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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


enterprise edition Figure 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. The web tier. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. and sends it back to the client program. retail.2 Server communication 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.7 business components Business code. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. 5 . JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. or finance. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. are not considered web components. like HTML pages.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. processes it (if necessary). and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.1 . Figure 1.java platform. processes it (if necessary). 1. like the client tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.

the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. Before a web. and other complex low-level details.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). Business and EIS Tiers 1. multithreading. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. 1.9.1 . resource pooling. and other legacy information systems. In addition. For example. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. 1. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. database systems.3 Web. enterprise edition Figure 1.9 java EE Containers Normally. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. enterprise bean. mainframe transaction processing. 6 .java platform.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. or application client component can be executed.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. transaction management. 7 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.java platform. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.4. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 1.9. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. database connection resource pooling. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. data persistence.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. including services such as security.1 . For example. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. and remote connectivity. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.

Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. When XML data is exchanged between parties.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. or for document-oriented web services. 1. Web container . set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.java platform. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. extensible. 1. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Application client container . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .manages the execution of application client components. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. video. 8 . A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned.manages the execution of applets. For example. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. program files.10.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. develop.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. text-based standard for representing data. maps. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. XML data. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Application clients and their container run on the client. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. test. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Applet container .

Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10.java platform. 9 . such as Universal Description. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 1.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.1 . The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The description includes the name of the service. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. 1. enterprise edition 1. the location of the service. and ways to communicate with the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.

11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 . You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. and XML) and JSP elements. or if the server shuts down. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. the session bean and its data are gone. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. Commonly. If the client terminates.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11. standard set of tags. In Java EE 5. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. When the client finishes executing.java platform. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. you employ a single.11. or enterprise bean. WML. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. 1. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. 1. 1.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. At runtime.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it is ready to be deployed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . servlet. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.1 . SAAJ. Once deployed on a local platform. No extra coding is needed. JTA. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. a module.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. better tools. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. 15 . or component accordingly.ear extension. or a component. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. and JNDI 1. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or better customer support. JSP page. the application is ready to run. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete.java platform. such as better performance. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . module. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.

and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. For example. enterprise edition Figure 1. supporting class files.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor.1 . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. Web modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. and a web application deployment descriptor. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation.java platform. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. JSP files. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Application client modules. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. native libraries. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. such as caching directives. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Resource adapter modules. Together. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. GIF and HTML files.war (Web ARchive) extension. for example.jar extension. classes. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. and other documentation. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . • • 16 . which contain all Java interfaces. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.

Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. an initial line 2.1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. POST. was the object of several RFCs.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. zero or more header lines 3.HTTP 2 . RFC 2616 (06/99). . HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. HEAD. as follows: 1. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). The server answers with a response message.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. so far) version. The client sends a request message to the server.. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.2 . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. The second (and last.w3. These messages may have different contents. namely HTTP 1.com/easy/http. we recommend www. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). but they also have some common structural elements. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.apps. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.html).org/rfc/rfc1945.jmarshall.HTTP 2. check the official HTTP site – www. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .org/Protocols . It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. 2.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.ietf.

0). All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. GET /path/to/the/file/index.Annotation of existing resources.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. POST 4. HTTP/1.html HTTP/1. 2. HEAD 3.Posting a message to a bulletin board. but lack of support makes them obsolete.1 specification.1. newsgroup. as well. . GET 2. TRACE Three other commands are listed. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. OPTIONS 7. DELETE 6. PUT 8. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. mailing list. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. Here is their list: 1. in the HTTP 1.2 . If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. 18 . CONNECT 5.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . The only difference is that the response must not have a body.

either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.Extending a database through an append operation. to a data-handling process. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.8 the status code A three-digit integer. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). while POST may involve anything.2 . after the “?” character.Providing a block of data.6 differences between GET and POST 1.” On the other side. separated by the character “&” or “. (encoded as multipart/form-data).7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 2. or sending E-mail 2. or ordering a product. or a record is subordinate to a database. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. like storing or updating data. 3. In this case.0 404 Not Found 2. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.HTTP or similar group of articles. . When used for form data submission. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. . depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. 2. or in the message body. such as the result of submitting a form. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .

header values are.0 version specifies 16 headers.1 only) . file or script output) is returned in the message body.1). and the resulting resource (e. out of which. fails.g. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. separated a semicolon. or otherwise can't run correctly.the requested resource doesn't exist. Although the header names are not case sensitive.2 . where the requested resource is returned to the client. 2. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.0.the request succeeded. The most common use of the message body is in a response.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. while the HTTP 1. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. header name and header value. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.1 version specifies 46 of them. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. that is. 20 . 404 Not Found . none of them mandatory. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. one (Host) is mandatory. such as text/html or image/jpg. In particular.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. If an HTTP message includes a body. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. and section 10 for HTTP 1. 500 Server Error . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. The HTTP 1. 2. In a request.an unexpected server error. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .

text. multipart.HTTP 2.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype mpeg 2. Here is the list of the seven types. external-body 4.0 From: someuser@yahoo.uvt. application.ro/path/file. with subtypes rfc822. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. message. video.org/rfc/rfc1521. RFC 1521 (www. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.uvt.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. image.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.info. 1.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.apps. partial. digest.html first open a socket to the host web. audio. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). with subtypes octet-stream. with subtypes jpeg. with subtypes mixed.html HTTP/1. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .info. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ro.2 . parallel 3.ietf. . 21 . with subtype plain 2. Then. postscript 5. gif 6. alternative.0 200 OK Date: Fri. with subtype basic 7.

2 .HTTP . the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .

A newer standard. namely HTML 1. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.2 (3.HTML 3. From 1999 on.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.0) dates from 08.0. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).com/tutors.w3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. HTML 3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.w3c. Since it fits in a couple of pages.org/Markup . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.blooberry. The XHTML 1. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.HTML 3 .was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The first version of HTML.0 draft was released in 01. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. It is a revision of 4. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. However. The first official version – HTML 2.htmlgoodies.99. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.html) and was widely supported.www. The latest version (XHTML 2. www.apps.jmarshall. HTML describes how text. The newest version of HTML is 4. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. As a practical reference site use – www. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. 3.com/indexdot/html . Other helpful sites .ietf.01.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.0.0 . a working draft for the next major revision.html.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0 and was accepted in December 1997. Version 4.01) can be found at this address: http://www.3 . Originally named Web Applications 1.com/easy/html . check the official HTML site – www.org/rfc/rfc1866. Mosaic.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.3 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" ".

the chinese character for water. Overall. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. VSAPCE are omitted.w3. though.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. This section deals with some of the most common elements.0 Transitional DTD. Check the address http://www.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. If you wonder what a character reference is. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. “&quot”." (in hexadecimal) . the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. like ALIGN. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. CONTROLS. 3.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.and end at the first occurrence of -->.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 contains an SGML declaration. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.3 . 4. HTML 4. "&#x6C34. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. BORDER. DYNSRC.01 specification. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. ….0 Strict DTD. You get the point. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. the specification of HTML 4.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. HTML 4.acesta este un comentariu. three DTDs (HTML 4. <><> --> 25 . 3. look at these examples: “&lt”.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. An example: <!-.

etc. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.5 tables 26 .uvt.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.3.HTML 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.info. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3 . image.ro/webmail/src/login. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. NAME.3.

<TH> and <TD>. <THEAD>. Here is their description and attributes. its rows.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. columns. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is a an example of a table: 3.3 . Usually.

allowing user input and parameter submittal.3 .required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.

"checkbox". specifies the parameter name. "image". the browser appends the values to the URL. "submit". "radio".required. "password".8.uvt.8.info.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.3 . Example: http://web. "hidden". Main attributes: 29 . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". "text/plain" • • 3.if specified.the default value. NAME . Main attributes: • TYPE . "reset". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.HTML • METHOD . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "GET" . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.:.required.8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "button".sends the form values in a single transmission.maximum number of options visible to the user. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. 3. may have the values GET or POST.required.8 form related elements 3. after a quotation mark . however.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . • 3.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "file".?. SIZE . allows multiple selections from the choice list. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. specifies how data will be sent to the server. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. To overcome this significant shortage.2 java the interpreter. The current version (as of 10.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. -g : generate all debugging info. javac -classpath .class file.95.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.2 version..class. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.90. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1. Java bytecode – a file with extension . Example: Edit the file prog1. project started in 12. Java source – a file with extension .95. The current version (as of 10.JAVA PRIMER 4 . the compilation process occurs. Inc.0.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.4 .JAVA PRIMER 4. 4. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. In terms of execution time.C:\TW\mySource.java. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. a tool named Just In Time compiler.java One example of command line compilation: 4.class 3.) in 08. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. Early versions of Java were released in 12. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.class file. but next time execution is much faster.java 2.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.4. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. jit From source to execution.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The first time a class is loaded.3 java applications 31 .

use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.java. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.4 object oriented concepts 4. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.jar file.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. 4. An example: 32 . In general. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.4 . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. or that it extends A). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). or is derived from A. Generally. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.4.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.

