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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. and sends it back to the client program. processes it (if necessary). An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. like the client tier.2 Server communication 1.java platform. 5 . are not considered web components. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. retail. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. enterprise edition Figure 1.7 business components Business code. like HTML pages. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. or finance. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. The web tier. Figure 1.1 .6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. processes it (if necessary). which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. 1.

9 java EE Containers Normally. Business and EIS Tiers 1. and other legacy information systems. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. mainframe transaction processing. 1. In addition.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).java platform.9. 1. and other complex low-level details. multithreading. Before a web. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. enterprise bean. or application client component can be executed. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 6 . resource pooling. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.3 Web.1 . database systems. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.

9. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.4. 1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. After an enterprise bean is created. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. transaction management. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. For example. database connection resource pooling. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.java platform.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. data persistence. including services such as security. and remote connectivity. 7 .1 . The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.

video. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. 1. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.manages the execution of application client components. develop.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. For example. enterprise edition Figure 1. Application client container . test. text-based standard for representing data. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .1 . A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. 1. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. When XML data is exchanged between parties. Applet container . Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . maps. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.java platform. or for document-oriented web services. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. program files. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Application clients and their container run on the client.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. extensible. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. or any kind of binary data such as audio. 8 . Web container . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. XML data.10.manages the execution of applets. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.

4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. enterprise edition 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. such as Universal Description. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. and ways to communicate with the service. 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The description includes the name of the service.1 . WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). the location of the service.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.java platform.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10. 9 .

11. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.11. Commonly.java platform. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. 1. standard set of tags. In Java EE 5.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. If the client terminates. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. 1. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.1 . This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . you employ a single. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. or if the server shuts down. 1. WML.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. enterprise edition Figure 1. or enterprise bean. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. and XML) and JSP elements. When the client finishes executing.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Once deployed on a local platform. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. it is ready to be deployed. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or component accordingly. module. JSP page. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. the application is ready to run. or better customer support. At runtime.1 . SAAJ. 15 . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. or a component. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. better tools.java platform. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a module. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. JTA. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. No extra coding is needed. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. servlet. and JNDI 1. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. such as better performance. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.ear extension.

A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Together. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .java platform. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . for example. • • 16 . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . GIF and HTML files.jar extension. and a web application deployment descriptor. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor.1 . Web modules. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. JSP files. Resource adapter modules. such as caching directives. enterprise edition Figure 1.war (Web ARchive) extension.jar extension. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. which contain all Java interfaces. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. For example. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. which contain servlet class files. native libraries. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. and other documentation.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. classes. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. supporting class files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Application client modules.

2 . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.com/easy/http. The server answers with a response message.w3.HTTP 2 . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . we recommend www. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen..jmarshall. RFC 2616 (06/99).apps.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. but they also have some common structural elements..html). so far) version. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. check the official HTTP site – www.. HEAD.1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. 2.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. . These messages may have different contents. as follows: 1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. The client sends a request message to the server. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. namely HTTP 1. The second (and last.HTTP 2.ietf.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . POST.org/rfc/rfc1945. was the object of several RFCs. an initial line 2.org/Protocols . zero or more header lines 3..

1. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. as well.2 . . DELETE 6.0).1 specification. GET 2. HEAD 3.Posting a message to a bulletin board. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .Annotation of existing resources. GET /path/to/the/file/index. but lack of support makes them obsolete. in the HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. POST 4. PUT 8.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. CONNECT 5. 2. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. OPTIONS 7.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. mailing list. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. 18 .html HTTP/1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. HTTP/1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. Here is their list: 1. newsgroup. TRACE Three other commands are listed.

The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.0 404 Not Found 2. or a record is subordinate to a database. while POST may involve anything. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.6 differences between GET and POST 1. after the “?” character.8 the status code A three-digit integer. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.HTTP or similar group of articles. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . 3. or sending E-mail 2. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. such as the result of submitting a form. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.” On the other side. When used for form data submission. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. 2. In this case. . .2 . while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. like storing or updating data. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). or ordering a product. 2. to a data-handling process. or in the message body. (encoded as multipart/form-data). separated by the character “&” or “.Providing a block of data.Extending a database through an append operation. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.

the request succeeded. file or script output) is returned in the message body.the requested resource doesn't exist. The most common use of the message body is in a response.an unexpected server error. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client.0. and the resulting resource (e. and section 10 for HTTP 1.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. In a request.1).0 version specifies 16 headers. header values are.1 version specifies 46 of them. 2. one (Host) is mandatory. Although the header names are not case sensitive. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. If an HTTP message includes a body. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. or otherwise can't run correctly. 500 Server Error . 404 Not Found . The HTTP 1.2 . while the HTTP 1. In particular.g.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). fails. none of them mandatory. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. header name and header value. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. 20 . separated a semicolon. out of which.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . such as text/html or image/jpg. 2. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.1 only) . that is.

send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.info. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .html HTTP/1. text. 1.info.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtypes mixed. RFC 1521 (www. with subtype basic 7. image. postscript 5. parallel 3. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. Then. video. Here is the list of the seven types.HTTP 2.uvt. audio.html first open a socket to the host web. application.0 200 OK Date: Fri. multipart. digest. gif 6. with subtypes rfc822. partial.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. alternative. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.org/rfc/rfc1521.ro. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. 21 . . message.0 From: someuser@yahoo. with subtype plain 2.2 .uvt.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. external-body 4. with subtypes octet-stream. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).ro/path/file.apps.ietf. with subtypes jpeg.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtype mpeg 2.

</body> </html> After sending the response. 22 . the server closes the socket.2 .HTTP .

It is a revision of 4.html.ietf.html) and was widely supported. The latest version (XHTML 2. Mosaic.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.apps.jmarshall. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. As a practical reference site use – www.HTML 3.org/rfc/rfc1866.0 draft was released in 01. Since it fits in a couple of pages.w3c. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. From 1999 on. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.www.0 .01. Originally named Web Applications 1.com/tutors. a working draft for the next major revision. The newest version of HTML is 4. The XHTML 1.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Version 4. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. check the official HTML site – www.3 .com/indexdot/html .was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.com/easy/html .0 and was accepted in December 1997. 3.0. HTML 3. A newer standard. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). we can afford to have a look at this declaration. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. The first official version – HTML 2. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.2 (3.99.0. namely HTML 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www. However. The first version of HTML. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. HTML describes how text.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.blooberry.htmlgoodies.0) dates from 08. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.w3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.HTML 3 . Other helpful sites .01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.org/Markup .

These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.3 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. 4. Check the address http://www. look at these examples: “&lt”." (in hexadecimal) .0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. DYNSRC.and end at the first occurrence of -->. You get the point. This section deals with some of the most common elements. VSAPCE are omitted. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.0 contains an SGML declaration. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.01 specification. <><> --> 25 . This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. though. "&#x6C34.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.0 Strict DTD.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.3 . “&quot”.w3. the specification of HTML 4.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. HTML 4.acesta este un comentariu. HTML 4. …. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. BORDER. 3. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.the chinese character for water.0 Transitional DTD. three DTDs (HTML 4. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. If you wonder what a character reference is. CONTROLS. 3. An example: <!-. like ALIGN. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Overall.

Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3 .5 tables 26 . indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. etc. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.3.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.ro/webmail/src/login.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.uvt. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.info. NAME. image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.HTML 3.

6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <TH> and <TD>. its rows. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Usually. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Here is their description and attributes. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>. <TR>. columns. Here is a an example of a table: 3.3 .

