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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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java platform. like HTML pages. Figure 1. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary). 1. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.7 business components Business code.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. 5 . might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.1 . JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.2 Server communication 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. retail. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. or finance. The web tier. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. and sends it back to the client program. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. enterprise edition Figure 1. processes it (if necessary). Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. like the client tier.

or application client component can be executed. multithreading. For example.9. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. enterprise edition Figure 1. In addition. Business and EIS Tiers 1. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Before a web. 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. 6 .3 Web. and other complex low-level details. resource pooling.java platform. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.9 java EE Containers Normally. and other legacy information systems. 1. enterprise bean. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. database systems. mainframe transaction processing.1 . The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.

7 . JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. After an enterprise bean is created. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. database connection resource pooling. 1. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.9. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. data persistence. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.java platform. including services such as security. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. For example. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.4. transaction management. and remote connectivity. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.1 .

Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Application client container . This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. develop. When XML data is exchanged between parties. extensible. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . enterprise edition Figure 1. 1.1 . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.java platform.manages the execution of applets.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. video. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. XML data. or any kind of binary data such as audio. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. Web container . or for document-oriented web services. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. maps. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. 8 .manages the execution of application client components. program files. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Applet container .manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. For example. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.10. test. Application clients and their container run on the client. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. text-based standard for representing data. 1. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.

10.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. the location of the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.1 . The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.java platform. such as Universal Description.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. enterprise edition 1. and ways to communicate with the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The description includes the name of the service.10. 9 .

3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. the session bean and its data are gone.11. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. In Java EE 5. When the client finishes executing. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.11. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. or enterprise bean. 1. standard set of tags. WML. Commonly. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . enterprise edition Figure 1.1 . If the client terminates. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.11. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.java platform.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. and XML) and JSP elements.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. 1.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. or if the server shuts down.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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At runtime. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. SAAJ. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. module. or a component. or component accordingly. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. 15 . Once deployed on a local platform. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. JTA. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. better tools. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. it is ready to be deployed. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . and JNDI 1.java platform. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a module. No extra coding is needed. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.1 . such as better performance. the application is ready to run. JSP page. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . or better customer support. servlet.ear extension. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative.

The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. supporting class files. native libraries. classes. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Resource adapter modules. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.java platform.jar extension. GIF and HTML files. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. such as caching directives. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. JSP files. Web modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and other documentation. enterprise edition Figure 1. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.war (Web ARchive) extension.1 . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Together. Application client modules. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. for example.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. For example. • • 16 . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. which contain all Java interfaces.

POST. HEAD.jmarshall.ietf. These messages may have different contents.org/rfc/rfc1945. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . The second (and last.apps.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. The server answers with a response message. The client sends a request message to the server.1. namely HTTP 1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. zero or more header lines 3.. RFC 2616 (06/99). . For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.2 . a blank line (CR/LF) 4. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. was the object of several RFCs.. 2.org/Protocols .HTTP 2 . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. an initial line 2.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.HTTP 2.w3. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data..1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. so far) version. as follows: 1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. but they also have some common structural elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. we recommend www.com/easy/http. check the official HTTP site – www.html).

html HTTP/1. OPTIONS 7. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. GET 2. but lack of support makes them obsolete.0). TRACE Three other commands are listed. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.Annotation of existing resources. newsgroup. HEAD 3. CONNECT 5. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. 18 . HTTP/1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.2 .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. mailing list.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.1. 2.1 specification.Posting a message to a bulletin board. PUT 8. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. GET /path/to/the/file/index. Here is their list: 1. in the HTTP 1. DELETE 6.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. POST 4. as well. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .

form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).0 404 Not Found 2. . depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.HTTP or similar group of articles. 3.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 2.Providing a block of data. . as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. (encoded as multipart/form-data). or a record is subordinate to a database. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. after the “?” character. like storing or updating data. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. while POST may involve anything. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.” On the other side. 2. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. In this case. such as the result of submitting a form. separated by the character “&” or “. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. or ordering a product. or in the message body.Extending a database through an append operation.2 . GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. to a data-handling process. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. When used for form data submission. or sending E-mail 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.6 differences between GET and POST 1.8 the status code A three-digit integer.

31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. that is. 2. header values are. file or script output) is returned in the message body. 500 Server Error . such as text/html or image/jpg. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.1 only) . and section 10 for HTTP 1. one (Host) is mandatory. The most common use of the message body is in a response. none of them mandatory.the request succeeded.0. separated a semicolon.g.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . 404 Not Found . header name and header value. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.0 version specifies 16 headers.an unexpected server error. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. 20 . The HTTP 1. out of which. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. Although the header names are not case sensitive. where the requested resource is returned to the client. If an HTTP message includes a body. 2.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). or otherwise can't run correctly. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. fails. In a request. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. In particular.the requested resource doesn't exist.1). while the HTTP 1.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.2 . and the resulting resource (e. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.1 version specifies 46 of them. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.

Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.2 .org/rfc/rfc1521. 21 .HTTP 2. parallel 3.html HTTP/1. with subtype mpeg 2.apps. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. RFC 1521 (www.uvt.0 From: someuser@yahoo.html first open a socket to the host web. Then. with subtypes mixed. alternative. multipart.ro.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .info. video. with subtype basic 7. audio. digest.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. postscript 5. partial.info. 1. with subtypes jpeg. application.ietf. gif 6. . with subtypes octet-stream. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes rfc822.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.ro/path/file. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. message. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. with subtype plain 2. text. image. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.uvt.0 200 OK Date: Fri. external-body 4.

2 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP . the server closes the socket. 22 .

apps. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.w3.01) can be found at this address: http://www.com/easy/html . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. 3. namely HTML 1. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. As a practical reference site use – www.2 (3. Mosaic. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.jmarshall. From 1999 on. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. The latest version (XHTML 2.com/indexdot/html . For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.HTML 3. It is a revision of 4.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.01. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. The first version of HTML. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. The first official version – HTML 2. HTML 3. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). we can afford to have a look at this declaration. The newest version of HTML is 4. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0.org/rfc/rfc1866. Since it fits in a couple of pages. Version 4. HTML describes how text.0 and was accepted in December 1997.3 .0 draft was released in 01.99.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.w3c.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. The XHTML 1.html. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .com/tutors.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. a working draft for the next major revision.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. A newer standard.www.ietf. check the official HTML site – www.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. www.0) dates from 08.htmlgoodies.0 .html) and was widely supported.0.blooberry. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.org/Markup .HTML 3 . Other helpful sites . Originally named Web Applications 1. However.

permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" ".SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.3 .implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. “&quot”. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. the specification of HTML 4. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.01 specification. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. An example: <!-. If you wonder what a character reference is. …." (in hexadecimal) .org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. look at these examples: “&lt”. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. HTML 4. Overall. DYNSRC.3 .the chinese character for water.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Transitional DTD. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. 4.0 Strict DTD.and end at the first occurrence of -->. 3. You get the point. three DTDs (HTML 4. BORDER. VSAPCE are omitted. like ALIGN. though. 3. CONTROLS.w3.0 contains an SGML declaration.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. This section deals with some of the most common elements. <><> --> 25 . Check the address http://www. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. "&#x6C34.acesta este un comentariu.

3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.ro/webmail/src/login. NAME. etc.HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.5 tables 26 .3 .1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.uvt.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. image.info.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.

headers and cells are <TABLE>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TH> and <TD>.3 . its rows. <TR>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Usually. <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Here is their description and attributes.

HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .

Example: http://web. SIZE . Main attributes: • TYPE . "hidden". "file".?. however.:.the default value.required. specifies the parameter name.required. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.sends the form values in a single transmission. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . NAME . • 3.3 .uvt.required.8 form related elements 3. "radio". "image".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . may have the values GET or POST. "checkbox". specifies how data will be sent to the server. "button".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . the browser appends the values to the URL. after a quotation mark .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . "GET" .8. Main attributes: 29 . "submit". "text/plain" • • 3.maximum number of options visible to the user.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.8.if specified.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.HTML • METHOD . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "password".info. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . 3.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "reset". allows multiple selections from the choice list.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. following the 1.3 java applications 31 .class 3. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.4 . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. -g : generate all debugging info. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. Java bytecode – a file with extension . but next time execution is much faster.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. a tool named Just In Time compiler. In terms of execution time. The current version (as of 10. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .class file.2 version.) in 08. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Early versions of Java were released in 12.JAVA PRIMER 4 . To overcome this significant shortage. 4.95.class file.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.java 2. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.. Inc.0.2 java the interpreter. project started in 12.class.C:\TW\mySource. The first time a class is loaded. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.java.java One example of command line compilation: 4. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.4. the compilation process occurs. Java source – a file with extension .2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. javac -classpath . Example: Edit the file prog1.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. jit From source to execution.JAVA PRIMER 4.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.95. The current version (as of 10.90.