While C++ allows multiple inheritance. Boolean. Short. providing its own implementation. Long. 33 .Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. 4. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. In fact. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. In OO jargon.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Double. Integer. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Character. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. called Object. with the root the class Object.1 bit char . but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Therefore. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. this is called method overloading. namely: Byte.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Float.4.4. 4. 4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Therefore.4 . a Java class can extend a single base class.

one which is defined at class level.. which extends the class javax. 34 . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable . rather than at class instance. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. } declares an abstract class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.no access from outside the class itself protected .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is constant method .servlet.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.http. automatic garbage collection. • • • • no specifier . no templates.4 .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .servlet.access from any class anywhere private . class . inherited).does not have any subclasses. has the same value for all class instances. anywhere abstract . Except for the "package" concept. method .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .http.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the class is visible from any class. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. 4. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. A final variable (method. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.

these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . 2. Exception categories: 1. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. not at execution time.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. 4.like invalid cast.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. In Java. array index out of bounds.JAVA PRIMER 4. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. namely class Error and the class Exception.4 . an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. standard method exceptions 3.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. code or data errors . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.7.ThreadDeath. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. division by 0. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. as defined in the java. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.7.7.7.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4. programmer defined exceptions 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). java errors .

. .rmi java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. date and time info java.ccards.net java.1 Package names The default package has no name.java.4 . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.util . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).sql. In the example above.awt.support for data collections. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.default.nio java. finally construct.awt. string analyzers. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. The package containing the standard classes is java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.support for java archives creation java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.util.sql java.util. As a general rule. therefore. import. don't have to import java. the default package is used).support for event handling java. 4.io java.support for user interface java.class file.zip . 4.lang (automatically available). All other packages must be explicitly imported. An example: package com. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .event .Properties.bank11. they have to be unique inside a package.8. followed by the import statements.servlets. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. import javax.this can be done by providing a try.by adding the key word throws. catch..geom .security 36 . the class (the .awt . 4.lang .*.

it must be declared as abstract.support for event handling 4. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.text javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. static and final. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.4 . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.accessibility javax.event . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All variables (actually.swing.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). 37 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.swing .

3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript statement like this: document.javaScript 5 . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . other 38 . and . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. This is not always what we want. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.depending on the browser . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. However.HTML authors are normally not programmers. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. like QtScript or ActionScript. 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. as JavaScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995. Subsequently. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.5 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.JAVASCRIPT 5.

. When you place a script in the head section. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. without having to write the same script on every page. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. To simplify this. 39 .3. 5.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. you can write a JavaScript in an external file..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. or when an event is triggered.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. go in the head section.3.js file extension.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.5 . </script> </head> 5.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5..3. </script> </body> 5. point to the .. Save the external JavaScript file with a .javaScript times when a user triggers an event.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.

4..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. switch().4. continue..In statement The for. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. 5. break......in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.javaScript 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while() it is worth mentioning the for ...5 . 5. while().1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. for(). The code in the body of the for . in loop is executed once for each element/property. catch constructs. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.5.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. else. namely – if . or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. 5. in and the try .4.4.1 JavaScript for.

javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.3 try.. mycars[2] = "BMW".in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. var mycars = new Array(). Example Using for. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. The try block contains the code to be run. so you don't lose your audience. Mozilla 1.. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement (available in IE5+. mycars[1] = "Volvo".5 . Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. mycars[0] = "Saab". or a property of an object.5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5...write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). } </script> </body> </html> 5.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. When users see errors.catch statement The try... an array element.0.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. they often leave the Web page. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.

the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. When an alert box pops up. Syntax: 42 . } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.7.\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. 5.5 .7 popup boxes 5. txt+="Error description: " + err. Also.\n\n".description + "\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). txt+="Click OK to continue. alert(txt).

If the user clicks "Cancel". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. in the <head> section. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the box returns true. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Now.8. If the user clicks "OK". Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page."defaultvalue") 5. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.7. If the user clicks "Cancel". When a prompt box pops up. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded..7.5 .js file). in the example above had not been written within a function. When a confirm box pops up. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the box returns null. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Syntax: prompt("sometext". the box returns false.8 functions 5.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.

var2. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.write(txt. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.5 . and how they are used.9.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.8. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.length). var2. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1. 5. 5.javaScript function functionname(var1..9 javaScript objects 5. etc are variables or values passed into the function. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.. document.. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.9. So. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. and will be stored in the variable called product. 5.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.

toUpperCase()).write(str. which will be specified in the next section. </script> 5. 45 .9.javaScript 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. document.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects.5 . The other class are the language specific objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".

At its most basic level.com/jsref/default.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. N: Netscape.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. For example. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.11. which are called Objects. as well). every Image on the page is an Object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . or when the user interacts with a Web page.w3schools. Properties FF: Firefox. check the site http://www. Even this Document itself is an Object.5 . every Link on the page is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. When an event message has been triggered. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.asp 5.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. Properties FF: Firefox.11. N: Netscape.5 .

1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. depending on the browser. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.5 . as a four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .

according to local time. according to universal time.5 . Properties FF: Firefox.11.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. according to local time. according to local time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string.

Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .5 4 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .11.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 .5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.

5 .11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 . N: Netscape.

y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 1. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 3.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 2.5 .434) Returns PI (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. N: Netscape. 0. 0.11. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) min(x.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 1. 0.y) pow(x.javaScript 5.

Objects also have methods. Assume that the personObj already exists . but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. with a collection of properties and methods.write(personObj. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. personObj.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. etc.12.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().12. The persons' properties include name. personObj.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.firstname="John".lastname="Doe". document. lastname. sleep(). personObj. personObj.5 . play().lastname="Doe". 53 . 5. skin tone. eye color. height. personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.age=50.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.firstname).1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. All persons have these properties. weight.you can give it properties named firstname.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. personObj. age. age. etc.eyecolor="blue". The persons' methods could be eat(). Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. work().eyecolor="blue".12. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.age=30.firstname="John". The code above will generate the following output: John 5. personObj.

"blue"). The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.age.newlastname=newlastname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.eyecolor) { this. You can also add some methods to the person object. 5. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."Rally". The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).lastname=lastname. this.firstname=firstname.5 . Once you have the template. this.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname=new_lastname. you can create new instances of the object. this. this. 54 ."green").eat=eat.12. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.age=age.age=age. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.48.lastname. this.50."Doe". myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor) { this. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname=lastname.firstname=firstname.lastname.propertyName. } Notice that the template is just a function. this.eyecolor=eyecolor.age.

13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. 5. For example. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. now you can write: myMother. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.newlastname("Doe"). F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button."...javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. So. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.5 . We define the events in the HTML tags. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.

otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.5 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. For example. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. the submit should be cancelled. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. If it returns true the form will be submitted.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The name is then stored in a cookie.13.13.w3schools. If the field values are not accepted. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.2 onFocus.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. 5.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.

the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. As of January 2008. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.Html DOM 6 .g. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. By October 1998. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. particularly those used in Web browsers. CSS. or WebAPI being among them. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. and style of a document. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. SVG. 2010).6 .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. XML. HTML. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .HTML DOM 6. the Document Object Model activity is closed. structure. The W3C 58 . In other words. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. However. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. 6. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. Right now (oct.

and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. 2. As of 2005. Level 2 XML namespace support. 5. Level 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Core. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. and 6.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. which further enhances the DOM 6. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. a new DOM Core specification. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. each of which contains required and optional modules. DOM Level 3 XPath. 4.6 . 6. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. HTML-specific elements are included as well. 3. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. filtered views and events. To claim to support a level. Level 2. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 Requirements.

Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Konqueror. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. support multiple browsers. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. 6. Besides the generic objects listed bellow.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.5 web browsers implementation Earlier.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x were still widely used in 2000. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. can be accessed through the 60 . The Window object represents a browser window. along with their containing text and attributes. interoperability problems were numerous. In order to be cross-browser compatible.6 . including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.x and Netscape 4. and Safari. Opera. By 2005. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). All HTML elements. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. that is.

6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. and new elements can be created. JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. and VBScript.

"DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. 6.Html DOM 6. <head> and <body>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. everything in an HTML document is a node.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.9. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. However.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.6 .8. 62 . The <head> node holds a <title> node.8. 6. The <html> node has two child nodes. the element node <title>.

getElementsByTagName("p"). By navigating the node tree. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. 63 . child. and new elements can be created. The terms parent. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.getElementsByTagName("p").9. except the root. the top node is called the root Every node.getElementById('main'). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.6 . By using the getElementById() method 2.2 node parents. and the connections between them.9. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. • • • • • In a node tree.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). children. Parent nodes have children. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. using the node relationships. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).

write("<br />"). each node is an object. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document.6 . The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML). document.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.Html DOM for (i=0. } 6. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.write(x[i].i<x. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.9.length. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).

The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. txt=x.firstChild.Html DOM 6.nodeValue.6 .getElementById("intro").9. 6.

Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .6 . For elements. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images. including window. frames. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.

Safari.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). 6. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. When the user clicks on the inner element. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. DOMNodeInserted. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.3. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Mozilla. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. as of version 1. for instance. Also. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. During the event flow. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.6 . Fires when an element is activated. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. through a mouse click or a keypress. also supports these methods. and then bubbled up. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. say "click". 67 .

Unfortunately. etc. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event.6 . Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. preventDefault 68 . mouse position. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. key pressed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented.Html DOM 6. including information about target element. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).

but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. For improving sharing of resources.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. It is not a technology in itself. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. dynamic website. 7.AJAX 7 . it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. choices of user. but also to save resources. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. 7. fields of forms. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network. etc.7 . using web services or Php scripts. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. For example. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. crunching numbers. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.AJAX 7. menus. The server does some processing — retrieving data. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 69 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.

if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. at the start of the session. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting around for the server to do something. what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. Once an interface is loaded. we wouldn’t make users wait around. the user waits some more. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. Instead of loading a web page. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. Obviously. 70 . the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. While the server is doing its thing. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.7 . but the opposite is true.

without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. 71 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.7 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. editing data in memory. usually using XML. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. loading additional interface code.

for a Xml file or . 3: answer in process. . These events are user actions. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.open: create a connection.AJAX 7. DOM's method allows to extract data.responseXml . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. 2: request received.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.returned by the server . onreadystatechange . .send: send a request to the server.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.holds a Xml loaded file. .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.holds loaded data as a string of characters. boolean) . 4: finished. url. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.mode: type of request. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 1: connection established. and in this purpose.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". It allows the interaction with the servers.for a simple text. To get data on the server. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. GET or POST . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .7 . thanks to its methods and attributes.url: the location of the file 72 . 404 if the page is not found . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 7. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. This object provides two methods: .200 is ok. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.responseText .

} Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . the data to send to the server. but two options must be tried.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. The request below reads a document on the server.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. 73 .. URL of the document..XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). Safari. OK } else { // wait.readyState == 4) { // received.open: command GET or POST.null for a GET command 7. for browser compatibility. true for asynchronous. 'http://www..xml'. . // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. // Firefox.fr/somefile.AJAX . . true). } else if (window.XMLHTTP").send: with POST only.send(null). request.6 building a request.7 . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. if (window.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . if (request. http_request..xul.open('GET'. http_request.

7.7 . } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.status == 200) document. else if (window. "data.dyn="Error code " + req. req. by this code: var doc = req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.responseXML. req.open("GET". }.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .send(null).XMLHTTP).status.ajax.7 examples 7.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.ajax. true). if(window.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.responseText.readyState == 4) if(req.dyn="Received:" + req.item(0).responseText. req.getElementsByTagName('root').dyn=""Received:" + req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".ajax.AJAX 7. else document.xml".

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
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XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .bank11. 6. descriptions). Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. 4. like what pages are error. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. Servlet. 5.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype..WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.)> <web-app> <!-. Here is a small.ccards. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. data persistence.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.class>com. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. web. welcome pages.8 . JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. but typical web.servlets. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 2. MIME types used by the web application. JSPs and Java Server Faces. servlet classes. After an enterprise bean is created. database connection resource pooling. like: 1.xml file: <?xml version="1. Initialization of parameters for servlets. Others. 3. classes. For example.. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 8. entries related to session configuration. Servlet.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.

the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.servlets".ccards.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . whose name is rather long.bank11. Unfortunately. the name of the web application. Then the "EnrollServlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.8 .bank11.xml" 2. In general. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. However. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.ccards.servlets".bank11. Behind a very benign URL. 1. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.servlets. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml" file. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards.xml". The "/ccards" part of the URL is. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". For example.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. basicly. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. for flexibility.class" and that it is part of the package "com. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Basicly.xml file of the web application.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. it is the alias of the real servlet class.

in most cases as part of an application server.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.4. platform independent programs.0 specification is available for public review. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. this is just a work in progress. from BEA Systems.2. but through a web container.2. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).SERVLETS 9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. small footprint. which extend the functionality of the web server. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . the Java Servlet 3.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. 2010. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 9. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.0 specification. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.SERVLETS 9. As of oct. but at this point. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. 9. modular design 9. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Technically speaking.4. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . more often.5 and is in final state. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.9 . tjws spec 2.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. the HttpServlet) class.

http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. while the second one. public void service(ServletRequest req.9 . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. WebSphere.servlet package.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from Apple Inc. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . 82 . IOException. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet package are protocol independent. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void destroy() throws ServletException. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet. These packages are: • • javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from IBM 9. the javax.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. The method performs all initialization required. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Throwable t) 9.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. This method has two arguments.9 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. namely the HttpServlet class. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). as well. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. After instantiating the servlet. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. More on the servlet life cycle. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. respectively. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. 83 . the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.

servlet.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. It also extends the java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.9 .UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.Exception class.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . service().Exception and can be thrown by the init(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.ServletException javax.lang.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. 9. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.

Also. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. If the servlet does not implement the javax.servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. After instantiation. JSP or JSF.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. DB connection opening. respectively.SingleThreadModel. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. 85 . Typically. Typically. which will service all incoming requests. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.9 . the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. 9. etc. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.

11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.9 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.

html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.bank11.*.xml file. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.servlets. This is done in server's (container's) server. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. 87 .SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.java" file: package com. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. import java.io. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.9 .ccards.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.

println("</html>"). out.println("<head>").getWriter().init(config).*. PrintWriter out = resp. out. import javax.9 . out.println("</body>").http.println("<body>"). // output your page here out.println("merge"). out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.println("</head>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.*. out.setContentType(“text/html”). IOException { resp. out. } } 88 .servlet. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.close(). out.servlet.SERVLETS import javax.println("<html>").println("<br>"). out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.

Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.sql package. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.10 . After that.0 while the current (4. 1997. This solution is inefficient.odbc. Type 1.sun. the javax.sql package 2. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0.jdbc. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.JDBC 10. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 10. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).1. 89 . JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). Starting with version 3. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. the java. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.JdbcOdbcDriver . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.JDBC 10 .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. as recognized by the DB industry. These drivers fall into four standard categories. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. The JDBC 4.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.

Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Part Java. forwards them to the JDBC driver. because it eliminates one level of indirection.10 . These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. which in turn. Type 3. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 4. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.JDBC Type 2.

