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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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like HTML pages. like the client tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. and sends it back to the client program.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. processes it (if necessary). 5 .java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.2 Server communication 1. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. are not considered web components. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.7 business components Business code. The web tier. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.1 . retail. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. processes it (if necessary). An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Figure 1. or finance. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.

1.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).9 java EE Containers Normally. resource pooling.3 Web. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 1. enterprise edition Figure 1. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. In addition. enterprise bean. Before a web.9. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. mainframe transaction processing. 6 . and other legacy information systems. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. multithreading. database systems. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. For example.1 . The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Business and EIS Tiers 1. and other complex low-level details. or application client component can be executed.java platform.

a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 7 . Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.4. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. including services such as security. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.java platform. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. After an enterprise bean is created. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. database connection resource pooling.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 1. data persistence. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. For example. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. transaction management. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.9.1 .

1.manages the execution of application client components. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .10. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. text-based standard for representing data. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Web container . No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. Application clients and their container run on the client. or for document-oriented web services.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. program files. Applet container . When XML data is exchanged between parties. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.1 . all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. enterprise edition Figure 1. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . 1. 8 .manages the execution of applets. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.java platform. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. develop. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. XML data. video. Application client container .the runtime portion of a Java EE product.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. maps. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. extensible.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. test. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. For example.

Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. the location of the service.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. The description includes the name of the service.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. and ways to communicate with the service.java platform. 9 .10. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.1 . and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 1. such as Universal Description.10. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.10. enterprise edition 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.

allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. the session bean and its data are gone. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. 1. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. When the client finishes executing.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.11. or if the server shuts down. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11. enterprise edition Figure 1. 1. Commonly.11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.java platform. you employ a single.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. If the client terminates. 1.1 . entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. standard set of tags. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. In Java EE 5. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. WML. and XML) and JSP elements. or enterprise bean.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. it is ready to be deployed. SAAJ. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.java platform. the application is ready to run. and JNDI 1. Once deployed on a local platform. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. such as better performance. or component accordingly. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.1 . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. servlet.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. better tools. No extra coding is needed. 15 . JSP page. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. module. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. or a component. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. or better customer support. a module. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. JTA. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. At runtime. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .ear extension.

Together. supporting class files. GIF and HTML files. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. Resource adapter modules. Web modules. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.war (Web ARchive) extension. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.jar extension. and other documentation. and a web application deployment descriptor.1 . for example. classes. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. native libraries. enterprise edition Figure 1. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files.java platform. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. For example. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain all Java interfaces. Application client modules. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.jar extension. such as caching directives. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. JSP files. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. • • 16 . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.

It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.ietf. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. we recommend www.... Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. HEAD. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.com/easy/http.w3. 2..0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. zero or more header lines 3. These messages may have different contents.org/rfc/rfc1945. The second (and last.org/Protocols .jmarshall. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. but they also have some common structural elements.html). The server answers with a response message.HTTP 2. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).apps. POST. as follows: 1. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).HTTP 2 . namely HTTP 1. an initial line 2. RFC 2616 (06/99). was the object of several RFCs.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. . a blank line (CR/LF) 4. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.1. so far) version. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.2 . The client sends a request message to the server. check the official HTTP site – www.

HTTP/1.html HTTP/1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. as well. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. Here is their list: 1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. 18 . in the HTTP 1. PUT 8. but lack of support makes them obsolete. 2. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. GET 2.Posting a message to a bulletin board. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. TRACE Three other commands are listed. HEAD 3. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . . mailing list.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.0). DELETE 6.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. newsgroup.1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.Annotation of existing resources. OPTIONS 7. GET /path/to/the/file/index. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.2 .1 specification. POST 4. CONNECT 5.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.

” On the other side. 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. In this case. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. like storing or updating data.0 404 Not Found 2. separated by the character “&” or “. to a data-handling process.8 the status code A three-digit integer. 3. or sending E-mail 2. .2 . The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. When used for form data submission. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. after the “?” character.6 differences between GET and POST 1. while POST may involve anything.Providing a block of data. or in the message body.Extending a database through an append operation. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.HTTP or similar group of articles. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or a record is subordinate to a database. .7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. or ordering a product. 2. such as the result of submitting a form. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.

file or script output) is returned in the message body. In particular. and the resulting resource (e. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.1). 2.an unexpected server error.the requested resource doesn't exist. one (Host) is mandatory. none of them mandatory. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.2 . separated a semicolon.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. where the requested resource is returned to the client. that is. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.1 only) .9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.0. If an HTTP message includes a body. header name and header value. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. Although the header names are not case sensitive. and section 10 for HTTP 1. The HTTP 1. fails. out of which. or otherwise can't run correctly. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. header values are. In a request. 500 Server Error . The most common use of the message body is in a response. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 2.the request succeeded.1 version specifies 46 of them. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. 20 .0 version specifies 16 headers.g. such as text/html or image/jpg. while the HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 404 Not Found . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).

with subtypes jpeg. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.2 .html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.HTTP 2. postscript 5. multipart.info.uvt. parallel 3. digest. alternative. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.info. image. text.html first open a socket to the host web. audio. . with subtypes octet-stream. gif 6.ro. with subtype plain 2. partial. video. message.0 From: someuser@yahoo. with subtypes mixed. with subtype mpeg 2. 1.ro/path/file.0 200 OK Date: Fri.html HTTP/1. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. Then. application. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). RFC 1521 (www.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.apps. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. 21 . external-body 4.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.uvt. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes rfc822.org/rfc/rfc1521. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtype basic 7.ietf.

2 . the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .HTTP .

namely HTML 1. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. From 1999 on. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. Since it fits in a couple of pages.html) and was widely supported.html. Version 4.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.htmlgoodies.HTML 3. The XHTML 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www. 3. The latest version (XHTML 2.com/indexdot/html . The newest version of HTML is 4.0 draft was released in 01.0. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. www.org/rfc/rfc1866. A newer standard.www.com/easy/html .0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.01.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.3 . It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. Originally named Web Applications 1.w3c. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. The first official version – HTML 2. It is a revision of 4. The first version of HTML.2 (3. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. HTML 3.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.blooberry.apps. Mosaic.0 . HTML describes how text.jmarshall.0 and was accepted in December 1997.0.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. However.org/Markup .com/tutors. As a practical reference site use – www. a working draft for the next major revision.HTML 3 .99. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.ietf. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.w3.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0) dates from 08. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. check the official HTML site – www. Other helpful sites . All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.

HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

4.and end at the first occurrence of -->. 3. This section deals with some of the most common elements. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. An example: <!-. the specification of HTML 4." (in hexadecimal) . HTML 4. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.01 specification. three DTDs (HTML 4.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 contains an SGML declaration. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. CONTROLS.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. “&quot”. though.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. 3. like ALIGN. You get the point. BORDER.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. "&#x6C34.0 Transitional DTD. <><> --> 25 . look at these examples: “&lt”. HTML 4. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. ….0 Strict DTD.acesta este un comentariu.the chinese character for water. Overall. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. If you wonder what a character reference is. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Check the address http://www.3 . VSAPCE are omitted. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.w3. DYNSRC.

An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3 .3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.5 tables 26 .4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.HTML 3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.info. image. etc.3. NAME.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.ro/webmail/src/login.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.uvt.

headers and cells are <TABLE>. Usually. <THEAD>. Here is their description and attributes. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. its rows. Here is a an example of a table: 3. columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.3 .

7 forms A form is a basic component container. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .required. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

"submit". specifies how data will be sent to the server. "hidden". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "password". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .HTML • METHOD .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . Example: http://web. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.the default value.if specified. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .sends the form values in a single transmission. 3. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "radio".?.required.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Main attributes: • TYPE .8. may have the values GET or POST.required. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".info. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . NAME . • 3.uvt.:.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".required. however. "text/plain" • • 3.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.3 . specifies the parameter name. "button". after a quotation mark . "checkbox". "reset".maximum number of options visible to the user.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. allows multiple selections from the choice list.8. "image". Main attributes: 29 . "GET" . the browser appends the values to the URL.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "file".8. SIZE .8 form related elements 3.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. In terms of execution time. following the 1.class file. Java source – a file with extension .95.4. Inc.2 version. the compilation process occurs. jit From source to execution.3 java applications 31 . Early versions of Java were released in 12.java 2. project started in 12.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. The current version (as of 10. -g : generate all debugging info. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. Java bytecode – a file with extension . javac -classpath .class 3.) in 08.95. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The first time a class is loaded.90. The current version (as of 10.C:\TW\mySource. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . but next time execution is much faster.JAVA PRIMER 4.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05..class file.JAVA PRIMER 4 .0. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. 4.class. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. Example: Edit the file prog1.4 .java One example of command line compilation: 4.java. To overcome this significant shortage. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.2 java the interpreter.

