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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


processes it (if necessary). Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. 1. processes it (if necessary). Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. like the client tier. like HTML pages. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.1 .7 business components Business code. and sends it back to the client program. or finance. are not considered web components. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. 5 . Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. retail. Figure 1. enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. The web tier.2 Server communication 1.

The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.9 java EE Containers Normally. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web.9. enterprise edition Figure 1. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). enterprise bean. In addition.1 . you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.3 Web. 1. 1. Business and EIS Tiers 1. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.java platform. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 6 . or application client component can be executed. and other legacy information systems. multithreading. mainframe transaction processing. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. database systems. For example. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. and other complex low-level details.

For example. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.4. After an enterprise bean is created. transaction management. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.9. database connection resource pooling. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 1. data persistence. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.1 . enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. including services such as security.java platform. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 7 . Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open.10.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. 8 . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web container . the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.manages the execution of application client components. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Applet container . 1. video. program files.1 . A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. extensible. XML data. maps. or for document-oriented web services.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.java platform. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. Application clients and their container run on the client. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. For example. 1. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. Application client container . test. When XML data is exchanged between parties. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. text-based standard for representing data. enterprise edition Figure 1. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. develop. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.manages the execution of applets.

and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 1. the location of the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. and ways to communicate with the service.10.1 . make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.10. enterprise edition 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. such as Universal Description. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. 1.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.java platform. The description includes the name of the service. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. 9 .3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.

An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.java platform.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.11. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.11. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.11. Commonly. 1.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. you employ a single. In Java EE 5.11. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. the session bean and its data are gone. standard set of tags. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. When the client finishes executing. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. and XML) and JSP elements. WML. enterprise edition Figure 1. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.1 . allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. or if the server shuts down. or enterprise bean. 1. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. 1. If the client terminates.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


15 . JTA. Once deployed on a local platform. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. No extra coding is needed. or better customer support. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .java platform. module. better tools. SAAJ. or a component. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. it is ready to be deployed. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. servlet. and JNDI 1. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. At runtime. such as better performance.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the application is ready to run. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. or component accordingly. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.ear extension. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. JSP page. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.1 . and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . a module.

rar (resource adapter archive) extension. Together. For example.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. Application client modules. for example. GIF and HTML files. • • 16 . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. JSP files. and a web application deployment descriptor. enterprise edition Figure 1. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.java platform. and other documentation. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. supporting class files. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. such as caching directives.1 . Resource adapter modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. which contain servlet class files. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. native libraries. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. classes.jar extension. Web modules. which contain all Java interfaces. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.

As a site for understanding how HTTP works. we recommend www.HTTP 2 .. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. The client sends a request message to the server. as follows: 1.HTTP 2. 2.jmarshall.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www..org/rfc/rfc1945.2 . RFC 2616 (06/99). Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.w3.ietf. .org/Protocols . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. check the official HTTP site – www. but they also have some common structural elements.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. POST. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.html). HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. zero or more header lines 3. an initial line 2.. was the object of several RFCs. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). namely HTTP 1.com/easy/http.1.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . so far) version. The second (and last. These messages may have different contents.. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. HEAD.apps. The server answers with a response message.

If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. HTTP/1. newsgroup.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. . in the HTTP 1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.1. GET 2. OPTIONS 7. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. DELETE 6. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.html HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . PUT 8.Posting a message to a bulletin board. Here is their list: 1. 2. HEAD 3. CONNECT 5. but lack of support makes them obsolete. GET /path/to/the/file/index.1 specification. mailing list. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. TRACE Three other commands are listed. as well. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.2 . 18 . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. POST 4.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.Annotation of existing resources.0).0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.

a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or ordering a product. When used for form data submission. .Extending a database through an append operation. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. or a record is subordinate to a database. like storing or updating data. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.HTTP or similar group of articles. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . 2. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.Providing a block of data. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. 2.0 404 Not Found 2. such as the result of submitting a form. (encoded as multipart/form-data). The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. In this case. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. while POST may involve anything.6 differences between GET and POST 1. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.8 the status code A three-digit integer. or in the message body.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. to a data-handling process. after the “?” character.” On the other side. or sending E-mail 2.2 . 3. separated by the character “&” or “.

0 version specifies 16 headers. If an HTTP message includes a body. 20 . 2. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. none of them mandatory. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. header values are. In a request. and the resulting resource (e.the request succeeded.1 version specifies 46 of them. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.1).the requested resource doesn't exist. file or script output) is returned in the message body. 500 Server Error .an unexpected server error.2 . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header name and header value.0. and section 10 for HTTP 1.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). and should be automatically retrieved by the client.1 only) . while the HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. 404 Not Found . such as text/html or image/jpg. where the requested resource is returned to the client. fails. The HTTP 1.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. separated a semicolon. or otherwise can't run correctly.g. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. one (Host) is mandatory. that is. out of which. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. In particular.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 2. The most common use of the message body is in a response.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. Although the header names are not case sensitive. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.

1. with subtype plain 2. image.ro. multipart. partial. 21 .ro/path/file.info.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. Then.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtype mpeg 2. external-body 4. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. video.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. .2 . port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtypes mixed. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtypes octet-stream. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. alternative.html HTTP/1. digest.html first open a socket to the host web.uvt.uvt.HTTP 2. gif 6. message.org/rfc/rfc1521. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtype basic 7.apps.0 200 OK Date: Fri. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes jpeg.ietf. audio. postscript 5. with subtypes rfc822. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. RFC 1521 (www.0 From: someuser@yahoo.info. parallel 3. text. application.

HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 . the server closes the socket.2 .

org/rfc/rfc1866.0.0) dates from 08.com/easy/html . The first version of HTML. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.2 (3. The newest version of HTML is 4. Version 4.HTML 3 . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.html.99.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.org/Markup . HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0 and was accepted in December 1997. From 1999 on. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.0.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. The latest version (XHTML 2. Since it fits in a couple of pages.HTML 3. HTML describes how text.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.www.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a revision of 4.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.3 .0 . check the official HTML site – www. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.htmlgoodies. Mosaic.01) can be found at this address: http://www. 3. However. As a practical reference site use – www. The first official version – HTML 2.jmarshall.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. Other helpful sites . namely HTML 1.0 draft was released in 01.apps. HTML 3.ietf. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). A newer standard.html) and was widely supported. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.blooberry.w3. a working draft for the next major revision. The XHTML 1.com/indexdot/html .w3c.01. Originally named Web Applications 1. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. www.com/tutors. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .

permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .3 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.

“&quot”. 3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.0 contains an SGML declaration. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. If you wonder what a character reference is. though. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. You get the point. the specification of HTML 4. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. …. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. 4.0 Transitional DTD. An example: <!-. look at these examples: “&lt”.01 specification. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs." (in hexadecimal) . 3. VSAPCE are omitted. DYNSRC. HTML 4. Check the address http://www. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. BORDER.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4. Overall.0 Strict DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.acesta este un comentariu.and end at the first occurrence of -->. CONTROLS.the chinese character for water.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. <><> --> 25 .w3. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.3 . like ALIGN. "&#x6C34.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. This section deals with some of the most common elements.

specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. etc. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.info.ro/webmail/src/login. NAME. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3 . image.HTML 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.5 tables 26 . Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.uvt.3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.

3 . Here is a an example of a table: 3. Usually. Here is their description and attributes. headers and cells are <TABLE>. columns.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. its rows. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>.

required.7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .3 .

Main attributes: 29 . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". allows multiple selections from the choice list. "text/plain" • • 3.8.the default value. NAME .sends the form values in a single transmission. Example: http://web. specifies how data will be sent to the server. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "reset". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".required. "submit".HTML • METHOD . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . may have the values GET or POST. SIZE . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. the browser appends the values to the URL. "GET" . "button".?.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. Main attributes: • TYPE .required. however.required. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "radio". after a quotation mark . "file".8.3 .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "hidden".8 form related elements 3.info. 3.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.if specified. "image". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . specifies the parameter name. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . "checkbox".8. • 3.maximum number of options visible to the user.uvt.:. "password".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.java 2.C:\TW\mySource. jit From source to execution.4 .94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.JAVA PRIMER 4.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. The current version (as of 10. Java source – a file with extension .3 java applications 31 .2 java the interpreter.. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.0. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. project started in 12.2 version.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. javac -classpath .95.JAVA PRIMER 4 . Java bytecode – a file with extension .95. the compilation process occurs. Inc. but next time execution is much faster.class file.90.java One example of command line compilation: 4.) in 08. The first time a class is loaded. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. To overcome this significant shortage.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .class file. Example: Edit the file prog1.java. -g : generate all debugging info.4. The current version (as of 10.class 3. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Early versions of Java were released in 12. 4. In terms of execution time.

the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.java. In general. 4. or is derived from A.4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . An example: 32 . or that it extends A). Generally. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.4 . A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).jar file.4 object oriented concepts 4. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.