SQLInput java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp. java.sql.SQLXML java.Statement java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.SQLWarning java.DriverManager java.sql.Time java.sql.sql.sql.Driver java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Wrapper 91 .sql.Struct java.SQLDataException java.3 the java.sql.sql.Types java.Date java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Connection java.0).sql.Array java.sql.SQLData java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.10 .SQLOutput java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.sql.sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.SQLPermission java.sql.sql.sql.Clob java.ResultSet java.JDBC 10.Timestamp java. let's remind some of the most important ones.SQLException java.Blob java.sql.sql.0 API.sql.PreparedStatement java.

sql.sql.sql.sql.Connection java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.ResultSet java. establishing a database connection 3.Types java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.Blob java.4 interaction schema in the java.sql. java.sql.sql.0. loading a database driver 2.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.RowId java.PreparedStatement java.sql.StatementEvent javax.DatabaseMetaData java. processing the result set 92 .sql.SQLException java.NClob java.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLWarning java.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.10 .sql.Statement java.sql.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.SQLXML java.StatementEventListener 10.sql.CommonDataSource javax.Clob java.sql.sql.SQLInput java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.sql. querying the database 4.sql package.sql.

sybase. A database driver is specified by the driver name.odbc.jdbc. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.borland.OracleDriver sun.driver.ibm.datastore.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.SybDriver com.net.jdbc.db2.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .JDBC 10.jdbc.DB2Driver oracle.DataStoreDriver com.10 . The first one is loading a database driver.

try { Class. but let's take it for granted: import java.*. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.Driver").getConnection(connURL. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.forName("org.*. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".printStackTrace().sql.util. import java. 94 . Since we just used it. String user = "root". user. as specified by the driver vendor. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).mysql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.10 . by using the connection URL.gjt.newInstance(). passwd).bank11.mm. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.

put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp). prp.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. "true"). Properties prp = new Properties().10 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. Connection conn = DriverManager.util.getConnection(connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. String user. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. int resultSetConcurrency. 10. we can use it for various purposes. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true"). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. java.put("create".sql package.JDBC 10.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.

8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. respectively.10 . methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. namely. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. prepared statements and stored procedures. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.JDBC 10.

. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.sql. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. stmt.10 . Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.executeUpdate(sqlString). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .. 10.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.".9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.createStatement().

all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. not at 0) or the column name. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. PreparedStatement. and CallableStatement objects.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. 98 . all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. as the argument. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 .

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


This interface is.sql. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. It is part of the javax. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. mins.sql package.10 .Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Time java.math.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.Big Decimal Object float 10.math. Connection pooling implementation -.0 optional package.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.sql. There are three types of implementations: 1.DataSource object.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. basicly.sql. Basic implementation -.produces a Connection object that will 103 . time. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. a factory for creating DB connections.produces a standard Connection object 2. secs date.

lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*.bank11. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.naming.http. javax.sql. import import import import import import java. 104 . Distributed transaction implementation -.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.sql.*. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.class.*.ccards. 3. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax. private DataSource theDataSource. java.getName()).10 .getLogger(TestDataSource.io.servlet. javax.servlet. javax.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). theDataSource = (DataSource) env.*.*. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlets.

} } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } } 105 . ServletException { .10 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e)... HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").

servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.2 the java. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The javax. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet. The package javax. If the JSP is modified. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. The package javax.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. namely javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).11 .JSP 11.jsp.jsp.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.servlet.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification. 11.tagext.1 and is related to the 2. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.JSP 11 .jsp and javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. include and taglib. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11..11 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false"... attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. 111 . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .JSP • if the URL does not start with / . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page..

a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. this code goes to inside the service() method.7 scripting elements 11. 11. 11.JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7.7. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. Assigns it to available name or id. In Tomcat.7.11 . 11.

10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. you must specify param. and if so.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.11 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . Attributes description: • • • name .the name of a bean instance. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .

the URL of the page. <jsp:plugin> actions.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . <jsp:forward>.11 . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .13 the forward standard action 114 . flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.

14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).the type of object the plugin will execute.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . .the name of a bean instance.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.. as this attribute has no default value. If you do not supply a value. as well. depending on request.. 11." ..class extension in the name following code. when we want to separate the application into different views. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . code="classFileName" . servlet or to a static resource.. name="instanceName" . name . It is used mainly.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. archive="URIToArchive.a name for the Bean or applet instance. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.11 . You must specify either bean or applet. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. You must include the . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. The default value is 1.PrintWriter.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.the initial height and width.11 . of the image the applet or Bean displays. 1.it represents the buffered version of java. it has javax. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . and domain name.represents the servlet context. with a protocol name.1.16 scopes 1.Object type and scope page 11. request .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.lang. objects which are automaticly available. application . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. writes to the output stream to the client. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the amount of space. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.io. in pixels. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. it has java. The value is a full URL.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. in pixels. out .jsp. response . config . pageContext .1" .represents server's response to the request.servlet. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.JspWriter type and scope page 7. based on the servlet API. Must be a small nonzero number.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . request . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. optional port number.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. session . page .

the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . page .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. application . Object value) method 11. Object value) method 4.bank11.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. Object value) method 3.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.beans.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. if (enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 2.jsp file.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.init().an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. session .ccards.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.11 .

examples. 11.18. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).simple. private int integer.devsphere. %> <jsp:forward page="response.mapping. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private String optional. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. The SimpleBean class is declared public.string. a software development and consulting company.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private boolean flag.io. a float. private String colors[]. an int. The public constructor could have been omitted.11 .java: package com.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private float number. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.Serializable { private String string. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .register(). SimpleBean. private int list[]. a boolean and another String).

} // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } 119 .flag.11 .colors[index].integer = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.integer. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.number.number = value.flag = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.JSP this.colors = values. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.colors. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.string = value.

} // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.optional = value. } } 120 .optional.list[index].list[index] = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.subBean = value.subBean. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list.list = values.11 . } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. int value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. String value) { this.colors[index] = value.

JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.java: package com. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number = value.18. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.simple.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.string.io. SimpleSubBean.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .devsphere. private float number.number.11 .mapping.string = value.Serializable { private String string. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } } 11.examples.

string subBean.number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.examples. SimpleBeanResources. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.integer]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]".java: package com. error messages. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. "abc" }.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.mapping. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.list]". new Boolean(true) }.util. The list of optional properties has a single element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.colors]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.123) }. new int[] { 2.11 . Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. new Float(0. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.simple. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the processing order. new String[] { 123 .flag]". No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. the form's name and the processor's name.devsphere. There are three error messages.number]". The default values are defined for a String.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. a float. "An option must be selected" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". 3 } }. a boolean and an int[].string]". "One or more colors must be selected" }.18. "One or more items must be selected" }. the list of optional properties.

If necessary.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. "list". For a better understanding of this example. "optional". "flag".jsp" } }.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).11 . "SimpleProc. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.mapping.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.*.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere. "SimpleForm.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.mapping. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.devsphere. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.JSP "optional" } }. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. { "[PROC_NAME]". "number".18. "colors".logging. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. com. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere. string values are converted to numbers.devsphere.html" }.examples. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. { "[FORM_NAME]". "subBean" } }. The beanToForm() method of com.mapping. "integer". SimpleHndl. } } 11.mapping.util. new String[] { "string".simple.

// Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. response).equals("POST").getClass()).getServletPath(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. errorTable = HandlerUtils.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. 125 .JSP = HandlerUtils. simpleBean. int slashIndex = basePath. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.11 .File(formPath)). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Process the valid data bean instance application.getBeanResources(simpleBean. logger).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getString("[PROC_NAME]").substring(0.io.lastIndexOf('/').trim().removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getTemplate(new java. formPath = application.getRealPath(formPath).util.forward(request. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.trim(). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getRequestDispatcher(procPath). slashIndex+1) : "".getDocument().getMethod(). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.formToBean(formData.

beanToForm(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean. } %> 11.devsphere.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getSubBean().length. if (list.length == 0) return "".length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.getString() %> <P> subBean. document. SimpleProc.simple. strbuf.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.11 .18.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. for (int i = 0.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.append("{ ").jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. i < list.number = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean(). // Send the form document document.JSP elements logger). errorTable.send(out). i++) 126 .examples.mapping. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().

beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. In addition. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.toString(). return strbuf. for (int i = 0.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. if (list. In addition.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.examples. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.jsp files.11 .append(" ").18. ComplexForm.toString(list[0]).util.formToBean() call.append(" "). strbuf. The localization of the Complex*. A single call to FormUtils. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.simple. making the testing and the debugging easier. } %> 11. Using the framework. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("}").mapping.length == 1) return Integer.length == 0) return "".append(list[i]). } strbuf. i++) { strbuf.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .toString(). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. } strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. ComplexHndl. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. i < list.devsphere.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.length.append("{ "). return strbuf.append(list[i]).append("}"). strbuf. strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.

boolean checked = simpleBean.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green". "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j < colors. "Option 3" }. i++) { boolean checked = false. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".length.length. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors(). "Option 2". String colorLabels[] = { "Red". i < integerLabels.getInteger() == value.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j].11 . i++) { int value = i+1. i < colorValues. "blue" }. 128 . "green".