An example: 32 .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. Generally. or is derived from A.java.jar file. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. or that it extends A). The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4 object oriented concepts 4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.4. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. In general. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. 4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.4 .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.

Boolean.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. with the root the class Object. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. 33 .4. Therefore. Short.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). a Java class can extend a single base class. Character. Double. 4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. In fact. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. namely: Byte. Float.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.1 bit char .5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .4 . Long. this is called method overloading. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class.4. In OO jargon. Therefore. 4. While C++ allows multiple inheritance.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. providing its own implementation. a class can have more than one method with the same name. called Object. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Integer. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).

the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.no access from outside the class itself protected . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the class is visible from any class. no templates. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .one which is defined at class level.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . Except for the "package" concept.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. 4.http.one which is constant method .4 . • • • • no specifier . 34 . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. anywhere abstract .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. has the same value for all class instances. } declares an abstract class.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A final variable (method.does not have any subclasses.. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). method . rather than at class instance.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet.servlet.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public ..access from any class anywhere private . class .http. A final: • • • variable .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. inherited). which extends the class javax. automatic garbage collection.

not at execution time.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.like invalid cast. array index out of bounds.7. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. standard method exceptions 3. 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . In Java. as defined in the java. division by 0.JAVA PRIMER 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.ThreadDeath.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). java errors .7. code or data errors . programmer defined exceptions 4. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Exception categories: 1. 2. namely class Error and the class Exception.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.7.4 .

sql. followed by the import statements. The package containing the standard classes is java.support for java archives creation java.1 Package names The default package has no name. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .Properties.lang (automatically available).*. date and time info java.default.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.util.event ..io java.awt.nio java. 4. therefore. All other packages must be explicitly imported. import javax. they have to be unique inside a package. As a general rule.servlets.util. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.8.java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. string analyzers.class file.awt . the class (the . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).util . 4.support for event handling java.4 . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.support for data collections. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.by adding the key word throws.awt.security 36 .net java. catch.ccards. finally construct. import. 4. the default package is used). don't have to import java.support for user interface java.bank11.zip .rmi java.lang .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.sql java. In the example above. An example: package com.geom . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.this can be done by providing a try..JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . .

JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.accessibility javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.event . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.swing.4 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All variables (actually. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).support for event handling 4. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. 37 . it must be declared as abstract.swing . static and final.text javax. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.

A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. other 38 . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. However.5 .JAVASCRIPT 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.javaScript 5 .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.depending on the browser . then LiveScript and finally.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. like QtScript or ActionScript.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. The origins of this language date back to 1995.A JavaScript statement like this: document. Subsequently. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . and .HTML authors are normally not programmers. This is not always what we want.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . 5. as JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .

js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </head> 5. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. go in the head section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . Save the external JavaScript file with a . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. 39 . When you place a script in the head section.3.. 5..2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. you can write a JavaScript in an external file..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. or when an event is triggered.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.3.. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . point to the .js file extension.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.5 .3. </script> </body> 5.. To simplify this.

.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration..5..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object..4.. break.4. for(). in and the try .. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.5 . continue.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs... else. 5.4.javaScript 5.. switch(). while(). namely – if .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. in loop is executed once for each element/property.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5..1 JavaScript for. The code in the body of the for . or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .In statement The for. catch constructs.4.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..

so you don't lose your audience. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement (available in IE5+.5 ... When users see errors. mycars[0] = "Saab". or a property of an object. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.0.. mycars[2] = "BMW". Example Using for. The try block contains the code to be run..5. an array element.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.3 try.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). } </script> </body> </html> 5.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. they often leave the Web page.5.... mycars[1] = "Volvo".in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. Mozilla 1. var mycars = new Array().catch statement The try.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.

txt+="Click OK to continue.5 .javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. alert(txt).1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). When an alert box pops up.\n\n".\n\n".7.7 popup boxes 5. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. Also. txt+="Error description: " + err. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. Syntax: 42 .description + "\n\n". 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.

. When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel".8. in the example above had not been written within a function. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .javaScript alert("sometext") 5. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .7. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). If the user clicks "Cancel". the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Now.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns null. If the user clicks "OK". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. When a confirm box pops up. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. the box returns false. Syntax: prompt("sometext".8 functions 5.5 . in the <head> section. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.js file). the box returns true.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.7. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.

An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects..var2.length). and how they are used. document. So. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.9.9. 5.write(txt. etc are variables or values passed into the function.8. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2..9 javaScript objects 5..1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. var2.. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. 5.5 . In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. and will be stored in the variable called product.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.javaScript function functionname(var1.

10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()). 45 . </script> 5. The other class are the language specific objects.javaScript 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.5 . document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".write(str.9. which will be specified in the next section.

This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Even this Document itself is an Object.11. N: Netscape. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. For example. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.5 . At its most basic level.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.asp 5. every Image on the page is an Object. as well). which are called Objects. When an event message has been triggered. or when the user interacts with a Web page. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.w3schools. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.com/jsref/default. Properties FF: Firefox. every Link on the page is an Object. check the site http://www.

N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.5 .

Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a four-digit number. depending on the browser.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 .

IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. according to universal time. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.5 . to a string.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time.11. according to Greenwich time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.

5 .5 4 .5 4 3 4 .11. Syntax for creating a new Number object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 3 4 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . N: Netscape.5 .11. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

javaScript 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 2.y) pow(x.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 1. 1.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.5 .434) Returns PI (approx.y) min(x.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 0. 3. 2.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 0.11.

12.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.age=30. etc. The persons' properties include name. lastname.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. height. 5. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. play(). personObj.write(personObj.eyecolor="blue". etc.firstname).12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj. The persons' methods could be eat(). All persons have these properties.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. sleep(). work().lastname="Doe". weight.firstname="John". with a collection of properties and methods.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj.12.lastname="Doe". Assume that the personObj already exists . personObj.12. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.5 .eyecolor="blue". You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. Properties are the values associated with the object. skin tone. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj.age=50. age. eye color.you can give it properties named firstname.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). Objects also have methods. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.firstname="John".1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. 53 . personObj. personObj. document. age.

You can also add some methods to the person object. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.age=age."green"). this.12.lastname=lastname."Rally".eyecolor) { this.propertyName. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).eyecolor) { this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.48. this.firstname=firstname.newlastname=newlastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. myMother=new person("Sally". This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. like this: myFather=new person("John".javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. 54 .age.5 .eat=eat. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. this. 5.lastname=lastname. } Notice that the template is just a function. Once you have the template."blue"). } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."Doe".50.age=age.eyecolor=eyecolor. this. this.age.lastname. this.lastname.firstname=firstname. you can create new instances of the object.lastname=new_lastname. this.

we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. We define the events in the HTML tags. now you can write: myMother.newlastname("Doe").. So..javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. For example. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. 5.". JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.5 .

and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. For example.13. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".13.5 .javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. 5. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The name is then stored in a cookie.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.2 onFocus. the submit should be cancelled. If the field values are not accepted. If it returns true the form will be submitted. 5.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.w3schools. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .

and style of a document. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. or WebAPI being among them. XML.HTML DOM 6. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. SVG. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then.. the Document Object Model activity is closed. structure. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. By October 1998. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. In other words. HTML. The W3C 58 . W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. CSS. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. particularly those used in Web browsers. 6.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .Html DOM 6 . DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.g. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. However. Right now (oct. 2010). As of January 2008. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.6 .2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.

Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 XPath. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. 6. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). a new DOM Core specification. and 6. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. 2. As of 2005. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. DOM Level 3 Validation. each of which contains required and optional modules. Level 2. Level 1.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. which further enhances the DOM 6. To claim to support a level. Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. 5.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. 4. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. DOM Level 3 Requirements. HTML-specific elements are included as well. 3.6 .

Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. that is.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.x and Netscape 4. can be accessed through the 60 . A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. 6. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. All HTML elements. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.6 . when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. interoperability problems were numerous. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Opera.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers.x were still widely used in 2000. In order to be cross-browser compatible. along with their containing text and attributes. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). support multiple browsers.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. The Window object represents a browser window.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. and Safari. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. By 2005. Konqueror.

JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . It can be used by any programming language like Java. and new elements can be created. and VBScript.

The <head> node holds a <title> node.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <html> node has two child nodes. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The tree structure is called a node-tree.9. 6.8. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. <head> and <body>. the element node <title>. everything in an HTML document is a node. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. However. 62 . "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.6 . 6.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.Html DOM 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.

Parent nodes have children.9. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. except the root. child.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. using the node relationships. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.9. 63 .getElementById('main'). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). Their contents can be modified or deleted. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. By using the getElementById() method 2. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. By navigating the node tree. and new elements can be created. children.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. the top node is called the root Every node. • • • • • In a node tree.getElementsByTagName("p"). and the connections between them. The terms parent.2 node parents. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).getElementsByTagName("p").6 .

Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.Html DOM for (i=0. document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.9. each node is an object. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document.length. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.6 .4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). } 6.write("<br />").i<x.innerHTML). The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .write(x[i].

A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.getElementById("intro"). txt=x.5 example . 6.Html DOM 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.firstChild.nodeValue. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 .9.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.

including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. objects and images. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . frames. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".

as of version 1. 67 . Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. 6. say "click". This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. During the event flow. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Mozilla. and then bubbled up.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. When the user clicks on the inner element. DOMNodeInserted. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Also. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. also supports these methods. Fires when an element is activated. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element.6 . for instance. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).3. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Safari. through a mouse click or a keypress.

To cancel the event if it is cancelable. including information about target element. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. key pressed. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. mouse position. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Unfortunately. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. etc. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. preventDefault 68 . mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.6 .Html DOM 6. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched.

XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 69 .AJAX 7 .AJAX 7. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. fields of forms. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. For improving sharing of resources. 7. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. It is not a technology in itself. For example. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. The server does some processing — retrieving data. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. dynamic website. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. but also to save resources. crunching numbers. using web services or Php scripts. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. choices of user. before the whole page was sent within the network. 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. etc. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. menus.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.7 . and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.

why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server.7 . the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. 70 . what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting. While the server is doing its thing. Obviously. we wouldn’t make users wait around. but the opposite is true. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. Instead of loading a web page.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. And at every step in a task. at the start of the session. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. waiting around for the server to do something. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Once an interface is loaded. the user waits some more. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server.

without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. loading additional interface code. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.7 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. usually using XML. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .responseText . . . onreadystatechange . 1: connection established.7 .holds a Xml loaded file. thanks to its methods and attributes. GET or POST .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. These events are user actions. url. 7. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.returned by the server . 2: request received.open: create a connection.200 is ok. This object provides two methods: . 4: finished. 3: answer in process.mode: type of request. and in this purpose. .responseXml .AJAX 7. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.url: the location of the file 72 . DOM's method allows to extract data.for a simple text. To get data on the server.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. boolean) .holds loaded data as a string of characters.send: send a request to the server.for a Xml file or . It allows the interaction with the servers. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 404 if the page is not found . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.

} else if (window. http_request.null for a GET command 7.. . true).fr/somefile.7 . . for browser compatibility. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. URL of the document. http_request. 73 . true for asynchronous.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. OK } else { // wait.. 'http://www.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.xml'. Safari.xul.6 building a request.send: with POST only.. // Firefox.open('GET'.send(null). request.open: command GET or POST.readyState == 4) { // received. but two options must be tried.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . the data to send to the server.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . The request below reads a document on the server. if (window. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.. if (request.XMLHTTP").AJAX .

ajax.open("GET".responseXML.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".send(null).getElementsByTagName('root').1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.dyn="Received:" + req.ajax.item(0).xml".XMLHTTP). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.status == 200) document. by this code: var doc = req.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.responseText.7. req. if(window. "data.dyn="Error code " + req.responseText. else if (window.7. else document. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.status.readyState == 4) if(req.7 examples 7.7 . req.dyn=""Received:" + req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. true).onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. req. req.ajax. }.AJAX 7.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

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Servlet. Servlet. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. After an enterprise bean is created. descriptions).0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.bank11.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Here is a small. database connection resource pooling. For example. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.)> <web-app> <!-.servlets. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.. 8.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . but typical web. servlet classes. classes.class>com. like: 1. data persistence. web. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Others. like what pages are error. 4.ccards. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Initialization of parameters for servlets.. MIME types used by the web application. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.xml file: <?xml version="1. 6. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. JSPs and Java Server Faces.8 . 5. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 2. 3. welcome pages. entries related to session configuration.

then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml".class" and that it is part of the package "com. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Behind a very benign URL. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.ccards. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. For example.bank11. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.xml" file.servlets". if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. 1.ccards. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. Basicly. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. basicly.8 .bank11. it is the alias of the real servlet class. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".WEB APPLICATIONS 8.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.servlets".bank11. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". Then the "EnrollServlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml" 2. However.servlets. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. In general. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml file of the web application. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. Unfortunately. the name of the web application. for flexibility. whose name is rather long. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.

1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . the Java Servlet 3. 9.5 and is in final state.SERVLETS 9. which extend the functionality of the web server.4.2. this is just a work in progress. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. but at this point. platform independent programs.SERVLETS 9 . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. the HttpServlet) class.0 specification. in most cases as part of an application server. modular design 9. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. tjws spec 2.9 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). 2010.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.0 specification is available for public review.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. more often. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. but through a web container. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. small footprint.2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. 9. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. from BEA Systems.4. Technically speaking. As of oct. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.

from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . public void service(ServletRequest req. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet package are protocol independent. while the second one. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet javax.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. 82 . WebSphere.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.servlet package. from Apple Inc. These packages are: • • javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. IOException.servlet.9 . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . from IBM 9. the javax.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.

After instantiating the servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. More on the servlet life cycle. in a different section. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The method performs all initialization required. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. namely the HttpServlet class. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. as well. Throwable t) 9. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.9 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. the web container calls its init() method. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. respectively. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. 83 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo().

9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.servlet.9 .8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.servlet.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. 9.ServletException javax.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. It also extends the java.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). service(). a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.lang. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.

But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. which will service all incoming requests. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Typically. respectively. After instantiation. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. If the servlet does not implement the javax. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. DB connection opening. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.9 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. 85 . The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. etc. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the container calls the init() method of the servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. JSP or JSF. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. this method contains JDBC driver loading.servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.SingleThreadModel. Typically. 9. Also.

Here are the most important ones: 86 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 .SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.

io.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.ccards. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.java" file: package com.bank11. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.9 . 87 . This is done in server's (container's) server.xml file. import java. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.servlets.

setContentType(“text/html”).println("</html>"). import javax. PrintWriter out = resp. out.println("<head>"). out. out.*. out.servlet.println("<br>").println("merge").http.println("</head>").println("<html>"). out.init(config). out.println("<body>"). // output your page here out.println("</body>"). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out. IOException { resp.close().9 . out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").*. out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } } 88 .getWriter(). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet.SERVLETS import javax.

It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). The JDBC 4. 89 .sql package. the javax.0 while the current (4.0.JdbcOdbcDriver . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).odbc. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 10. 1997.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. After that.sun.jdbc. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.JDBC 10. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. Type 1. This solution is inefficient.10 . These drivers fall into four standard categories. as recognized by the DB industry.JDBC 10 . the java.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. Starting with version 3.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.1. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .sql package 2.

The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Part Java. which in turn. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The DB returns the result of the call to the API.JDBC Type 2. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. 90 . forwards them to the JDBC driver. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Type 4. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.10 . These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.