4. 4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. a Java class can extend a single base class. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Integer. Long. Double. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Character.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Boolean. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Therefore.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). 4. Float.4. providing its own implementation. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Therefore.4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Short. 33 . In OO jargon. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. a class can have more than one method with the same name. this is called method overloading. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. namely: Byte.1 bit char . provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. In fact. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. with the root the class Object.4 . called Object.

class . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .http. 4.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . rather than at class instance.access from any class anywhere private .servlet.4 . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. 34 .. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . anywhere abstract .no access from outside the class itself protected . Except for the "package" concept. inherited).the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the class is visible from any class.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.servlet. which extends the class javax. • • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. no templates.http.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. method . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is defined at class level.one which is constant method . automatic garbage collection. A final variable (method.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).does not have any subclasses. } declares an abstract class. has the same value for all class instances.

4 .1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. programmer defined exceptions 4. In Java.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). java errors . an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.ThreadDeath.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . 4.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.7. Exception categories: 1. not at execution time. 2. division by 0.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.7. namely class Error and the class Exception.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. array index out of bounds. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. code or data errors . as defined in the java.like invalid cast.7.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. standard method exceptions 3.

the class (the .by adding the key word throws. catch. 4.sql java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.util. they have to be unique inside a package.event . The package containing the standard classes is java.util. import.rmi java.class file..4 . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. 4. An example: package com. As a general rule.support for data collections.*. date and time info java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. import javax.net java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. the default package is used).Properties. All other packages must be explicitly imported.support for user interface java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .1 Package names The default package has no name.zip .java.default.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.servlets.awt.io java.support for java archives creation java. string analyzers.lang .support for event handling java.bank11.awt . followed by the import statements. . finally construct. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.nio java.util .8.awt. don't have to import java..geom . 4.this can be done by providing a try. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. In the example above. therefore.security 36 .sql.ccards. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.lang (automatically available).

All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. 37 .swing. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.4 . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).event . static and final.support for event handling 4.accessibility javax.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.text javax. All variables (actually.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing . it must be declared as abstract.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.

and . However.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.5 . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . other 38 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.HTML authors are normally not programmers. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .JAVASCRIPT 5.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . The origins of this language date back to 1995. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. 5. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript statement like this: document.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . This is not always what we want. like QtScript or ActionScript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.javaScript 5 . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.depending on the browser . as JavaScript. then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. Subsequently. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.

3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . or when an event is triggered. When you place a script in the head section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.. Save the external JavaScript file with a . you can write a JavaScript in an external file..javaScript times when a user triggers an event..5 . without having to write the same script on every page.. </script> </body> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. </script> </head> 5.. point to the .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. 5.3.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. go in the head section. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. To simplify this. 39 ..js file extension.

5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".javaScript 5.4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 ...4.5.....2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".5 .4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. in loop is executed once for each element/property.1 JavaScript for.. 5. in and the try . while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5. for(). switch().In statement The for.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.. namely – if .in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.. The code in the body of the for .. continue.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. else. break.4. while(). catch constructs..

javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. var mycars = new Array().0.... they often leave the Web page.5 . } </script> </body> </html> 5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. The try block contains the code to be run.5.catch statement The try. so you don't lose your audience.5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . or a property of an object... an array element. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. for (x in mycars) { document... mycars[2] = "BMW".write(mycars[x] + "<br />").in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. Example Using for. When users see errors. mycars[1] = "Volvo".2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. Mozilla 1.3 try.catch statement (available in IE5+.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". mycars[0] = "Saab".

7. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. txt+="Error description: " + err.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").\n\n".5 . txt+="Click OK to continue.description + "\n\n". Syntax: 42 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. 5. Also.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. alert(txt). When an alert box pops up.7 popup boxes 5.

the box returns true. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Now. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external ."defaultvalue") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").. in the example above had not been written within a function. If the user clicks "Cancel".3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. When a prompt box pops up.8 functions 5. If the user clicks "Cancel". Syntax: prompt("sometext". Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up. the box returns false. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.7.js file). in the <head> section.5 . The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .8.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the box returns null.7. If the user clicks "OK".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.

. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.9. 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.write(txt. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.5 .1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". 5.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.. So.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. and will be stored in the variable called product. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.javaScript function functionname(var1.varX) { some code } var1..2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function..var2. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. var2.length).9 javaScript objects 5. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . and how they are used.8. 5. document. etc are variables or values passed into the function. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.9.

In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects.5 .write(str.javaScript 5. which will be specified in the next section.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()). 45 . document. </script> 5.9. The first class consists of browser specific objects.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

check the site http://www. as well). or when the user interacts with a Web page. Even this Document itself is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. At its most basic level. which are called Objects. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. every Link on the page is an Object.11.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. When an event message has been triggered.asp 5. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.w3schools.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. For example. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . every Image on the page is an Object. N: Netscape. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.com/jsref/default.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a four-digit number.5 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. depending on the browser.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.

Properties FF: Firefox. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to Greenwich time. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to universal time.11. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). N: Netscape. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.

4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 3 4 .5 .5 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 . N: Netscape.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 .11.

y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx. 2. 1.y) pow(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.javaScript 5.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 0. 1.y) min(x.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.5 .14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 0. 2. 0. 3.11. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. N: Netscape.

skin tone. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.eyecolor="blue". personObj.lastname="Doe".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.firstname="John". document. personObj. 53 . and eyecolor as follows: personObj.12. weight. lastname.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. etc.age=50. etc. Assume that the personObj already exists .firstname="John". personObj.5 . eye color. personObj.12. personObj.lastname="Doe".javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.write(personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). age. height. The persons' methods could be eat(). with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. sleep(). personObj. 5. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Objects also have methods. Properties are the values associated with the object.you can give it properties named firstname. All persons have these properties. The persons' properties include name. age.12.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. work().firstname). but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. personObj.age=30.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. play().eyecolor="blue".

"Doe". this. this.age.lastname=new_lastname.newlastname=newlastname."Rally". you can create new instances of the object.eyecolor) { this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.age=age. Once you have the template.firstname=firstname. this.lastname=lastname.5 .eyecolor=eyecolor."green"). That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.eyecolor) { this. this."blue"). myMother=new person("Sally". This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. You can also add some methods to the person object.48.lastname=lastname.12.50. this.age=age. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). 5.propertyName. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this.eat=eat. this. } Notice that the template is just a function. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.lastname. 54 . Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor. like this: myFather=new person("John".age.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.

. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.5 . Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.newlastname("Doe").. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. 5. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. We define the events in the HTML tags.". Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. So. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. For example. now you can write: myMother.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.

javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.w3schools.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. the submit should be cancelled.13. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.5 .com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.13. 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13. If the field values are not accepted.2 onFocus. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. For example. 5.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.

The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. the Document Object Model activity is closed. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. Right now (oct. HTML. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. As of January 2008. However. structure. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.6 . XML. By October 1998. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. and style of a document.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. In other words.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. or WebAPI being among them. The W3C 58 . the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.g. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.Html DOM 6 . particularly those used in Web browsers. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. 2010). SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. CSS.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML.HTML DOM 6. SVG. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. 6.

a new DOM Core specification. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 5. Level 2 XML namespace support. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . DOM Level 3 Core. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. each of which contains required and optional modules. 6. DOM Level 3 XPath.6 . 3. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Load and Save.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. As of 2005.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Validation. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. which further enhances the DOM 6. and 6. filtered views and events. Level 2. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). 2. 4. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. To claim to support a level.

because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. support multiple browsers.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. By 2005. Konqueror.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 . Besides the generic objects listed bellow. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. can be accessed through the 60 . 6. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). that is. interoperability problems were numerous. All HTML elements. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.x were still widely used in 2000. Opera. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. and Safari.x and Netscape 4. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. The Window object represents a browser window. along with their containing text and attributes. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.