} %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".mapping.SimpleSubBean()).simple. "subBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.setSubBean( new com.11 . for (int i = 0. i++) { int value = i+1.length.getSubBean().string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .length. j < list.devsphere.getList().string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.JSP break. "Item 3" }.examples.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. i < listItems. break. "Item 2". j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. boolean selected = false.

getMethod().simple. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.examples.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. return message. boolean isPostMethod = request.mapping. "subBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleBean. 130 .mapping.11 .equals("POST").examples.util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.setString("abc").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.devsphere.get(property). if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.getString().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.devsphere.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.simple.getSubBean().number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). } %> ComplexHndl.Hashtable errorTable. if (message == null) message = "".

"Must be a number").length == 0) { 131 .123f).11 . } simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null.setNumber(0. "An option must be selected"). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.trim(). "Must be filled"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.floatValue()).getParameter("number").setNumber(0.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). if (flagValue. "number".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled").length() == 0 || flagValue.setFlag(flagValue != null).length() != 0) simpleBean. else { simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getColors(). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.123f). "number". "integer".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("flag"). "string". } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.getColors() == null || simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.

length == 0) { simpleBean.floatValue()).getList() == null || simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. 3 }).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "One or more colors must be selected").getParameter("subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "colors".string". setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.setString(""). "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getList().setList(new int[] { 2. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. 132 .length() != 0) simpleSubBean.number").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be filled").11 . setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional(""). //* subBean. "subBean.number".getString(). "Must be } //* subBean. "list".

simpleBean.JSP filled"). "Must be a number"). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.mapping.\ 133 .18.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. } %> 11.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).simple. simpleBean. } } else { simpleBean.setOptional("").BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.number".11 .properties or web.SimpleBean. simpleSubBean.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.util.setString(""). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.devsphere. errorTable. String property. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". message).setList(new int[] { 2. simpleBean.setNumber(0.helpers.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.mapping. 3 }).setFlag(true).devsphere. simpleBean.put(property.devsphere. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.jsp.examples.helpers.setString("abc"). "subBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. The com. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.xml: SimpleHndl.code=com. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.Hashtable errorTable.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.

All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. In many cases.another.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.host.properties (or web.properties: AnotherHndl.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.simple.devsphere.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.mapping. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.18. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.xml) file: ServletName.examples.devsphere.helpers.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. a servlet is identified with its class.helpers.code=com.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.11 .examples.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.code=com.devsphere.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. A servlet can be made bean-independent.AnotherBean.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. 11.host. you could add a few other lines to servlets.company. If you have another bean-form pair.

11 .JSP 135 .

1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. processes events. 12. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . This technology includes: 1.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.JAVASERVER FACES 12.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. builds a component tree. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.12 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. Version 2. which loads the appropriate view template. like input fields.0 supersedes version 1. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.javaserver faces 12 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. Version 2.0. buttons.

The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. As of version 1. 12. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4.javaserver faces 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.12 .3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.2 of the JFS specification.

respectively. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. Common formatting techniques. such as alternating row colors. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. footers. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. columns and rows. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.4.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . see the column tag documentation. 12.12 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. For more information about columns.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.

price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).4. your options include using plain HTML forms.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.12 . Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkout}" /> 139 . If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.

You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.4.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.</span> 12. 12.4." /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.5.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. red for error. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.user.

12. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.12 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.5. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.customer. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. The body content of this tag must be empty. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. validateLength. can publish value change events. Any component that receives user input. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.5.5. Without this JavaScript event. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.javaserver faces 12. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.mycompany. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.12 .MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. 12. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. but only if the new input is validated successfully.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.

for each locale you wish to support. including images and styles.mycompany. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If you have not specified a default locale. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. Example: welcome_en.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.5.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. myJSFapp 143 . It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.javaserver faces 12.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.12 .jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.

and so on. like third party jar files jsf-impl. jsf-api.jar – files included in the /lib directory. JSP pages. static resources.exadel.jar jsf-api.contains libraries required by the application. Create JSP pages 2. Define navigation rules 3.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Create properties files 144 .xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.xml web.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar faces-config. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. custom tag libraries. Create managed beans 4. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. mandatory for any JSF application web.12 .html.javaserver faces /ant build.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.jar.

These files will act as place holders for now. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. we just want to go from inputname. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. 12.jsp file 7. we can create a navigation rule.jsp to greeting.7.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. The directory structure already exists.jsp. And that's all there is to this.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .7.xml file.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp. Create an index. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.javaserver faces 5.jsp and greeting. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. Edit JSP pages 6.12 . You only need to create the JSP files. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Compile the application 8. As a diagram. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. You just need to create its contents.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. In our application.jsp is greeting.

} } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.1 PersonBean.PersonBean.7.3. myJFSapp. we will create a PersonBean. 12.javaserver faces This is.xml Your final faces-config. the second part of faces-config.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.java file.7. You can easily create more complex ones.3 faces-config.3. The next line is the full class name.12 .3 creating the Managed Bean Next. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. of course. request sets the bean scope in the application.7. a very simple navigation rule. Inside this myJFSapp folder. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.) 12. To read more about navigation rules. 12. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.xml Now. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml file should look like this: 146 .xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName. This class is straight-forward.

We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages. 12.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7.1//EN" "http://java.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.1 messages. 12. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. Inc.sun.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.properties file in the bundle folder. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.12 . Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.1 inputname.4.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.7. 12.5.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.7.

Then.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 .messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.bundle.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.bundle. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

Line 2.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.xml file.bundle.7. and also print its contents on the page.5. The second line will access a Java bean.12 . That's how JSF knows where to go next.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp page.6 creating the index.greeting_text}" />.sun... <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.sun.</h3> tags.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .javaserver faces Line 1.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.2 greeting. Lines 3-5. name! 12. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Create the index.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Having an index. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Creates an HTML input text box. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. specifically the bean attribute personName. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.7. Line 6.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.

verifies the information. This is used here. and forwards the user to a success or error page.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).xml file.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. though. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12.8. you'll notice the file suffix is . 12. We are almost done with this example.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. which asks an user for an ID and password.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.html . This is a "login" application.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. 12. To build the application run the build.9 Running Next. To do this.7.sourceforge. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. because in the web.7.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.javaserver faces Now. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.12 . might possibly be different). Your setup.xml file for the application *.jsp.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. Of course. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. 150 . When Tomcat is done loading.jsf and not .jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.7. we need to deploy it.

jsf-login.src | +-. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. 3. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. click Next. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 7. see Installing & Uninstalling. and to add JSF libraries to the project. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. say. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. 9. Select Java Project. name the folder webroot 5. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. c. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. 12.12 . make sure all checkboxes are checked.8.xml Editor (see faces-config. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. in the Add JSF Support page.webroot | +-.. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. 10.. and set up folders for a web application. click Add Folder. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot... The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. click Yes through messages that appear.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. 1. your mileage may vary. The New Project wizard appears. click Next. 6. select the Source tab. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. in the wizard that appears. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.WEB-INF 151 .javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Select the Amateras node.. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. name the folder pages. Enter project name. a.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. 2. click Next d. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. click Finish 4.

a. input widgets appear d. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. in the Name field enter LoginManager. } return action. c.java package login. from its context menu select New/Class. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. for scope select 152 . else action = "loginFail". The faces-config.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. Click Finish. The Java code editor opens. We then configure it to be a managed bean. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. In Package Explorer select the src folder. enter login.javaserver faces | | | +-. click Managed Bean. 2.xml.8.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. 3.xml editor opens.12 .pages 12. In the Package field. click Add.xml Editor. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. 1.lib | +-. private String _pwd = "". if ( _uid. The New Java Class wizard appears. for class enter login. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". for name enter mgr. } 4. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".LoginManager. b.