ResultSet java.SQLWarning java.Driver java.SQLInput java.SQLData java.sql.sql.10 .DriverManager java.sql.Clob java.Struct java.sql.sql.Connection java.sql.0 API.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLXML java.3 the java.Array java.SQLOutput java.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. defined in the JDBC 3. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.Types java.Statement java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.Wrapper 91 . java.JDBC 10.sql.Date java.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.0).sql.Time java.Blob java.SQLPermission java.ResultSetMetaData java.Timestamp java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.

sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.10 .sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql package.RowId java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java. java.SQLInput java. querying the database 4.NClob java.Connection java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.Blob java.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.SQLOutput java.Clob java.Statement java.SQLClientInfoException java.StatementEvent javax.SQLTransientException java. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.Types java.StatementEventListener 10.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLException java.PreparedStatement java.DatabaseMetaData java.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.0.CommonDataSource javax.

jdbc.OracleDriver sun.ibm.driver.jdbc.sybase.datastore. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .odbc.DB2Driver oracle.SybDriver com. The first one is loading a database driver.borland.10 .net.jdbc.JDBC 10.DataStoreDriver com.db2. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.

passwd). the only protocol allowed in JDBC). as specified by the driver vendor. but let's take it for granted: import java.10 .getConnection(connURL.sql. by using the connection URL.util.gjt. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.Driver").*. user. 94 .mm.forName("org. Since we just used it.printStackTrace(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".newInstance(). String user = "root". as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.bank11. import java. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. try { Class.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.*. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.mysql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).

we can use it for various purposes.10 . int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. 10.util. "true"). java. Connection conn = DriverManager. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package. int resultSetConcurrency. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Properties prp = new Properties(). String user.put("autocommit". but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. prp). String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.getConnection(connURL. "true"). prp.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.JDBC 10.put("create". prp.

The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. respectively. namely. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.JDBC 10.10 . methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. Statement. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.

The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.". stmt..ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.executeUpdate(sqlString).createStatement().sql. 10.10 .9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.

and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. 98 . PreparedStatement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. a concurrency of read only. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. and CallableStatement objects.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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0 optional package. This interface is.sql.10 . nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.sql package.math.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. mins.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. It is part of the javax.sql. There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a Connection object that will 103 . time. basicly. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. a factory for creating DB connections.Time java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. secs date. Connection pooling implementation -.math. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. Basic implementation -.Big Decimal Object float 10.produces a standard Connection object 2. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.sql.DataSource object.

http.servlets.sql.class.*. javax. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. import import import import import import java. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.servlet.*.ccards.naming.io.lookup("java:comp/env"). java. javax.*. 104 .sql. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".getLogger(TestDataSource.getName()). private DataSource theDataSource.bank11. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.10 .JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). javax.servlet.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. javax. Distributed transaction implementation -.*. 3. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.*.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 .10 . ServletException { .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException..

JSP 11 . The package javax. If the JSP is modified. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The package javax.servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).tagext.5 Java Servlet specification. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .servlet. 11. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet.11 . the servlet code is regenerated.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp.jsp and javax.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.2 the java. namely javax.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.JSP 11.jsp. The javax. 11.servlet.jsp.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet.1 and is related to the 2.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . include and taglib... %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. 111 . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".11 .

Assigns it to available name or id. 11.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11.7.7 scripting elements 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. In Tomcat.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.7. this code goes to inside the service() method.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.11 .JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.

property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.11 .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.the name of a bean instance. Attributes description: • • • name . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . you must specify param.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .

name of the property to be retrieved 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.the URL of the page. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. 11.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .13 the forward standard action 114 . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. <jsp:plugin> actions. same format as the <%@include> directive.11 .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. flush . <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.only the "true" value is supported.

. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .the type of object the plugin will execute. It is used mainly. name . archive="URIToArchive. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. code="classFileName" . as this attribute has no default value.. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.11 . ..class extension in the name following code.." .the name of a bean instance. 11.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. You must specify either bean or applet. as well. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.a name for the Bean or applet instance. depending on request. servlet or to a static resource. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. If you do not supply a value. You must include the .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.. when we want to separate the application into different views. name="instanceName" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.

writes to the output stream to the client. session . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . based on the servlet API.1. page . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.PrintWriter.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.it represents the buffered version of java. Must be a small nonzero number.the initial height and width.represents server's response to the request. response .the amount of space.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. and domain name.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. The value is a full URL. optional port number. in pixels. objects which are automaticly available.16 scopes 1. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. it has java.servlet. request . with a protocol name. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . 1. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. in pixels. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.1" .11 .lang.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.Object type and scope page 11.represents the servlet context. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. application .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. config .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. of the image the applet or Bean displays.jsp. request .io. The default value is 1. out .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. it has javax.JspWriter type and scope page 7. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. pageContext . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.

an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.ccards. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp file.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. application . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.init(). Object value) method 3.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.beans. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.bank11. Object value) method 11.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. page . session .17 a short example The following is the Enroll.11 .JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 4. Object value) method 2.

examples.mapping. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). private int list[]. SimpleBean.java: package com. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private boolean flag.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private float number. a float.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private int integer. a software development and consulting company. The public constructor could have been omitted.Serializable { private String string. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private String optional. private String colors[]. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private SimpleSubBean subBean.devsphere. an int.simple.18. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.io. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .11 . The SimpleBean class is declared public. 11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.register(). // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.string. a boolean and another String).

} // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.JSP this. } 119 .number = value.colors.integer = value. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.flag = value.string = value.number.integer.flag.11 . } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors[index]. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

list = values. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.optional. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list[index]. int value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.11 . } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. String value) { this. } } 120 .colors[index] = value.subBean.list[index] = value.optional = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.subBean = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list.

} } 11.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . SimpleSubBean.io. private float number.simple.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.string.mapping.number. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.java: package com.Serializable { private String string.examples. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.string = value.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).11 .number = value.18.devsphere.

JSP colors list optional subBean.11 .string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.

No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "An option must be selected" }.simple. SimpleBeanResources. The list of optional properties has a single element. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. error messages. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.util.flag]". the form's name and the processor's name.18.colors]". new Boolean(true) }. the processing order. "One or more colors must be selected" }.mapping.list]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string]". new Float(0. new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new int[] { 2. 3 } }.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The default values are defined for a String.11 . There are three error messages. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]". a float.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.number]".java: package com. a boolean and an int[]. "abc" }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. the list of optional properties.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.123) }. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.list]".devsphere. "One or more items must be selected" }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.examples.

devsphere. The beanToForm() method of com.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.mapping.devsphere.devsphere. If necessary. "colors".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. { "[FORM_NAME]".simple.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.html" }.util.devsphere. "integer".18. "SimpleForm. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. The formToBean() method of com. "number".mapping.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). "optional". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "flag".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.mapping.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.mapping.logging.11 . string values are converted to numbers.devsphere. SimpleHndl. For a better understanding of this example. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. "SimpleProc.JSP "optional" } }. "list". "subBean" } }.examples.*.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. new String[] { "string". { "[PROC_NAME]". } } 11. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").jsp" } }.

// Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). slashIndex+1) : "". int slashIndex = basePath.11 . // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.JSP = HandlerUtils.getTemplate(new java.getRealPath(formPath). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getServletPath(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).forward(request.removeUserErrors(errorTable).trim(). formPath = application.formToBean(formData.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). simpleBean.substring(0. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getDocument().getBeanResources(simpleBean. 125 .getRequestDispatcher(procPath). response). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.lastIndexOf('/').io. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).equals("POST"). errorTable = HandlerUtils. logger).File(formPath)).getClass()).getMethod().trim(). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.util. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.

i < list.11 . errorTable. // Send the form document document.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.beanToForm(simpleBean.JSP elements logger).examples. strbuf. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getSubBean().number = <%= simpleBean.18. SimpleProc.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.send(out).append("{ ").string = <%= simpleBean.length == 0) return "".simple. i++) 126 .length.devsphere.getString() %> <P> subBean. if (list.getSubBean(). for (int i = 0. } %> 11.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. document.mapping. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.

ComplexForm. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. A single call to FormUtils.18. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp files. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().util. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.examples.toString().JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. ComplexHndl.append("}").append(" ").simple.mapping. In addition. for (int i = 0.append(list[i]).toString(). return strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. i < list. } strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. if (list.append("}"). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. strbuf. } %> 11. return strbuf.append("{ "). Using the framework.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. In addition. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.length.11 . The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. strbuf.length == 1) return Integer.length == 0) return "". Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. } strbuf. The localization of the Complex*. i++) { strbuf.formToBean() call.append(list[i]).devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.append(" ").toString(list[0]).

length.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.getColors(). i < integerLabels.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value. String colorValues[] = { "red". i++) { boolean checked = false. for (int i = 0. "Blue" }. "blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j].length. 128 . String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "green". j < colors. "Green". "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". i < colorValues. "Option 2". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].length. "Option 3" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. for (int i = 0. i++) { int value = i+1.11 .

examples.length. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.JSP break.mapping. j < list. "subBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .simple.getList().setSubBean( new com. if (list == null) list = new int[0].length. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. boolean selected = false. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". "Item 2".11 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.SimpleSubBean()).devsphere.getSubBean(). "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. "Item 3" }. break. for (int i = 0. i < listItems. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.