4 . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . Generally. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. 4. or is derived from A.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.4. or that it extends A).4.java. An example: 32 .4 object oriented concepts 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.jar file.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. In general.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.

providing its own implementation. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Short. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. In OO jargon. 4. Integer. Boolean. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. Float.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. namely: Byte. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). this is called method overloading. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Long. called Object. 33 . 4.4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.4 . The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Therefore.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. with the root the class Object. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . In fact. Double. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. 4. Character.1 bit char .4. a Java class can extend a single base class. Therefore.

servlet. anywhere abstract . A final: • • • variable .does not have any subclasses.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. • • • • no specifier . 34 . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.http. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. which extends the class javax.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .the class is visible from any class.4 .one which is constant method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. } declares an abstract class. automatic garbage collection.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). no templates.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . A final variable (method. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. inherited). class .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.http. rather than at class instance.. has the same value for all class instances.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. method .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.no access from outside the class itself protected . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.access from any class anywhere private . 4. Except for the "package" concept. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.servlet.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.one which is defined at class level.

java errors .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. division by 0. Exception categories: 1. code or data errors . 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7. not at execution time. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. 2.4 . programmer defined exceptions 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. In Java. array index out of bounds.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .like invalid cast. as defined in the java.7.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. namely class Error and the class Exception.ThreadDeath. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7. 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. standard method exceptions 3. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.

8.4 . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. string analyzers. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. 4.support for user interface java.java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.1 Package names The default package has no name.awt . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.class file. In the example above. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .lang .awt.*.nio java.sql.Properties. 4.util. they have to be unique inside a package. don't have to import java.security 36 .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.util . the class (the . import javax.net java.event .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. All other packages must be explicitly imported. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. An example: package com. therefore.sql java.zip .util. date and time info java.bank11.geom . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).ccards. followed by the import statements. The package containing the standard classes is java.by adding the key word throws.support for event handling java..awt.this can be done by providing a try.servlets.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.default. import.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . . the default package is used).io java. finally construct.rmi java.lang (automatically available). the package statement is the first one in a java source file.support for java archives creation java.. As a general rule. 4.support for data collections. catch.

While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing. static and final. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.support for event handling 4. it must be declared as abstract.text javax.accessibility javax.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. 37 .swing .4 . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.event . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. All variables (actually.

1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . as JavaScript. other 38 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. like QtScript or ActionScript. This is not always what we want.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.JAVASCRIPT 5.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.javaScript 5 .HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . then LiveScript and finally. Subsequently.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .5 . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. and .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . However. 5. The origins of this language date back to 1995.depending on the browser .

or when an event is triggered. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.3. without having to write the same script on every page. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. When you place a script in the head section. go in the head section. 5.... </script> </body> 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.js file extension.3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . point to the . </script> </head> 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. To simplify this. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . 39 .3.5 ...2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.

switch().2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"...1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. in and the try . The code in the body of the for . continue. catch constructs. while(). in loop is executed once for each element/property. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.5. 5.4.5 . 5.javaScript 5. break... while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5....4.4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.....1 JavaScript for.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. else.4. for().5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.In statement The for. namely – if ..

or a property of an object.catch statement The try. When users see errors. for (x in mycars) { document. var mycars = new Array(). an array element.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. mycars[1] = "Volvo".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. } </script> </body> </html> 5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. so you don't lose your audience.3 try.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Mozilla 1. mycars[0] = "Saab".5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. The try block contains the code to be run..... Example Using for. they often leave the Web page. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event..0. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.catch statement (available in IE5+. mycars[2] = "BMW".catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors..5.5 .write(mycars[x] + "<br />").

\n\n". alert(txt).7. Syntax: 42 . } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. 5.5 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. txt+="Click OK to continue.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up. Also.7 popup boxes 5.\n\n".description + "\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.

Now. the box returns true. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . in the <head> section.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.7. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. If the user clicks "Cancel". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.js file). When a prompt box pops up.5 . the box returns null."defaultvalue") 5.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the box returns false.8. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . If the user clicks "OK"..javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the example above had not been written within a function. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Syntax: prompt("sometext". the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. When a confirm box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel".8 functions 5.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.7.

In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".javaScript function functionname(var1.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. So. and will be stored in the variable called product. 5...8.write(txt. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.length). document.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.9. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.9.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.5 . otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.varX) { some code } var1.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. var2. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.9 javaScript objects 5. and how they are used. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. 5.. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.var2. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. etc are variables or values passed into the function. 5.

5 . </script> 5.write(str.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()). document.javaScript 5. 45 .9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The first class consists of browser specific objects. The other class are the language specific objects. which will be specified in the next section.

or when the user interacts with a Web page. which are called Objects.11.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. every Link on the page is an Object. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. At its most basic level. every Image on the page is an Object. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. When an event message has been triggered. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . check the site http://www. Properties FF: Firefox. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Even this Document itself is an Object.5 .11 javaScript language built in objects 5.asp 5. as well).com/jsref/default. For example. N: Netscape.w3schools. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.

Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.5 . N: Netscape.11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.

as a four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.5 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . depending on the browser.

to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.5 . according to universal time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Properties FF: Firefox. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. N: Netscape.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).11. to a string. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to Greenwich time. according to local time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time.

5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 .5 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.

Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 .

302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) min(x.434) Returns PI (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 1. 2.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.11. 2.javaScript 5. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.5 .14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . N: Netscape.y) pow(x. 3. 0. 1.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.

personObj.firstname="John". Assume that the personObj already exists .you can give it properties named firstname. The persons' properties include name. etc. with a collection of properties and methods.write(personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. play().methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. document. age.12. eye color. weight.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. sleep(). work().3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().lastname="Doe". personObj. age.lastname="Doe". personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.firstname).eyecolor="blue".2 Methods An object can also contain methods.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. Properties are the values associated with the object. etc. personObj.age=30. height.12. The persons' methods could be eat(). personObj.firstname="John".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.age=50. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj. skin tone. Objects also have methods.5 . 5. All persons have these properties. lastname.12. 53 .eyecolor="blue".

you can create new instances of the object. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.newlastname=newlastname.age=age. Once you have the template. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). like this: myFather=new person("John".firstname=firstname.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname. this.eyecolor) { this.48.eyecolor) { this. 5.firstname=firstname.lastname=lastname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple."green").lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor."blue").propertyName."Doe".lastname=new_lastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.age=age.age. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.eat=eat. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.eyecolor=eyecolor.50. this.lastname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.5 . this. 54 . this.12. } Notice that the template is just a function. You can also add some methods to the person object.age."Rally". this. myMother=new person("Sally". this.

now you can write: myMother.5 . JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. 5. So.. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.newlastname("Doe"). Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. For example.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. We define the events in the HTML tags. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.". we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button..

13.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.5 . you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.13. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. For example. 5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.2 onFocus. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.w3schools. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. If the field values are not accepted. If it returns true the form will be submitted.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13.

5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').

The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML.Html DOM 6 .HTML DOM 6. By October 1998.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.6 . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. HTML. XML.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . However.. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. SVG. Right now (oct. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. CSS. In other words. the Document Object Model activity is closed. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. 6. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. or WebAPI being among them. particularly those used in Web browsers. and style of a document. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. structure.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. The W3C 58 . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. 2010).g. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). As of January 2008.

Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. which further enhances the DOM 6. As of 2005. filtered views and events.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. 3. Level 1. Level 2. DOM Level 3 Validation. 4. each of which contains required and optional modules.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 6. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. a new DOM Core specification. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. 2. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. To claim to support a level. DOM Level 3 XPath. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Requirements. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. and 6. DOM Level 3 Core. 5. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.6 . DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting.

