (for example. and NIS(YP). names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.2. 172 . which is located in the root of the file system. in turn. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". 13.COM. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.sun. NDS. The UNIX pathname. such as addresses. /usr/hello. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. Using JNDI. identifiers. For example. possibly multiple.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. 13. DNS.Wiz.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. naming and directory services using a common API.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. you supply it the name of the object. For example.13 . for example. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. such as LDAP."). It enables applications to access different.COM. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.JNDI 13 . When using almost any computer program or system. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. or objects typically used by computer programs. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13. you must supply its name. Thus the DNS name sales. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.9. The DNS entry Wiz. For example. In addition. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. c:\bin\autoexec. names a file hello in the file directory usr. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.

such as its print server name and printing protocol. is a context. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. and fuel and instrument status. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). In another example. Using the reference. For example. A printer object reference. they must be stored by reference. which in turn. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Every context has an associated naming convention. A printer object. o=Sun. its flight plan. By contrast. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. that is. A file object. a file name is bound to a file.2. is accessed using a file reference. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). delimited by the comma character (".JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. also called a file handle. in a file directory /usr/bin.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. such as /usr. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. unbinding names. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. that is.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. For simplicity.2. For example. 173 . it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object.c=us. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. on the other hand. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. and its flight number and departure time. 13. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. for example. such as COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. a DNS domain. For example. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. an LDAP entry. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. relative to the entry o=Sun. such as c=us. for example. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service."). That is. and listing bound names. 13. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. is relative to c=us. in the UNIX file system is a context.13 . the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. a file directory. is a context. A reference is information about how to access an object. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. while the object itself might contain more state information.2. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. Instead. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. 13. some objects cannot be stored directly.COM. Typically. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. in the DNS domain Sun. For example. might contain the state of the printer. For example. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. Finally.

postal mail address. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. a computer. however.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree).2. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. An example is the telephone company's directory service. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. because we can. 13. to some extent.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. And it kind of makes sense. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. a name is unique 13. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. For example. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.13 . This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A directory object can be used. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. Thus. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. two different computer 174 .1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. For example. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. and computer account information. and color. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. 13. a person. various telephone numbers.3. programs. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. for example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. to represent a printer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. one context can be viewed. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. resolution. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. or a network.

This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. 175 .13 . 13. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. the ability to access directory services will become essential. networks.50".113. The email address.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. When you search. 13. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.com". 13. for example.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. for example. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. printers. and users. an organization object. that is.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. many directories. Within the DIT.3. "mail" is the attribute identifier. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. support the notion of searches. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.4. such as those based on the LDAP. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Many examples of directory services are possible. removing. Similarly. Alternatively. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. 13. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. 13. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. called a directory information tree (DIT).3. for example. like any other program running on the network. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. adding.3. When directory objects are arranged in this way. such as the file and print services. For example. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.smith@somewhere. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. such as that relating to machines. The service is accessed through its own interface. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. For example. The query is called a search filter. By using a directory service. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. A Java mail client program. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. can use the directory in the traditional way.

2.directory javax. emerging. 13. 13.5.naming javax.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.1 and Java 2 SDK.2. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. v1.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.1 and v1. v1.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.naming. more coherent and manageable. v1.naming. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.ldap 176 .13 . This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.event javax. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13. To use the JNDI. Thus a variety of directories--new.4. The Java 2 SDK. For example. 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. and even the network.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).naming. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.1 and the Java 2 SDK. It extends the v1. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.3 and later releases. For example. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.

print(report). 13. the name of the object's class.6. binding/unbinding. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. Furthermore.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.JNDI • javax. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. A java.1 context The javax. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.spi 13. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.naming.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. For example. that is. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.13 .naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. and it returns the object bound to that name. 13. composing them. list() is similar to listBindings(). a 177 . The overloads that accept java.String name. In this case.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. which is the core interface for looking up.6.6.lang. for some objects in the directory. and the object itself.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. and so on.String name argument represents a composite name. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.lookup("treekiller"). the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.6. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. However. For the methods in the Context interface. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . comparing components.lang. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .naming package defines a Context interface. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. 13. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. printer.6 the naming package The javax. 13.

7. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. 13. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.7 directory package The javax.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. You can add. replace. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.7. For example. Once you have an initial context. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.naming. InitialContext.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Otherwise. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. 13. 13. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13. There are no absolute roots.directory package extends the javax. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. they should catch NamingException.6. 178 . This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.6. 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.13 . The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).

Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. These operations are called "extended" operations.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. that is. and vice versa. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. controls. To receive event notifications. such as information about the object before and after the change. such as "object added. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. such as "object changed. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .directory package.8 event package The javax.JNDI 13. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. or unsolicited notifications. 13." and those that do not.naming.13 . The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. called controls . a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. For example. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.naming.9. 13. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .9 LDAP package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. Once registered.naming.naming." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. 13. In fact. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.9.ldap package at all. For example. 13. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.

13. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. and receiving response controls.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming.10.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. This support is provided in the form of state factories.10 service provider package The javax. if you look up a printer name from the directory.naming.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13. That is.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. This support is provided in the form of object factories. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. implementors of Context. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system. create a file named Lookup.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.Context.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.13 . 13.1 plug-In architecture The javax.10. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. For example. 13.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.naming package. 180 . 13. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming.naming. import javax. sending request controls.9.java.11.spi package supports implementors of Context.10.2 java object support The javax. In the process of completing an operation. 13.

put(Context. 13.3.5 compiling the program Next. If you are still having problems.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If the compilation succeeds.11. } 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. create an initial context.InitialContext. Object obj = ctx. Otherwise. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).java). To compile to program. use Context. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().naming. // Print it System.lookup(name). 13.NamingException. } catch (NamingException e) { System. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. then the JNDI classes are already included. 13. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.jndi.jar as an installed extension. you must have access to the JNDI classes. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.lookup() to look up an object. using the capitalization shown. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. 181 . For this reason. env.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.err.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. as follows. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). If the compilation fails.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.lookup(name). you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). If you are using the Java 2 SDK.11. v1.fscontext. "com.naming. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.13 . Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.JNDI import javax.sun.11.RefFSContextFactory").INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.3 looking up an Object Next. import javax.out. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.11.

It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.JNDI 13.PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming. To run the program. and your example class (Lookup. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.class). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.12. javax.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.jar).1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. then you will see something like the following.11.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.naming. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.jndi. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.jar and providerutil.fscontext. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). the file system service provider. env. include the directory that contains your Lookup.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.DirContext. 13.bat If you supply a file directory. 182 .NamingException.LdapCtxFactory"). Finally.directory packages. v1.sun.13 . javax.Context.naming.sun.directory. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.6 running the program To run the program. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. javax. supply the name of a file in your file system. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.3.Attributes.naming.naming.directory. env.directory. create an initial directory context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.12.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.jndi.naming and javax.put(Context. you need access to the JNDI classes. create a file named Getattr. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().put(Context.java. javax. "com.InitialDirContext.naming. import import import import import javax. 13.ldap.

println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). } 13.12.println("sn: " + attrs. If you are still having problems. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.12.java). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.get("sn"). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. using the capitalization shown. If the compilation succeeds. As with the naming example. 183 . Attributes.12.12. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. For this reason. } catch (NamingException e) { System.err. 13. If the compilation fails.get("sn").3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. compile the source file using the Java compiler.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get().13 . then see the Common Problems lesson for help. ou=People"). 13. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get()).out. 13. For now. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.6 compiling the program Next. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. Similar to the naming example.get() and then from that attribute get its value.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). ou=People").get() on it to get its value: attrs. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.

then see the Common Problems lesson. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. If you have any trouble running this example. 184 . serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.class. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. v1.put(Context. ou=People". Once it has the attributes.jar and providerutil. env.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. Getattr.jar).12. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). then these classes are already included.3.JNDI 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.13 .7 running the program As with the naming example.PROVIDER_URL. With this configuration. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.