11 .number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere.mapping.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.examples.examples.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.setString("abc").number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple.getMethod(). return message.getString().length() == 0) { simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.util. } %> ComplexHndl.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).util. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. 130 . if (message == null) message = "".mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere. "subBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getSubBean(). boolean isPostMethod = request.get(property).simple.Hashtable errorTable.equals("POST").

setNumber(0. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).trim(). if (flagValue. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.11 . "number". "Must be a number"). "Must be filled").setNumber(0. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getColors(). else { simpleBean. } simpleBean. "Must be filled").length() == 0 || flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "An option must be selected"). "string".floatValue()).getParameter("flag"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 .setFlag(flagValue != null).getColors() == null || simpleBean.123f). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleBean.getParameter("number").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).equals("false")) flagValue = null. "number".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer".

length == 0) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "One or more items must be selected").setString(""). 3 }).number").getList(). "Must be filled"). "colors". "subBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "subBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.floatValue()). 132 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).string".string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getString().11 . "Must be } //* subBean. "list".getParameter("subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.getList() == null || simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number". } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setOptional("").

errorTable.setString(""). which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".JSP filled").7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.11 .setOptional("").devsphere.\ 133 .simple. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.setList(new int[] { 2. } %> 11.number". A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.util.18. String property. message).jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.devsphere.xml: SimpleHndl. } } else { simpleBean. simpleBean. simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.mapping.devsphere. "Must be a number").put(property.setNumber(0.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.jsp.properties or web.examples.SimpleBean. The com.helpers.setFlag(true). "subBean.setString("abc"). simpleSubBean.code=com. 3 }). simpleBean.mapping.123f).Hashtable errorTable.helpers. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.

11.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.host.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.simple. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.host.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.devsphere. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.another.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.helpers. In many cases. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. If you have another bean-form pair. you could add a few other lines to servlets.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.mapping. A servlet can be made bean-independent.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.AnotherBean. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. a servlet is identified with its class.code=com.properties: AnotherHndl.11 .mapping. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.company.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.helpers.mapping.properties (or web.mapping. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.host.examples. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.xml) file: ServletName.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.devsphere. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.devsphere.examples.18.code=com.

JSP 135 .11 .

which loads the appropriate view template. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0 supersedes version 1. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. buttons.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. Version 2.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.javaserver faces 12 . A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. 2.12 . 12. like input fields. Version 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. This technology includes: 1. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. processes events.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. builds a component tree.

The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. As of version 1.12 . here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. 12.javaserver faces 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.2 of the JFS specification.4.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.

4.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. Common formatting techniques. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. 12. For more information about columns.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. such as alternating row colors.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. footers. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.12 . see the column tag documentation. columns and rows. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . respectively. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.

00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.12 . your options include using plain HTML forms.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.checkout}" /> 139 .javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.4.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.

red for error. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.4.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .user.</span> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.4.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user. 12.12 ." /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.

2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. 12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 .5. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. Without this JavaScript event. The body content of this tag must be empty. can publish value change events. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. validateLength.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.mycompany. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. but only if the new input is validated successfully.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.javaserver faces 12. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.5.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.customer.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. 12. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.5. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. Any component that receives user input.

This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.mycompany.mycompany. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If you have not specified a default locale. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.javaserver faces 12. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. including images and styles. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. myJSFapp 143 . This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.5. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.12 .welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. Example: welcome_en. for each locale you wish to support. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.

jar – files included in the /lib directory.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create JSP pages 2. like third party jar files jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. JSP pages. Create properties files 144 .html.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. mandatory for any JSF application web. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. jsf-api.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. and so on. Define navigation rules 3.javaserver faces /ant build. static resources.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create managed beans 4.exadel.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.12 . custom tag libraries.contains libraries required by the application.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.jar.jar faces-config.xml web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.jar jsf-api.

jsp. Now that we have the two JSP pages. As a diagram.xml file. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp file 7. The directory structure already exists. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp is greeting.jsp and greeting.jsp. Create an index.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Edit JSP pages 6.12 . it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.javaserver faces 5.jsp to greeting.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.7. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. You just need to create its contents. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. These files will act as place holders for now. Compile the application 8. we just want to go from inputname. In our application.7.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. And that's all there is to this. 12. Deploy and run the application 12. we can create a navigation rule.

} /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. You can easily create more complex ones. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.xml Now.7. a very simple navigation rule. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. the second part of faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3. This class is straight-forward.3 faces-config.javaserver faces This is.12 .) 12. public class PersonBean { String personName. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. myJFSapp.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. Inside this myJFSapp folder.7. of course.java file.3. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.3.1 PersonBean.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7.PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. 12.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. The next line is the full class name. we will create a PersonBean. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. To read more about navigation rules. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.xml file should look like this: 146 . 12. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml Your final faces-config.7.

jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.sun.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.5.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.7.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.7.1 messages.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. 12.1//EN" "http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.sun.1 inputname. 12. Inc.12 .sun. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.properties file in the bundle folder.4. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.

button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. Then.sun.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.12 . One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.bundle.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.

sun. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Having an index. The first three lines are identical to our first page. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Lines 3-5.xml file.jsp page. 12.javaserver faces Line 1.. The second line will access a Java bean.greeting_text}" />.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and also print its contents on the page..7.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.6 creating the index. Creates an HTML input text box. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Line 6. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 2.bundle.7.12 . <h:outputText value="#{personBean.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.sun.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. name! 12.5. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Create the index.2 greeting. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.</h3> tags. specifically the bean attribute personName.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.

and forwards the user to a success or error page. 12. When Tomcat is done loading. 12.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).sourceforge. verifies the information.7.javaserver faces Now.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.7. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.7. though. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. we need to deploy it.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.html . put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.12 . We are almost done with this example.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. To build the application run the build. This is a "login" application.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.8. To do this. 150 . which asks an user for an ID and password. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. Your setup. you'll notice the file suffix is . launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. This is used here. might possibly be different).xml file.xml file for the application *. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. because in the web. 12. Of course.jsf and not .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.9 Running Next.jsp.

The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. 2. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. jsf-login. 3. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. a. 12.xml Editor (see faces-config. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. see Installing & Uninstalling. Enter project name. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. Select the Amateras node. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. in the wizard that appears. click Finish 4. The New Project wizard appears.. select the Source tab.. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. 6.. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. click Next d.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. 7. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. say. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.webroot | +-.. 1. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.12 .. from the menubar select File/New/Other. click Yes through messages that appear.src | +-. 9.8.WEB-INF 151 . name the folder pages.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. c. your mileage may vary. click Add Folder. click Next.. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. and set up folders for a web application. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click Next. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. name the folder webroot 5. and to add JSF libraries to the project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. in the Add JSF Support page. Select Java Project. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 10.