4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. from its context menu select New/File. save the file and close the editor.jsp.webroot/pages/error. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp). using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Create error. Create index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp.8.jsp. index. Create success. success. <!-. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.webroot/index. again. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. 1.jsp).webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from the menubar select File/Save. e. enter the following code. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp: create this file similarly to index. then close the editor 12.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. </body> Please try 153 . the New File wizard appears. c. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. All pages except login. for File name enter index. and 3 content pages (login.jsp: a.jsp and error. so we create them first. b. Enter the following code: <!-. but in webroot/pages. the JSP Editor opens.jsp. but in webroot/pages.jsp is placed directly in webroot. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp are simple pages with static content.javaserver faces session.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. Then we create login. click Finish.12 .

12 .jsp: a. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. now we want to add attributes to this element. with the following template code. a code-completion window pops up. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place your cursor in one of these lines.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.completion. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.. and uses them for code completion as well. enter jsf-login e. and dock it along the right. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. Create login. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File.sun. as shown below.javaserver faces </html> 4. the New wizard appears. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. (See Show View Dialog) f. 154 . Open the JSF palette. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. click Next c. and the JSP Editor can help with code. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. for File name enter login. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. g. b. d. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. from its context menu select New/Other. etc. <%@ page contentType="text/html.sun. and choose default for Template. click Finish. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. To see this in action.jsp.

javaserver faces h.loginAction} The final code. with the barest presentational formatting. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.sun. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and hit Enter. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.password}" l. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. i.12 . insert a <h:commandButton> element. enter #{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. select userID from the code-completion window.. a code-completion window pops up.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. insert another <h:inputText> element. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". with bean properties available in mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.) j. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.sun. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. set its value to Login.

userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. then click inside the editor window.12 . this inserts a page icon into the editor. 156 .xml Editor.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. Select the Navigation tab 3. Open faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 1. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. using a FacesIDE editor. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.xml. click on Page.8. 2.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. This is shown below.

javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. add 3 more pages. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. 5. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). from the palette at left.jsp 4. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp and /pages/error. /pages/success.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. change the value of path to /index. in the Properties view. then click first on the icon for login. and set them to /pages/login. Its properties appear in the Properties view. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp and then on the icon for success. 6. select Navigation Case. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.12 .jsp.

javaserver faces 7. Once deployed browse to index. all we need do in web. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml.8.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. We'll set some properties in web. so uncomment it. since we have such a trivial application.jsp to error.xml for the specifics of our application.jsp.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.12 . by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. 1. The application is now complete. any other id/password should send you to the error page. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. Similarly add a forward-action from login.jsp.xml. and extension-based mapping is turned on.6 Editing web. open web.xml Here we edit web. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and you should be sent to the success page. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . or leave it as-is. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). As it turns out.jsp. We want virtual path-based mapping. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. 12.

and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces.el javax. the Manager application should reload.lifecycle javax.validator javax. Click on its link to launch the application.. scroll down to Deploy.10 the javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. For a given factory class name.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5..convert javax.8.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. 12.12 .faces javax.0 1.CONFIG_FILES 159 . as file:///. start Tomcat.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.. click Deploy 3.faces.component.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login. that factory is used.faces.faces.render javax.faces.component javax.javaserver faces 12.webapp 12.faces.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.event javax.application javax.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. open its Manager application in a browser. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces.context javax.model javax.html javax.

NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. ApplicationFactory . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. with the last one taking precedence. ViewHandler . StateManagerWrapper . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.represents a single validation (or other) message.faces. with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.11 the javax. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . StateManager . those factories are used. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. 12.12 .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. ViewHandlerWrapper .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . defining page navigation. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. handling events and input validation.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. If none of the above steps yield a match. FacesMessage.Severity . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.

an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. NamingContainer . triggers an application specific "command" or "action". StateHolder .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. a menu item. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. EditableValueHolder .restoreView(javax. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . • ViewExpiredException .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.faces. ContextCallBack . UIComponentBase .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. UIComponent .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.context. ValueHolder . Here they are: • • UIColumn . 12. or a hyperlink. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. when activated by the user.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. String. ActionSource2 . String) results in failure on postback.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.faces.FacesContext. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. • • 161 .12 .12 the javax. UICommand . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.

UIGraphic .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.13 the java.faces. UIForm . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UINamingContainer . UIInput . Optionally. Optionally.component. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). it is for display purposes only. UIMessages . it just serves as the root of the component tree. The user can modify the selected value. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. The user cannot manipulate this component. UIParameter . The user can modify the selected values. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. UIViewRoot . UISelectItem . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that has a value. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.html package 162 . UISelectOne .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. by storing it as the value property of the component.javaserver faces • UIData .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIMessage . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UISelectMany . it is for display purposes only. UIPanel .12 . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. identified by a clientId. This component has no rendering.

optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlInputHidden . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlMessages .represents an HTML input element of type text.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputTextarea . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlOutputFormat . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlOutputLabel .Message". used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlColumn . HtmlDataTable . and renders the result.represents an HTML img element. or not.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlForm . HtmlInputText .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. On a redisplay. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML input element of type password. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.12 . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlCommandLink . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlMessage . HtmlGraphicImage .renders the component value as text.by default. HtmlOutputLink . The label text is specified by the component value. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlPanelGroup .by default.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .faces. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML form element. This component must be placed inside a form. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML label element. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlPanelGrid .renders child components in a table.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlOutputText . HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.faces.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.

showing a single available option at a time. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • 12.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.14 the java. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectOneListbox .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.faces.javaserver faces property. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.convert package 164 . HtmlSelectManyListbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. It is passed to. HtmlSelectManyMenu . HtmlSelectOneMenu . ResponseStream . ResponseWriterWrapper .12 .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . ResponseWriter . FacesContextFactory . and the rendering of the corresponding response. and potentially modified by. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. In particular. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . • • • • • • 12.15 the java. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.faces. showing a single available option at a time.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext . HtmlSelectOneRadio .

VariableResolver .16 the java.12 .15.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. Classes: MethodBinding . 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. PropertyResolver .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. ValueBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.faces.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.javaserver faces 12.

an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseId . ValueChangeListener .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseEvent . ReferenceSyntaxException .faces.12 . Interfaces: ActionListener .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. FacesEvent . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. • • • • 12.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • • One exception .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . FacesListener . ValueChangeEvent .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . and event implementation classes. PhaseListener .AbortProcessingException . MethodNotFoundException . PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. 166 .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.17 the java.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.

SelectItemGroup . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. SelectItem . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ResultDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. DataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel .javaserver faces 12. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.20 the java.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . DataModelEvent . ListDataModel . ResultSetDataModel . 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.19 the java.faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. • • • • • • • • • 12.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.12 .faces. ScalarDataModel .18 the java.

Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags. • • 12.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. including a standard servlet. 12. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. markup language. The package contains an exception.22 the java. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.faces. Typically.12 . ResponseStateManager . together. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. • RenderKit . RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. LongRangeValidator . AttributeTag .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.21 the java. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.faces. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. RenderKitFactory . as well. ConverterTag .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and/or user Locale.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.validator package Interface defining the validator model. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. and concrete validator implementation classes. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .

We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. UIComponentTag .12 . 12. but basically. servlets. or some other web technology. When the user takes some action with the presentation. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. FacetTag . or when an exception occurs. the controller sends a message to the view. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. which passes the request to the page class. the controller is the 169 . that request is passed to the container. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. When the model is updated. related to a UIComponent.a base class for all JSP custom actions. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. In MVC. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. telling the model to update its data. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the life cycle is more complicated. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. which has several implications. telling the view to update its presentation. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. When using JSF. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the process includes a few more components or pages. ValidatorTag . UIComponentBodyTag . the controller sends a message to the model. Likewise. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). that need to process their tag bodies. • • • • • FacesServlet . When a web server receives a request. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. In JSF. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the JSF life cycle does not apply.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. Also.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.

In addition.javaserver faces JSF implementation. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. is validated at this time.12 . If this is the client’s first visit to a page. In addition. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. For a JSF-enabled application. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. or from request headers. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. 170 . the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Invoke Application: During this phase. the conversion occurs in this phase. As with the previous phase. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. and a piece of data failed validation. If this is a subsequent request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. and what happens during the processing and response. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the JSF implementation must create the view. The components are stored in a component tree. and the UI components are the view. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). it creates UI objects for each view component. not every request will flow through all six phases. However. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and the response is sent to the client. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. Data for some components. converting a String to a Date object). • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. depending on the request. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. from cookies sent as part of the request. Data can come from input fields in a web form. These objects update their state with the data values.