Html DOM DOM.6 . It can be used by any programming language like Java. JavaScript. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created. and VBScript. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted.

62 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.8. The <head> node holds a <title> node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. However.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. <head> and <body>. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. the element node <title>. The <html> node has two child nodes. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 6.9.6 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8. everything in an HTML document is a node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.Html DOM 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".

• • • • • In a node tree. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. the top node is called the root Every node.getElementById('main'). Parent nodes have children. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. Their contents can be modified or deleted. The terms parent. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. 63 . using the node relationships. and the connections between them. except the root.2 node parents. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. By navigating the node tree. children. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). child.6 . Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). By using the getElementById() method 2.9. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. and new elements can be created.getElementsByTagName("p").3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.

Html DOM for (i=0. document.length. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x.i++) { document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). } 6. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .9. each node is an object. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.innerHTML).6 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.write(x[i].write("<br />").

5 example .Html DOM 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.6 . txt=x.getElementById("intro").10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.9.nodeValue.

including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. frames. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. objects and images. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". including window.6 . For elements. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.

but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and then bubbled up. DOMNodeInserted. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. When the user clicks on the inner element. as of version 1. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Mozilla. Fires when an element is activated.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Also. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.6 .Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Safari. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). During the event flow. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). and/or by stopping the event (with method event. also supports these methods.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. through a mouse click or a keypress. 6. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. for instance.3. say "click". an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. 67 .

Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. key pressed. including information about target element. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. preventDefault 68 . Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).6 . mouse button pressed. Unfortunately.Html DOM 6. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. mouse position. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event.

XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. using web services or Php scripts. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 7. 69 . But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. It is not a technology in itself. For example.AJAX 7 .AJAX 7. 7. but also to save resources.7 . but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network. choices of user. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. The server does some processing — retrieving data. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. etc. For improving sharing of resources. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. crunching numbers. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. menus. fields of forms. dynamic website.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.

Obviously. waiting around for the server to do something. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame.7 . While the server is doing its thing. at the start of the session. Once an interface is loaded. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. And at every step in a task.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. but the opposite is true. 70 . but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Instead of loading a web page. the user waits some more. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. waiting. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around.

If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. usually using XML. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. editing data in memory. loading additional interface code. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.7 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. 71 .

url: the location of the file 72 .send: send a request to the server. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 4: finished. 7. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . url.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 2: request received.mode: type of request. . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. thanks to its methods and attributes.holds loaded data as a string of characters. .for a Xml file or .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.responseText .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. 404 if the page is not found .holds a Xml loaded file. . onreadystatechange .200 is ok. 1: connection established.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.responseXml . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.open: create a connection. 3: answer in process. and in this purpose. It allows the interaction with the servers.for a simple text. GET or POST . DOM's method allows to extract data. This object provides two methods: .7 . To get data on the server.returned by the server . boolean) .AJAX 7. These events are user actions.

.fr/somefile.readyState == 4) { // received. } else if (window. http_request.AJAX .XMLHTTP"). for browser compatibility. 73 .open('GET'.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.xul. The request below reads a document on the server. if (window.7 . if (request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.send: with POST only.send(null).. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.. // Firefox.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. 'http://www. but two options must be tried. true). OK } else { // wait.open: command GET or POST. . URL of the document. the data to send to the server. http_request. request. Safari.null for a GET command 7.. true for asynchronous.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .xml'.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .6 building a request. .

XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().XMLHTTP). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn=""Received:" + req.open("GET".readyState == 4) if(req. else if (window.ajax. req. req.7 examples 7. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.ajax. true).dyn="Error code " + req.getElementsByTagName('root'). if(window.status. req.item(0).1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.send(null).responseText.xml". "data.responseText.AJAX 7.7. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .7 . else document. by this code: var doc = req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. req.7.ajax.responseXML.status == 200) document.dyn="Received:" + req. }.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


servlets. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Here is a small. After an enterprise bean is created. classes. JSPs and Java Server Faces.xml file: <?xml version="1. but typical web. 3. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.bank11. like: 1... MIME types used by the web application. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. entries related to session configuration.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 5. 6. descriptions).ccards. database connection resource pooling.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. For example. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.8 .class>com. Servlet. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. welcome pages.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. web. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.)> <web-app> <!-. 2. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Others. 4. servlet classes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . data persistence. like what pages are error. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Initialization of parameters for servlets. Servlet. 8. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.

the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". In general. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.bank11.xml" file. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Then the "EnrollServlet.bank11. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml". the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. whose name is rather long. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. 1. Unfortunately. For example.bank11.8 . Behind a very benign URL.ccards. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" 2.xml file of the web application.ccards.servlets. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets". basicly. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. However. Basicly. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. it is the alias of the real servlet class. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.ccards.servlets".class" and that it is part of the package "com. the name of the web application. for flexibility. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.

Web containers are implemented by various vendors. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . but at this point. tjws spec 2. the Java Servlet 3.SERVLETS 9. Technically speaking. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. more often.0 specification is available for public review.0 specification.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2.SERVLETS 9 . but through a web container. modular design 9.4. from BEA Systems.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. 2010. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. in most cases as part of an application server. As of oct.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. this is just a work in progress. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .9 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).5 and is in final state. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . 9.4.2. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. small footprint. platform independent programs. which extend the functionality of the web server. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. the HttpServlet) class. 9. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.

Enterprise Edition. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. public void service(ServletRequest req. WebSphere. from Apple Inc. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. IOException. from IBM 9.servlet.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . These packages are: • • javax. while the second one.9 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet package are protocol independent.servlet package.servlet. the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void destroy() throws ServletException. 82 .

5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. in a different section. This method has two arguments.9 . the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. ServletConfig. After instantiating the servlet. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Throwable t) 9. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. namely the HttpServlet class. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. as well. The method performs all initialization required. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. More on the servlet life cycle. 83 . arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). 9. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. respectively.

UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). service(). The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 .servlet.ServletException javax. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. It also extends the java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. 9.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.lang. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .Exception class.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.

9. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. JSP or JSF. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. Typically.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. respectively. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. Typically. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.SingleThreadModel. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. etc. DB connection opening. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. After instantiation.servlet. Also.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the container calls the init() method of the servlet.9 . 85 . this method contains JDBC driver loading. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. If the servlet does not implement the javax. which will service all incoming requests. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 . Here are the most important ones: 86 .SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.

9 . import java. This is done in server's (container's) server. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.servlets. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.ccards.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.io. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.bank11.xml file. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. 87 .*. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.java" file: package com.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.

out. out.println("<head>").println("<br>"). PrintWriter out = resp.SERVLETS import javax.println("<body>"). out. IOException { resp. out. out.getWriter().http.println("merge").close().*.println("</html>").println("</head>").println("<html>"). out.servlet.println("</body>").init(config).setContentType(“text/html”). out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.*.servlet. } } 88 .9 . // output your page here out. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out. import javax.

0 while the current (4. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. 10. The JDBC 4. This solution is inefficient. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.odbc.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).sql package 2. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. These drivers fall into four standard categories. as recognized by the DB industry. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.JDBC 10 . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.jdbc.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . Starting with version 3. the javax.JDBC 10. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.10 . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 1997.JdbcOdbcDriver . as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. After that. the java. Type 1.1.sql package. 89 . It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.sun.

90 . Type 3. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Part Java. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.10 . because it eliminates one level of indirection. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Type 4. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access.JDBC Type 2. forwards them to the JDBC driver. which in turn.

sql.sql.SQLXML java.SQLException java.SQLPermission java.sql.Wrapper 91 .Blob java.Driver java.sql.sql.0 API.CallableStatement java.Time java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.sql.sql.Types java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Statement java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.sql.sql.Connection java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.sql.Timestamp java.ResultSet java.Array java.Date java.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.SQLInput java.3 the java.sql.0).DriverManager java.sql.10 .sql.SQLWarning java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.SQLData java.PreparedStatement java.sql.JDBC 10.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API. java.Struct java.sql.SQLDataException java.Clob java.sql.

sql.SQLWarning java.StatementEvent javax.0.4 interaction schema in the java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.Connection java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.StatementEventListener 10.Blob java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.Types java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLException java.sql.sql. querying the database 4.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.SQLOutput java.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.RowId java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.ResultSet java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.SQLXML java. java.sql package.10 .sql.sql.Clob java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql. loading a database driver 2.Wrapper javax.NClob java.SQLClientInfoException java.Statement java.SQLTransientException java.sql.CallableStatement java.