Click Finish. click Managed Bean.xml Editor. In Package Explorer select the src folder. 1. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. 2. } return action. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. The New Java Class wizard appears. if ( _uid.12 .pages 12. in the Name field enter LoginManager. We then configure it to be a managed bean. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. private String _pwd = "". public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. In the Package field. b.8. for name enter mgr. a.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. The faces-config. c. for class enter login. } 4. else action = "loginFail".xml. The Java code editor opens. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.java package login. click Add.lib | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".LoginManager. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". from its context menu select New/Class. input widgets appear d. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. 3. for scope select 152 .classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. enter login.xml editor opens.javaserver faces | | | +-.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.

jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp is placed directly in webroot. <!-.jsp. Create success.webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index. the New File wizard appears. 1. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. c. for File name enter index. All pages except login. Then we create login.jsp).webroot/index.8. Create index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.webroot/pages/error. again. then close the editor 12.jsp). We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. so we create them first. Enter the following code: <!-. index. from its context menu select New/File. but in webroot/pages. save the file and close the editor. </body> Please try 153 . Create error. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp: a.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.12 . from the menubar select File/Save. success.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp.jsp are simple pages with static content. but in webroot/pages.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. and 3 content pages (login. click Finish.javaserver faces session. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index. e. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp and error. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp. b. enter the following code. the JSP Editor opens.

and the JSP Editor can help with code. b. Open the JSF palette. from its context menu select New/Other. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.12 . expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. To see this in action. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and choose default for Template. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. (See Show View Dialog) f.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. etc. and dock it along the right. as shown below..javaserver faces </html> 4. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. and uses them for code completion as well. click Next c.jsp: a. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File.sun. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place your cursor in one of these lines. <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. a code-completion window pops up. click Finish.jsp.completion. with the following template code. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. the New wizard appears. g. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens.sun. Create login. enter jsf-login e.. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. 154 . and hit CTRL + Spacebar. now we want to add attributes to this element. d. for File name enter login.

with the barest presentational formatting.. enter #{mgr. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and hit Enter. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".sun. select userID from the code-completion window. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.) j.javaserver faces h.12 . with bean properties available in mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. set its value to Login. complete the expression with the closing { k.password}" l. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. a code-completion window pops up. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. insert another <h:inputText> element. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . i.loginAction} The final code. this inserts value="" at the cursor.

then click inside the editor window.8. 1.xml.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml Editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. click on Page. it should open in the faces-config. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Open faces-config.12 .5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. This is shown below. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 2.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 156 . this inserts a page icon into the editor. using a FacesIDE editor. Select the Navigation tab 3.

jsp and then on the icon for success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. 5.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .jsp 4.jsp and /pages/error. add 3 more pages. in the Properties view.jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. Its properties appear in the Properties view. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp. then click first on the icon for login. 6.jsp. change the value of path to /index. and is represented by an arrow. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. notice that the warning triangle disappears. from the palette at left. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.12 . select Navigation Case. /pages/success. and set them to /pages/login.

Similarly add a forward-action from login. since we have such a trivial application.jsp to error. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .xml Here we edit web. or leave it as-is. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. Once deployed browse to index.xml. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.6 Editing web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.javaserver faces 7. As it turns out. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).12 . open web. We want virtual path-based mapping.jsp.8.jsp. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.jsp. The application is now complete. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. 1. so uncomment it. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml for the specifics of our application. We'll set some properties in web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. all we need do in web. and you should be sent to the success page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. 12.

scroll down to Deploy.el javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.CONFIG_FILES 159 . start Tomcat. For a given factory class name.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. click Deploy 3.8. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.component javax.0 1.faces.convert javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. as file:///. 12..faces. that factory is used. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.faces.render javax.lifecycle javax. the Manager application should reload.faces.webapp 12.faces.validator javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. open its Manager application in a browser.faces javax.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.10 the javax.faces.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.event javax.component.javaserver faces 12.faces.html javax.application javax.faces.context javax..model javax.. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.12 .faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.

faces.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. those factories are used. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).application package Contains the following classes: • Application .Severity . and supporting internationalization and accessibility. with the last one taking precedence.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. FacesMessage . its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. StateManagerWrapper . defining page navigation.12 . If none of the above steps yield a match. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. ViewHandlerWrapper . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.represents a single validation (or other) message. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. handling events and input validation.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. FacesMessage.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. StateManager . ViewHandler . ApplicationFactory .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. with the last one taking precedence.11 the javax. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. 12. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.

ContextCallBack . • • 161 . when activated by the user. ValueHolder . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . or a hyperlink.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. UIComponent . NamingContainer . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. StateHolder .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. ActionSource2 . String) results in failure on postback.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.12 .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.FacesContext. Here they are: • • UIColumn .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. UIComponentBase . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. UICommand . EditableValueHolder . 12. a menu item.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces.faces. • ViewExpiredException . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. String.context. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.restoreView(javax. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.12 the javax.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.

the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UINamingContainer . UIGraphic . UIInput . Optionally.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIOutput . by storing it as the value property of the component. UIForm .12 . UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.html package 162 . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. The user cannot manipulate this component. Optionally. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. that is displayed to the user. it is for display purposes only. This component has no rendering.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. it is for display purposes only.component. UIPanel .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).faces. UIParameter . The user can modify the selected values. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UISelectBoolean .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.13 the java.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UISelectItem . identified by a clientId. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UIMessage . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UISelectOne .javaserver faces • UIData . it just serves as the root of the component tree. UISelectMany . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UIMessages .

Message". HtmlOutputText . On a redisplay. HtmlPanelGroup .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML img element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlOutputFormat .renders the component value as text.12 . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. This component must be placed inside a form.faces. HtmlCommandButton .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML form element. HtmlOutputLabel . the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlInputText . HtmlInputSecret .by default. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlMessage . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.by default. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.renders child components in a table.faces.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents an HTML input element of type text. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlColumn . HtmlInputTextarea .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. or not. HtmlMessages . HtmlForm . but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlOutputLink . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlDataTable . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlCommandLink .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML label element. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML input element of type password. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlInputHidden . and renders the result.

and potentially modified by. ResponseWriterWrapper . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.12 . It is passed to. and the rendering of the corresponding response. FacesContextFactory . ResponseStream .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. ResponseWriter .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesContext . In particular.14 the java.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneListbox .faces. HtmlSelectOneMenu . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.convert package 164 .15 the java. • • • • • • 12. HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. showing a single available option at a time.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. • • • • 12.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .javaserver faces property.faces. showing a single available option at a time.

1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.faces. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . ValueBinding . VariableResolver . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. 12.javaserver faces 12.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. PropertyResolver .12 .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.15.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.16 the java.

PropertyNotFoundException . FacesEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.12 . PhaseId . FacesListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ReferenceSyntaxException . Interfaces: ActionListener . and event implementation classes.faces.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. 166 .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.17 the java. ValueChangeEvent .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).AbortProcessingException . • • • • 12. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ValueChangeListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PhaseListener .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. MethodNotFoundException . PhaseEvent .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. • • • • • One exception .

12.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. • • • • • • • • • 12. SelectItem .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. SelectItemGroup . DataModel .faces.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.20 the java. DataModelEvent . ListDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.faces.12 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.19 the java.javaserver faces 12.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".18 the java. ResultDataModel . ScalarDataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel . Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. ResultSetDataModel .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).faces. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.

Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.faces.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. ResponseStateManager . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.faces.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. together. LongRangeValidator . markup language. • • 12. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. as well.12 . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. including a standard servlet.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.22 the java. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . RenderKitFactory . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. The package contains an exception. Typically.21 the java. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. base classes for JSP custom component tags. AttributeTag . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. 12. and/or user Locale.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . and concrete validator implementation classes.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. • RenderKit . ConverterTag .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.validator package Interface defining the validator model. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.

In JSF. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When the user takes some action with the presentation. telling the view to update its presentation. When using JSF. the life cycle is more complicated. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. servlets. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.12 . When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. telling the model to update its data. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. that need to process their tag bodies. or when an exception occurs. the process includes a few more components or pages. Likewise. the controller sends a message to the view. the controller sends a message to the model. When the model is updated. but basically. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the controller is the 169 . FacetTag .javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. ValidatorTag .23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. • • • • • FacesServlet . In MVC. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). or some other web technology. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. Also.a base class for all JSP custom actions. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. related to a UIComponent. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. that request is passed to the container. 12. which passes the request to the page class. which has several implications. When a web server receives a request. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. UIComponentBodyTag . This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. UIComponentTag . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. Because this does not involve JSF in any way.

The components are stored in a component tree. it creates UI objects for each view component. from cookies sent as part of the request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. and the response is sent to the client. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. such as components that create HTML input fields. These objects update their state with the data values. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. is validated at this time. and a piece of data failed validation. As with the previous phase. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. However. and the UI components are the view. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. It updates only the UI components with the new data. depending on the request. not every request will flow through all six phases. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called.12 . if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. • Invoke Application: During this phase. In addition. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. Data for some components. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request.javaserver faces JSF implementation. 170 . For a JSF-enabled application. the conversion occurs in this phase. and what happens during the processing and response. Data can come from input fields in a web form. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. or from request headers. If this is a subsequent request. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. converting a String to a Date object). the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. the JSF implementation must create the view. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). In addition. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request.

javaserver faces In the above figure. if errors occur during any of the phases.12 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. skipping any remaining phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. Also. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. 171 . If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. For example.