If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. 171 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. skipping any remaining phases. For example. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.JNDI 13 . naming and directory services using a common API. such as addresses. for example. NDS.48. c:\bin\autoexec. 13.COM. identifiers.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. 13. For example. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". The UNIX pathname. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.JNDI 13. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. 172 .1 names To look up an object in a naming system. Using JNDI.Wiz. in turn.sun. A file system maps a filename (for example. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. such as LDAP. DNS. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. It enables applications to access different. Thus the DNS name sales. When using almost any computer program or system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. you supply it the name of the object. For example. In addition. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.COM.2. you are always naming one object or another. For example. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. To access a file in the computer. names a file hello in the file directory usr. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. possibly multiple. and NIS(YP). you must supply its name.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.").9. The DNS entry Wiz.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. or objects typically used by computer programs. when you use an electronic mail system. which is located in the root of the file system. /usr/hello.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").5).13 .

13. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. some objects cannot be stored directly. such as its print server name and printing protocol. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. a file directory.c=us. is relative to c=us. Every context has an associated naming convention. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). In another example. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. is a context. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). 173 .COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. on the other hand. also called a file handle. a file name is bound to a file. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. such as /usr.13 . Finally. For example.2. and listing bound names. for example. 13. relative to the entry o=Sun. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee.2. A printer object reference. A reference is information about how to access an object. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. unbinding names. in the UNIX file system is a context. For example.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. That is. and fuel and instrument status. Using the reference. for example. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. o=Sun. is a context. Typically. and its flight number and departure time.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. which in turn. such as COM. in a file directory /usr/bin. its flight plan. A printer object. For example. For example. such as c=us. while the object itself might contain more state information. in the DNS domain Sun. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. Instead. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. a DNS domain. For example. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. delimited by the comma character (". the directory bin is a subcontext of usr.").2. is accessed using a file reference. A file object. they must be stored by reference.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. that is. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. that is. For simplicity. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. might contain the state of the printer. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. an LDAP entry. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. By contrast. 13. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext.

A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A directory object can be used. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. For example. and computer account information. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. a name is unique 13. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. to some extent. For example. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. because we can. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. An example is the telephone company's directory service. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. a computer. resolution. and even the computer itself and other computers. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. for example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. Thus.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. or a network. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. to represent a printer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. however. two different computer 174 . A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. programs. a person. postal mail address. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. And it kind of makes sense. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. For example. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree).3. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system.2. various telephone numbers.13 . 13. one context can be viewed. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. and color.

Alternatively. Within the DIT. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.3.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. such as those based on the LDAP. for example.4. support the notion of searches. 13. adding.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. 13. networks. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. 13. 13. such as that relating to machines. The email address.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. such as the file and print services. called a directory information tree (DIT). Many examples of directory services are possible. that is. When directory objects are arranged in this way. For example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.com".113. for example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. printers.3. and users.50". to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. For example. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. The query is called a search filter. removing. 13. Similarly. like any other program running on the network. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. "mail" is the attribute identifier. By using a directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.3. A Java mail client program. many directories. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.smith@somewhere.13 . you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. for example. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The service is accessed through its own interface. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. can use the directory in the traditional way. 175 . The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. an organization object. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. the ability to access directory services will become essential. When you search.

JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.naming. and even the network. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. For example.2. v1. Thus a variety of directories--new. 13.3 and later releases. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.directory javax. 13. To use the JNDI.1 and the Java 2 SDK.13 .event javax.4. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.1 and v1.naming javax. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. emerging.1 and Java 2 SDK.ldap 176 . Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. 13. more coherent and manageable. The Java 2 SDK. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. For example. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. v1.5.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. It extends the v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming. 13.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.5. v1.

lang. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .spi 13. list() is similar to listBindings(). and the object itself. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. 13. 13.6 the naming package The javax. 13.print(report). the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.1 context The javax. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.naming package defines a Context interface. and it returns the object bound to that name. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. for some objects in the directory. However. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.6. The overloads that accept java.6. printer. composing them. and so on. Furthermore. that is. A java. which is the core interface for looking up. For the methods in the Context interface. comparing components.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.lang. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.6.lang. the name of the object's class.6.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. In this case. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.lookup("treekiller").String name argument represents a composite name. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.String name. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. binding/unbinding.naming. a 177 . renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.13 . 13.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. For example.JNDI • javax.

DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).5 the Initial context In the JNDI. Otherwise.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. 178 . You can add. replace.6. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). InitialContext. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. 13.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. they should catch NamingException.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. Once you have an initial context. For example. 13. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.13 . The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.7 directory package The javax. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. 13. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.naming. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. There are no absolute roots. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.directory package extends the javax. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.

Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Once registered.9 LDAP package The javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. In fact.directory package. or unsolicited notifications. and vice versa.9. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.ldap package at all. called controls . such as "object added. These operations are called "extended" operations. such as information about the object before and after the change. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming. such as "object changed.naming. 13. To receive event notifications.8 event package The javax." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. controls. For example. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. For example.9.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 ." and those that do not. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.13 .naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.9. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. 13. 13. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.JNDI 13.naming. that is.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. 13. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.

Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. create a file named Lookup. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.1 plug-In architecture The javax.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. import javax.spi package supports implementors of Context.naming. implementors of Context. 13. and receiving response controls.9. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.2 java object support The javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. This support is provided in the form of state factories.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.10.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13.naming. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13.10. 13. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. That is.11.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. 13. sending request controls.naming package. This support is provided in the form of object factories.java.10.naming. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory.Context. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. In the process of completing an operation. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. For example. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.10 service provider package The javax. 180 .13 . It uses a service provider for the file system.

RefFSContextFactory").lookup(name). // Print it System. "com.11.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.jar as an installed extension. import javax. } catch (NamingException e) { System. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. 181 . 13.naming. For this reason. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).11. If the compilation succeeds. 13.11.InitialContext. If you are still having problems.put(Context. use Context. Object obj = ctx. as follows.JNDI import javax.NamingException.fscontext. env. To compile to program.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).jndi. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. create an initial context.5 compiling the program Next. 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.3.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). you must have access to the JNDI classes. then the JNDI classes are already included.13 . Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.3 looking up an Object Next. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. If the compilation fails. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.err. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. } 13. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.lookup() to look up an object. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.out. v1.naming. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. Otherwise.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.sun.java).lookup(name). using the capitalization shown.11. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().

11.jndi.directory.jar).directory. To run the program. javax.java.naming.directory packages. you need access to the JNDI classes.PROVIDER_URL.sun. and your example class (Lookup. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.NamingException.12.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.put(Context. 13.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. the file system service provider. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.LdapCtxFactory").naming. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. then you will see something like the following.jar and providerutil. javax. include the directory that contains your Lookup. javax. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). 13.naming. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. 182 . javax.naming. env. create an initial directory context.JNDI 13.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. import import import import import javax.fscontext. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. supply the name of a file in your file system. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.6 running the program To run the program.Attributes.directory.ldap.jndi.naming.InitialDirContext. Finally. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.sun. "com. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.12.13 .2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.put(Context. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.naming.class). v1.Context.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. create a file named Getattr. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.DirContext.naming and javax.bat If you supply a file directory. env. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.3. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.

12. 183 . Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. If the compilation succeeds. compile the source file using the Java compiler. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. 13.println("sn: " + attrs.get(). Similar to the naming example.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.13 .out.12. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. As with the naming example.get() on it to get its value: attrs. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.get("sn").err. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). For this reason. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. } 13. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. 13. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.java). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.6 compiling the program Next. using the capitalization shown. If you are still having problems. ou=People").get()). ou=People"). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. For now.12.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. If the compilation fails. 13. Attributes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.get("sn"). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.12. } catch (NamingException e) { System.get() and then from that attribute get its value.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.

You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. Getattr. 184 .jar and providerutil.3. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.JNDI 13.put(Context.12.PROVIDER_URL.7 running the program As with the naming example. v1. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. ou=People". # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then these classes are already included. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.class. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). Once it has the attributes. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. If you have any trouble running this example. With this configuration. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.jar). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.13 . env. then see the Common Problems lesson.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.