A database driver is specified by the driver name. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.datastore.SybDriver com.jdbc.10 .borland.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.sybase.driver.OracleDriver sun.odbc.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.db2.DB2Driver oracle. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.JDBC 10.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .net.jdbc.ibm.

JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.mm. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. import java.Driver").10 . let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.gjt. user. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. by using the connection URL. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.newInstance(). String user = "root".sql. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). the only protocol allowed in JDBC). but let's take it for granted: import java. passwd).util. as specified by the driver vendor. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. try { Class.*.*.bank11. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.mysql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.forName("org. Since we just used it.getConnection(connURL. 94 .printStackTrace().

int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp. prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. we can use it for various purposes.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. prp).util. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Properties prp = new Properties().6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.sql package.put("create". int resultSetConcurrency. String user. java. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .JDBC 10.put("autocommit". but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. "true").getConnection(connURL.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. "true"). 10. Connection conn = DriverManager.10 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.

methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. namely.JDBC 10. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. respectively. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.10 . Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .createStatement()..executeUpdate(sqlString). Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .".sql.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.. 10.10 . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.

One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. and CallableStatement objects.10 . PreparedStatement. not at 0) or the column name. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. as the argument. 98 .

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql.sql.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. a factory for creating DB connections.Big Decimal Object float 10.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. There are three types of implementations: 1.math.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.produces a Connection object that will 103 . nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. mins. secs date. Basic implementation -. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. This interface is.sql package.10 .Time java.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. time. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. Connection pooling implementation -. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.sql.produces a standard Connection object 2. It is part of the javax.math.0 optional package. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. basicly.DataSource object.

theDataSource = (DataSource) env. 104 . Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.*. import import import import import import java.10 .servlets.*.*. javax.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. private DataSource theDataSource. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. javax. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).getName()). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.http.io.lookup("java:comp/env").sql.getLogger(TestDataSource. javax.servlet. Distributed transaction implementation -. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.sql.class.*.*.ccards. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.naming.servlet. javax. 3. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".*. java.bank11.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. ServletException { ..10 .

The package javax.servlet.jsp.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet. If the JSP is modified.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The package javax. The JSP specific interfaces. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JSP 11. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp.servlet.servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.5 Java Servlet specification.JSP 11 . IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. namely javax.servlet.jsp.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.2 the java.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. 11.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.11 .jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet.tagext. The javax.1 and is related to the 2.jsp and javax. 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


JSP • if the URL does not start with / . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. 111 . include and taglib.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" ... the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.11 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".

2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11.JSP 11. 11.7. 11. this code goes to inside the service() method. Assigns it to available name or id.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. In Tomcat. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.11 . The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7 scripting elements 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7.

Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. you must specify param. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.11 .the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. Attributes description: • • • name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. <jsp:plugin> actions. flush . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.13 the forward standard action 114 .only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.the URL of the page. <jsp:forward>.11 . same format as the <%@include> directive.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.

depending on request. servlet or to a static resource. 11.11 .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). archive="URIToArchive. It is used mainly.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP..the name of a bean instance. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. You must specify either bean or applet. as this attribute has no default value.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.the type of object the plugin will execute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . name . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.a name for the Bean or applet instance. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag..class extension in the name following code. when we want to separate the application into different views. as well. code="classFileName" .. name="instanceName" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . You must include the . . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags." . If you do not supply a value... The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .

and domain name. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it represents the buffered version of java.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. optional port number. request .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has java.Object type and scope page 11.represents the servlet context.jsp.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. out .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.servlet. The value is a full URL.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.the initial height and width. session . The default value is 1. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.PrintWriter. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. application .lang. pageContext .JspWriter type and scope page 7. Must be a small nonzero number. it has javax. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. config .11 . in pixels. response .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.io.1.the amount of space. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.1" . with a protocol name. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .represents server's response to the request. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. based on the servlet API. page . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. writes to the output stream to the client. request . objects which are automaticly available. 1. in pixels.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . of the image the applet or Bean displays.16 scopes 1. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.

<%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.JSP request object. session .bank11. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 3. Object value) method 4. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. Object value) method 2.beans.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. if (enrollBean.init().jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. page .jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.ccards. Object value) method 11.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .11 .

simple.register(). The public constructor could have been omitted.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. a float. private int list[]. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.18. private float number. The SimpleBean class is declared public. private int integer. private String colors[].1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.io. a software development and consulting company. an int.string. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. 11. SimpleBean.11 . private SimpleSubBean subBean. private boolean flag. private String optional. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. a boolean and another String).devsphere.java: package com. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .Serializable { private String string.examples. %> <jsp:forward page="response. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.mapping.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.

} // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.11 .number = value.flag.JSP this.colors. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.integer.colors[index].number.integer = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.flag = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } 119 .string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.

optional = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. String value) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list[index] = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. int value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list = values.colors[index] = value.optional. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.subBean. } } 120 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list[index]. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list.11 . } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.subBean = value.

examples. private float number. SimpleSubBean. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } } 11.string = value.18.devsphere.simple. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.number.io.java: package com.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).string.number = value.11 .Serializable { private String string. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.mapping.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.11 .

the processing order.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. SimpleBeanResources. "An option must be selected" }. the list of optional properties. "One or more colors must be selected" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. error messages.18.list]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.list]".number]". new int[] { 2. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. The list of optional properties has a single element.examples. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.integer]".colors]".11 . new Float(0. 3 } }. There are three error messages. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.simple. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.123) }.flag]". new Boolean(true) }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new String[] { 123 .number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. "One or more items must be selected" }. the form's name and the processor's name.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.util.devsphere. a boolean and an int[]. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "abc" }.java: package com. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.mapping. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.string]". The default values are defined for a String. a float.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.

public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.11 . If necessary.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "optional".mapping.examples. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. { "[PROC_NAME]".devsphere. "list". "flag".mapping. com.mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.jsp" } }.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.logging. SimpleHndl.simple. "number". "SimpleProc.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. string values are converted to numbers. } } 11.html" }.JSP "optional" } }.18. new String[] { "string".devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "integer". { "[FORM_NAME]".devsphere.devsphere. The formToBean() method of com.mapping. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere. "colors". "subBean" } }.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .util.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. The beanToForm() method of com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "SimpleForm.*. For a better understanding of this example. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.

// Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getTemplate(new java. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. logger). int slashIndex = basePath.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getRealPath(formPath).util. 125 . // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).equals("POST"). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getClass()).forward(request.getBeanResources(simpleBean.substring(0. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.getString("[PROC_NAME]").getString("[FORM_NAME]"). simpleBean.getMethod(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. slashIndex+1) : "". } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Process the valid data bean instance application.formToBean(formData.JSP = HandlerUtils. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getServletPath().getDocument().File(formPath)).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. response).trim(). errorTable = HandlerUtils.11 . formPath = application.io. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.lastIndexOf('/').trim().

number = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean().getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. document.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. SimpleProc.append("{ "). i < list.send(out).length.length == 0) return "". if (list. strbuf.getSubBean().getString() %> <P> subBean.mapping.devsphere.examples.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. errorTable. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().string = <%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.JSP elements logger). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. i++) 126 .11 . } %> 11. // Send the form document document.18.beanToForm(simpleBean.simple.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.

append(list[i]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.append("{ "). return strbuf.jsp files.toString().simple.length. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. i++) { strbuf. strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.append(" "). if (list. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.toString(list[0]). The localization of the Complex*. A single call to FormUtils. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.examples. In addition.11 . making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. Using the framework. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.formToBean() call. strbuf.append(" "). In addition. } strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append(list[i]).util.append("}").jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. return strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . } %> 11. ComplexHndl.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. i < list. strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.length == 1) return Integer.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append("}").toString(). for (int i = 0. } strbuf. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.mapping.18.devsphere. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). ComplexForm.length == 0) return "".

"flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.getColors(). boolean checked = simpleBean. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. i < colorValues. for (int i = 0.length.11 . "Blue" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < colors. i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.getInteger() == value. 128 . "Green".length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. j++) if (colors[j]. "green". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". String colorValues[] = { "red". i++) { boolean checked = false. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.length. "Option 2". i < integerLabels. for (int i = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "Option 3" }.

simple. i++) { int value = i+1. "subBean.11 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getList(). for (int i = 0.setSubBean( new com.mapping. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. boolean selected = false. "Item 3" }.examples.SimpleSubBean()). i < listItems.length. "Item 2". if (list == null) list = new int[0]. break.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.devsphere. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.length. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.JSP break.getSubBean(). String listItems[] = { "Item 1". "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.

setString("abc").getMethod().setSubBean(simpleSubBean).getString() == null || simpleBean.Hashtable errorTable.getString(). if (message == null) message = "". "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl. 130 .mapping.equals("POST").devsphere.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.mapping.getSubBean().devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.11 .util.examples.get(property). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.simple.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. return message.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.examples.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. boolean isPostMethod = request.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

"number". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.123f).setFlag(flagValue != null).setNumber(0.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()).getColors(). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getParameter("flag").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer".trim(). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.equals("false")) flagValue = null.123f).11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() == 0 || flagValue. "Must be a number").getColors() == null || simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . "Must be filled"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). "number".getParameter("number"). else { simpleBean. "An option must be selected"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setNumber(0. if (flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". if (numberValue != null && numberValue. } simpleBean.

3 }). "list". setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.getString().length == 0) { simpleBean.getParameter("subBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getList() == null || simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 .number : text try { String numberValue = request.setOptional(""). else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* subBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.number").number". "One or more items must be selected"). "Must be filled").getOptional() == null) simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getList(). "colors".setList(new int[] { 2. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.setString(""). "subBean.11 .string".floatValue()). "One or more colors must be selected"). "subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.

} if (isPostMethod && errorTable.examples. simpleSubBean.setFlag(true).setList(new int[] { 2. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping.11 .mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.number".BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. } %> 11.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } } else { simpleBean. The com.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. simpleBean.put(property.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. String property.devsphere. message). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setOptional("").SimpleBean.Hashtable errorTable. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.setNumber(0. 3 }).helpers.mapping.jsp. "Must be a number").7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.JSP filled"). simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.devsphere.code=com.\ 133 . "subBean.setString(""). simpleBean.helpers.devsphere.18.xml: SimpleHndl.setString("abc"). The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.123f). String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".properties or web. errorTable.simple.util. simpleBean.

AnotherBean. A servlet can be made bean-independent. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.devsphere.devsphere.code=com.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.examples.properties: AnotherHndl.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.18.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.examples.simple.mapping. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.host.mapping. 11. In many cases.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. If you have another bean-form pair.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.company.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.11 .JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.host. a servlet is identified with its class.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .helpers. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.properties (or web. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.helpers.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.mapping.code=com. you could add a few other lines to servlets.devsphere.host.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.xml) file: ServletName. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.another.mapping.devsphere.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.

JSP 135 .11 .

JAVASERVER FACES 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. This technology includes: 1. Version 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0 supersedes version 1. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. processes events. buttons. which loads the appropriate view template. 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.javaserver faces 12 .12 . builds a component tree.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.0. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . like input fields. 12. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2.

1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. As of version 1. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.2 of the JFS specification. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .12 .javaserver faces 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

see the column tag documentation.12 . footers. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. respectively.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . Common formatting techniques. For more information about columns. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. 12. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.4.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. such as alternating row colors. columns and rows.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.12 . The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).4.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. your options include using plain HTML forms.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.

You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". red for error.</span> 12. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.12 .javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component." /> 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.4.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .user.5. 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.

For example. 12.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.5.12 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. Without this JavaScript event. can publish value change events. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.javaserver faces 12.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Any component that receives user input.5. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. validateLength. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.customer.mycompany. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.5. but only if the new input is validated successfully. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The body content of this tag must be empty. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. 12.12 .MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.

If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. myJSFapp 143 . including images and styles. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.mycompany. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.5.javaserver faces 12. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. for each locale you wish to support.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. Example: welcome_en.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. If you have not specified a default locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.12 .

xml web. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Define navigation rules 3. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. static resources. Create properties files 144 . The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. custom tag libraries. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. JSP pages.javaserver faces /ant build.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.jar.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. It has a deployment descriptor. like third party jar files jsf-impl. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.contains libraries required by the application. jsf-api. and so on.jar – files included in the /lib directory.html.jar jsf-api.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.jar faces-config.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .12 .exadel. Create JSP pages 2. Create managed beans 4.

jsp to greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.xml file.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Compile the application 8.jsp is greeting. we just want to go from inputname. And that's all there is to this.12 .1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp file 7.7. Deploy and run the application 12. Create an index. These files will act as place holders for now. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp. You just need to create its contents. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp. The directory structure already exists.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp and greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages. In our application. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.7. 12. we can create a navigation rule. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .javaserver faces 5. As a diagram.

This section defines a bean name PersonBean. This class is straight-forward. 12.) 12. Inside this myJFSapp folder.javaserver faces This is. the second part of faces-config. of course.12 .7. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. To read more about navigation rules.xml Now.xml file should look like this: 146 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.3 faces-config.3. You can easily create more complex ones.7. request sets the bean scope in the application.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.7. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.PersonBean. 12.xml Your final faces-config.1 PersonBean. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. we will create a PersonBean. myJFSapp. a very simple navigation rule.java file. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.7. The next line is the full class name.3. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. public class PersonBean { String personName.3.

jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.sun.4. Inc. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.sun.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.5.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7.1 messages.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.7.sun.12 .//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.1 inputname. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.properties file in the bundle folder. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. 12.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.1//EN" "http://java.7.

personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.bundle.sun.12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. <h:inputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. Then.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.bundle.

specifically the bean attribute personName.greeting_text}" />. The first three lines are identical to our first page. name! 12.2 greeting. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.5. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.javaserver faces Line 1. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. That's how JSF knows where to go next.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.bundle. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Lines 3-5.xml file.6 creating the index.12 . Create the index.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Line 6.7.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.sun. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.</h3> tags..messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Creates an HTML input text box.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. The second line will access a Java bean. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 2.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.. Having an index.jsp page. 12. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.

you'll notice the file suffix is . which asks an user for an ID and password. because in the web. 12.jsf and not . insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). This is a "login" application. 150 .7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.7. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. To do this. Of course.javaserver faces Now.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.xml file. 12.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.html .sourceforge. This is used here. verifies the information. 12.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsp.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.9 Running Next. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.12 . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. We are almost done with this example.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. and forwards the user to a success or error page. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.xml file for the application *. Your setup. When Tomcat is done loading. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. though. To build the application run the build. we need to deploy it.7.8.7. might possibly be different). We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.

. Enter project name. jsf-login. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. 7.WEB-INF 151 . 3. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.. click Next.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. Select Java Project. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. make sure all checkboxes are checked.. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin... Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. click Yes through messages that appear.src | +-.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. 9. your mileage may vary.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. 12. click Next. select the Source tab. click Finish 4.. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. and set up folders for a web application. click Next d. click Add Folder. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. say. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. 2. in the wizard that appears. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. 6. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.xml Editor (see faces-config. 1. c. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. see Installing & Uninstalling.8.12 . and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. a. Select the Amateras node. name the folder pages. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. The New Project wizard appears.webroot | +-. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. and to add JSF libraries to the project. 10. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. from the menubar select File/New/Other. in the Add JSF Support page. name the folder webroot 5.