COM.5)."). A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. The DNS entry Wiz. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.sun.9. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. 13.COM.48. when you use an electronic mail system. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. The UNIX pathname. 13. you are always naming one object or another. you supply it the name of the object. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. in turn. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. 172 . For example. In addition. DNS. for example. such as addresses.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13 . The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. NDS.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". such as LDAP. For example. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.2. For example. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. you must supply its name. naming and directory services using a common API. Using JNDI. It enables applications to access different. When using almost any computer program or system.Wiz. possibly multiple. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. Thus the DNS name sales.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. which is located in the root of the file system.13 . A file system maps a filename (for example. To access a file in the computer. and NIS(YP).COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. or objects typically used by computer programs. c:\bin\autoexec. /usr/hello.JNDI 13. names a file hello in the file directory usr. identifiers. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.

in the an LDAP entry o=sun. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. Instead. is a context. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory)."). An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. which in turn. some objects cannot be stored directly.13 . they must be stored by reference. and listing bound names. Typically. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. and fuel and instrument status. its flight plan. 173 . such as c=us.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For example. delimited by the comma character (".2. For simplicity. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. That is. In another example.COM. A file object. an LDAP entry. on the other hand. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). For example. A reference is information about how to access an object. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. Every context has an associated naming convention. Finally. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. in the DNS domain Sun. such as its print server name and printing protocol. 13. such as /usr. A printer object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. a file directory. is accessed using a file reference.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. 13. o=Sun. such as COM. is relative to c=us. that is.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. a DNS domain. A printer object reference. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. might contain the state of the printer. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. For example.c=us. By contrast. for example. that is. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. in the UNIX file system is a context. also called a file handle. unbinding names. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention.2. 13. is a context.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. For example. for example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.2. a file name is bound to a file. For example. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. and its flight number and departure time. Using the reference. while the object itself might contain more state information. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. relative to the entry o=Sun. in a file directory /usr/bin. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object.

A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. to some extent.3. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. And it kind of makes sense. or a network.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. for example. to represent a printer. because we can. For example. For example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries.2. Thus. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. For example. 13. a name is unique 13. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. a computer. one context can be viewed. and color. A directory object can be used. An example is the telephone company's directory service. resolution. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. various telephone numbers. a person.13 . and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. and computer account information.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. postal mail address. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. 13. For example. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. however. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. programs. two different computer 174 . The computer's directory service is much more powerful.

For example.smith@somewhere. for example. By using a directory service. "mail" is the attribute identifier. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. networks. such as the file and print services. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. for example. and users. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.3.50". When directory objects are arranged in this way. 175 .4. A Java mail client program. printers. 13. an organization object. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. The query is called a search filter. support the notion of searches. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.com". A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. that is.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.3.3. removing. can use the directory in the traditional way. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. for example. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. called a directory information tree (DIT). For example. The service is accessed through its own interface. the ability to access directory services will become essential.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. such as that relating to machines. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. many directories. adding.13 . Within the DIT. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. 13. When you search.113. 13. Alternatively. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. like any other program running on the network. such as those based on the LDAP. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. 13. The email address.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. Similarly. Many examples of directory services are possible. 13.

Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. To use the JNDI.4.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. It extends the v1. The Java 2 SDK.5. and even the network.naming. emerging. Thus a variety of directories--new. For example.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.ldap 176 .1 and the Java 2 SDK.13 . printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. For example.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.2.naming.2. v1. 13. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. 13.naming javax.1 and v1. v1.directory javax. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. v1. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.1 and Java 2 SDK.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.5.event javax.3 and later releases. more coherent and manageable. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.naming.

A java. and it returns the object bound to that name.6 the naming package The javax. printer. that is. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.String name. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . the name of the object's class. For the methods in the Context interface.6.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. For example.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.String name argument represents a composite name. and so on. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.1 context The javax.6. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. The overloads that accept java.lang. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. In this case. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. binding/unbinding. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.print(report).naming package defines a Context interface. However. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.lang. 13. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.naming.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. Furthermore.6. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. composing them. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . which is the core interface for looking up. list() is similar to listBindings().spi 13.JNDI • javax. for some objects in the directory. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.13 . a 177 . 13.lang.6. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. 13.lookup("treekiller"). and the object itself. 13. comparing components.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.

The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. replace. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. There are no absolute roots. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.naming. For example. Once you have an initial context. 178 . The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.7. they should catch NamingException.13 .6. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. InitialContext. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 13. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.6. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. In the simplest and most common form of usage.7. 13. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Otherwise. You can add.directory package extends the javax.7 directory package The javax.

A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.9." and those that do not.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. such as "object added. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13. such as "object changed.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. controls. and vice versa. or unsolicited notifications. called controls .3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.8 event package The javax." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.9 LDAP package The javax. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. that is. 13.naming. In fact.9. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.9.directory package. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.ldap package at all. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. 13. Once registered. such as information about the object before and after the change.13 . 13. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. For example. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming.naming. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.JNDI 13. To receive event notifications.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . For example.naming.naming. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.

This support is provided in the form of object factories. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.naming package.java. That is. In the process of completing an operation. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. This support is provided in the form of state factories. 13.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.10. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. For example. 13.9. import javax. sending request controls.naming.11.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. It uses a service provider for the file system. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. create a file named Lookup.2 java object support The javax. and receiving response controls.naming. 13. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.spi package supports implementors of Context.13 . implementors of Context.naming.10. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.10 service provider package The javax.10.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.Context.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 180 .4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.1 plug-In architecture The javax.

NamingException. Otherwise. For this reason. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. } catch (NamingException e) { System. If the compilation succeeds. "com.jar as an installed extension. as follows. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). 13.jndi.put(Context.sun. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.13 . import javax.lookup(name). If you are using the Java 2 SDK.lookup() to look up an object. 181 . you compile the source file using the Java compiler. env. } 13.naming. If you are still having problems. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.InitialContext.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. 13.java).11. use Context. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).RefFSContextFactory").class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. Object obj = ctx.naming. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).11.5 compiling the program Next. you must have access to the JNDI classes.JNDI import javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.11. create an initial context.fscontext.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. If the compilation fails. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. // Print it System.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.3 looking up an Object Next. then the JNDI classes are already included.11. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. v1.err. using the capitalization shown.3. 13.lookup(name).out. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. To compile to program.

The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. javax.Context. 182 . either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Finally. javax.3.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.jar). "com.naming.JNDI 13. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. you need access to the JNDI classes.InitialDirContext. 13. v1.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.naming. supply the name of a file in your file system. include the directory that contains your Lookup. and your example class (Lookup.jar and providerutil.ldap.naming.put(Context. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.bat If you supply a file directory.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.fscontext.12. javax.DirContext. env.naming. create a file named Getattr.sun.directory.13 . To run the program.directory.6 running the program To run the program.java. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. create an initial directory context.put(Context. import import import import import javax. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.12.jndi. the file system service provider.directory packages.sun.NamingException. 13.11.directory.class). javax.naming.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.naming.Attributes.LdapCtxFactory"). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. env. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. then you will see something like the following.PROVIDER_URL.jndi.naming and javax. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.

13. If the compilation succeeds.12. 183 . Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.get() and then from that attribute get its value.get("sn"). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.get(). For now. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.6 compiling the program Next.println("sn: " + attrs.get() on it to get its value: attrs.13 . ou=People"). ou=People").12. Similar to the naming example. Attributes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.err. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.12.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. } 13. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. using the capitalization shown.get()). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.out. 13. If you are still having problems. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.get("sn"). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If the compilation fails. As with the naming example. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. } catch (NamingException e) { System. For this reason.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12.java). compile the source file using the Java compiler. 13.

With this configuration.12. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. Getattr. env. then these classes are already included. then see the Common Problems lesson.jar). you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). v1.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.put(Context.7 running the program As with the naming example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.PROVIDER_URL.jar and providerutil. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.13 . this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. 184 . Once it has the attributes.JNDI 13. If you have any trouble running this example. ou=People".3.class. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.

and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. • 14. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. JMS consumer .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. unless it has established a durable 185 .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. Enterprise Edition. the messages are delivered in the order sent. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. Here. JMS client . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. In this model. JMS queue . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.a JMS client that creates and sends messages.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.14 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.a JMS client that receives messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . As the name queue suggests.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS topic . JMS message . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . JMS producer . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.