JMS message . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. JMS consumer . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . Here. • 14.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. JMS queue . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.14 . JMS producer . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. As the name queue suggests. In this model. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. Enterprise Edition. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS client . the messages are delivered in the order sent.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS topic .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.a JMS client that receives messages. unless it has established a durable 185 . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. 186 . Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. On the receiving side.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.3 the JMS API programming model 14. 14.4. Using Java. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Depending on the type of message. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.14 . 14. In that case.jms.

the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.close(). you must call the connection's start() method. Depending on the connection type.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. It is either a queue or a topic. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. connection.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). The JMS administrator creates these objects.createConnection(). It receives messages sent to a destination. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Like the connection factory. 14. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. For example. you must close any connections that you have created. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. 14.4. you call the stop() method. Before an application completes. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.14 .lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.4. and users discover them using JNDI. For example. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Before your application can consume messages. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. 14. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. In a J2EE application. Connections implement the Connection interface. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .

which contains one method. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). After you register the message listener. You use the Session. 188 . You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. consumer. if it needs to reply to messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. a message listener object may be used. connection.start(). however. (Remember always to call the start() method. In the onMessage() method.14 .createConsumer(myTopic). For example. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message m = consumer.4. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.receive(1000). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. This object implements the MessageListener interface. onMessage().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. MessageConsumer consumer = session. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. Message m = consumer.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. After you have created a message consumer. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. and you can use it to receive messages. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.createConsumer(myQueue). it becomes active. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.) When message delivery begins. usually expect a specific message type and format. Moreover. you are likely to miss messages. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.start(). (If you call start() before you register the message listener.setMessageListener(myListener). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.receive(). For example. 14. A message listener does.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.

4. 14. Here. MessageProducer producer = session. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.send(message). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. if you created an unidentified producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.createTextMessage().createProducer(myTopic). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. bytes message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.setText(msg_text). A message has three main parts: 1. For example. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).createProducer(myQueue).receive().6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. from one application to another. After you have created a message producer.createProducer(null). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. 3.send(message). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. message. stream message. and object message). // msg_text is a String producer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. anon_prod. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. that is. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. With an unidentified producer. At the consuming end. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. map message. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. 189 .4.14 . to create and send a TextMessage. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.send(myQueue. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. message). You must first create the messages. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.

Before committing the transaction. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. } else { // Handle error } 14. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the first argument means that the session is transacted. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.createSession(true. If the user selects transaction support.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.14 . the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. then delivers the messages.out. To create a transacted session. use the following code: Session session = connection.4.println("Reading message: " + message. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. Sessions implement the Session interface. 190 . and message consumers to receive messages. Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).getText()). Here.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. 0). the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. After you create a Connection object.createSession(false.

bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .logging. bundled into a single unit.jar file into the application server.DB interaction transactions . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. On the other side. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .consistent error handling framework .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. the container lives (in general) in an application server.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Version 1. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. The component lives inside a container.transaction management can be complex.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.object oriented representation of data in a DB. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. 15.0. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. improved performance security .no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 . container which offers services to the component.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0.15 . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . server which provides an execution environment for containers. message-driven beans The 2.

RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3.15 .xml 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. as follows: 1. the deployment descriptor. called ejb-jar. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the remote interface of the bean 4. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. which is an xml file. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.

*. String lastName. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. int custId) throws RemoteException. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.15 . called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.ejb.rmi.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods.RemoteException.RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.*.ejb.javax. import java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. } 193 . import. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.rmi. } 15. import.javax.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. this can be done (for example) through SSL. "localhost:1099"). if the client executes outside the container. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. In the case of an web application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.jnp. how to create or find the bean 2. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.interfaces. "org. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.PROVIDER_URL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). we need to know: 1.put(Context. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. prop.NamingContextFactory". Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.15 . } 194 . prop. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. creating them for the client application.

to the appropriate type. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.narrow(homeRef.class). do implements the java. This is done through the javax. MyBeanHome. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). using the narrow() method. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.e. IIOP has not been designed for Java. in fact. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.rmi. Why? For EJB.rmi. but for generic languages.Remote interface). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.PortableRemoteObject class and. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). • if the client executes outside the container.. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. Problem is.rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.lookup("MyBean"). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. do not have the concept of casting. 195 . and this means that there are some limitations. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. in fact. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. Some languages. the client has a stub). that is part of CORBA standards. more specifically. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.15 .

remove().create(). import javax.. 15.processEntry("Dumitrascu". set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . public class MyBean implements javax. as well). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ejb..SessionContext.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. call business methods on the bean myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods..ejbeans. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .bank11.. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. remove the bean instance myObject. "Vasile".ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . String lastName. 1102).15 .ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.