} 4. private String _pwd = "". c. The faces-config. for class enter login.xml. In Package Explorer select the src folder.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. b. else action = "loginFail". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.javaserver faces | | | +-. enter login. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. for name enter mgr. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The New Java Class wizard appears. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. 2. for scope select 152 . input widgets appear d.pages 12. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. The Java code editor opens. a. We then configure it to be a managed bean. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.12 . 1. 3.xml Editor.8. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. from its context menu select New/Class. click Add. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } return action. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. if ( _uid.xml editor opens.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. In the Package field.lib | +-. Click Finish. click Managed Bean. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".java package login.

jsp.webroot/pages/error.8. e.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. and 3 content pages (login. success. then close the editor 12. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp). enter the following code.javaserver faces session.jsp).jsp. </body> Please try 153 . save the file and close the editor. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. click Finish.jsp: a. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.webroot/index. Create index.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Then we create login.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp is placed directly in webroot. c. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. All pages except login. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Create success. the New File wizard appears. the JSP Editor opens.webroot/pages/success.12 .jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp. Create error.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. in Package Explorer select webroot. <!-. index. for File name enter index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. 1. so we create them first. b.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File. again.jsp. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. but in webroot/pages. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp and error. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.

this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. enter jsf-login e. a code-completion window pops up.jsp: a.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. click Finish. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and choose default for Template. Open the JSF palette. etc. with the following template code. and the JSP Editor can help with code.completion. 154 . as shown below. and uses them for code completion as well. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. from its context menu select New/Other. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. the New wizard appears. click Next c. Create login. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. (See Show View Dialog) f. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.sun.sun. and dock it along the right.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. place your cursor in one of these lines. g. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. <%@ page contentType="text/html... d. b. now we want to add attributes to this element. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. To see this in action.12 .javaserver faces </html> 4. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. for File name enter login. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.jsp.

with bean properties available in mgr. and hit Enter. with the barest presentational formatting.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". a code-completion window pops up. select userID from the code-completion window. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.loginAction} The final code. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.javaserver faces h. insert another <h:inputText> element. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.) j. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. i.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . enter #{mgr.12 .sun.password}" l. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this inserts value="" at the cursor. set its value to Login. insert a <h:commandButton> element.sun. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. complete the expression with the closing { k..

8.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml. using a FacesIDE editor. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. this inserts a page icon into the editor. This is shown below.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 156 . Select the Navigation tab 3. click on Page.12 . 1. Open faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.xml Editor. it should open in the faces-config. 2. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. then click inside the editor window.

jsp. notice that the warning triangle disappears. and is represented by an arrow. select Navigation Case. from the palette at left. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. then click first on the icon for login.jsp. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.jsp and then on the icon for success. add 3 more pages. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. and set them to /pages/login. in the Properties view.12 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. Its properties appear in the Properties view. 5. 6.jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). This is shown below: 157 .jsp. /pages/success.jsp 4.

and extension-based mapping is turned on. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). so uncomment it. 1.jsp. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. Similarly add a forward-action from login. Once deployed browse to index.javaserver faces 7. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.xml.jsp.xml for the specifics of our application. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . We want virtual path-based mapping. or leave it as-is. 12.jsp.xml Here we edit web. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.jsp to error. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. open web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. any other id/password should send you to the error page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. The application is now complete. We'll set some properties in web.xml. and you should be sent to the success page. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.6 Editing web.12 . all we need do in web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. As it turns out. since we have such a trivial application.8.

a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.validator javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. scroll down to Deploy.. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.8. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.component. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.faces.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login. click Deploy 3. 12.render javax. start Tomcat. that factory is used.webapp 12.html javax.faces.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.CONFIG_FILES 159 .el javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.10 the javax.context javax.0 1. as file:///.faces.application javax.faces.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.javaserver faces 12.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.event javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages..faces javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.model javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. For a given factory class name.component javax.faces.lifecycle javax.faces.faces.convert javax.12 . the Manager application should reload.

defining page navigation. ViewHandler . If none of the above steps yield a match. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. StateManager .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. with the last one taking precedence. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. with the last one taking precedence. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.faces.12 . 12. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . handling events and input validation. StateManagerWrapper . FacesMessage . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. those factories are used. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .represents a single validation (or other) message.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.11 the javax. ViewHandlerWrapper .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.Severity . and supporting internationalization and accessibility. FacesMessage. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. ApplicationFactory . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.

including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. UICommand . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. ValueHolder . StateHolder . or a hyperlink.context. ContextCallBack . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. UIComponentBase .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.FacesContext. • • 161 .12 . • ViewExpiredException . String) results in failure on postback.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.faces. EditableValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.restoreView(javax.faces. UIComponent .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. NamingContainer . when activated by the user. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. 12. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. Here they are: • • UIColumn . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".12 the javax. String. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. ActionSource2 . a menu item.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.

which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). The user can modify the selected value. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIViewRoot .12 . UIMessages . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally.13 the java.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. The user can modify the selected values. UIInput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UIForm . Optionally. UIGraphic . UIParameter . it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UISelectOne . identified by a clientId.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. This component has no rendering. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UISelectMany . that is displayed to the user. The user cannot manipulate this component.component. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UISelectItem .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIOutput .javaserver faces • UIData . by storing it as the value property of the component. UISelectBoolean . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UINamingContainer . it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIMessage . UIPanel .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.html package 162 .faces. it is for display purposes only.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.

HtmlForm .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML img element. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlOutputLabel . The label text is specified by the component value. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlMessage .Message". the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. or not. HtmlInputSecret .faces.represents an HTML label element. HtmlPanelGroup . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlOutputLink . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.by default.represents an HTML form element. HtmlColumn . HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlInputHidden . On a redisplay. HtmlCommandButton . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. and renders the result.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlGraphicImage .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlInputText . the rendererType property must be set to "javax.by default. HtmlDataTable . HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML input element of type text.renders child components in a table.represents an HTML textarea element.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlMessages . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. This component must be placed inside a form.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlOutputText . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.12 .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.faces. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. but the application wishes to render more than one. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputFormat .

showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneRadio .14 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. It is passed to.javaserver faces property.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. • • • • • • 12. ResponseWriter .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectManyListbox . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.faces.faces.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneListbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.15 the java. and potentially modified by. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. ResponseWriterWrapper . FacesContextFactory .convert package 164 .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. showing a single available option at a time. FacesContext .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.12 . HtmlSelectManyMenu . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. HtmlSelectOneMenu .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . ResponseStream . • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. and the rendering of the corresponding response. In particular.

to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12. PropertyResolver .javaserver faces 12.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. ValueBinding .12 .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. Classes: MethodBinding .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. • • • • 165 .16 the java.15.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. VariableResolver . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.faces.

FacesListener . 166 .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.faces. and event implementation classes.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseId .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. PhaseListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. Interfaces: ActionListener . PhaseEvent .17 the java. MethodNotFoundException .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. ValueChangeListener .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. ReferenceSyntaxException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ValueChangeEvent . FacesEvent . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .12 .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • • One exception . • • • • 12. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.AbortProcessingException .

DataModel . SelectItem . 12.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).20 the java. ScalarDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. SelectItemGroup .faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.12 .javaserver faces 12.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.18 the java. Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. ResultSetDataModel . • • • • • • • • • 12.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ListDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.19 the java. ResultDataModel . DataModelEvent .

a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. ConverterTag .22 the java. including a standard servlet.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java. base classes for JSP custom component tags. as well. and/or user Locale. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. and concrete validator implementation classes. LongRangeValidator . AttributeTag . • • 12. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). ResponseStateManager .faces. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. RenderKitFactory .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.12 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Typically. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.faces. 12. The package contains an exception. markup language. • RenderKit .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.validator package Interface defining the validator model. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . together. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.

12. the JSF life cycle does not apply. UIComponentBodyTag . To ensure that the business state is never invalid. that request is passed to the container. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the process includes a few more components or pages. UIComponentTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. When a web server receives a request.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. telling the model to update its data. the controller sends a message to the model. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. servlets. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When the model is updated. which passes the request to the page class. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the controller sends a message to the view. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. that need to process their tag bodies. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response.a base class for all JSP custom actions. but basically. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). or some other web technology. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the controller is the 169 . the life cycle is more complicated. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. When the user takes some action with the presentation. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. Likewise. In JSF. When using JSF. telling the view to update its presentation.12 . FacetTag . • • • • • FacesServlet . Also. which has several implications. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. related to a UIComponent. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). In MVC. or when an exception occurs. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. ValidatorTag .

this does not yet update the business objects in the application. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Invoke Application: During this phase. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. If this is a subsequent request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. In addition. and a piece of data failed validation. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. 170 . It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the UI components are the view. or from request headers. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. The components are stored in a component tree.javaserver faces JSF implementation. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. is validated at this time. from cookies sent as part of the request. depending on the request. Data for some components. and what happens during the processing and response.12 . any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and the response is sent to the client. These objects update their state with the data values. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. it creates UI objects for each view component. the JSF implementation must create the view. For a JSF-enabled application. However. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the conversion occurs in this phase. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. converting a String to a Date object). As with the previous phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. In addition.