7 forms A form is a basic component container. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .

allows multiple selections from the choice list. • 3. "button". "file".info.required. Main attributes: • TYPE . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .required.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. after a quotation mark . "image".& or (sometimes) by semicolon .required.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.8 form related elements 3. "submit".if specified. "text/plain" • • 3.8.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . NAME .uvt. SIZE . Example: http://web. 3. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "checkbox". may have the values GET or POST.?.8. "reset".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .sends the form values in a single transmission. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.maximum number of options visible to the user. "password". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "hidden". Main attributes: 29 . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.HTML • METHOD .8. the browser appends the values to the URL. however. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.3 .:. "radio". specifies the parameter name. "GET" .the default value.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. specifies how data will be sent to the server.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. javac -classpath .2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.2 java the interpreter. a tool named Just In Time compiler.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. To overcome this significant shortage. jit From source to execution.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.) in 08.95. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.java. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.class 3. following the 1. The current version (as of 10.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.2 version. Inc.class.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. project started in 12. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. 4. the compilation process occurs.JAVA PRIMER 4. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.java One example of command line compilation: 4.0. In terms of execution time. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.4 .90. Java source – a file with extension . The first time a class is loaded.java 2.JAVA PRIMER 4 .. Java bytecode – a file with extension . which accounts for a pretty slow execution.4.class file.95.C:\TW\mySource.3 java applications 31 . The current version (as of 10. Early versions of Java were released in 12. -g : generate all debugging info. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . but next time execution is much faster. Example: Edit the file prog1.class file.

jar file. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). or that it extends A).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. Generally. An example: 32 . A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or is derived from A. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.4.4. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.java. 4.4 object oriented concepts 4.4 . A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. In general. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.

That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). While C++ allows multiple inheritance. a Java class can extend a single base class. Integer. In OO jargon.4. with the root the class Object. called Object.4. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. Boolean. Float.1 bit char . In fact. Long. 33 . Character.4 . Therefore. a class can have more than one method with the same name. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. providing its own implementation. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . namely: Byte.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Short. Therefore. this is called method overloading. 4. Double.

. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. • • • • no specifier . } declares an abstract class.servlet. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). rather than at class instance.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is defined at class level. class . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.http. anywhere abstract .one which is constant method .access from any class anywhere private .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . method . which extends the class javax. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. 34 . automatic garbage collection.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .no access from outside the class itself protected .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .4 . inherited). Except for the "package" concept.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . 4. A final: • • • variable . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.does not have any subclasses.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. A final variable (method.servlet.the class is visible from any class.http. has the same value for all class instances. no templates.

7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. standard method exceptions 3.7. namely class Error and the class Exception. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.like invalid cast. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . 4.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. code or data errors . The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. programmer defined exceptions 4. as defined in the java.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. 4. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.4 . Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . 4.ThreadDeath. In Java. array index out of bounds. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.7.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. 2. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. not at execution time.7.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. Exception categories: 1.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. java errors . division by 0.

import javax. they have to be unique inside a package.event . An example: package com.support for data collections.awt.net java.lang . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.4 .this can be done by providing a try.support for user interface java.io java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. the default package is used). catch. import.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .ccards. 4.awt.java.support for event handling java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.util. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . The package containing the standard classes is java. therefore.servlets. don't have to import java. 4.. followed by the import statements.by adding the key word throws.support for java archives creation java.rmi java. finally construct.sql. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).lang (automatically available).Properties.sql java. ..*.zip .8. date and time info java.1 Package names The default package has no name.bank11.security 36 . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.geom .util . In the example above.util.default. As a general rule. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.nio java.class file. string analyzers. the class (the . the package statement is the first one in a java source file. 4. All other packages must be explicitly imported.awt .

All variables (actually. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.support for event handling 4. it must be declared as abstract. static and final. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.4 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. 37 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).text javax.accessibility javax.event .

The origins of this language date back to 1995. 5. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .javaScript 5 . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.depending on the browser . then LiveScript and finally. as JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. This is not always what we want. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . However. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.5 . Subsequently.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . other 38 . and .JAVASCRIPT 5.HTML authors are normally not programmers.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript statement like this: document. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like QtScript or ActionScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.

js file extension.5 .. or when an event is triggered.3. 5. </script> </head> 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. go in the head section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called... Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3..2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3. point to the . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .. without having to write the same script on every page. Save the external JavaScript file with a . When you place a script in the head section. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. 39 .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. To simplify this.. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. </script> </body> 5.

4.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. 5..5..4.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. while() it is worth mentioning the for . catch constructs.1 JavaScript for.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4. The code in the body of the for ..In statement The for........ namely – if . while(). in loop is executed once for each element/property. 5. for().3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. switch(). else.4..javaScript 5.5 . 5. continue. break. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. in and the try .

catch statement The try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .5.catch statement (available in IE5+. mycars[1] = "Volvo". or a property of an object..2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. var mycars = new Array(). an array element.0.. they often leave the Web page.. mycars[2] = "BMW". } </script> </body> </html> 5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. When users see errors.. for (x in mycars) { document. The try block contains the code to be run. Mozilla 1...3 try.5. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5 . There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. mycars[0] = "Saab"..catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Example Using for. so you don't lose your audience.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").

5. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7 popup boxes 5.7.\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err.5 .\n\n". When an alert box pops up. Also. txt+="Click OK to continue.description + "\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). Syntax: 42 . } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). alert(txt).

If the user clicks "OK". Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.8. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. Now. If the user clicks "Cancel".3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Syntax: prompt("sometext".1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.7.8 functions 5.js file).2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). in the <head> section. When a confirm box pops up. in the example above had not been written within a function. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns false. the box returns true.7. the box returns null. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.5 . Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel".

var2. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.5 .3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.. 5.. document.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. 5. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1. 5.write(txt. and will be stored in the variable called product. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.javaScript function functionname(var1.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .8.var2.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. So. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.length).9. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. and how they are used..9. etc are variables or values passed into the function..9 javaScript objects 5.

In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects.toUpperCase()).write(str.5 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. which will be specified in the next section.9.javaScript 5. document. </script> 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. 45 .

Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. which are called Objects. Properties FF: Firefox. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.com/jsref/default. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. For example. When an event message has been triggered. At its most basic level. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . check the site http://www. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. every Image on the page is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Even this Document itself is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.5 . N: Netscape. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.11.w3schools. every Link on the page is an Object. as well).asp 5.

5 . Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.11.

Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a four-digit number.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .

to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. to a string. according to universal time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. N: Netscape.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time.5 .11. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time.

javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .11. Syntax for creating a new Number object. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).5 .

5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11.

6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.y) min(x.434) Returns PI (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 0. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.11.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 0.y) pow(x. 1.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.5 .javaScript 5.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 2. 3. 1. N: Netscape. 2.

personObj.age=30.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. work().lastname="Doe".1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. age. Assume that the personObj already exists .lastname="Doe". weight.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.eyecolor="blue". document. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. lastname. Properties are the values associated with the object. Objects also have methods. with a collection of properties and methods. etc. The persons' methods could be eat().eyecolor="blue". The code above will generate the following output: John 5. height. 5. All persons have these properties. eye color.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj.12.firstname).12.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.write(personObj. age. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. The persons' properties include name. personObj. personObj.firstname="John".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.you can give it properties named firstname.age=50.12.firstname="John". personObj. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. etc. 53 . personObj. sleep(). play(). skin tone.5 .

Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this."blue").age. You can also add some methods to the person object.age=age.48.firstname=firstname.age=age.50. this. 5.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.newlastname=newlastname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.lastname=lastname.eat=eat. this."green"). That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.eyecolor) { this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this. this. 54 . myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor) { this. this.lastname=lastname.propertyName. you can create new instances of the object.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.age. Once you have the template.lastname=new_lastname. like this: myFather=new person("John". The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.lastname. this.12."Rally".eyecolor=eyecolor. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. this.lastname."Doe".5 . } Notice that the template is just a function.

Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. We define the events in the HTML tags. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.newlastname("Doe"). For example. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions..javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.5 . 5. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.". and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . now you can write: myMother.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. So..

13. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. If the field values are not accepted. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.2 onFocus. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. 5.5 . otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. For example.w3schools. the submit should be cancelled. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .

with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. By October 1998.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. XML. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. 6.g. and style of a document.HTML DOM 6. structure. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.Html DOM 6 . and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. Right now (oct. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . SVG. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). 2010).defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. HTML. or WebAPI being among them. However. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.6 . The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. As of January 2008. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state..1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. the Document Object Model activity is closed. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. The W3C 58 . parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. particularly those used in Web browsers. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. CSS.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. In other words.

Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 1. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 3. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. 6. each of which contains required and optional modules. As of 2005. and 6. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. a new DOM Core specification. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. 5. 2. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Validation. To claim to support a level. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). DOM Level 3 Requirements. 4. which further enhances the DOM 6. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. filtered views and events. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2. DOM Level 3 XPath. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Core.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.6 .