15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. namely stateful and stateless beans. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. 15.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. that is. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 15. A stateless bean does not.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.15 . the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. the object is activated.

(Typically. All other methods in Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. 15.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. The ejbCreate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. the client invokes the remove method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.1 are invoked by the EJB container. Figure 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. or passivate.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. for example. is inside the bean class.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. 198 . For example. the EJB container activates the bean.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.

The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. support for concurrent access 3.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. equals() 199 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.15 . stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().

14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.15 .CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. methods which have the same parameters. in the same order. CreateException. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). an instance of that bean is created. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. all throwing RemoteException. We can have more create() methods. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Update and Delete.ccards. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Read. state data is stored into data store (usually.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.lang.bank11. 200 .14. as the parameters in the original create() method. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. On the other side. 15.

While an entity bean is in the ready stage. First.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). On the first path. for BMP. it is empty.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. On the second path.14. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. but the developer returns null for CMP.14. it's business methods can be invoked. While in the pooled stage. All instances in the pool are identical. 15.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the client invokes the create method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 15. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). 201 . The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. not null. for BMPs. actual SQL update code. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. After the EJB container creates the instance. a client can invoke the remove method. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. but in general.15 . left empty most of the time in CMP. in BMP. Second. After instantiation. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.14. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.

15 .16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. It acts as a JMS message listener. it does not automatically set the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. or a Web component . another enterprise bean. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. If the primary key is incorrect. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. In the pooled state. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. 202 . In the pooled state. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.an application client. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. Therefore. the values of the instance variables are not needed.getPrimaryKey(). With bean-managed persistence.

If message processing is rolled back. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. When a message arrives. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. 15. message-driven bean can be used.16. max-beans-infree-pool. To ensure concurrency. For more information on this element see.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. Previously. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . In several respects. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. 15. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. an open database connection. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. 203 .15 .2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.for example. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. If this element is set to more than one. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. Unlike a session or entity bean. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. the message will be redelivered.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. but not asynchronously.16. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. The onMessage method may call helper methods. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. To avoid tying up server resources. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. a JMS API connection.16. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. 15.

6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs...15 . call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.}. public void ejbRemove() {. Classes. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. 2. Note: These instances can be pooled. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. 3. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.0 specification.. public void onMessage(javax. and it must not // accept parameters. or create a new one.Message MessageName) {. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. 15. As with other EJB types. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.ejb.. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.16. // An EJB constructor is required.. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.} // onMessage() is required. finalize{}.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. Obtain a new bean instance.16.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. 15. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. methods.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.16.jms.jms.Message. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.

The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. getUserTransaction(). 15.16. 15. If any method throws such an exception. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . from the client perspective the EJB still exists.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).This is not a client context. getRollbackOnly() .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.16. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.16. For example. However.15 . even in onMessage(). Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.MessageListener. See javax. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.onMessage() for more information. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.jms. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. 15. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.xml.0 specification. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.15 . a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. In either case. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.16. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. as required by the EJB 2. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. 15.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.16. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.

17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. 207 . For each instance. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. as described in the EJB 2.0 specification.xml deployment file.15 .xml elements. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.jms... 15.message. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. the weblogic-ejb-jar. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. </message-driven> ..ejb20. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. 2.

a message-driven bean is never passivated. isolation level.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.like transaction. environment properties 6. the remote interface name 8. access control entries . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.15 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. attributes . At the end of the life cycle.security issues. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. bean home name . entity specific elements 10. 15. security 208 .specifies control attributes for transactions 4.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. control descriptors .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. the home interface name 7. EJB class name 5.

ejb.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.ccards.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ejb.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.bank11.lang.bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ejb.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ccards.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ejb.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .lang.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .15 .


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