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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. or finance. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. like the client tier. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. like HTML pages. are not considered web components.java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program.1 . and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. 5 .2 Server communication 1. processes it (if necessary). Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. retail.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.7 business components Business code. Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. The web tier.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs.

mainframe transaction processing.java platform. Business and EIS Tiers 1. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. resource pooling.9. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. enterprise edition Figure 1.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. database systems.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.3 Web. 1. For example. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. 1.9 java EE Containers Normally.1 . multithreading. In addition. Before a web. enterprise bean. and other complex low-level details. 6 . you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. or application client component can be executed. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. and other legacy information systems.

Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.9. After an enterprise bean is created. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. For example. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. transaction management. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. database connection resource pooling.1 . The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 1.java platform. including services such as security. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. 7 . data persistence.4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. and remote connectivity. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.

video. test. Application clients and their container run on the client. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. 8 . extensible. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Web container . When XML data is exchanged between parties. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Application client container . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. or for document-oriented web services. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. XML data. text-based standard for representing data. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. 1.1 . Applet container . develop. 1. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. maps.manages the execution of application client components. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.10. program files. enterprise edition Figure 1.manages the execution of applets. For example.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open.java platform.

11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. and ways to communicate with the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. 9 . HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.java platform.1 . such as Universal Description. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. the location of the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. 1. The description includes the name of the service. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. 1.10. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.10. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. enterprise edition 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.

or enterprise bean. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. 1.11.11. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. When the client finishes executing.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. In Java EE 5. If the client terminates. you employ a single.1 .3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.java platform. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. WML. the session bean and its data are gone. or if the server shuts down. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.11. and XML) and JSP elements. enterprise edition Figure 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. 1.11. Commonly. 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. standard set of tags.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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JTA. the application is ready to run. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. No extra coding is needed.1 .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. better tools. At runtime. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. servlet. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file.java platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. module. JSP page. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or a component. Once deployed on a local platform. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . SAAJ. and JNDI 1. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components.ear extension. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. such as better performance. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. 15 . a module. it is ready to be deployed. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. or component accordingly. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. or better customer support. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.

the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.jar extension. such as caching directives. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Together.java platform. • • 16 . Web modules. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. classes. and a web application deployment descriptor. supporting class files. which contain all Java interfaces. GIF and HTML files.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. JSP files.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. for example. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. native libraries. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. Application client modules. which contain servlet class files. For example. Resource adapter modules. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.war (Web ARchive) extension. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . and other documentation.

2 . These messages may have different contents. The client sends a request message to the server. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). namely HTTP 1.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.HTTP 2.. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. RFC 2616 (06/99).w3.. we recommend www.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. so far) version. check the official HTTP site – www.html). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.apps.. as follows: 1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.ietf. 2.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.jmarshall. an initial line 2. HEAD. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. . a blank line (CR/LF) 4.HTTP 2 . zero or more header lines 3..org/rfc/rfc1945. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). The second (and last. POST. was the object of several RFCs.1. The server answers with a response message. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. but they also have some common structural elements.com/easy/http.org/Protocols . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.

1. .1 specification. 18 . PUT 8. Here is their list: 1. mailing list. 2.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. CONNECT 5. HTTP/1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. but lack of support makes them obsolete. POST 4.Annotation of existing resources. in the HTTP 1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. GET 2. DELETE 6. OPTIONS 7. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. as well.2 . The only difference is that the response must not have a body.Posting a message to a bulletin board. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . TRACE Three other commands are listed. GET /path/to/the/file/index. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.html HTTP/1. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. HEAD 3.0).5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. newsgroup.

while POST may involve anything. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. 2. or a record is subordinate to a database. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. (encoded as multipart/form-data).HTTP or similar group of articles. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. When used for form data submission. like storing or updating data.2 . A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. or in the message body. 2. In this case.Extending a database through an append operation. such as the result of submitting a form. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).Providing a block of data. or ordering a product. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. after the “?” character.6 differences between GET and POST 1. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. or sending E-mail 2. 3.” On the other side. to a data-handling process. . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.8 the status code A three-digit integer. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. .0 404 Not Found 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. separated by the character “&” or “.