The Window object represents a browser window.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. support multiple browsers. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. By 2005. and Safari. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x and Netscape 4. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. interoperability problems were numerous. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. In order to be cross-browser compatible. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Opera. 6. All HTML elements. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. that is. along with their containing text and attributes. can be accessed through the 60 .5 web browsers implementation Earlier.6 . W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. Konqueror.x were still widely used in 2000. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.

It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM.6 . The contents can be modified or deleted. JavaScript. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. and VBScript. and new elements can be created.

<head> and <body>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree.Html DOM 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. However. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. The <html> node has two child nodes. 6. everything in an HTML document is a node. the element node <title>. 62 . "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6.6 . DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. The <head> node holds a <title> node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".

has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.9.2 node parents.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. • • • • • In a node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted. child.getElementsByTagName("p"). The terms parent.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. 63 . By navigating the node tree. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). Parent nodes have children. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. using the node relationships. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and the connections between them. and new elements can be created. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.6 . children.getElementById('main').getElementsByTagName("p"). the top node is called the root Every node. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). except the root.9. By using the getElementById() method 2. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.

each node is an object.i++) { document. document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .9.write("<br />"). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.Html DOM for (i=0.i<x.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6.write(x[i].length. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.6 .innerHTML).

firstChild.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. 6. txt=x.6 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.Html DOM 6.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.nodeValue.5 example . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .getElementById("intro").9.

it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 . including window. objects and images. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . For elements.

3. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Also. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Mozilla. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. 6. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Safari. as of version 1. for instance. 67 . also supports these methods. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. and then bubbled up. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Fires when an element is activated. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. During the event flow. When the user clicks on the inner element.6 . through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). DOMNodeInserted. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. say "click".

Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. etc. mouse position. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.Html DOM 6. Unfortunately.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. including information about target element. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). key pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.6 . preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

etc.AJAX 7. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. before the whole page was sent within the network. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. using web services or Php scripts. The server does some processing — retrieving data. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. crunching numbers.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but also to save resources. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. fields of forms. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. It is not a technology in itself. 7. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 69 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. dynamic website. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. menus. 7. For example. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript.AJAX 7 . For improving sharing of resources. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. choices of user.7 .

what’s the user doing? That’s right. Once an interface is loaded. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. waiting around for the server to do something.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. but the opposite is true. Obviously. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around. the user waits some more. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Instead of loading a web page. While the server is doing its thing. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. waiting. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server.7 . So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. at the start of the session. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. 70 .

and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.7 . editing data in memory. usually using XML. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. loading additional interface code.

To get data on the server. . GET or POST . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.holds loaded data as a string of characters.open: create a connection. and in this purpose.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". This object provides two methods: .200 is ok.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. These events are user actions. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. 1: connection established. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. .for a Xml file or .7 .mode: type of request. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. DOM's method allows to extract data. It allows the interaction with the servers. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . url.responseXml . thanks to its methods and attributes. 2: request received.holds a Xml loaded file. boolean) .AJAX 7.send: send a request to the server.responseText .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. onreadystatechange . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 404 if the page is not found .returned by the server . 7.url: the location of the file 72 . 3: answer in process. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.for a simple text. . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. 4: finished. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .

} Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . .AJAX .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. The request below reads a document on the server. true for asynchronous. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. Safari.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().send(null).readyState == 4) { // received. } else if (window. // Firefox.open: command GET or POST.send: with POST only. OK } else { // wait.. request.6 building a request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. true). .open('GET'. 'http://www.xul. 73 .7 . if (window. but two options must be tried.XMLHTTP").. the data to send to the server.null for a GET command 7. http_request.xml'.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. if (request. URL of the document.fr/somefile. for browser compatibility. http_request..

responseText. req. true). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.7 examples 7.dyn="Error code " + req.ajax.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .setRequestHeader("Content-Type". by this code: var doc = req.ajax.status == 200) document.7.ajax.dyn=""Received:" + req.status.responseXML.xml". req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.readyState == 4) if(req.7.7 . else if (window.dyn="Received:" + req.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. if(window.AJAX 7. "data. req.send(null). req.responseText. else document.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.getElementsByTagName('root'). }.XMLHTTP).2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.item(0). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").open("GET".

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 2. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. classes.xml file: <?xml version="1. Servlet.class>com. like: 1. 4.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. 3.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.ccards. like what pages are error. welcome pages. Others.bank11. but typical web.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . MIME types used by the web application. 5.servlets. 8. data persistence. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Here is a small. servlet classes. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces.8 . entries related to session configuration. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. descriptions). precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. For example. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. 6.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. database connection resource pooling.)> <web-app> <!-. After an enterprise bean is created. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.. web. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. Initialization of parameters for servlets..

the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".ccards.servlets". the name of the web application. 1. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. Then the "EnrollServlet.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.bank11.xml file of the web application. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. basicly. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Behind a very benign URL. whose name is rather long. Basicly.bank11. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").servlets". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" file. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml". For example.servlets.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. In general.ccards. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. Unfortunately. for flexibility. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.xml" 2.8 .ccards. However. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.

2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. but through a web container.4. but at this point. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. small footprint. modular design 9. which extend the functionality of the web server. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. from BEA Systems.SERVLETS 9 .2. tjws spec 2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. platform independent programs. Technically speaking.4.5 and is in final state.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). 9.0 specification. this is just a work in progress. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .9 . The current Java Servlet specification is 2. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. more often. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.2. the Java Servlet 3. 2010. the HttpServlet) class. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . 9. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. As of oct.SERVLETS 9. in most cases as part of an application server. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.0 specification is available for public review.

4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet.servlet package.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from IBM 9. public void destroy() throws ServletException. 82 . public void service(ServletRequest req. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .9 . from Apple Inc. while the second one.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.servlet package are protocol independent.servlet. Enterprise Edition. IOException. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. These packages are: • • javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. the javax. WebSphere.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Throwable t) 9.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. the web container calls its init() method. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. respectively.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo().9 . 83 . After instantiating the servlet. More on the servlet life cycle. as well. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. 9. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. namely the HttpServlet class. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The method performs all initialization required. in a different section. ServletConfig. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.

HttpServletResponse resp) 9.servlet.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). It also extends the java. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.ServletException javax.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .9 .lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.Exception class. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.

Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. 85 . concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. etc.servlet. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. which will service all incoming requests. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. DB connection opening. JSP or JSF. Typically. Typically. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. 9.SingleThreadModel. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. If the servlet does not implement the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.9 . Also. this method contains JDBC driver loading. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. After instantiation. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. respectively.

Here are the most important ones: 86 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.

io. This is done in server's (container's) server.9 . 87 . A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.java" file: package com.*. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.ccards. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. import java. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.xml file. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.servlets.bank11.

out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.servlet.*.println("<html>"). out. PrintWriter out = resp.http. out.println("<body>"). // output your page here out.SERVLETS import javax. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").init(config).println("<head>"). out. import javax.close().9 .println("</head>"). out.*.println("merge"). IOException { resp. out. } } 88 .getWriter().servlet.setContentType(“text/html”). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.println("<br>").println("</body>").println("</html>"). out.

89 . 1997. as recognized by the DB industry. Type 1.jdbc. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.sql package 2.sql package. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. This solution is inefficient.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. the java. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. Starting with version 3. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.JDBC 10 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.odbc. The JDBC 4.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). These drivers fall into four standard categories.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. the javax. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .10 .1. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. After that. 10.0.JDBC 10. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.sun.JdbcOdbcDriver . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0 while the current (4.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.

Type 4. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.JDBC Type 2. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Part Java.10 . Type 3. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. 90 . Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. which in turn.

sql.sql.SQLData java.PreparedStatement java.sql.Blob java.10 .SQLPermission java.DriverManager java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.Statement java.sql.Types java.Wrapper 91 . java.SQLOutput java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.JDBC 10.sql.sql.sql.sql.0).Connection java.sql.sql.Clob java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.3 the java.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.Struct java.0 API.sql.SQLWarning java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.Array java.sql.Driver java.Date java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.SQLXML java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.SQLException java.Timestamp java.sql.Time java.