Also. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.12 .javaserver faces In the above figure. 171 . skipping any remaining phases. For example. if errors occur during any of the phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

13. such as LDAP.COM. Thus the DNS name sales. when you use an electronic mail system. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. DNS.COM.JNDI 13. which is located in the root of the file system. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.JNDI 13 . 172 . A file system maps a filename (for example. identifiers. c:\bin\autoexec. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. The DNS entry Wiz. For example. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. The UNIX pathname. /usr/hello.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales.13 . such as addresses. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.5). For example."). or objects typically used by computer programs. 13. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. you must supply its name. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. for example. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. you are always naming one object or another. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. NDS. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). For example. in turn.9.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.48. It enables applications to access different.2.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. you supply it the name of the object. possibly multiple. In addition.sun. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. naming and directory services using a common API. When using almost any computer program or system. and NIS(YP). To access a file in the computer.Wiz. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. Using JNDI.

13.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is a context. that is.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. such as COM. relative to the entry o=Sun. For simplicity. Every context has an associated naming convention. such as /usr.COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. a file name is bound to a file. might contain the state of the printer. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. A printer object. 173 . might contain only information on how to reach the printer.c=us. In another example. For example.2. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. in the DNS domain Sun. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. which in turn. For example. and its flight number and departure time. such as its print server name and printing protocol. its flight plan. an LDAP entry. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service.2. a DNS domain. A file object. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. is relative to c=us.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. while the object itself might contain more state information. unbinding names. A reference is information about how to access an object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. that is."). For example. 13. delimited by the comma character (". An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. Instead. and fuel and instrument status. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. such as c=us. also called a file handle. o=Sun.2. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. For example.13 . some objects cannot be stored directly. is a context. in the UNIX file system is a context. on the other hand. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. for example. By contrast. for example. 13. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. and listing bound names. For example. That is. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. Finally. A printer object reference. is accessed using a file reference. in a file directory /usr/bin. they must be stored by reference. Using the reference. Typically. a file directory.

13 . a system that implements the DNS is a naming system.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. because we can. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. 13. and computer account information. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. And it kind of makes sense. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. various telephone numbers. resolution. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. a computer.2. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values.3. For example. An example is the telephone company's directory service. The computer's directory service is much more powerful.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. one context can be viewed. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. For example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. two different computer 174 . the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. or a network. a person. and color. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to some extent. and even the computer itself and other computers. For example. Thus. A directory object can be used. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). For example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). programs. to represent a printer. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. 13. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. for example. a name is unique 13. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. postal mail address. however.

The query is called a search filter. like any other program running on the network. for example. When directory objects are arranged in this way. For example.com". you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Alternatively.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.50". A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. such as the file and print services.3. For example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. The email address. many directories. The service is accessed through its own interface.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. removing.113. 175 . can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. 13.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.3. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. When you search. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. support the notion of searches.13 . an organization object. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. 13. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.4. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. for example. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. and users.smith@somewhere. the ability to access directory services will become essential. that is. can use the directory in the traditional way. printers. Many examples of directory services are possible. called a directory information tree (DIT). "mail" is the attribute identifier. 13. Within the DIT. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. adding. 13. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. 13. such as that relating to machines. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. for example. A Java mail client program. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. such as those based on the LDAP.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. By using a directory service.3. networks. Similarly. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.

and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. The Java 2 SDK. 13.5.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1. It extends the v1.naming javax.naming. and even the network. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. 13.13 .3 and later releases.naming. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.naming.event javax.1 and Java 2 SDK. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. v1. v1.1 and v1. more coherent and manageable.4. To use the JNDI.2. 13.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.ldap 176 . It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. emerging.5. v1. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.2.1 and the Java 2 SDK. For example. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. For example.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.directory javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.

naming package defines a Context interface. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. composing them. printer. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. In this case. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. binding/unbinding. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.spi 13.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.6.lang.6 the naming package The javax. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. 13. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. and the object itself. that is. However.6.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.13 .6. A java. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . 13. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. Furthermore. and it returns the object bound to that name.String name argument represents a composite name. 13.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.lang. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. the name of the object's class. For example. 13. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.print(report). a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .JNDI • javax.lookup("treekiller"). A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. For the methods in the Context interface.6. comparing components. list() is similar to listBindings(). which is the core interface for looking up. The overloads that accept java. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. for some objects in the directory. a 177 .String name.naming. and so on.lang. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.1 context The javax.

The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. replace. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. 13. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 178 . In the simplest and most common form of usage.7. Once you have an initial context.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. You can add. For example. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.6. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.7 directory package The javax. 13.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. InitialContext. There are no absolute roots. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.6. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.naming. 13.7. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Otherwise.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.directory package extends the javax.13 . Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. they should catch NamingException.

13 .naming. In fact. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.ldap package at all. that is. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. such as "object changed. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. or unsolicited notifications.9 LDAP package The javax.9. For example. To receive event notifications.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.9. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. and vice versa.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. Once registered.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.directory package.JNDI 13. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. such as information about the object before and after the change." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. 13. 13." and those that do not. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.9. called controls . Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. For example.8 event package The javax. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . such as "object added. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. 13.naming. controls.naming.

That is. and receiving response controls.10.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming.10 service provider package The javax. implementors of Context.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. if you look up a printer name from the directory. It uses a service provider for the file system.10.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming.naming package.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.naming.11.1 plug-In architecture The javax. 13. This support is provided in the form of state factories.9.java.spi package supports implementors of Context.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.2 java object support The javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories.10. sending request controls. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.naming. 13.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. create a file named Lookup. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. In the process of completing an operation. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. For example.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.Context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. import javax. 180 .13 . Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13.

For this reason.lookup(name).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. using the capitalization shown.RefFSContextFactory").fscontext. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11. 181 .err. import javax. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.11. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.jndi.5 compiling the program Next. } 13.JNDI import javax.out. env. If the compilation succeeds.naming. 13.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.sun. as follows.java).11.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). use Context. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.3. then the JNDI classes are already included.3 looking up an Object Next. Otherwise. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.NamingException.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. If the compilation fails. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). If you are still having problems.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).InitialContext. "com. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. you must have access to the JNDI classes.jar as an installed extension. 13.11.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. // Print it System. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. 13.lookup() to look up an object. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Object obj = ctx. v1. } catch (NamingException e) { System. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. create an initial context.naming.lookup(name).2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.13 . then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. To compile to program.put(Context.

directory packages. you need access to the JNDI classes.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.3. javax.DirContext. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.ldap.13 .InitialDirContext. To run the program.Attributes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.fscontext.directory.naming.NamingException. create a file named Getattr.sun.jndi.PROVIDER_URL. javax. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.class). v1. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.11. 182 . 13.naming. supply the name of a file in your file system.jar).12.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. and your example class (Lookup.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. env.jar and providerutil.bat If you supply a file directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming and javax.naming.put(Context. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.naming.directory.naming. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. "com.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.12. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.sun. then you will see something like the following. javax. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.put(Context.6 running the program To run the program. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.Context. the file system service provider. javax. create an initial directory context. env.naming. include the directory that contains your Lookup. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. 13.JNDI 13.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.java. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Finally.directory. import import import import import javax.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.LdapCtxFactory").jndi.

java). 13. As with the naming example. using the capitalization shown. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.get("sn").12. Attributes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. 13. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. For now. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. If the compilation fails.get().12. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.get("sn").err.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). 13.12. If the compilation succeeds. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. } 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. Similar to the naming example. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.get()). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. For this reason. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get() on it to get its value: attrs. ou=People").12.13 . Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. compile the source file using the Java compiler.get() and then from that attribute get its value.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.6 compiling the program Next. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.out.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. If you are still having problems. 183 . ou=People").

then see the Common Problems lesson.JNDI 13. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.7 running the program As with the naming example.jar and providerutil. If you have any trouble running this example.3. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.jar). Getattr.put(Context. 184 . With this configuration. then these classes are already included. ou=People".12.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.PROVIDER_URL.class. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. v1. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). If you are using the Java 2 SDK. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.13 . Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. env. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). Once it has the attributes.

a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS queue . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. Here. JMS consumer . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS topic . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. As the name queue suggests.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS client . JMS is a part of the Java Platform.14 . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. • 14. JMS message .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. In this model.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. Enterprise Edition.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. unless it has established a durable 185 . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS producer . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that creates and sends messages.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.a JMS client that receives messages. the messages are delivered in the order sent. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.