JMS client . unless it has established a durable 185 . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS queue .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.a JMS client that receives messages. Here. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. In this model. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS consumer . JMS message . JMS producer . Enterprise Edition. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . • 14.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).14 . the messages are delivered in the order sent.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. JMS topic .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. As the name queue suggests.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14.3 the JMS API programming model 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4. On the receiving side. 186 . JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.jms. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 14. Using Java. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.14 . Depending on the type of message. In that case. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

It is either a queue or a topic. For example. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. 14. Like the connection factory.createConnection(). you must call the connection's start() method. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. 14.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Depending on the connection type. In a J2EE application.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . Before your application can consume messages. you must close any connections that you have created. Connections implement the Connection interface. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. you call the stop() method.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. For example. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. 14. The JMS administrator creates these objects.lookup("jms/MyTopic").14 .close(). Before an application completes. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. It receives messages sent to a destination.4.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). connection. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.4. and users discover them using JNDI.

) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. MessageConsumer consumer = session. onMessage(). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.start(). consumer. Message m = consumer. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. After you have created a message consumer. 188 . (Remember always to call the start() method.setMessageListener(myListener). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. and you can use it to receive messages.) When message delivery begins.start(). For example.4. In the onMessage() method. You use the Session. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. you are likely to miss messages. connection.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.createConsumer(myTopic). it becomes active. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. For example.receive(1000). Moreover. which contains one method. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.14 . You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. Message m = consumer. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.receive(). 14. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. A message listener does. After you register the message listener. a message listener object may be used. usually expect a specific message type and format.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.createConsumer(myQueue). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. however. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. This object implements the MessageListener interface.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. if it needs to reply to messages. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.

14 . It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). MessageProducer producer = session.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.createProducer(myQueue). A message has three main parts: 1.createProducer(myTopic).receive(). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. if you created an unidentified producer. message.send(myQueue.setText(msg_text). At the consuming end. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. You must first create the messages. from one application to another.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. 14. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. bytes message. to create and send a TextMessage. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. stream message. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. anon_prod. 3. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.createTextMessage(). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.send(message). For example. Here. message). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. // msg_text is a String producer. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.createProducer(null). After you have created a message producer. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 189 .4.4. With an unidentified producer. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. and object message). that is.send(message). map message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.

out. Sessions implement the Session interface.4. Here. After you create a Connection object. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the first argument means that the session is transacted. 190 . The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. } else { // Handle error } 14.getText()). you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Session. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. 0). If the user selects transaction support. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. use the following code: Session session = connection. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. then delivers the messages.println("Reading message: " + message. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. and message consumers to receive messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.createSession(false.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). The first argument means that the session is not transacted.createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.14 . To create a transacted session. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Before committing the transaction.

server which provides an execution environment for containers.0. Version 1.no developer coding. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.object oriented representation of data in a DB.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . improved performance security . 15. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. message-driven beans The 2.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.0. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.logging. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . The component lives inside a container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . the container lives (in general) in an application server. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.DB interaction transactions .consistent error handling framework . container which offers services to the component.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. bundled into a single unit.15 .transaction management can be complex. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .jar file into the application server.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. component recovery scalability portability 191 . On the other side.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . called ejb-jar. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the remote interface of the bean 4.15 . the home interface of the bean 3.xml 15. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the deployment descriptor. which is an xml file. as follows: 1.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.

RemoteException.*.RemoteException. import java. import java.javax.ejb.rmi.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.javax. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.ejb. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.15 .*. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. int custId) throws RemoteException. import. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.rmi. While the Remote interface declares no methods. String lastName. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. } 193 . RemoteException. import. The developer does not implement this interface. } 15. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.

"localhost:1099"). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. } 194 .jnp. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. prop. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. if the client executes outside the container.interfaces. In the case of an web application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). how to create or find the bean 2.PROVIDER_URL.put(Context. this can be done (for example) through SSL.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.put(Context. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. we need to know: 1.NamingContextFactory". "org. prop.15 . creating them for the client application. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().

when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. in fact.PortableRemoteObject class and. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.class). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.narrow(homeRef. Some languages. Problem is. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. that is part of CORBA standards. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.rmi.lookup("MyBean").lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). the client should use the narrow() method of javax.e. do not have the concept of casting. 195 .15 . do implements the java. IIOP has not been designed for Java. but for generic languages. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. Why? For EJB. using the narrow() method. • if the client executes outside the container. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). in fact. to the appropriate type. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. and this means that there are some limitations.rmi.. more specifically. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. the client has a stub). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.rmi.Remote interface). the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. MyBeanHome. This is done through the javax.

the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. 15..15 .bank11. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ccards.ejbeans. 1102)..SessionContext.processEntry("Dumitrascu".SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ejb. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. remove the bean instance myObject. as well). call business methods on the bean myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. "Vasile".. public class MyBean implements javax. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. int custId) { // method implementation . import javax. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .create(). String lastName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .remove().ejb..

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. that is. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. namely stateful and stateless beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 197 . public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.15 . the object is activated.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. 15. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. A stateless bean does not. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.

or passivate. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.1 are invoked by the EJB container. At the end of the life cycle. and then moves it to the ready stage. All other methods in Figure 15. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. for example. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the client invokes the remove method. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. is inside the bean class. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. For example. Figure 15. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. (Typically. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. 198 . allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. The ejbCreate method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container activates the bean.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). support for concurrent access 3. equals() 199 .13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. stored in a Database).2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.15 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.

the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). 200 .lang. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. 15. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.15 . when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). in the same order. Read. Update and Delete. as the parameters in the original create() method.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.bank11. CreateException. We can have more create() methods. methods which have the same parameters.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.ccards. all throwing RemoteException.14. an instance of that bean is created. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. state data is stored into data store (usually. On the other side.

While an entity bean is in the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. First.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. in BMP. it's business methods can be invoked. the client invokes the create method. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. After instantiation. 15. but in general.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). All instances in the pool are identical.14. but the developer returns null for CMP. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. 15.14. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. 201 . which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. not null.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). On the first path. it is empty. On the second path. actual SQL update code. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the programmer will create actual SQL code. Second.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.15 . the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. a client can invoke the remove method. left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMPs. for BMP.14. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. While in the pooled stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.

or a Web component . an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.getPrimaryKey(). In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener. it does not automatically set the primary key. 202 . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . another enterprise bean. With bean-managed persistence. If the primary key is incorrect. In the pooled state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. Therefore. the values of the instance variables are not needed.an application client. 15.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.15 . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.

1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. For more information on this element see. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. 15. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. 15.for example. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. When a message arrives.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. Unlike a session or entity bean.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. a JMS API connection. an open database connection. the message will be redelivered. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. If message processing is rolled back. To ensure concurrency. To avoid tying up server resources. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. 15. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. but not asynchronously. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . Previously.16. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. 203 . or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.16. In several respects. max-beans-infree-pool.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.15 .4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven bean can be used. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.

// The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. Obtain a new bean instance. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 2. 3.15 . methods. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.} // onMessage() is required. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.ejb.. 15.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.Message MessageName) {..5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. and it must not // accept parameters. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.jms. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. public void onMessage(javax.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.. finalize{}. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.16.16. 15... ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. or create a new one. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification. As with other EJB types. public void ejbRemove() {.}.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. Note: These instances can be pooled.jms. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Classes.Message. // An EJB constructor is required..

getRollbackOnly() .15 .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. getUserTransaction().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. 15.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).16.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.MessageListener. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . passing the full JMS message object as an argument. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.16. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. 15. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. See javax. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. even in onMessage(). Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. However. If any method throws such an exception. 15. For example.This is not a client context. 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.jms.onMessage() for more information.16. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.

you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. In either case.16.0 specification. as described in the EJB 2. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.xml.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.0 specification.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. as required by the EJB 2. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.15 .16. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.

2.xml elements.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. the weblogic-ejb-jar. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. </message-driven> . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.jms. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .15 .xml deployment file.. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.ejb20. 15..MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. 207 . as described in the EJB 2..message.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.0 specification. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. For each instance..

the home interface name 7.security issues.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. bean home name .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.15 . isolation level. the container calls the ejbRemove method. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. EJB class name 5.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. security 208 . control descriptors . At the end of the life cycle. environment properties 6. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. the remote interface name 8.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. access control entries . session specific elements 9. 15. entity specific elements 10. a message-driven bean is never passivated. attributes .like transaction.

bank11.ccards.ejb.ejb. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.lang.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.15 .ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.15 . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .lang..


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