1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. 14. Depending on the type of message. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.jms. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 186 . users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.3 the JMS API programming model 14.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. On the receiving side. 14. In that case. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.4. Using Java. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.

3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. It receives messages sent to a destination. Before an application completes.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. you call the stop() method. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.close(). Connections implement the Connection interface. It is either a queue or a topic. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. you must close any connections that you have created. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Like the connection factory.4. you must call the connection's start() method.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.4. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. The JMS administrator creates these objects. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. Before your application can consume messages.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. For example.14 . you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . In a J2EE application. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. connection. 14.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").createConnection(). 14. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. and users discover them using JNDI. Depending on the connection type.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. 14. For example.

onMessage(). which contains one method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. Message m = consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.14 . After you have created a message consumer. a message listener object may be used. (Remember always to call the start() method. After you register the message listener. consumer. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.start(). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.createConsumer(myQueue).) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. 14. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. For example. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. it becomes active. A message listener does.start(). 188 . This object implements the MessageListener interface. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. For example. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.) When message delivery begins. connection.receive(). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. however. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.setMessageListener(myListener). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. and you can use it to receive messages. you are likely to miss messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. Message m = consumer.4. usually expect a specific message type and format. In the onMessage() method.receive(1000). MessageConsumer consumer = session. Moreover. You use the Session.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. if it needs to reply to messages.createConsumer(myTopic). This method is valid only if you are using a topic.

// msg_text is a String producer.createProducer(null).7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. At the consuming end. to create and send a TextMessage. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.14 . the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. and object message).createTextMessage(). It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). from one application to another. anon_prod. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(myQueue. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. stream message. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. 189 . The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.send(message). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.4. Here. You must first create the messages.createProducer(myQueue). bytes message. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. 3.setText(msg_text).createProducer(myTopic). if you created an unidentified producer. that is.4. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.receive(). message. map message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.send(message). For example. message). MessageProducer producer = session. After you have created a message producer. 14. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. With an unidentified producer. A message has three main parts: 1.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.

you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. use the following code: Session session = connection.4. 0). the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.14 . Sessions implement the Session interface. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. 190 .8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.println("Reading message: " + message. Before committing the transaction. To create a transacted session. Session. the first argument means that the session is transacted. After you create a Connection object.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. } else { // Handle error } 14. If the user selects transaction support. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.out.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).createSession(false. and message consumers to receive messages.createSession(true. then delivers the messages. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.getText()). The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .consistent error handling framework .object oriented representation of data in a DB. server which provides an execution environment for containers. The component lives inside a container. On the other side. bundled into a single unit.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. the container lives (in general) in an application server. message-driven beans The 2.DB interaction transactions . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.0. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . improved performance security .no developer coding. Version 1. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.15 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. component recovery scalability portability 191 . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . container which offers services to the component.transaction management can be complex.jar file into the application server. 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.

3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file.xml 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. called ejb-jar. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. as follows: 1. the deployment descriptor. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the home interface of the bean 3.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.ejb. import.*.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. import. } 193 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException.15 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface. import java.*. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.RemoteException. } 15.ejb. RemoteException.rmi.javax.rmi. int custId) throws RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import java. String lastName.javax. While the Remote interface declares no methods.

getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().jnp.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "localhost:1099"). "org. how to create or find the bean 2. if the client executes outside the container. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.PROVIDER_URL.put(Context.interfaces. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. this can be done (for example) through SSL. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. } 194 . Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). prop. In the case of an web application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. creating them for the client application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.NamingContextFactory". prop. we need to know: 1.put(Context. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 . what methods to use (know its interface) 3. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.

Some languages. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.15 . when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. IIOP has not been designed for Java. This is done through the javax. • if the client executes outside the container. MyBeanHome. but for generic languages. to the appropriate type. do implements the java. in fact.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.Remote interface). 195 . The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Problem is. that is part of CORBA standards. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. more specifically.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.e. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. in fact.rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.rmi.narrow(homeRef.PortableRemoteObject class and. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. and this means that there are some limitations.lookup("MyBean").rmi.class). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. do not have the concept of casting. Why? For EJB. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the client has a stub). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. using the narrow() method.

import javax. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. "Vasile".ejbeans. int custId) { // method implementation .SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.. public class MyBean implements javax. 15.ejb.ejb. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). 1102).ccards.. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .SessionContext. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.create().remove().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. as well).bank11.processEntry("Dumitrascu". String lastName..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. remove the bean instance myObject.15 . call business methods on the bean myObject.. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.

namely stateful and stateless beans.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the object is activated. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. that is. 15. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.15 . When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. A stateless bean does not. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 197 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 15.

the EJB container may decide to deactivate. For example.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the client invokes the remove method. (Typically. 15. At the end of the life cycle. is inside the bean class. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. the EJB container activates the bean. 198 . you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. The ejbCreate method.15 .11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. or passivate. and then moves it to the ready stage. All other methods in Figure 15.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. Figure 15. for example. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.

This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. support for concurrent access 3. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. stored in a Database). • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. equals() 199 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().15 . The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.

namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). 15. On the other side.bank11. as the parameters in the original create() method.lang.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. state data is stored into data store (usually. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. an instance of that bean is created. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. We can have more create() methods. Read.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. 200 .1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. all throwing RemoteException.ccards.14. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. Update and Delete. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. methods which have the same parameters. in the same order. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.15 . CreateException.

a client can invoke the remove method. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. On the first path. 15.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. for BMP. the client invokes the create method. 201 . left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMPs. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. the programmer will create actual SQL code. On the second path. While an entity bean is in the ready stage.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. but the developer returns null for CMP.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. First. not null.15 . but in general. While in the pooled stage.14.14. After instantiation. in BMP. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. All instances in the pool are identical. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it is empty.14. actual SQL update code. it's business methods can be invoked. After the EJB container creates the instance. Second. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.

15. With bean-managed persistence. the values of the instance variables are not needed.getPrimaryKey().3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. another enterprise bean. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.an application client.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. In the pooled state. or a Web component . It acts as a JMS message listener. 202 . The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. In the pooled state. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. Therefore. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. it does not automatically set the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.15 . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. If the primary key is incorrect.

3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.for example. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. When a message arrives. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. In several respects.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.16. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To avoid tying up server resources. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. Unlike a session or entity bean.16. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. If message processing is rolled back. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. a JMS API connection. the message will be redelivered. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. 15. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. For more information on this element see. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . an open database connection. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. max-beans-infree-pool. message-driven bean can be used.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. but not asynchronously. 15. If this element is set to more than one. Previously. To ensure concurrency.16.16. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. 15. The onMessage method may call helper methods. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 203 . only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.15 . The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.

16. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). 2. Classes. 15. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. // An EJB constructor is required. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. public void onMessage(javax.16.. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. methods. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. finalize{}. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . or create a new one.0 specification. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class..5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.15 . use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. As with other EJB types.. 15.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. 3. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.Message MessageName) {. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.} // onMessage() is required. Note: These instances can be pooled.16. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. Obtain a new bean instance.Message.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2..ejb.. and it must not // accept parameters. public void ejbRemove() {.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.jms.jms.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.}. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.

16.This is not a client context. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. See javax.MessageListener. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. However.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. For example. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.jms. If any method throws such an exception. 15.15 . from the client perspective the EJB still exists. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. 15. 15. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.16. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. getUserTransaction(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.onMessage() for more information. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. getRollbackOnly() . It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().16. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).16. 15. even in onMessage(). The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.

as described in the EJB 2. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.0 specification. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. 15. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.0 specification.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. In either case.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.16.xml.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.15 . WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. as required by the EJB 2. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.

• • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. 207 .15 . the weblogic-ejb-jar.jms.. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.xml deployment file. </message-driven> . The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 15.. 2.xml elements. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. as described in the EJB 2. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.ejb20. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.0 specification.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.message. For each instance. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.

here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.security issues.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the home interface name 7.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. control descriptors . a message-driven bean is never passivated. EJB class name 5. security 208 .specifies control attributes for transactions 4. the remote interface name 8. access control entries .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.like transaction. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. 15. entity specific elements 10. attributes . the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9.15 . isolation level.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. bean home name . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. environment properties 6. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle.

ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.lang.ejb.bank11.15 .bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ejb.ccards.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ejb.ccards.ccards.bank11.ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.bank11.bank11.ejb.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.

15 .. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

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