7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. In order to be cross-browser compatible. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.x and Netscape 4. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. 6. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x were still widely used in 2000. can be accessed through the 60 . that is. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. along with their containing text and attributes. The Window object represents a browser window. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. By 2005. support multiple browsers. interoperability problems were numerous. Opera. Konqueror.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. and Safari. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). All HTML elements. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.6 . The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.

JavaScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.Html DOM DOM. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. The contents can be modified or deleted.6 .

6 .Html DOM 6. The <html> node has two child nodes.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The <head> node holds a <title> node. <head> and <body>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.9.8. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The tree structure is called a node-tree. However. 6. everything in an HTML document is a node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 62 . the element node <title>.

getElementsByTagName("p").3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and new elements can be created. 63 . You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.getElementsByTagName("p").getElementById('main').9. The terms parent. Their contents can be modified or deleted. Parent nodes have children. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.2 node parents. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. child.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.6 . and the connections between them. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).9. children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. the top node is called the root Every node. using the node relationships. By navigating the node tree. By using the getElementById() method 2. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. • • • • • In a node tree. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. except the root. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).

i++) { document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i<x. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.write(x[i].Html DOM for (i=0. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.length.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).write("<br />"). document.innerHTML).6 . } 6. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. each node is an object.9. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).

Html DOM 6. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.getElementById("intro"). 6.9.5 example .firstChild.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. txt=x.nodeValue.

including window.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. objects and images. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 .

W3C takes a middle position in this struggle.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. DOMNodeInserted.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. During the event flow. Also.3. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Fires when an element is activated. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). as of version 1.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). say "click". Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. through a mouse click or a keypress. 6. Mozilla. When the user clicks on the inner element. for instance. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Safari. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. 67 . and then bubbled up.6 . This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. also supports these methods.

including information about target element. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).6 . meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. etc. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Unfortunately. key pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. preventDefault 68 . mouse position.Html DOM 6. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.

fields of forms. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. For example. For improving sharing of resources. The server does some processing — retrieving data. 7. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.7 . etc.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.AJAX 7. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. menus. 7. choices of user. It is not a technology in itself. but also to save resources. dynamic website. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. using web services or Php scripts.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network. crunching numbers. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 69 . SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.AJAX 7 . The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network.

if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. Obviously. but the opposite is true. we wouldn’t make users wait around. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting around for the server to do something. at the start of the session. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Instead of loading a web page. waiting. 70 . So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. Once an interface is loaded. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. And at every step in a task.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. the user waits some more. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience.7 . While the server is doing its thing.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.7 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory. 71 . usually using XML.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. loading additional interface code.

Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.responseXml . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . url. and in this purpose. 3: answer in process. GET or POST . thanks to its methods and attributes.open: create a connection.responseText . 2: request received. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. .mode: type of request. DOM's method allows to extract data. onreadystatechange . This object provides two methods: .send: send a request to the server.holds loaded data as a string of characters.returned by the server . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.200 is ok. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.AJAX 7. . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. It allows the interaction with the servers.7 . boolean) . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. To get data on the server. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 404 if the page is not found .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 1: connection established.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.for a Xml file or . These events are user actions.holds a Xml loaded file.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. 4: finished.url: the location of the file 72 .for a simple text. 7. .

XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. .7 . // Firefox. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. but two options must be tried.xul. http_request.open: command GET or POST.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . OK } else { // wait. the data to send to the server.6 building a request.send: with POST only.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. } else if (window.fr/somefile.. if (request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .. if (window.open('GET'.xml'. http_request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. URL of the document.XMLHTTP"). request. Safari. .send(null).readyState == 4) { // received. true). true for asynchronous. 'http://www.. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. 73 . for browser compatibility. The request below reads a document on the server.null for a GET command 7.AJAX .

dyn="Received:" + req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. }.ajax.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ajax. if(window.open("GET".status == 200) document.responseXML.ajax. req.status.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. else if (window.dyn="Error code " + req.7. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). req.dyn=""Received:" + req. by this code: var doc = req.responseText. "data.xml". req.7. req.getElementsByTagName('root'). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .send(null). true).7 examples 7.responseText.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.AJAX 7.item(0).setRequestHeader("Content-Type".7 .XMLHTTP). else document.readyState == 4) if(req.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

2.ccards. entries related to session configuration.)> <web-app> <!-. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.xml file: <?xml version="1. JSPs and Java Server Faces. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.. Others. database connection resource pooling. welcome pages. 3. descriptions). servlet classes.bank11.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . Initialization of parameters for servlets..WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. Servlet. like: 1. but typical web. Servlet. data persistence. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. Here is a small. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 5. MIME types used by the web application.class>com. 6.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. like what pages are error.servlets.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. 8. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.8 . application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. web. 4. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. For example. classes. After an enterprise bean is created.

bank11. Basicly. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". for flexibility. the name of the web application.bank11. Unfortunately.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . basicly. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.xml" 2.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. For example. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.ccards. it is the alias of the real servlet class. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.ccards.xml". whose name is rather long. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.xml" file. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. 1. In general. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets". Then the "EnrollServlet.xml file of the web application.servlets. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".ccards.8 . Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.servlets". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Behind a very benign URL.bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.class" and that it is part of the package "com. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. However.

from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.2. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. platform independent programs.SERVLETS 9. the HttpServlet) class. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. Technically speaking. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .4.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.SERVLETS 9 .9 . more often. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 9. modular design 9.0 specification.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.5 and is in final state. from BEA Systems. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. which extend the functionality of the web server. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . the Java Servlet 3. this is just a work in progress. 9.4.0 specification is available for public review. but at this point.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. but through a web container.2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. small footprint. As of oct.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. 2010. tjws spec 2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. in most cases as part of an application server.

public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. while the second one. from IBM 9. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. WebSphere. These packages are: • • javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.9 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. public void destroy() throws ServletException. from Apple Inc. Enterprise Edition. 82 .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet javax. the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet package.servlet. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. IOException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet package are protocol independent.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig. Throwable t) 9. as well. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. This method has two arguments.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet API provides such a specific class. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. namely the HttpServlet class. 9. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. the web container calls its init() method. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The method performs all initialization required. respectively. More on the servlet life cycle.9 . This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. After instantiating the servlet. in a different section. 83 .

service().UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.Exception class.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.ServletException javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. It also extends the java. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .lang.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.lang.9 .

But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. 9. respectively. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. DB connection opening. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.9 . the container calls the init() method of the servlet. etc. 85 . method which performs the initialization of the servlet. JSP or JSF. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. If the servlet does not implement the javax. which will service all incoming requests. Typically. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Also. Typically. After instantiation.SingleThreadModel. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.9 .

import java.servlets.bank11. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. 87 . This is done in server's (container's) server. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.java" file: package com.9 .15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.ccards.io. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.*.xml file. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.

PrintWriter out = resp. } } 88 .println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.println("<body>"). out.println("<head>"). out.servlet. out.setContentType(“text/html”). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("<html>"). IOException { resp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("</body>"). out.println("</head>").SERVLETS import javax.println("merge").9 . import javax.println("</html>"). // output your page here out.*. out.*.close().getWriter().http. out. out. out.init(config).servlet. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<br>").

0 while the current (4. Type 1. the javax.JDBC 10 . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0. 89 . 10. The JDBC 4. These drivers fall into four standard categories.sql package.1. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . the java. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.JDBC 10. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. as recognized by the DB industry. Starting with version 3.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).sun.JdbcOdbcDriver . A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.odbc. This solution is inefficient. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.jdbc. 1997. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.10 . After that.sql package 2.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.

forwards them to the JDBC driver. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. which in turn. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.JDBC Type 2. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.10 . Type 3. Type 4. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. 90 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Part Java.

sql.0).Driver java. let's remind some of the most important ones.Statement java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Time java.Date java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLDataException java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.SQLException java.sql.0 API.sql.sql.DriverManager java.Timestamp java.Connection java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.JDBC 10.sql.sql.sql.sql.Array java.SQLData java.ResultSet java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.10 .Types java.sql.sql.3 the java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.SQLInput java.Clob java.sql.sql.Blob java.sql. java.Struct java.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.Wrapper 91 .SQLPermission java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.