Depending on the type of message. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.14 . JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. On the receiving side.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 14. In that case. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.jms. 14. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 186 . Using Java. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.3 the JMS API programming model 14.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

In a J2EE application.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").createConnection(). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. It receives messages sent to a destination. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must close any connections that you have created. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. 14. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Before an application completes. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. you call the stop() method.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). The JMS administrator creates these objects.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Before your application can consume messages. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. It is either a queue or a topic.4. Connections implement the Connection interface.4.14 .close(). you must call the connection's start() method. and users discover them using JNDI. Like the connection factory. connection. Depending on the connection type. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. For example. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. 14. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. 14. For example.

14 . You use the Session. and you can use it to receive messages.receive(). consumer.start(). Message m = consumer. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. A message listener does. onMessage(). 14. For example. For example. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. After you have created a message consumer. which contains one method.) When message delivery begins.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.setMessageListener(myListener).5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. In the onMessage() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. (Remember always to call the start() method. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.start(). 188 . you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. After you register the message listener.receive(1000). usually expect a specific message type and format. connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. however. it becomes active.createConsumer(myTopic).createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. if it needs to reply to messages. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.createConsumer(myQueue). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. a message listener object may be used. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. This object implements the MessageListener interface. Moreover. you are likely to miss messages. MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message m = consumer. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.4. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). This method is valid only if you are using a topic.

A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. bytes message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.4.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer.createProducer(myQueue). that is. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. stream message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). 189 . message.send(myQueue. and object message). // msg_text is a String producer. map message. if you created an unidentified producer. A message has three main parts: 1.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.setText(msg_text). use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. After you have created a message producer.createProducer(null). anon_prod.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. from one application to another. With an unidentified producer. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. 3. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 14.createProducer(myTopic). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.receive(). Here. You must first create the messages.send(message). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. At the consuming end. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. For example.14 . message). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.send(message). MessageProducer producer = session.4. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. to create and send a TextMessage. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.createTextMessage().

and message consumers to receive messages. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. 0). then delivers the messages. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. 190 . the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Sessions implement the Session interface. Before committing the transaction. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. To create a transacted session. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. } else { // Handle error } 14. If the user selects transaction support. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.println("Reading message: " + message.getText()). After you create a Connection object.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.14 .8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. Session. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).out. use the following code: Session session = connection.createSession(true. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.4.createSession(false.

bundled into a single unit.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).object oriented representation of data in a DB. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. container which offers services to the component.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. server which provides an execution environment for containers. 15.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. On the other side. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .0. The component lives inside a container.consistent error handling framework . Version 1. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . the container lives (in general) in an application server. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.15 .jar file into the application server. component recovery scalability portability 191 . improved performance security . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.transaction management can be complex.0. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . message-driven beans The 2.no developer coding.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .DB interaction transactions .

The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. called ejb-jar. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .xml 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. as follows: 1. the remote interface of the bean 4.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.15 . RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.

RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.*. String lastName. import.rmi. } 15. The developer does not implement this interface.RemoteException. import java.javax.ejb.ejb. } 193 .15 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException.*.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import.rmi. import java. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.javax. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.

how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.interfaces.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. how to create or find the bean 2. this can be done (for example) through SSL.jnp. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. if the client executes outside the container. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. we need to know: 1. "org.put(Context. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.NamingContextFactory".put(Context. } 194 . the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 . implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. creating them for the client application. prop. In the case of an web application. "localhost:1099").PROVIDER_URL. prop. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).

the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.class). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. This is done through the javax. but for generic languages. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. in fact. • if the client executes outside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. Problem is.Remote interface).PortableRemoteObject class and.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. do not have the concept of casting. more specifically.narrow(homeRef. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. MyBeanHome. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Some languages. 195 . It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. do implements the java. that is part of CORBA standards. the client has a stub). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.rmi.15 . Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.lookup("MyBean"). in fact. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. using the narrow() method. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).rmi. Why? For EJB. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. and this means that there are some limitations.rmi. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.e.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). to the appropriate type.

ejbeans. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.ejb. as well). 1102)..create().ejb. call business methods on the bean myObject.bank11. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. int custId) { // method implementation .processEntry("Dumitrascu". String lastName. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .. public class MyBean implements javax..SessionContext. remove the bean instance myObject. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. import javax. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.remove().. "Vasile".ccards.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. 15.15 .

This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 15. that is.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 197 . because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.15 . the object is activated. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 15. A stateless bean does not. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.

calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the client invokes the remove method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. At the end of the life cycle.1 are invoked by the EJB container. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. The ejbCreate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. For example. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. for example. 15. the EJB container activates the bean. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.15 . Figure 15. 198 . the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. All other methods in Figure 15. or passivate. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. (Typically.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. is inside the bean class.

This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. stored in a Database). maintaining a cache between transactions 4.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.15 . • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 . The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. support for concurrent access 3. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.

state data is stored into data store (usually.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. Update and Delete. methods which have the same parameters. an instance of that bean is created. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. all throwing RemoteException.bank11. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). Read. as the parameters in the original create() method. On the other side.lang.ccards. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. in the same order. We can have more create() methods. 200 .14.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.15 . 15. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). CreateException. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.

After the EJB container creates the instance. First. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. actual SQL update code. 15.14. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. Second. it's business methods can be invoked. for BMPs.14. After instantiation.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). While in the pooled stage. but the developer returns null for CMP. for BMP. All instances in the pool are identical. not null. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. the client invokes the create method. it is empty. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. but in general. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. 201 .15 . While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. in BMP. 15. a client can invoke the remove method.2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.14. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. On the second path. left empty most of the time in CMP. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. On the first path. the programmer will create actual SQL code.

16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .15 . Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. another enterprise bean.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.an application client. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. In the pooled state. 202 . If the primary key is incorrect.getPrimaryKey(). or a Web component .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. In the pooled state. it does not automatically set the primary key. With bean-managed persistence. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. the values of the instance variables are not needed. Therefore.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.

To ensure concurrency.for example. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . change the weblogic-ejb-jar. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. If message processing is rolled back. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. a JMS API connection. message-driven bean can be used. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. max-beans-infree-pool. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. The onMessage method may call helper methods. 203 . To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. Previously. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.16.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. but not asynchronously. 15. In several respects.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. When a message arrives. Unlike a session or entity bean.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. the message will be redelivered. an open database connection. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. For more information on this element see.15 . a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 15.16. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. If this element is set to more than one. To avoid tying up server resources.

. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.ejb..16. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. 15. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. and it must not // accept parameters. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. As with other EJB types.. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.}. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.Message MessageName) {..} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. 15. 2. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. public void onMessage(javax. public void ejbRemove() {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 3. // An EJB constructor is required. methods.jms. Note: These instances can be pooled.Message.} // onMessage() is required. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.0 specification.. or create a new one.15 . finalize{}. Obtain a new bean instance.jms.16.16. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. Classes. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().

if the EJB throws a runtime exception). from the client perspective the EJB still exists.16. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).16. 15.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. 15.jms. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). For example. getUserTransaction(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.15 . Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. even in onMessage().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. getRollbackOnly() .MessageListener. However. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. 15. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.onMessage() for more information. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().16.16. 15. See javax.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.This is not a client context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. If any method throws such an exception. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.

but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. as described in the EJB 2. In either case.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.16. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). as required by the EJB 2.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.0 specification. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.15 . a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.16. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.

.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.xml elements.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.. </message-driven> .ejb20.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .message..xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.15 . For each instance. the weblogic-ejb-jar. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. as described in the EJB 2.xml deployment file. 2..0 specification. 15. 207 . The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.jms. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.

and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. a message-driven bean is never passivated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.like transaction.15 . EJB class name 5.security issues. environment properties 6.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. access control entries . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. control descriptors . bean home name . entity specific elements 10. isolation level. the container calls the ejbRemove method.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. 15. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. security 208 . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. session specific elements 9. attributes .specifies control attributes for transactions 4.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. At the end of the life cycle. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. the remote interface name 8. the home interface name 7.

ccards.ccards.bank11.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.lang.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.15 .ejb.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..15 .lang..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .


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