SQLTransactionRollbackException java.DatabaseMetaData java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.10 .sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.CommonDataSource javax.ResultSet java.sql.sql.Clob java.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql.sql.sql. querying the database 4.StatementEventListener 10.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.sql.NClob java.SQLXML java.SQLException java.sql. processing the result set 92 .SQLDataException java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.Types java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.Connection java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.0.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.StatementEvent javax.SQLClientInfoException java.sql package.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.Wrapper javax.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.Blob java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.PreparedStatement java. loading a database driver 2.sql. java.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLNonTransientException java.Statement java.sql.RowId java.SQLWarning java.CallableStatement java.4 interaction schema in the java.

JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .borland.DB2Driver oracle.odbc.sybase.jdbc.net. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.10 .SybDriver com.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.jdbc.JDBC 10.ibm.db2.jdbc.datastore.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.OracleDriver sun.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver. A database driver is specified by the driver name.driver.

94 . the only protocol allowed in JDBC). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.sql. but let's take it for granted: import java. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. passwd).com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.10 . } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). user. as specified by the driver vendor.printStackTrace().util. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.getConnection(connURL.forName("org. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.Driver").*.bank11.mysql. by using the connection URL.mm.gjt. try { Class.newInstance().JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. import java. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. Since we just used it. String user = "root". the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.*.

prp. int resultSetConcurrency. prp.getConnection(connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. we can use it for various purposes. "true").sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.util. String user. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.JDBC 10. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .sql package.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.put("autocommit". "true"). Connection conn = DriverManager. 10. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.put("create". int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Properties prp = new Properties(). String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.10 . prp). java.

methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. Statement. respectively. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . prepared statements and stored procedures. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.JDBC 10. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely.

The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.". String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .createStatement().10 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. 10.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.executeUpdate(sqlString).sql. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 ..

These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.10 . not at 0) or the column name.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. as the argument. PreparedStatement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. 98 . all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and CallableStatement objects. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


10 . The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql package. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.Time java. mins. secs date. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.math. time.Big Decimal Object float 10. It is part of the javax.produces a Connection object that will 103 .sql. Connection pooling implementation -.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. Basic implementation -.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.0 optional package.sql.math. basicly. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.produces a standard Connection object 2. This interface is.DataSource object. a factory for creating DB connections.sql. There are three types of implementations: 1.

*.servlet.10 .getLogger(TestDataSource.bank11.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.servlets.*. java. javax. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. 3.sql.*. 104 . javax. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*. javax.naming.*. import import import import import import java.io.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). private DataSource theDataSource.sql. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.http. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.getName()).ccards.class.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.lookup("java:comp/env").servlet. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. javax. Distributed transaction implementation -.

.10 . } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e)..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

5 Java Servlet specification.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.JSP 11.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The package javax.servlet.JSP 11 .jsp. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp and javax.servlet.servlet.11 .1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. 11.jsp.servlet. The javax. namely javax.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.jsp.tagext.servlet.1 and is related to the 2. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. 11.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. If the JSP is modified. The package javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.2 the java.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.11 . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". 111 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. include and taglib.. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page..

2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.11 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . Assigns it to available name or id. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. In Tomcat.JSP scripting elements 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.

property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .the name of a bean instance.11 .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. you must specify param.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. and if so. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. Attributes description: • • • name . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.

the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the URL of the page. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. 11. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:forward>.13 the forward standard action 114 . same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.only the "true" value is supported. flush . <jsp:plugin> actions.

the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.. name="instanceName" . It is used mainly. 11. archive="URIToArchive. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . servlet or to a static resource. ... when we want to separate the application into different views. You must include the . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. depending on request. You must specify either bean or applet. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 ..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). code="classFileName" .class extension in the name following code.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. If you do not supply a value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.the type of object the plugin will execute.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.11 . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. as well." . name .a name for the Bean or applet instance. as this attribute has no default value.the name of a bean instance.

request .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. Must be a small nonzero number.JspWriter type and scope page 7. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. The default value is 1.represents the servlet context. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .servlet. request . in pixels. in pixels. application . it has javax. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.represents server's response to the request. config .11 .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.it represents the buffered version of java. out . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. based on the servlet API. with a protocol name.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. objects which are automaticly available.the initial height and width.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.1. optional port number.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. page . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. response . session . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.16 scopes 1.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. 1.jsp. of the image the applet or Bean displays.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. it has java. pageContext .the amount of space. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .io. The value is a full URL. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.Object type and scope page 11. and domain name.PrintWriter.lang. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . writes to the output stream to the client.1" .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.

EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.beans. page .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 11.ccards.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp file.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. if (enrollBean.JSP request object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 2.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 4.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. application . session .bank11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . Object value) method 3. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.11 . <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.init().

io. an int. SimpleBean.11 . The public constructor could have been omitted. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. 11. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.mapping. private int integer.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. The SimpleBean class is declared public. a boolean and another String).examples.devsphere. a float. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private SimpleSubBean subBean.18.java: package com. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.simple. a software development and consulting company. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private float number.string. private boolean flag. private String colors[]. private String optional.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.register(). %> <jsp:forward page="response.Serializable { private String string. private int list[].

} // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.integer. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.number = value.colors.colors[index]. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.JSP this.colors = values. } 119 .string = value.flag = value.11 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.number. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.flag.integer = value. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.

subBean. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index]. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.subBean = value. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list = values. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. String value) { this.list. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.optional.colors[index] = value.optional = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.11 .list[index] = value. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. int value) { this. } } 120 .

11 .devsphere.simple.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.mapping.string.Serializable { private String string. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.number.io. private float number.string = value.java: package com.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.18.number = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. SimpleSubBean. } } 11.examples.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.

11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.

3 } }. new Float(0. There are three error messages.18. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". the list of optional properties.string]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.java: package com. The default values are defined for a String.simple.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. SimpleBeanResources. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. new Boolean(true) }. new String[] { 123 . new int[] { 2. the processing order. a boolean and an int[]. The list of optional properties has a single element.11 . The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.list]".JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "abc" }. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.mapping.util.colors]". "One or more colors must be selected" }.list]".flag]".number]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the form's name and the processor's name. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. "One or more items must be selected" }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.devsphere.examples. error messages. a float.123) }.integer]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "An option must be selected" }.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.

"flag".logging.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). SimpleHndl. { "[FORM_NAME]". "SimpleProc.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.devsphere.JSP "optional" } }. } } 11. "subBean" } }.mapping.simple.18. com. "integer". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. { "[PROC_NAME]".html" }. "number".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping.devsphere. "optional".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.examples. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.11 .jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").devsphere. "SimpleForm.jsp" } }. new String[] { "string". For a better understanding of this example.util. The beanToForm() method of com.devsphere. string values are converted to numbers. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. The formToBean() method of com.*. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. If necessary.devsphere.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping.mapping. "colors". "list".

trim().getString("[PROC_NAME]").getDocument().getRequestDispatcher(procPath). 125 . } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getRealPath(formPath).trim(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). int slashIndex = basePath.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getServletPath(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getTemplate(new java. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.removeUserErrors(errorTable). logger). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.equals("POST").substring(0. slashIndex+1) : "".forward(request. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.util. formPath = application. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.formToBean(formData. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).JSP = HandlerUtils. // Process the valid data bean instance application.11 . simpleBean.getMethod(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.getClass()). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. response).File(formPath)). errorTable = HandlerUtils.getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).lastIndexOf('/').io.

length.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. if (list. // Send the form document document.beanToForm(simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. strbuf.11 .length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].devsphere. for (int i = 0.append("{ "). i < list. SimpleProc. } %> 11. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.string = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.examples.18.number = <%= simpleBean. document.JSP elements logger). errorTable.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.mapping. i++) 126 .getString() %> <P> subBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.send(out).getSubBean().jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple.

toString(). ComplexHndl. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.jsp files. } strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.18.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. ComplexForm.append(" ").toString(list[0]).6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. i < list.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.length == 1) return Integer.mapping.append(list[i]). } %> 11. strbuf. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. In addition. for (int i = 0. if (list.append("}"). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). strbuf.toString().length == 0) return "". strbuf. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . Using the framework. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append("{ "). A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. i++) { strbuf.util. A single call to FormUtils.11 .append("}").JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.length.examples.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.simple. In addition.append(" ").devsphere. } strbuf.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.formToBean() call.append(list[i]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. return strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.

JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green". i++) { int value = i+1. "green". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. j++) if (colors[j]. j < colors. for (int i = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. 128 . "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.11 . i < integerLabels. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". String colorValues[] = { "red". "blue" }.getInteger() == value. i++) { boolean checked = false. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.length. "Option 2". i < colorValues. for (int i = 0. boolean checked = simpleBean. "Option 3" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.getColors(). "Blue" }.length. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

i++) { int value = i+1. i < listItems. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.11 . } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. break.length. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". if (list == null) list = new int[0].SimpleSubBean()).examples. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. j < list. boolean selected = false. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.simple.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "subBean.devsphere.length. for (int i = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .setSubBean( new com. "Item 2".getSubBean().mapping.JSP break.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getList(). "Item 3" }.

getString() == null || simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. "subBean.util.mapping. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.setString("abc").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).Hashtable errorTable.equals("POST"). if (message == null) message = "".length() == 0) { simpleBean.get(property).mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getString().getSubBean().examples. boolean isPostMethod = request.devsphere. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. return message.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples. } %> ComplexHndl. 130 .SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.util.getMethod().11 .simple.

getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number".floatValue()). if (flagValue.setNumber(0.length() != 0) simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.123f). "Must be filled"). "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.123f).trim().length == 0) { 131 .getParameter("flag"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. else { simpleBean. "An option must be selected"). "string".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . "Must be filled"). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be a number").getColors().length() == 0 || flagValue. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.getParameter("number").setFlag(flagValue != null). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "integer".

number : text try { String numberValue = request. 132 .floatValue()).string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getString(). "list".11 . "One or more colors must be selected").length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "Must be } //* subBean. "subBean. 3 }).getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "colors".getOptional() == null) simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean. "Must be filled").setString("").getParameter("subBean. "One or more items must be selected").string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.string".number".getList(). "subBean.setOptional("").number").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.

} } else { simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.properties or web.setString(""). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.xml: SimpleHndl.JSP filled"). String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".setString("abc"). "Must be a number"). "subBean.11 .initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.jsp. simpleBean.util.setFlag(true).devsphere.mapping.123f).jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. simpleBean. simpleBean. 3 }). That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. } %> 11.devsphere.devsphere.number". simpleBean.18.helpers. simpleSubBean.mapping.helpers. The com. String property.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.code=com.examples.SimpleBean.\ 133 . which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. errorTable.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. message).put(property.Hashtable errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.setOptional(""). The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.simple. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.setNumber(0.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.

simple. In many cases. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. a servlet is identified with its class. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.company.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.host. 11.devsphere.host. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping.host.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. you could add a few other lines to servlets.examples.AnotherBean.code=com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.examples.devsphere.18.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.devsphere.helpers.11 .devsphere.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. A servlet can be made bean-independent.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.properties (or web.helpers.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.mapping. If you have another bean-form pair. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.another. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.code=com.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.

11 .JSP 135 .

and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.0. which loads the appropriate view template. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . like input fields. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0 supersedes version 1.JAVASERVER FACES 12.javaserver faces 12 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2. buttons. processes events.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. 12.12 . builds a component tree. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. 2. This technology includes: 1. Version 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.

4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.12 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.javaserver faces 12. As of version 1.4.2 of the JFS specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.

The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.12 .01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.4. For more information about columns. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. see the column tag documentation. columns and rows. 12. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. footers. respectively. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. such as alternating row colors.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. Common formatting techniques.

checkout}" /> 139 . and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.4. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).4.12 .00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. your options include using plain HTML forms.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.

6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.5. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user.4.12 .</span> 12.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". red for error. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.user.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent()." /> 12. 12.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.12 . 12.5. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example.

MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully.5. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.mycompany. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.5. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.javaserver faces 12.customer. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Any component that receives user input. The body content of this tag must be empty. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. can publish value change events. Without this JavaScript event. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. validateLength.12 . 12.

including images and styles. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. for each locale you wish to support.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If you have not specified a default locale. myJSFapp 143 .12 .jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.mycompany.5. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.javaserver faces 12. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.mycompany.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. Example: welcome_en.

xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.contains libraries required by the application. static resources. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. Create properties files 144 .html.jar faces-config. jsf-api. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.12 .jar.exadel. Create managed beans 4.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml – the JSF configuration file. custom tag libraries.jar – files included in the /lib directory. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Define navigation rules 3.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. and so on. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.jar jsf-api.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Create JSP pages 2. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. JSP pages.xml web.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.javaserver faces /ant build.

7.jsp is greeting. As a diagram. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. Now that we have the two JSP pages. In our application.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp and greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. 12. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. Create an index.javaserver faces 5.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . You just need to create its contents. Compile the application 8. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. And that's all there is to this. we just want to go from inputname.jsp to greeting. These files will act as place holders for now. we can create a navigation rule.12 .jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp file 7.7.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. The directory structure already exists. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. Edit JSP pages 6.xml file. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.

The next line is the full class name.3.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName.7. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.) 12. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.3.7.xml file should look like this: 146 . This section defines a bean name PersonBean. 12.3 faces-config.3.javaserver faces This is. a very simple navigation rule. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This class is straight-forward. myJFSapp. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.PersonBean. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. You can easily create more complex ones. 12. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.7.xml Your final faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. of course. To read more about navigation rules.12 .java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. the second part of faces-config. Inside this myJFSapp folder.java file. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.1 PersonBean.xml Now. request sets the bean scope in the application. we will create a PersonBean. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.7.

12. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.7.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.1 inputname. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.sun. 12.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.sun. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.properties file in the bundle folder.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.1 messages.1//EN" "http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.4.7.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Inc.5.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7.

messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Then.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.sun.bundle.12 .messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.sun. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <h:inputText value="#{msg.

name! 12.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Line 2. The first three lines are identical to our first page. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. specifically the bean attribute personName.5. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.7.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Line 6.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.2 greeting. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.javaserver faces Line 1.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Create the index. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.jsp page. Creates an HTML input text box.xml file. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.</h3> tags.6 creating the index.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .. Having an index. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. That's how JSF knows where to go next. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. 12.12 .bundle.greeting_text}" />..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.7.sun.sun. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. The second line will access a Java bean. Lines 3-5.

To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. we need to deploy it.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. might possibly be different). Of course.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.html . verifies the information. This is a "login" application. 12.7. We are almost done with this example. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. and forwards the user to a success or error page.7.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.9 Running Next. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. you'll notice the file suffix is . put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.sourceforge. When Tomcat is done loading.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.xml file for the application *.7. 12.javaserver faces Now.xml file.12 .jsf and not . insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. because in the web. which asks an user for an ID and password.8.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). 150 . Your setup. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. 12.jsp.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. 12. To build the application run the build. though. To do this.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. This is used here.

The New Project wizard appears. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. jsf-login. from the menubar select File/New/Other. click Add Folder. make sure all checkboxes are checked. select the Source tab. 9. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. 1. a. Select Java Project. 10. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Select the Amateras node. in the Add JSF Support page. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.. 7.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. c. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. 12.12 .8. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. click Finish 4. click Yes through messages that appear.. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. and set up folders for a web application. 3. Enter project name. in the wizard that appears. click Next. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login)..xml Editor (see faces-config..Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. name the folder webroot 5. 2. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.WEB-INF 151 . your mileage may vary. 6. see Installing & Uninstalling. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-.webroot | +-. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. say.. click Next d. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. click Next. name the folder pages.src | +-.. and to add JSF libraries to the project.