StatementEventListener 10.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.Wrapper javax.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.Statement java.sql.sql package.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLException java.sql.sql.Types java.SQLDataException java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.Clob java.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLWarning java.StatementEvent javax.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.ClientinfoStatus java. querying the database 4.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.NClob java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql. loading a database driver 2.sql. establishing a database connection 3.CommonDataSource javax.Connection java.sql.sql.sql.0.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.RowId java.SQLInput java.RowIdLifeTime java.ResultSet java.sql.SQLTransientException java.SQLXML java.sql. processing the result set 92 . java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql.sql.10 .sql.Blob java.

The first one is loading a database driver.DataStoreDriver com.JDBC 10.db2.odbc.jdbc.SybDriver com.driver.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.sybase.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.ibm. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.net. A database driver is specified by the driver name.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .10 .jdbc.OracleDriver sun.borland.datastore.DB2Driver oracle.

gjt.bank11. String user = "root".Driver"). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. by using the connection URL. 94 .util. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.forName("org. but let's take it for granted: import java.sql. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.mm. as specified by the driver vendor. user. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. passwd).*. try { Class. import java.10 .printStackTrace(). Since we just used it.*.newInstance(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".getConnection(connURL.mysql.

java.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp). we can use it for various purposes. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Connection conn = DriverManager. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true"). There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.10 . "true"). String user.put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.getConnection(connURL. 10.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Properties prp = new Properties(). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.util. prp.sql package. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp.JDBC 10. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("create".

Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.10 . other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.JDBC 10.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. respectively. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely.

Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.. 10. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .executeUpdate(sqlString).".10 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved..9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.createStatement().sql.

10 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. not at 0) or the column name. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. PreparedStatement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. and CallableStatement objects. 98 . What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. a concurrency of read only. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.math. This interface is.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. time.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Time java.sql. mins.sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Big Decimal Object float 10. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql package. basicly.sql.produces a Connection object that will 103 . secs date.10 . There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a standard Connection object 2. It is part of the javax. Connection pooling implementation -.0 optional package.DataSource object.math. a factory for creating DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. Basic implementation -.

This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. 104 .servlets.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). 3.lookup("java:comp/env").bank11.io.getName()). throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*.http. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().*.sql. Distributed transaction implementation -.sql. javax. javax.10 . private DataSource theDataSource.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*.ccards.naming. import import import import import import java.class. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.getLogger(TestDataSource.servlet.servlet. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. java.*. javax.

} } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).10 ..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 . ServletException { ..

HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.2 the java. If the JSP is modified.jsp. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.tagext. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.11 .tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. 11.1 and is related to the 2.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. namely javax.servlet.JSP 11. The javax.servlet. The package javax.JSP 11 . 11.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp. The JSP specific interfaces.5 Java Servlet specification.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp and javax.servlet.jsp.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The package javax. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). 111 . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. include and taglib. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container..11 . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".JSP • if the URL does not start with / .. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".

1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. Assigns it to available name or id. 11. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.11 . 11.7 scripting elements 11. 11.7.7. In Tomcat. this code goes to inside the service() method. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.JSP 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.

10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . Attributes description: • • • name . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.11 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. <jsp:forward>.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.the URL of the page. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.13 the forward standard action 114 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions. flush . converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.

which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other." .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name="instanceName" .. when we want to separate the application into different views.a name for the Bean or applet instance.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. archive="URIToArchive.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . as this attribute has no default value.. If you do not supply a value. 11. depending on request.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .class extension in the name following code. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. as well.the type of object the plugin will execute.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . You must specify either bean or applet. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. servlet or to a static resource.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). .11 . You must include the . code="classFileName" .. It is used mainly. name .the name of a bean instance..

The value is a full URL.1" .lang. in pixels. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.io. optional port number.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.it represents the buffered version of java.servlet. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .Object type and scope page 11. application .it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . out . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the amount of space.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. objects which are automaticly available. page .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.jsp. request .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. writes to the output stream to the client. of the image the applet or Bean displays. pageContext . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. it has java. in pixels.1.the initial height and width.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.PrintWriter.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. response .JspWriter type and scope page 7.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. based on the servlet API.represents the servlet context.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. The default value is 1. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.represents server's response to the request. it has javax. with a protocol name. Must be a small nonzero number. config . 1. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . and domain name.16 scopes 1. session . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.11 . request . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .

the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. Object value) method 2. Object value) method 4.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. session .init().11 .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. page .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11.ccards. Object value) method 11.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. if (enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 3.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. application .JSP request object.beans.

private float number.Serializable { private String string. private SimpleSubBean subBean. SimpleBean. a boolean and another String). since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.string. private String colors[]. %> <jsp:forward page="response.simple.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. 11.java: package com. private String optional.io. private int list[]. a software development and consulting company.register().11 . private int integer. a float.mapping.devsphere. The public constructor could have been omitted.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).examples. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. The SimpleBean class is declared public. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . an int. private boolean flag.18.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.

colors. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.colors[index].colors = values.string = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.flag.integer = value.JSP this.integer. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } 119 .number. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.11 .number = value.flag = value. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.

} // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values.list. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list[index] = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.subBean.optional = value.11 . int value) { this.colors[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. String value) { this.subBean = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list[index]. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional. } } 120 . } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.

JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). private float number.string. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. SimpleSubBean.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .devsphere. } } 11.string = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.examples. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.mapping.18.number = value. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.io. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.simple.java: package com.Serializable { private String string.11 .number.

string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

There are three error messages. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. a boolean and an int[]. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.number]". "An option must be selected" }. new Boolean(true) }. "One or more colors must be selected" }.string]". The processing order isn't necessary to this example. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.flag]".util. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The default values are defined for a String. a float. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the list of optional properties.colors]". "One or more items must be selected" }.simple. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.18. new Float(0.mapping.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. "abc" }.11 . No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.list]". error messages.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". the form's name and the processor's name.examples. new String[] { 123 .java: package com.devsphere. the processing order. The list of optional properties has a single element.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.integer]". SimpleBeanResources.123) }. new int[] { 2. 3 } }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.list]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.

"optional". For a better understanding of this example. "SimpleForm.examples. { "[PROC_NAME]". new String[] { "string".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.devsphere. The beanToForm() method of com.*.mapping.jsp" } }. { "[FORM_NAME]".mapping.simple. If necessary.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. "subBean" } }. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.logging. "number".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. com. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.util. "colors". SimpleHndl.mapping. "integer".devsphere. "SimpleProc.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.mapping.11 .JSP "optional" } }.devsphere.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The formToBean() method of com.html" }.18. } } 11.devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). "list". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".devsphere. string values are converted to numbers. "flag". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.

// Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getString("[FORM_NAME]").getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). logger). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.io. // Process the valid data bean instance application.util.getTemplate(new java. 125 . // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. int slashIndex = basePath. slashIndex+1) : "".File(formPath)).JSP = HandlerUtils.removeUserErrors(errorTable).trim().substring(0. formPath = application.getString("[PROC_NAME]").getBeanResources(simpleBean.equals("POST"). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getMethod().11 . errorTable = HandlerUtils.getRealPath(formPath).trim().getServletPath(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getDocument(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.lastIndexOf('/').Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).formToBean(formData. response). simpleBean.forward(request.getClass()). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.

5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. // Send the form document document. i++) 126 .JSP elements logger).18. SimpleProc. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. for (int i = 0.append("{ ").length.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere. if (list. } %> 11. document.beanToForm(simpleBean. errorTable.mapping.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean.getString() %> <P> subBean.examples. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.11 .simple.number = <%= simpleBean.send(out).getSubBean().jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].length == 0) return "". i < list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean().

i++) { strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .formToBean() call. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append(" ").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples. if (list. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().util. return strbuf. strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.jsp files. In addition.append("}"). In addition. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("{ "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append(" ").toString().devsphere. i < list.18. } %> 11. return strbuf. } strbuf.append("}"). } strbuf.toString(). ComplexForm.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. making the testing and the debugging easier.mapping. strbuf. A single call to FormUtils.append(list[i]).11 .append(list[i]). Using the framework.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.length == 1) return Integer. for (int i = 0.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. strbuf.length == 0) return "". ComplexHndl.length.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.simple.toString(list[0]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. The localization of the Complex*.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.

j < colors.11 . if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green".getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. i < integerLabels. "Blue" }. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2".length. 128 . if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "blue" }. i++) { boolean checked = false. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.getColors(). "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". i < colorValues.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. j++) if (colors[j].length. "green".getInteger() == value. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Option 3" }. boolean checked = simpleBean. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". for (int i = 0.

string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getSubBean(). i++) { int value = i+1.SimpleSubBean()). j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.setSubBean( new com. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 2". i < listItems.examples.JSP break.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . String listItems[] = { "Item 1".getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.devsphere.simple. boolean selected = false. "subBean.11 .length. for (int i = 0.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. j < list.getList(). "Item 3" }. break.mapping.

examples.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.length() == 0) { simpleBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. return message.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).devsphere.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.11 . if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".getSubBean().examples.util.mapping.Hashtable errorTable.mapping.get(property). boolean isPostMethod = request.getString().getMethod().equals("POST").simple.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl.simple. 130 .devsphere.util.setString("abc").getString() == null || simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } simpleBean. "Must be filled"). if (flagValue.123f). "Must be filled").equals("false")) flagValue = null. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "An option must be selected"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.setNumber(0.setFlag(flagValue != null). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 .getParameter("number").floatValue()).trim(). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "string".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).length() != 0) simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.getColors(). "integer". "number". else { simpleBean. "Must be a number").setNumber(0.getParameter("flag").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0 || flagValue.

getString().string".floatValue()).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number".setString("").number : text try { String numberValue = request.number"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.11 .getList().getString() == null || simpleSubBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be } //* subBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.getParameter("subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). //* subBean.setList(new int[] { 2.length == 0) { simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "colors".getList() == null || simpleBean. 132 .string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setOptional(""). "subBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be filled"). "subBean. "One or more items must be selected"). 3 }). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "list".

} %> 11.setString("abc"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. simpleBean.simple. simpleBean.devsphere.code=com.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. 3 }). } } else { simpleBean.\ 133 .devsphere.11 . simpleSubBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.SimpleBean. errorTable.mapping. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. String property. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.xml: SimpleHndl.util.Hashtable errorTable. message).jsp.put(property.devsphere.mapping.examples.setOptional("").properties or web.18.setFlag(true). simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2. "Must be a number").number". The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. "subBean.helpers.123f).BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.setNumber(0. The com.helpers. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.setString("").JSP filled").mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.

you could add a few other lines to servlets.devsphere.host. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.examples.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. In many cases.code=com.devsphere.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.helpers. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.host. If you have another bean-form pair.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.code=com.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.AnotherBean. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.18.mapping.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.another.devsphere.company.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.examples.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. a servlet is identified with its class.mapping.properties (or web. A servlet can be made bean-independent. 11.host.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.11 . Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.simple.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .mapping.xml) file: ServletName. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.properties: AnotherHndl.helpers.devsphere.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.

11 .JSP 135 .

12. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.12 .JAVASERVER FACES 12. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.javaserver faces 12 . and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. which loads the appropriate view template.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. processes events.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. buttons. builds a component tree. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. 2. Version 2.0 supersedes version 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. Version 2. like input fields. This technology includes: 1.0.

3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. As of version 1. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. 12.12 .4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.2 of the JFS specification.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .javaserver faces 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.

4. such as alternating row colors. 12. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. Common formatting techniques. For more information about columns. see the column tag documentation. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. footers. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. respectively. columns and rows.12 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.

The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.12 . your options include using plain HTML forms.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.4.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkout}" /> 139 .

1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. 12.4.5.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4.12 . You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.</span> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. red for error." /> 12.user.user.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5. For example. 12.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.12 .

the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. 12. can publish value change events.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.customer. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. validateLength.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Any component that receives user input. Without this JavaScript event.5.mycompany. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. The body content of this tag must be empty. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. but only if the new input is validated successfully. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.javaserver faces 12.12 . The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.5. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.

MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If you have not specified a default locale. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.12 . The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. for each locale you wish to support. myJSFapp 143 . JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. including images and styles. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.javaserver faces 12.5. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. Example: welcome_en.mycompany.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.mycompany.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.

xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. custom tag libraries. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. and so on. mandatory for any JSF application web.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.javaserver faces /ant build. JSP pages.contains libraries required by the application.12 .xml web. static resources.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml – the JSF configuration file. Create managed beans 4. Create JSP pages 2.html. like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Define navigation rules 3.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.exadel.jar jsf-api.jar faces-config.jar. jsf-api. Create properties files 144 .xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.

jsp.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. Compile the application 8. As a diagram.7.jsp to greeting.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You just need to create its contents. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp file 7. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.12 .jsp and greeting. The directory structure already exists. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. These files will act as place holders for now. In our application. Deploy and run the application 12. Edit JSP pages 6. we just want to go from inputname. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.javaserver faces 5. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. Create an index. we can create a navigation rule. Now that we have the two JSP pages. And that's all there is to this.jsp is greeting.xml file.7. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.

12 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.xml Your final faces-config.java file. The next line is the full class name. 12. This class is straight-forward. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. public class PersonBean { String personName.7.PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.7. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. Inside this myJFSapp folder. myJFSapp.xml file should look like this: 146 .javaserver faces This is.1 PersonBean. we will create a PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule.3 faces-config.xml Now.7. To read more about navigation rules.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3.3. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.) 12.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.3. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. You can easily create more complex ones.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. of course. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7. the second part of faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. 12.

5.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. 12.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.properties file in the bundle folder.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.1 messages. Inc.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.4.12 . Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun.1 inputname.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.1//EN" "http://java.sun.

1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.bundle. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. Then.sun. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.12 .bundle. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <h:inputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.

you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. and also print its contents on the page. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. Lines 3-5. Creates an HTML input text box.</h3> tags. specifically the bean attribute personName.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Having an index.. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. That's how JSF knows where to go next. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . <h:outputText value="#{personBean..jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. The first three lines are identical to our first page.5.2 greeting.12 .jsp page.7. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Create the index. Line 2.greeting_text}" />. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. 12. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Line 6.javaserver faces Line 1. name! 12.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.xml file. The second line will access a Java bean.6 creating the index. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.bundle.7.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.

12 .8. This is a "login" application.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. Your setup. When Tomcat is done loading. Of course.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. verifies the information. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.7. though. because in the web.xml file.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. 12.jsp. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. might possibly be different).7. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.7.xml file for the application *. which asks an user for an ID and password. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.javaserver faces Now. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. To build the application run the build. you'll notice the file suffix is . C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).bat in Tomcat's bin directory). We are almost done with this example.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. 12. This is used here. we need to deploy it. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. To do this.sourceforge. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. 12.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.html . 150 .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.jsf and not . 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.

WEB-INF 151 .javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. Select Java Project. click Next d. jsf-login. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. 6. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 7. Enter project name. The New Project wizard appears. 9. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.webroot | +-. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. name the folder pages. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.12 . 1. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. click Add Folder. 10. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. a. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. select the Source tab. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. 3.. c. 12.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. in the wizard that appears. and set up folders for a web application..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. and to add JSF libraries to the project. see Installing & Uninstalling. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login)..src | +-. name the folder webroot 5. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.8. click Finish 4. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. click Next. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. click Yes through messages that appear. your mileage may vary. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.. Select the Amateras node. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. 2. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.xml Editor (see faces-config.. click Next. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. in the Add JSF Support page.. say. from the menubar select File/New/Other.

in the Name field enter LoginManager. else action = "loginFail". for scope select 152 . from its context menu select New/Class. input widgets appear d.lib | +-. click Managed Bean. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". b.LoginManager. if ( _uid. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.xml Editor. enter login. The faces-config. The New Java Class wizard appears. Click Finish. We then configure it to be a managed bean. click Add. for class enter login. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. 3. for name enter mgr. } return action. a. 2.12 . } public String loginAction() { String action = null.pages 12. private String _pwd = "". In the Package field. 1.xml editor opens.8. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.xml. The Java code editor opens. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. c. In Package Explorer select the src folder. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.javaserver faces | | | +-.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.java package login. } 4.