The Java code editor opens.pages 12.xml. 1. } 4. from its context menu select New/Class. 2. for name enter mgr. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. if ( _uid. private String _pwd = "". The New Java Class wizard appears.12 . b. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. for scope select 152 .8. in the Name field enter LoginManager.lib | +-. enter login.java package login. The faces-config. else action = "loginFail". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". click Add.xml Editor. In Package Explorer select the src folder.xml editor opens. We then configure it to be a managed bean. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. input widgets appear d. for class enter login. } return action. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.javaserver faces | | | +-.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. click Managed Bean. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. 3.LoginManager. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. Click Finish. c.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. In the Package field. a.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.

jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. All pages except login.jsp are simple pages with static content. success.jsp. b.8.jsp. Enter the following code: <!-. so we create them first.jsp.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. then close the editor 12.webroot/pages/success. and 3 content pages (login. <!-.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp: a. Create index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. index. but in webroot/pages.webroot/index. from the menubar select File/Save. for File name enter index.webroot/pages/error. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. </body> Please try 153 .javaserver faces session. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. save the file and close the editor. enter the following code. from its context menu select New/File.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Create success. 1. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. e.jsp). again. click Finish.12 . Enter the following code: <!-. the JSP Editor opens.jsp and error. Then we create login. Create error.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. the New File wizard appears. but in webroot/pages. c.

and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. now we want to add attributes to this element. and dock it along the right.12 . g. To see this in action. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. from its context menu select New/Other. <%@ page contentType="text/html.. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. click Next c. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.sun. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and uses them for code completion as well.sun.. place your cursor in one of these lines.completion. 154 . etc.javaserver faces </html> 4. d. and the JSP Editor can help with code.jsp. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. enter jsf-login e. and choose default for Template. click Finish. as shown below. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. (See Show View Dialog) f. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.jsp: a. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. with the following template code. Open the JSF palette. a code-completion window pops up. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. b. Create login. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. for File name enter login. the New wizard appears.

with bean properties available in mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . i. and hit Enter. insert another <h:inputText> element.password}" l. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. insert a <h:commandButton> element.javaserver faces h.) j. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. a code-completion window pops up. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.loginAction} The final code.sun.. enter #{mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. this inserts value="" at the cursor.12 . in the code-completion window scroll down to value.sun. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value to Login. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. with the barest presentational formatting. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.

userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. click on Page.xml.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Select the Navigation tab 3. then click inside the editor window. This is shown below. 156 . using a FacesIDE editor.12 . it should open in the faces-config. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Open faces-config.xml Editor. 2. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. 1.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.8. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.

and set them to /pages/login. 5. and is represented by an arrow. add 3 more pages. select Navigation Case. in the Properties view. /pages/success. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. then click first on the icon for login.jsp. 6. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). Its properties appear in the Properties view. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. change the value of path to /index.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp. This is shown below: 157 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp 4.jsp and /pages/error. from the palette at left. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp.12 .

12. and you should be sent to the success page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.jsp. any other id/password should send you to the error page.8. open web.xml. The application is now complete. all we need do in web. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp to error. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. or leave it as-is. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. and extension-based mapping is turned on. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. We want virtual path-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.javaserver faces 7. since we have such a trivial application. so uncomment it. As it turns out. 1.jsp.12 . Similarly add a forward-action from login.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. Once deployed browse to index. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml.6 Editing web. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.jsp.xml Here we edit web.xml for the specifics of our application.

context javax.lifecycle javax.faces.event javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm..faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. the Manager application should reload..validator javax. that factory is used.faces. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.render javax.html javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.12 .faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.webapp 12. Click on its link to launch the application.. start Tomcat. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces. click Deploy 3.model javax.faces.javaserver faces 12.8. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.10 the javax.faces.application javax.el javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.component.faces.faces. 12. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces.component javax. as file:///. For a given factory class name.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.0 1.convert javax. scroll down to Deploy.

FacesMessage.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. ApplicationFactory .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. handling events and input validation. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. StateManager .12 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. StateManagerWrapper .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. ViewHandler . and supporting internationalization and accessibility.represents a single validation (or other) message. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . with the last one taking precedence. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. 12. ViewHandlerWrapper . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . those factories are used.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. defining page navigation. with the last one taking precedence. If none of the above steps yield a match. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.faces.Severity .11 the javax. FacesMessage .

UIComponentBase . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. or a hyperlink.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.FacesContext.faces. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.restoreView(javax.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. UIComponent . when activated by the user. a menu item. • • 161 . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. • ViewExpiredException . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".12 . EditableValueHolder . String) results in failure on postback. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. ValueHolder .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. 12. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.faces. UICommand .context.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. StateHolder . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. ActionSource2 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. ContextCallBack . Here they are: • • UIColumn . String.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. NamingContainer .12 the javax.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.

a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.faces. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIParameter . it just serves as the root of the component tree. The user can modify the selected values. Optionally. UINamingContainer . that is displayed to the user. UISelectOne .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. by storing it as the value property of the component.component. identified by a clientId. The user can modify the selected value.html package 162 . UISelectBoolean .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.13 the java. it is for display purposes only. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UIForm . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIOutput . UIInput . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.a UIComponent that has a value. This component has no rendering. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UIMessages . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIMessage . Optionally.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.12 . UIViewRoot . UISelectItem . UIGraphic . it is for display purposes only. UIPanel .javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.

renders the component value as text. HtmlMessage .causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputText . HtmlCommandLink .12 . HtmlOutputLink .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlPanelGroup .represents an HTML img element.faces.represents an HTML form element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML label element. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputFormat . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlForm . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element of type password.by default.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlPanelGrid . On a redisplay. HtmlMessages . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlOutputText .faces.by default.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlGraphicImage . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. and renders the result. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputTextarea . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. or not. HtmlInputHidden .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.Message".represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. but the application wishes to render more than one. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlColumn . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .renders child components in a table.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.

contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. showing a single available option at a time. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. HtmlSelectManyListbox . and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. FacesContext .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.javaserver faces property.14 the java.faces.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. It is passed to. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. ResponseWriterWrapper . • • • • 12. In particular. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.convert package 164 .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. HtmlSelectOneMenu . HtmlSelectOneRadio .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.12 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. ResponseStream . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.faces.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectOneListbox . ResponseWriter . FacesContextFactory . and the rendering of the corresponding response.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. showing a single available option at a time.15 the java. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyMenu .

• • • • 165 . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.faces.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. PropertyResolver .javaserver faces 12.15. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.16 the java.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. VariableResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. ValueBinding .12 . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.

PhaseEvent .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • • One exception . PropertyNotFoundException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. FacesListener .17 the java. 166 . ValueChangeEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. ReferenceSyntaxException . MethodNotFoundException . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .faces.12 . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesEvent .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseId . PhaseListener .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.AbortProcessingException .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. ValueChangeListener . Interfaces: ActionListener . and event implementation classes.

Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ListDataModel . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.12 . DataModel . ResultDataModel .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. ResultSetDataModel . Renderer . • • • • • • • • • 12.20 the java. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. SelectItem .18 the java. 12. SelectItemGroup .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . DataModelEvent .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".faces.faces.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. ScalarDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. Classes: ArrayDataModel .19 the java.javaserver faces 12. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.

Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). The package contains an exception. and concrete validator implementation classes.21 the java. ResponseStateManager . AttributeTag . LongRangeValidator . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. • RenderKit . A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.22 the java.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . which perform the actual rendering process for each component. RenderKitFactory .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. together.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. ConverterTag .validator package Interface defining the validator model. including a standard servlet.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.faces. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Typically. and/or user Locale.12 . 12.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.faces. base classes for JSP custom component tags. as well. • • 12. markup language. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .

The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. servlets. When using JSF. or when an exception occurs. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). • • • • • FacesServlet . When the model is updated. ValidatorTag . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. Also. the controller is the 169 . or some other web technology. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the controller sends a message to the view. When a web server receives a request. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. which passes the request to the page class.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the process includes a few more components or pages. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. 12. Likewise. related to a UIComponent. the controller sends a message to the model.12 . that need to process their tag bodies. UIComponentTag . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. telling the model to update its data. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. telling the view to update its presentation. the life cycle is more complicated. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. UIComponentBodyTag . but basically. which has several implications.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. that request is passed to the container.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When the user takes some action with the presentation. In MVC.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions. FacetTag . The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. In JSF. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the JSF life cycle does not apply.

In addition. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. not every request will flow through all six phases. depending on the request. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). and a piece of data failed validation. it creates UI objects for each view component. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase.12 . the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. from cookies sent as part of the request. For a JSF-enabled application. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and the UI components are the view. converting a String to a Date object). • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. However. the JSF implementation must create the view. such as components that create HTML input fields. In addition. 170 . the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. is validated at this time. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. As with the previous phase. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request.javaserver faces JSF implementation. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. If this is a subsequent request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. Data for some components. and the response is sent to the client. or from request headers. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. the conversion occurs in this phase. These objects update their state with the data values. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and what happens during the processing and response. Data can come from input fields in a web form. The components are stored in a component tree.