jsp are simple pages with static content. e. in Package Explorer select webroot.webroot/pages/error. index.jsp.jsp and error. Create index. the JSP Editor opens.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. <!-.javaserver faces session.jsp is placed directly in webroot. save the file and close the editor.webroot/index. </body> Please try 153 . enter the following code.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. click Finish. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp.webroot/pages/success. so we create them first.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp). then close the editor 12. All pages except login. the New File wizard appears.jsp: a.jsp. again. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. but in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages. and 3 content pages (login.jsp. success.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Then we create login. Create error. from its context menu select New/File.jsp: create this file similarly to index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. 1. for File name enter index. Create success.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. c. b.12 . Enter the following code: <!-.8. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp).jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.

com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. etc. a code-completion window pops up. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. d. now we want to add attributes to this element.sun. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. for File name enter login. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and choose default for Template.sun.. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and uses them for code completion as well. and dock it along the right. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces </html> 4. enter jsf-login e. b. from its context menu select New/Other. (See Show View Dialog) f. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. To see this in action. click Finish.. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. the New wizard appears. place your cursor in one of these lines.completion. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. as shown below. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. Open the JSF palette. click Next c.jsp: a.. g. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Create login.jsp. 154 . you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. with the following template code. <%@ page contentType="text/html.12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.

insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .password}" l.loginAction} The final code.) j.javaserver faces h. with the barest presentational formatting.. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". set its value to Login. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . complete the expression with the closing { k. and hit Enter. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. i. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. select userID from the code-completion window. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.sun. enter #{mgr. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. insert another <h:inputText> element. a code-completion window pops up. with bean properties available in mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.

156 .8. click on Page. 2. 1. Open faces-config.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.12 .5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. Select the Navigation tab 3. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. then click inside the editor window.xml. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. This is shown below.xml Editor. it should open in the faces-config. this inserts a page icon into the editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. using a FacesIDE editor.

and set them to /pages/login. 6. in the Properties view. /pages/success.jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success. select Navigation Case.jsp. change the value of path to /index. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. from the palette at left. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. then click first on the icon for login. and is represented by an arrow. add 3 more pages.jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. Its properties appear in the Properties view. 5. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp 4.12 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp and /pages/error. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .

12. Similarly add a forward-action from login.javaserver faces 7. so uncomment it. Once deployed browse to index. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.xml Here we edit web.jsp.xml. or leave it as-is. since we have such a trivial application. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. all we need do in web.jsp to error. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. and extension-based mapping is turned on. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. We want virtual path-based mapping. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml. 1. and you should be sent to the success page. The application is now complete. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.jsp.12 . As it turns out.8. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.xml for the specifics of our application. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). We'll set some properties in web. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.6 Editing web. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . open web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.

faces javax. as file:///. that factory is used.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces. the Manager application should reload.faces.lifecycle javax.faces.0 1.component javax.model javax.render javax.. start Tomcat.event javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.validator javax. 12. For a given factory class name. open its Manager application in a browser.javaserver faces 12. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.html javax.faces.. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. click Deploy 3.8.component.CONFIG_FILES 159 .7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.10 the javax.faces.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications..faces.12 .faces.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.el javax. scroll down to Deploy. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.faces.application javax.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.webapp 12. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.convert javax. Click on its link to launch the application.context javax.faces.

The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. ViewHandlerWrapper . handling events and input validation. ApplicationFactory .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). with the last one taking precedence. 12. StateManagerWrapper . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. ViewHandler .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. defining page navigation.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.12 .represents a single validation (or other) message.11 the javax. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage. StateManager .faces. FacesMessage .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. If none of the above steps yield a match. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. those factories are used.Severity .

FacesContext.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.faces. NamingContainer . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. • • 161 .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. ValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. String) results in failure on postback. when activated by the user. 12. EditableValueHolder . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.context.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. String.12 the javax. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".faces.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. StateHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .restoreView(javax. UICommand . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.12 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. UIComponent . • ViewExpiredException . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. Here they are: • • UIColumn .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. ActionSource2 . UIComponentBase . or a hyperlink.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. ContextCallBack .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. a menu item. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.

the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.html package 162 . Optionally. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. it is for display purposes only. Optionally.12 . The user can modify the selected value. The user can modify the selected values.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIParameter .13 the java.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. This component has no rendering. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIPanel .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.faces. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIViewRoot .javaserver faces • UIData .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that has a value.component. UIGraphic . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. by storing it as the value property of the component. UIInput . UISelectOne . UISelectBoolean .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. identified by a clientId. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIForm . UIMessage . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIOutput . UIMessages . The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UINamingContainer . it is for display purposes only. it just serves as the root of the component tree. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UISelectItem .

HtmlForm .represents an HTML label element. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML input element of type text. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlGraphicImage . or not.renders the component value as text. This component must be placed inside a form.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML form element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.Message". the rendererType property must be set to "javax. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML img element.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputText .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.by default. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlCommandLink . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlPanelGrid .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. and renders the result. but the application wishes to render more than one.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlColumn . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.by default. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlDataTable . HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.12 . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlOutputText .renders child components in a table. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputLink .faces.faces. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. On a redisplay. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlMessages . HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML textarea element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlMessage . The label text is specified by the component value.

HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. In particular. HtmlSelectOneListbox . ResponseWriterWrapper . FacesContext . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.14 the java.convert package 164 . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • • • 12.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. showing a single available option at a time. and potentially modified by.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . ResponseStream . and the rendering of the corresponding response. It is passed to. HtmlSelectManyMenu . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. ResponseWriter . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.faces. showing a single available option at a time.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.12 .15 the java. FacesContextFactory . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.javaserver faces property. HtmlSelectOneMenu . • • • • • • 12.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.

el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.16 the java.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.15.javaserver faces 12. ValueBinding . VariableResolver . Classes: MethodBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. 12. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. PropertyResolver .faces.12 .

FacesEvent . and event implementation classes.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . MethodNotFoundException .12 .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • 12. ValueChangeEvent . PhaseListener .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. ReferenceSyntaxException . • • • • • One exception .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.17 the java.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. FacesListener . PhaseId .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.faces.AbortProcessingException . Interfaces: ActionListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 . ValueChangeListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. ResultDataModel .javaserver faces 12.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.19 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). SelectItem .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.12 . Renderer . ResultSetDataModel . DataModel .faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. 12.faces. DataModelEvent .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ScalarDataModel . ListDataModel .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.18 the java.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.20 the java. SelectItemGroup .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". • • • • • • • • • 12.faces. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.

webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. 12. and concrete validator implementation classes. Typically. including a standard servlet. LongRangeValidator . together.faces. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. • • 12. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. RenderKitFactory .faces. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. as well. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).12 .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java. and/or user Locale.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. The package contains an exception. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . ConverterTag . AttributeTag .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.22 the java.validator package Interface defining the validator model. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. ResponseStateManager .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. markup language. base classes for JSP custom component tags. • RenderKit . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.

a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. servlets. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. When using JSF. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the controller sends a message to the model. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. UIComponentTag . In MVC. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the controller is the 169 . the life cycle is more complicated. which passes the request to the page class. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. • • • • • FacesServlet . the JSF life cycle does not apply. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model).12 . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. or when an exception occurs.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. UIComponentBodyTag .23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. related to a UIComponent. When a web server receives a request. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the process includes a few more components or pages. that request is passed to the container. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). but basically. When the user takes some action with the presentation. 12. ValidatorTag . FacetTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. that need to process their tag bodies. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. telling the view to update its presentation. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. Likewise.a base class for all JSP custom actions. telling the model to update its data. When the model is updated. Also. or some other web technology. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. In JSF. which has several implications. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. the controller sends a message to the view.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.

and the UI components are the view. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. For a JSF-enabled application. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. or from request headers. 170 . • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. such as components that create HTML input fields. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. Data for some components. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is a subsequent request. and the response is sent to the client. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. It updates only the UI components with the new data. converting a String to a Date object). The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. Data can come from input fields in a web form. However. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. it creates UI objects for each view component. These objects update their state with the data values. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. depending on the request. the conversion occurs in this phase. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page.javaserver faces JSF implementation. the JSF implementation must create the view. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. from cookies sent as part of the request. The components are stored in a component tree. is validated at this time. In addition. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. and what happens during the processing and response. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. As with the previous phase. and a piece of data failed validation. In addition.12 . Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase.

the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. Also. For example. if errors occur during any of the phases.12 . If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. 171 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. skipping any remaining phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.

JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. The DNS entry Wiz.COM. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").5). such as LDAP.48. For example. you supply it the name of the object.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. you must supply its name.JNDI 13 .13 .JNDI 13. For example.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. NDS. Thus the DNS name sales. 13. A file system maps a filename (for example.Wiz. /usr/hello. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. naming and directory services using a common API. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". for example. you are always naming one object or another. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. 172 .2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.sun. 13. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. in turn. It enables applications to access different. such as addresses. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. Using JNDI. When using almost any computer program or system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. which is located in the root of the file system. names a file hello in the file directory usr.COM. For example."). such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. The UNIX pathname. c:\bin\autoexec. and NIS(YP). possibly multiple. In addition. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. identifiers. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.2. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.1 names To look up an object in a naming system.9. or objects typically used by computer programs. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. DNS. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. when you use an electronic mail system. To access a file in the computer.

in the DNS domain Sun. In another example. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. o=Sun. such as its print server name and printing protocol.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. A printer object.c=us. is a context. and fuel and instrument status. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. some objects cannot be stored directly.2. while the object itself might contain more state information. a file directory. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.2. Using the reference. By contrast. 13.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. that is. For example. That is.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. also called a file handle. such as c=us. For example. is a context. unbinding names. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. they must be stored by reference. Instead. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. 13. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. in a file directory /usr/bin."). For example. and listing bound names. a DNS domain. such as COM. For example.2. 13. 173 . The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). Every context has an associated naming convention. Typically. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee.13 . c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. A file object. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. such as /usr. its flight plan. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. and its flight number and departure time. For simplicity. in the UNIX file system is a context. Finally. that is. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. delimited by the comma character (". an LDAP entry. for example. relative to the entry o=Sun. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. is accessed using a file reference. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. a file name is bound to a file.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. is relative to c=us. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. for example. might contain the state of the printer. A printer object reference. For example. A reference is information about how to access an object. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. on the other hand. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. which in turn. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.

For example. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a computer. An example is the telephone company's directory service. For example.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. however. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. and computer account information. two different computer 174 .2. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. a person. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. resolution. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. one context can be viewed. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A directory object can be used.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. postal mail address. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. various telephone numbers. for example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. programs. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. For example. For example.3. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). Thus. 13. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. to some extent. a name is unique 13. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. and even the computer itself and other computers. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.13 . you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. because we can. For example. or a network. And it kind of makes sense. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. and color. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. to represent a printer. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.

Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. 13. The email address. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. such as that relating to machines. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. Similarly. 13. such as those based on the LDAP.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. For example.50". such as the file and print services. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. many directories. removing. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. the ability to access directory services will become essential. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.4.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. and users.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. The service is accessed through its own interface.3. By using a directory service. 13. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. Many examples of directory services are possible. When you search. 13. for example.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. networks. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. support the notion of searches. Within the DIT. When directory objects are arranged in this way. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. 13. for example. an organization object.113. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. for example. 175 . that is.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. printers. For example. A Java mail client program.smith@somewhere.com". you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. adding. The query is called a search filter.3. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.3. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. called a directory information tree (DIT). like any other program running on the network. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. can use the directory in the traditional way. "mail" is the attribute identifier.13 . Alternatively.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.

1 and Java 2 SDK.naming. For example. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. Thus a variety of directories--new. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. v1. For example. To use the JNDI.ldap 176 .naming javax. 13. 13.event javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.3 and later releases. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. v1.directory javax. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.2.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. It extends the v1. The Java 2 SDK.naming. emerging. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. 13. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.naming.2. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 and v1. more coherent and manageable. v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5. 13. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. and even the network.4.13 .5. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.1 and the Java 2 SDK.

some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. and so on. In this case.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. 13. printer. for some objects in the directory. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . binding/unbinding. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.naming package defines a Context interface. and the object itself. a 177 . composing them.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. which is the core interface for looking up. comparing components.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. For the methods in the Context interface. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.6 the naming package The javax.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.print(report).1 context The javax. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . 13. A java. 13.lang. Furthermore. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. the name of the object's class.lookup("treekiller"). list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.6.6. and it returns the object bound to that name. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. The overloads that accept java. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.lang. 13.lang.13 . list() is similar to listBindings().String name. that is. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.6.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.JNDI • javax. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.naming. However.String name argument represents a composite name. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.spi 13. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.6. For example. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.

6.7. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. In the simplest and most common form of usage. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. 13. 13.13 .7 directory package The javax.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. Otherwise.directory package extends the javax. Once you have an initial context. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.6. You can add. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 178 . replace. InitialContext. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. For example. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. There are no absolute roots.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.naming.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.7.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. they should catch NamingException. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. 13.

such as information about the object before and after the change. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. 13. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.JNDI 13. that is. such as "object changed.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. 13. 13.naming. To receive event notifications. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor." and those that do not.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. such as "object added. For example. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. 13.9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. controls. called controls . a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. These operations are called "extended" operations.naming. and vice versa.8 event package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.naming. Once registered.directory package. or unsolicited notifications.9. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. For example.9 LDAP package The javax. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.ldap package at all.13 . This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. In fact. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.9.naming.naming.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.

The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming package. In the process of completing an operation. It uses a service provider for the file system.Context.10. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming.11.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. if you look up a printer name from the directory.2 java object support The javax.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. import javax.naming.naming.naming. 180 . This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.java. For example.spi package supports implementors of Context.1 plug-In architecture The javax. create a file named Lookup. 13.10 service provider package The javax. 13. 13. sending request controls. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. implementors of Context. That is. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.9.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. This support is provided in the form of state factories. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.10. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. and receiving response controls.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.13 .

Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.lookup(name).RefFSContextFactory"). The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. use Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. then the JNDI classes are already included. Otherwise. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). // Print it System.lookup(name). If you are still having problems. using the capitalization shown. you must have access to the JNDI classes.jndi.naming. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.11.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.jar as an installed extension. If the compilation succeeds. env. For this reason.InitialContext.sun. 13.13 .println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). you compile the source file using the Java compiler.3. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.lookup() to look up an object.11. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). 181 .println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).naming. create an initial context. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.11.err. 13.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.put(Context.11.fscontext. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. To compile to program. 13.java).NamingException.3 looking up an Object Next.out.5 compiling the program Next. } 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.JNDI import javax. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. "com. Object obj = ctx. v1. as follows. import javax. If the compilation fails. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. } catch (NamingException e) { System.

put(Context. javax.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.directory.jndi. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.naming. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.naming. create a file named Getattr.bat If you supply a file directory.Context. you need access to the JNDI classes.directory. Finally.naming. supply the name of a file in your file system.NamingException.naming.12. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.13 . env.class). except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.naming.directory.12. and your example class (Lookup. create an initial directory context. javax.LdapCtxFactory").naming.11.sun.fscontext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().JNDI 13.java.sun. To run the program. import import import import import javax. env.naming and javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. javax.jar and providerutil. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.3.InitialDirContext. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. "com. include the directory that contains your Lookup.put(Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. then you will see something like the following.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. 13.jndi.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.DirContext. 182 .directory packages.ldap. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").PROVIDER_URL.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. v1. 13.6 running the program To run the program. javax.jar). the file system service provider.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.Attributes. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.

5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. For now. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. } 13.get() and then from that attribute get its value.get()).getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. ou=People"). The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).err.java).12. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. For this reason. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get("sn"). // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.out. Attributes. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12. 13.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.println("sn: " + attrs. 13.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. 13. compile the source file using the Java compiler. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.get() on it to get its value: attrs. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. 183 . try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). Similar to the naming example. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.13 . then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.get("sn"). If the compilation succeeds. As with the naming example.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. using the capitalization shown. ou=People").6 compiling the program Next.12.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If you are still having problems.get().12. } catch (NamingException e) { System. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. If the compilation fails.

184 . # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.3. then these classes are already included. ou=People".jar). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. v1.class.jar and providerutil.13 .put(Context. With this configuration. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. Once it has the attributes. then see the Common Problems lesson. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.12.7 running the program As with the naming example.JNDI 13. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. env. If you have any trouble running this example. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").PROVIDER_URL. Getattr.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. Enterprise Edition.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.14 .a JMS client that receives messages. JMS client . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. As the name queue suggests. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. unless it has established a durable 185 .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS consumer .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. In this model. Here. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . JMS topic . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS producer . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS queue . JMS message . • 14.

jms. 14. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. 186 . In that case. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. On the receiving side. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.3 the JMS API programming model 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.4. Using Java. Depending on the type of message.14 . the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.

Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. connection.4. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must call the connection's start() method. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. 14. Depending on the connection type. you call the stop() method. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Like the connection factory. Before an application completes.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. It receives messages sent to a destination. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. Before your application can consume messages.4. Connections implement the Connection interface. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. The JMS administrator creates these objects. and users discover them using JNDI.close(). For example. you must close any connections that you have created. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. 14. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.createConnection(). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. For example.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. It is either a queue or a topic. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. When you have a ConnectionFactory object.14 . you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. In a J2EE application.

and you can use it to receive messages. (Remember always to call the start() method. Message m = consumer. it becomes active. After you have created a message consumer. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.receive(). usually expect a specific message type and format. This object implements the MessageListener interface. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. Moreover. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().start(). A message listener does. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. however. After you register the message listener.) When message delivery begins. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you are likely to miss messages.4.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.createConsumer(myQueue). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. For example. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. Message m = consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. connection.receive(1000). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. 14. In the onMessage() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. You use the Session.start().setMessageListener(myListener). consumer. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. For example.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.createConsumer(myTopic). which contains one method. MessageConsumer consumer = session. onMessage(). if it needs to reply to messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 188 . a message listener object may be used.14 . you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.

6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.send(myQueue. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). At the consuming end. and object message). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.send(message). bytes message. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.send(message). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. stream message.setText(msg_text).receive(). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. 189 . from one application to another. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. You must first create the messages. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. message). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. With an unidentified producer. 14. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. that is.14 . use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. // msg_text is a String producer.4. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.createProducer(myQueue). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. MessageProducer producer = session. to create and send a TextMessage.createTextMessage(). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. anon_prod.4.createProducer(myTopic). For example. After you have created a message producer. 3. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.createProducer(null). if you created an unidentified producer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. map message. message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. Here. A message has three main parts: 1.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. use the following code: Session session = connection.println("Reading message: " + message. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. and message consumers to receive messages.14 . 190 .4. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. then delivers the messages.createSession(false. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(true. 0).getText()). If the user selects transaction support. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Sessions implement the Session interface. Here. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. } else { // Handle error } 14. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. Before committing the transaction. After you create a Connection object.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). To create a transacted session. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Session.out. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.

so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.0. On the other side. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .logging. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. server which provides an execution environment for containers. bundled into a single unit. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.jar file into the application server.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. container which offers services to the component. the container lives (in general) in an application server. Version 1.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. The component lives inside a container.consistent error handling framework .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. 15.object oriented representation of data in a DB.DB interaction transactions .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. component recovery scalability portability 191 .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . improved performance security . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.15 .transaction management can be complex. message-driven beans The 2.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .no developer coding.0.

3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.xml 15. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.15 . the remote interface of the bean 4. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). which is an xml file. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. as follows: 1. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the deployment descriptor. called ejb-jar.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. int custId) throws RemoteException. String lastName. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.*.RemoteException.javax. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. import java.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. While the Remote interface declares no methods. } 15. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.15 . import java. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. } 193 .*.RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.rmi.ejb.rmi. import.javax. import. RemoteException.ejb.

Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). we need to know: 1.put(Context. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. "org. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().put(Context. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. In the case of an web application. creating them for the client application.PROVIDER_URL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 .jnp.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. prop. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. if the client executes outside the container. "localhost:1099").NamingContextFactory". this can be done (for example) through SSL. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.interfaces. prop. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. how to create or find the bean 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. } 194 .

15 . the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. do not have the concept of casting. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.Remote interface). Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.lookup("MyBean"). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.narrow(homeRef. in fact. the client has a stub). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. in fact. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. MyBeanHome.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Some languages.rmi. using the narrow() method. 195 .PortableRemoteObject class and. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. do implements the java. Problem is. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.rmi.. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). to the appropriate type. and this means that there are some limitations. that is part of CORBA standards.rmi.class). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. Why? For EJB. but for generic languages. This is done through the javax.e. • if the client executes outside the container. IIOP has not been designed for Java. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. more specifically.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.

ejb. public class MyBean implements javax. remove the bean instance myObject.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .create().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. 1102).SessionContext. int custId) { // method implementation . the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. import javax. call business methods on the bean myObject. String lastName.15 .. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .remove().ccards.ejb. "Vasile"... Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. as well).processEntry("Dumitrascu". 15.ejbeans. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.bank11. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).

197 . A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. the object is activated. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.15 . public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. that is. 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. A stateless bean does not.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. namely stateful and stateless beans. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.

(Typically. At the end of the life cycle. or passivate. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. for example. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.1 are invoked by the EJB container. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. All other methods in Figure 15. 15. Figure 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.15 . the EJB container activates the bean. is inside the bean class. The ejbCreate method. For example. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. the client invokes the remove method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. 198 .1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. and then moves it to the ready stage.

support for concurrent access 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.15 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. equals() 199 . container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. stored in a Database).13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.

String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.15 . These methods are mandatory for entity beans. an instance of that bean is created. Update and Delete.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.bank11. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. all throwing RemoteException. On the other side.14. Read. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). as the parameters in the original create() method. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.lang. 200 . We can have more create() methods. in the same order. CreateException. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. state data is stored into data store (usually. 15.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.ccards. methods which have the same parameters.

While an entity bean is in the ready stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. a client can invoke the remove method.15 . The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. 15. left empty most of the time in CMP. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. for BMP. the client invokes the create method.14. but the developer returns null for CMP. not null. it is empty. On the first path.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.14.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. 15. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. Second. it's business methods can be invoked. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. On the second path. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. After the EJB container creates the instance. but in general. While in the pooled stage. in BMP.14. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. 201 . which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. actual SQL update code. for BMPs. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. After instantiation. First. All instances in the pool are identical. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.

15 .3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. it does not automatically set the primary key. or a Web component . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. 202 . Therefore. In the pooled state. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. another enterprise bean. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. In the pooled state. With bean-managed persistence. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.an application client. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. If the primary key is incorrect.getPrimaryKey(). It acts as a JMS message listener.

message-driven bean can be used.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. To ensure concurrency. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. 203 . message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. In several respects. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. 15.15 . If this element is set to more than one. If message processing is rolled back. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. an open database connection.for example. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. Previously. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. When a message arrives.16. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. For more information on this element see. max-beans-infree-pool. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.16. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. Unlike a session or entity bean. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.16.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . a JMS API connection. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. the message will be redelivered. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. 15. The onMessage method may call helper methods. To avoid tying up server resources. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. but not asynchronously. 15.

0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax..6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. 3.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. Classes.jms.}. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. 15.Message. As with other EJB types. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. Note: These instances can be pooled.Message MessageName) {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.16.15 . you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.jms. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. public void onMessage(javax.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.} // onMessage() is required. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. and it must not // accept parameters... Obtain a new bean instance. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.0 specification.16. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.. methods. finalize{}. 15. public void ejbRemove() {. 2. or create a new one. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.16.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception..ejb. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. // An EJB constructor is required.

Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. However.16. 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. 15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.16.16. See javax. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.16. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . even in onMessage().11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. If any method throws such an exception.MessageListener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. 15. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.This is not a client context.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). if the EJB throws a runtime exception). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. For example.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.jms. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. 15.15 . Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). getUserTransaction(). getRollbackOnly() .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.onMessage() for more information. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().

0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification.16. as required by the EJB 2. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. as described in the EJB 2. 15.16.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.16. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.15 . For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.xml. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. In either case.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.

message.jms.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml elements. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. 207 . For each instance.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.ejb20.xml deployment file. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances..15 . • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 2. the weblogic-ejb-jar.0 specification.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. </message-driven> . This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE..4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . as described in the EJB 2. 15.

bean home name . isolation level. the container calls the ejbRemove method. access control entries . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. environment properties 6. EJB class name 5.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. At the end of the life cycle. session specific elements 9. the remote interface name 8.security issues.15 . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. the home interface name 7.specifies control attributes for transactions 4.like transaction. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. security 208 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. entity specific elements 10. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. control descriptors . 15. attributes .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. a message-driven bean is never passivated.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.

bank11.bank11.ccards.ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.bank11.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ejb.ejb.bank11.ejb.lang.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.15 .

. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.15 ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .lang.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

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