12 . If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. 171 . skipping any remaining phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. For example.

or objects typically used by computer programs. DNS. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. A file system maps a filename (for example. c:\bin\autoexec.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. For example.48. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. To access a file in the computer. When using almost any computer program or system. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. The DNS entry Wiz. possibly multiple. 13. and NIS(YP). such as LDAP. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.JNDI 13 . JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. you must supply its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. It enables applications to access different. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. Using JNDI.sun.5). It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. Thus the DNS name sales. In addition.COM.13 . 172 . 13. such as addresses. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.2. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. For example. which is located in the root of the file system.JNDI 13.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. /usr/hello. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". identifiers.COM. The UNIX pathname.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.Wiz. in turn. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. names a file hello in the file directory usr. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type."). when you use an electronic mail system. naming and directory services using a common API. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example. NDS. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.9.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. you are always naming one object or another. you supply it the name of the object. for example. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").

a DNS domain. Using the reference. That is. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). For example. For simplicity. For example. A printer object. for example. a file directory. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. 173 . also called a file handle. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. unbinding names. By contrast. such as COM. is accessed using a file reference. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. which in turn.13 . Every context has an associated naming convention. in the DNS domain Sun.c=us. o=Sun. For example.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. and listing bound names.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. while the object itself might contain more state information. Finally.2. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. is a context. For example. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. such as its print server name and printing protocol. for example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.COM. 13. and its flight number and departure time. might contain the state of the printer. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. such as c=us. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. Instead. an LDAP entry. that is. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. and fuel and instrument status. 13. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.2. is relative to c=us.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. delimited by the comma character (". an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. A file object. A printer object reference. they must be stored by reference. 13. on the other hand. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. In another example. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Typically.2. in the UNIX file system is a context. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. A reference is information about how to access an object. such as /usr. its flight plan. in a file directory /usr/bin. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. some objects cannot be stored directly. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. that is.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. is a context. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee."). a file name is bound to a file. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. relative to the entry o=Sun. For example.

The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.2. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. 13. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). 13. a computer. resolution. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.3. programs. For example.13 .3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. and even the computer itself and other computers. because we can. or a network.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A directory object can be used. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. however. and color. For example. a name is unique 13.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. two different computer 174 . the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. For example. and computer account information. For example. to some extent. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. for example. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. to represent a printer. various telephone numbers. one context can be viewed. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. a person. And it kind of makes sense. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. Thus. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. An example is the telephone company's directory service. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. For example. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. postal mail address. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.

adding. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. Alternatively. such as the file and print services.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. Within the DIT.50". The query is called a search filter. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.3. The email address.com".JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. 13. 175 . removing. The service is accessed through its own interface. like any other program running on the network. When directory objects are arranged in this way. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. printers. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. By using a directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.13 . 13.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.113. 13. For example. Many examples of directory services are possible. called a directory information tree (DIT). support the notion of searches. such as those based on the LDAP. A Java mail client program. 13. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. and users.3.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service.smith@somewhere. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. that is. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. for example. Similarly. 13. When you search. such as that relating to machines. the ability to access directory services will become essential. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. many directories. for example. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. can use the directory in the traditional way. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. networks.3. for example.4.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. For example. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. an organization object. "mail" is the attribute identifier.

naming. For example.1 and Java 2 SDK.3 and later releases. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. It extends the v1. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. and even the network.5. 13.1 and v1. 13.ldap 176 . This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. For example.13 . 13.naming. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.event javax.2.naming. To use the JNDI. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.naming javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). The Java 2 SDK. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. v1. more coherent and manageable.4.directory javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.2. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. 13. emerging.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.1 and the Java 2 SDK.

printer.6. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.spi 13. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. and it returns the object bound to that name. and the object itself. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.lang.1 context The javax. a 177 . You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. for some objects in the directory. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. that is. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. For example.6.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. binding/unbinding. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.6 the naming package The javax.6.naming package defines a Context interface.JNDI • javax. 13. For the methods in the Context interface. 13. list() is similar to listBindings(). However. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The overloads that accept java.lang. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.lookup("treekiller").print(report). A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.String name.13 . Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. comparing components. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. which is the core interface for looking up. 13. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. A java. the name of the object's class.naming.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Furthermore. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.lang. 13. In this case. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.String name argument represents a composite name. and so on. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. composing them.6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .

1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13. You can add. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. InitialContext.6. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.13 . replace. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 178 .5 the Initial context In the JNDI.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. 13. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). Once you have an initial context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. they should catch NamingException. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. For example. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.directory package extends the javax.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. Otherwise. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.7 directory package The javax. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13.naming. 13.6. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.7. There are no absolute roots. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).7.

1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. For example.9." and those that do not. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.naming. such as information about the object before and after the change. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. To receive event notifications. such as "object added. controls. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.8 event package The javax. 13. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.naming. These operations are called "extended" operations. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. For example. and vice versa.naming. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.9.13 . In fact. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. 13.JNDI 13.ldap package at all. 13. or unsolicited notifications. Once registered. that is." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.naming. 13.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.directory package.9. called controls .naming. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.9 LDAP package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. such as "object changed.

then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.11. That is.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.naming.9. In the process of completing an operation. 13. 13.10. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system. This support is provided in the form of state factories. implementors of Context. 13.naming. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.spi package supports implementors of Context. if you look up a printer name from the directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13.naming package. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.10. 180 .11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. import javax.2 java object support The javax. 13.13 . create a file named Lookup. and receiving response controls.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.Context.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.java. For example. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming.10 service provider package The javax. sending request controls.naming.

Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.3.NamingException.11. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.11.err. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.put(Context. If you are still having problems. "com.jndi. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.lookup(name).naming. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.fscontext.out. 13. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. Otherwise.11. you must have access to the JNDI classes.sun. } catch (NamingException e) { System. } 13. 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. env.13 .3 looking up an Object Next. use Context.jar as an installed extension.RefFSContextFactory").java).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. If the compilation succeeds.lookup() to look up an object.InitialContext. // Print it System. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.11.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.5 compiling the program Next.lookup(name).JNDI import javax. v1.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Object obj = ctx.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). To compile to program. import javax.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). 181 . For this reason. as follows. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. If the compilation fails.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. then the JNDI classes are already included. create an initial context. using the capitalization shown. 13.naming.

javax.naming.directory.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.jndi.ldap.12. 13. import import import import import javax.directory packages. then you will see something like the following.put(Context.put(Context. the file system service provider.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.jar). javax. v1.DirContext.fscontext.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. create an initial directory context. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.directory. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.InitialDirContext.PROVIDER_URL.Context.jar and providerutil.JNDI 13. "com. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. 13.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. env.naming and javax.sun.11. and your example class (Lookup. include the directory that contains your Lookup.jndi.3. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.13 .naming.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. you need access to the JNDI classes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.bat If you supply a file directory.naming. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. 182 . "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). Finally.LdapCtxFactory").Attributes.directory. To run the program. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().class).java.12. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. supply the name of a file in your file system. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.naming.6 running the program To run the program. create a file named Getattr.naming. javax. javax. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. env.naming.sun.NamingException.

ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. 183 . then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. 13. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. 13. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get(). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.13 . Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.println("sn: " + attrs. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. compile the source file using the Java compiler. If the compilation fails. If the compilation succeeds.out.get() on it to get its value: attrs. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.12. using the capitalization shown. For now. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). } 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.12.get("sn").get("sn").3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. Attributes.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.12.6 compiling the program Next. ou=People").err. Similar to the naming example.get()). For this reason. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. } catch (NamingException e) { System.java). If you are still having problems. 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.get() and then from that attribute get its value. ou=People").12. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. As with the naming example.

env. then see the Common Problems lesson.jar).PROVIDER_URL. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.13 . v1. If you have any trouble running this example. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.7 running the program As with the naming example. 184 . Once it has the attributes. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").3. With this configuration. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.put(Context. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").12.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.class.JNDI 13. ou=People". Getattr.jar and providerutil. then these classes are already included.

An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). As the name queue suggests. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. In this model.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that receives messages. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. JMS client . • 14. JMS message . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.14 . Enterprise Edition. JMS producer . Here. JMS consumer . the messages are delivered in the order sent.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.a JMS client that creates and sends messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS queue . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. unless it has established a durable 185 . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS topic . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .

In that case. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. On the receiving side. 186 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.jms.14 .3 the JMS API programming model 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. Depending on the type of message.4. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Using Java.

Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().close(). a connection to a JMS provider can be created. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. connection. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. For example. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.14 . Depending on the connection type. Before an application completes. you must call the connection's start() method. Before your application can consume messages. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. you must close any connections that you have created. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. For example.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.4. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. It receives messages sent to a destination. and users discover them using JNDI. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.4. It is either a queue or a topic. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. In a J2EE application. 14. The JMS administrator creates these objects. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.4. you call the stop() method.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.createConnection(). 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").lookup("jms/MyQueue").3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Connections implement the Connection interface. Like the connection factory. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.

you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().setMessageListener(myListener). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.createConsumer(myQueue). consumer. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. it becomes active. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. This object implements the MessageListener interface. You use the Session. usually expect a specific message type and format. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. (Remember always to call the start() method. you are likely to miss messages. 188 . and you can use it to receive messages. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. For example. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. however. if it needs to reply to messages.14 . The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.start(). MessageConsumer consumer = session.) When message delivery begins. which contains one method. For example. After you register the message listener.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. A message listener does. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.createConsumer(myTopic). 14. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. onMessage().receive(1000). connection. Moreover.4. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. In the onMessage() method. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. Message m = consumer.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. Message m = consumer. After you have created a message consumer. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.start(). The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.receive().5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. a message listener object may be used.

createProducer(myTopic).createProducer(myQueue).4.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. Here. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. stream message. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. anon_prod. message). For example.createTextMessage(). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. from one application to another.send(myQueue. After you have created a message producer. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.send(message).14 . 14. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. that is. if you created an unidentified producer. At the consuming end.setText(msg_text). 189 . You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. 3. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. message. MessageProducer producer = session. to create and send a TextMessage. With an unidentified producer. bytes message.4. and object message). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message has three main parts: 1. // msg_text is a String producer. map message.receive(). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.createProducer(null).send(message). You must first create the messages.

190 . The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. use the following code: Session session = connection.14 . the first argument means that the session is transacted. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. and message consumers to receive messages.createSession(false. Here. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. 0). The first argument means that the session is not transacted. After you create a Connection object.out. Before committing the transaction.println("Reading message: " + message. To create a transacted session. Session. If the user selects transaction support. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. Sessions implement the Session interface. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.getText()).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).4. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. then delivers the messages. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.createSession(true. } else { // Handle error } 14. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.

especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .DB interaction transactions . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. component recovery scalability portability 191 . while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.no developer coding. improved performance security . container which offers services to the component.15 .0. The component lives inside a container.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. 15.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. server which provides an execution environment for containers. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . message-driven beans The 2. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. Version 1.jar file into the application server.0.object oriented representation of data in a DB. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. bundled into a single unit. On the other side.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .consistent error handling framework . the container lives (in general) in an application server.transaction management can be complex.

returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.xml 15. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. which is an xml file. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.15 . the remote interface of the bean 4. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the deployment descriptor. as follows: 1.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. called ejb-jar. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.

public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.javax. String lastName. The developer does not implement this interface. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. import java.15 .rmi. While the Remote interface declares no methods. RemoteException. import.*. } 15. } 193 . import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.RemoteException.javax.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. import.*.ejb. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.ejb. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi.RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException.

Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. this can be done (for example) through SSL. prop. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). we need to know: 1.15 . creating them for the client application.jnp.put(Context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. "org. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.interfaces.NamingContextFactory". prop. if the client executes outside the container. "localhost:1099"). how to create or find the bean 2. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. } 194 . In the case of an web application.

PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.PortableRemoteObject class and. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). IIOP has not been designed for Java.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Why? For EJB.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. MyBeanHome. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. that is part of CORBA standards. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. This is done through the javax. more specifically.Remote interface).lookup("MyBean"). do implements the java. to the appropriate type. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. Problem is.rmi. in fact. 195 . do not have the concept of casting. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.rmi. but for generic languages.rmi. in fact. using the narrow() method. the client has a stub). Some languages.e. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. and this means that there are some limitations. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. • if the client executes outside the container. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.class).narrow(homeRef.

SessionContext. call business methods on the bean myObject. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.remove(). "Vasile".15 .ccards. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface..bank11. public class MyBean implements javax. 15. int custId) { // method implementation .. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .. 1102).SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. as well).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ejb.ejbeans.ejb. String lastName.create(). remove the bean instance myObject. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). import javax. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.processEntry("Dumitrascu".

The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. that is.15 .10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. namely stateful and stateless beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. A stateless bean does not. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 197 . public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. 15. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. the object is activated. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 15. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.

or passivate.15 .1 are invoked by the EJB container. is inside the bean class. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. All other methods in Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. At the end of the life cycle.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. 15. The ejbCreate method. 198 . you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. (Typically. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean. For example. for example. Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. the client invokes the remove method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.

This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. stored in a Database).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 .2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.

an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. methods which have the same parameters.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.bank11.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. in the same order. 200 .ccards. state data is stored into data store (usually.lang. Update and Delete. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. 15. We can have more create() methods. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().14. On the other side. an instance of that bean is created. as the parameters in the original create() method. CreateException. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.15 . Read. all throwing RemoteException. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.

3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.15 . On the first path. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. for BMP.14. but in general. it is empty. but the developer returns null for CMP. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. for BMPs. not null. 15.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. 15. the client invokes the create method. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. After instantiation.14. While in the pooled stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the programmer will create actual SQL code.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. On the second path. 201 . While an entity bean is in the ready stage. Second. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. it's business methods can be invoked. All instances in the pool are identical. actual SQL update code. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. in BMP. First. After the EJB container creates the instance. left empty most of the time in CMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). a client can invoke the remove method. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.

In the pooled state. If the primary key is incorrect.an application client. 15. In the pooled state. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. It acts as a JMS message listener.15 . the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. it does not automatically set the primary key. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. the values of the instance variables are not needed. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . With bean-managed persistence. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. another enterprise bean.getPrimaryKey(). You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Therefore. 202 . The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. or a Web component .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.

16.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. 15.16. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. In several respects. Unlike a session or entity bean. the message will be redelivered. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. If this element is set to more than one. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. 203 .4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. If message processing is rolled back.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. max-beans-infree-pool. an open database connection. When a message arrives. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.15 . or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. but not asynchronously. a JMS API connection. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. message-driven bean can be used.16. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. To avoid tying up server resources. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.for example. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. Previously. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . The onMessage method may call helper methods.16. 15. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. For more information on this element see. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To ensure concurrency.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.

and must take a single parameter of // type javax. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .0 specification.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.jms. Note: These instances can be pooled. Obtain a new bean instance.} // onMessage() is required. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). finalize{}.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.16.. 2. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. As with other EJB types.. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. Classes. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 3.}.16. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.Message MessageName) {. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. // An EJB constructor is required. public void ejbRemove() {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. 15. and it must not // accept parameters.15 .. public void onMessage(javax. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.jms..ejb.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.Message.16. methods.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. or create a new one. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.

The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). For example.16. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.16.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. getRollbackOnly() .16. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. If any method throws such an exception. 15.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. getUserTransaction().8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. However. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.MessageListener. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().15 .This is not a client context.16. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. even in onMessage().jms. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.onMessage() for more information. See javax.

15 . Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.xml.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.0 specification. as described in the EJB 2. In either case. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.16. as required by the EJB 2. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . 15.0 specification.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.16.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.

jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. For each instance.0 specification.xml deployment file. 15.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.xml elements. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. 2.. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> ..message. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 207 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. as described in the EJB 2. </message-driven> . the weblogic-ejb-jar. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.15 ..ejb20.jms.

security 208 . EJB class name 5. session specific elements 9. entity specific elements 10. At the end of the life cycle. bean home name .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 .specifies control attributes for transactions 4. 15.security issues. isolation level. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. access control entries . environment properties 6.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.like transaction. a message-driven bean is never passivated. control descriptors . the home interface name 7. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. the remote interface name 8. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. attributes . the container calls the ejbRemove method. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.

ccards.ccards.ccards.ccards.bank11.lang.ejb.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.ejb.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.15 .bank11.bank11.ejb.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.ccards.

lang.15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application... </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .


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