Although the header names are not case sensitive. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.the request succeeded. none of them mandatory.1 version specifies 46 of them. and the resulting resource (e. such as text/html or image/jpg.g. 2. fails. In particular. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. header values are. 20 . The most common use of the message body is in a response.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. or otherwise can't run correctly. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.the requested resource doesn't exist. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. where the requested resource is returned to the client.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. header name and header value.1). If an HTTP message includes a body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. separated a semicolon. while the HTTP 1. and section 10 for HTTP 1. that is.0 version specifies 16 headers.2 . one (Host) is mandatory. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. 500 Server Error . In a request.0. file or script output) is returned in the message body.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .1 only) . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. 2. 404 Not Found . out of which.an unexpected server error. The HTTP 1.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).

1.html HTTP/1.2 . multipart. Here is the list of the seven types.uvt.ro/path/file. with subtype plain 2.info. application. alternative. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. audio.apps. parallel 3. with subtypes mixed.html first open a socket to the host web. RFC 1521 (www. with subtype basic 7. partial.org/rfc/rfc1521.ro. with subtype mpeg 2. image. message.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.info. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.HTTP 2. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. video. 21 . with subtypes octet-stream. text. digest. postscript 5.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.0 200 OK Date: Fri. with subtypes rfc822.uvt. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . .0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. with subtypes jpeg. external-body 4. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.0 From: someuser@yahoo. gif 6.ietf. Then.

</body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .2 . the server closes the socket.HTTP .

apps. Mosaic.www. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.01. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.HTML 3.99.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.w3c. Since it fits in a couple of pages.0.0 and was accepted in December 1997. a working draft for the next major revision.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.htmlgoodies. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. The XHTML 1.0 . 3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/tutors.w3. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. It is a revision of 4.0) dates from 08.org/Markup .blooberry. As a practical reference site use – www.3 . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.com/easy/html . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.0 draft was released in 01.01) can be found at this address: http://www. The latest version (XHTML 2. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. www.HTML 3 .jmarshall.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.ietf.2 (3. Other helpful sites . From 1999 on.html) and was widely supported.com/indexdot/html . For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. check the official HTML site – www.html. Version 4.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. The newest version of HTML is 4. The first version of HTML. HTML describes how text. namely HTML 1.0.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. HTML 3. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The first official version – HTML 2. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.org/rfc/rfc1866. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. A newer standard. However. Originally named Web Applications 1. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".3 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .

with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Strict DTD. An example: <!-." (in hexadecimal) . CONTROLS. BORDER. DYNSRC. This section deals with some of the most common elements. Overall. "&#x6C34. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. HTML 4. <><> --> 25 . The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.acesta este un comentariu. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.0 Transitional DTD.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. like ALIGN. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. 3. You get the point. three DTDs (HTML 4. …. HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.3 .the chinese character for water.and end at the first occurrence of -->. though.0 contains an SGML declaration. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. “&quot”. If you wonder what a character reference is. look at these examples: “&lt”. Check the address http://www.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.01 specification.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. 4.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. the specification of HTML 4.w3. VSAPCE are omitted. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. 3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.

3 . NAME.ro/webmail/src/login.3.5 tables 26 .php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.uvt. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.info.3.HTML 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. image.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.

HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Here is a an example of a table: 3. <THEAD>. <TH> and <TD>. Usually. headers and cells are <TABLE>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .3 . <TR>. its rows. Here is their description and attributes.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . allowing user input and parameter submittal.required.

ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . Main attributes: • TYPE . "hidden".8 form related elements 3. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "text/plain" • • 3.sends the form values in a single transmission. "file". "button". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .uvt.8. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "GET" . "checkbox". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.maximum number of options visible to the user.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.if specified.info. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". "submit".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . • 3. "image". allows multiple selections from the choice list. however. specifies the parameter name. 3. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.8.required. "reset".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. specifies how data will be sent to the server.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.:.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. "password".required.8. NAME . "radio".HTML • METHOD .the default value. may have the values GET or POST. after a quotation mark . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .required.?. the browser appends the values to the URL. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.3 . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Example: http://web. SIZE . Main attributes: 29 . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.4.2 version. jit From source to execution. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.95.JAVA PRIMER 4 . Early versions of Java were released in 12.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.95. Example: Edit the file prog1.java 2.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.4 . The current version (as of 10.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. the compilation process occurs. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.C:\TW\mySource.class. but next time execution is much faster.class file. To overcome this significant shortage.3 java applications 31 . Java source – a file with extension . project started in 12.java.class 3. -g : generate all debugging info. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.90. In terms of execution time. Java bytecode – a file with extension . 4.java One example of command line compilation: 4. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.0.) in 08. javac -classpath . which accounts for a pretty slow execution. following the 1.. The current version (as of 10.class file. Inc. The first time a class is loaded. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.JAVA PRIMER 4.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.2 java the interpreter.

An example: 32 .4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.java. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. Generally.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.4 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). 4.4 object oriented concepts 4.4. or that it extends A).jar file. In general. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.

4. Short. 4. Therefore. 33 . with the root the class Object. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.1 bit char . That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. In OO jargon.4. a class can have more than one method with the same name.4 . 4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. providing its own implementation. this is called method overloading. Double. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Boolean. called Object. Character. Float. Therefore.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. a Java class can extend a single base class. In fact. Integer. Long.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . The return type of a method is not part of this signature.4.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. namely: Byte.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).

accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. method . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. class . A final: • • • variable .http. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. A final variable (method. rather than at class instance.one which is defined at class level.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.one which is constant method .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .does not have any subclasses. } declares an abstract class.access from any class anywhere private .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. which extends the class javax.servlet.the class is visible from any class. inherited)..http.4 .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. Except for the "package" concept. anywhere abstract . automatic garbage collection.no access from outside the class itself protected .servlet. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. 4. has the same value for all class instances.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. • • • • no specifier . 34 .HttpServlet implements Serializable { .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. no templates.

7.7. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.like invalid cast.7. 4. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.ThreadDeath. as defined in the java. not at execution time. namely class Error and the class Exception. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. Exception categories: 1.7. code or data errors . programmer defined exceptions 4. division by 0. java errors .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).4 . 2. 4. array index out of bounds.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. In Java. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.JAVA PRIMER 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. standard method exceptions 3.

4.lang (automatically available). As a general rule..util. date and time info java.sql.this can be done by providing a try.event .Properties. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. the class (the . the default package is used).java. import javax. catch.util. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.geom .rmi java.1 Package names The default package has no name. they have to be unique inside a package. 4. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .awt.by adding the key word throws.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.class file.sql java.awt .bank11. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).servlets. 4. All other packages must be explicitly imported. The package containing the standard classes is java.awt.4 . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.lang . In the example above.support for data collections. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. string analyzers.io java.security 36 . followed by the import statements.net java.support for java archives creation java. don't have to import java.nio java. finally construct. import. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. .JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . therefore.8.default.*.zip .ccards.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.support for event handling java.. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.util .support for user interface java. An example: package com.

If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).support for event handling 4.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. static and final.event .text javax. All variables (actually.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.accessibility javax. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. 37 .swing . it must be declared as abstract.4 .

A JavaScript statement like this: document. 5. and . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .5 .depending on the browser .JAVASCRIPT 5. like QtScript or ActionScript.HTML authors are normally not programmers. The origins of this language date back to 1995. Subsequently.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . then LiveScript and finally. This is not always what we want. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. as JavaScript. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. However. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. other 38 .javaScript 5 .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .

When you place a script in the head section. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . Save the external JavaScript file with a .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.5 ..javaScript times when a user triggers an event.. or when an event is triggered. without having to write the same script on every page..3. 5. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. </script> </head> 5. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . go in the head section.. </script> </body> 5..js file extension.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. 39 . To simplify this..3. point to the .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3.

.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.4. break. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. switch(). 5..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. 5. catch constructs. else.4.4.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.In statement The for.. while() it is worth mentioning the for . Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .5.1 JavaScript for.javaScript 5.5 .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. while(). continue. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script..2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. The code in the body of the for . namely – if . in loop is executed once for each element/property.. for(). in and the try ..... 5.

var mycars = new Array(). so you don't lose your audience.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. } </script> </body> </html> 5..0..2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. The try block contains the code to be run. mycars[0] = "Saab".3 try.5. mycars[2] = "BMW". This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.catch statement The try. for (x in mycars) { document. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. or a property of an object. When users see errors..catch statement (available in IE5+. Mozilla 1.5.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. Example Using for.. an array element. they often leave the Web page. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). mycars[1] = "Volvo".5 . Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".

strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. 5. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.5 .7. txt+="Click OK to continue.description + "\n\n". Syntax: 42 .\n\n". alert(txt). txt+="Error description: " + err.7 popup boxes 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Also.\n\n". When an alert box pops up.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.

Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the box returns null. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . Now. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "OK". When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". in the <head> section.8.7.js file). the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the example above had not been written within a function.. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.7. the box returns false. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.5 . When a confirm box pops up.javaScript alert("sometext") 5.8 functions 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. Syntax: prompt("sometext".

var2. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.5 . and how they are used.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.varX) { some code } var1. 5...write(txt.javaScript function functionname(var1.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. document.. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.8. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.9.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. 5.length). The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. and will be stored in the variable called product. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.. var2.9. So. etc are variables or values passed into the function.9 javaScript objects 5. 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.

which will be specified in the next section. The other class are the language specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. </script> 5.5 .toUpperCase()).9.javaScript 5. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". 45 .write(str.

At its most basic level. Properties FF: Firefox. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Even this Document itself is an Object. every Image on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.com/jsref/default. N: Netscape. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.w3schools. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. which are called Objects. check the site http://www.asp 5.5 .11. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. as well).1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Link on the page is an Object. For example.

11.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.

as a four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. depending on the browser. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. N: Netscape. to a string.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).5 . Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time.11. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. according to universal time. according to local time. according to Greenwich time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.

5 4 .5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. var myNum=new Number(number).5 3 4 .

5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . N: Netscape.11.5 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .

1.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.5 .442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.11.javaScript 5.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0. 3. 2.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 0.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 0. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape. 2.y) min(x.y) pow(x. 1.

personObj.5 . personObj.firstname).eyecolor="blue". Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. weight. age. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. personObj.write(personObj.12. height.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. personObj.eyecolor="blue". skin tone.12.lastname="Doe". etc.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. Properties are the values associated with the object. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. lastname. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. The persons' methods could be eat(). personObj.age=30. The persons' properties include name. 5.lastname="Doe". with a collection of properties and methods. age.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname="John". work(). eye color.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). document. Assume that the personObj already exists . All persons have these properties.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. 53 . sleep(). Objects also have methods.age=50. personObj.firstname="John".you can give it properties named firstname. play().12. etc.

age. you can create new instances of the object.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this."green"). this. 5.12.eyecolor=eyecolor. You can also add some methods to the person object. } Notice that the template is just a function.firstname=firstname. this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.48.eat=eat. 54 ."Rally".newlastname=newlastname.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname=new_lastname.age=age.lastname.50. this. myMother=new person("Sally".age=age.lastname=lastname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.eyecolor) { this.age. like this: myFather=new person("John"."blue").lastname.lastname=lastname. this.firstname=firstname. this.5 .eyecolor) { this. Once you have the template. this."Doe". That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.propertyName. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.

now you can write: myMother. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. 5. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.5 .. So.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions..newlastname("Doe"). and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.". F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . For example. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. We define the events in the HTML tags. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.

and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. If it returns true the form will be submitted.w3schools. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. 5. the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13. For example.13. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".2 onFocus. If the field values are not accepted.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.13.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.5 .1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The name is then stored in a cookie. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .

W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . HTML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. XML. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. The W3C 58 . after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. structure. By October 1998. 2010). The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. However.. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. 6.HTML DOM 6. or WebAPI being among them. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. particularly those used in Web browsers. and style of a document. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.6 .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. In other words. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML.g. SVG. CSS.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Right now (oct.Html DOM 6 . As of January 2008. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. the Document Object Model activity is closed.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.

4. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. HTML-specific elements are included as well. each of which contains required and optional modules. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). 2. 6. DOM Level 3 Requirements. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.6 . Level 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. a new DOM Core specification. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. To claim to support a level. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Core. and 6. DOM Level 3 Validation. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Level 2 XML namespace support. which further enhances the DOM 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 2. 5. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 3. As of 2005. DOM Level 3 XPath.

6. can be accessed through the 60 . you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. By 2005. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. interoperability problems were numerous. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. that is. The Window object represents a browser window.6 . Konqueror. and Safari.x were still widely used in 2000. All HTML elements.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. support multiple browsers. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Opera.x and Netscape 4. In order to be cross-browser compatible.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. along with their containing text and attributes. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.

The contents can be modified or deleted. JavaScript. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.6 .Html DOM DOM. It can be used by any programming language like Java.

2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. everything in an HTML document is a node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.9.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.8. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". 62 . However.Html DOM 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. the element node <title>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <head> node holds a <title> node.6 . <head> and <body>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <html> node has two child nodes. 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree. 6.

• • • • • In a node tree.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementById('main').9. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. Their contents can be modified or deleted. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.6 . using the node relationships. children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. By using the getElementById() method 2. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). except the root. The terms parent. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. and new elements can be created. the top node is called the root Every node.9.getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By navigating the node tree.getElementsByTagName("p").2 node parents.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. and the connections between them. child. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. 63 .

The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).Html DOM for (i=0. each node is an object. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.innerHTML). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.write("<br />").9.write(x[i].i++) { document.i<x. } 6. document.6 .length. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).

6. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6. txt=x.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.9.getElementById("intro").firstChild.5 example .get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.nodeValue.

6 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.

Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Safari. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. as of version 1. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). During the event flow. 67 .stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. When the user clicks on the inner element. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified.3. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). 6. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and then bubbled up. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. also supports these methods. Fires when an element is activated. through a mouse click or a keypress. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Also. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).6 . DOMNodeInserted. Mozilla. say "click". for instance.

Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Unfortunately. mouse position. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). key pressed.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. including information about target element. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.Html DOM 6. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.6 .

The server does some processing — retrieving data. etc. crunching numbers. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. For example. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. It is not a technology in itself.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. 69 . fields of forms. using web services or Php scripts.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. before the whole page was sent within the network. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. menus. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network.AJAX 7.7 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. 7. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. dynamic website. 7. but also to save resources.AJAX 7 . talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. For improving sharing of resources. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. choices of user. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.

we wouldn’t make users wait around. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. what’s the user doing? That’s right. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the user waits some more. but the opposite is true.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. at the start of the session. Once an interface is loaded. While the server is doing its thing. Obviously. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. waiting. 70 . It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.7 . Instead of loading a web page. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. waiting around for the server to do something. And at every step in a task. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server.

editing data in memory. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. usually using XML.7 . without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. 71 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. loading additional interface code. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.

DOM's method allows to extract data.for a simple text. This object provides two methods: .200 is ok.holds loaded data as a string of characters.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .for a Xml file or .url: the location of the file 72 . 7. and in this purpose. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.7 . To get data on the server. . 4: finished.responseText . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.returned by the server .responseXml .AJAX 7. thanks to its methods and attributes.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.mode: type of request. 2: request received.send: send a request to the server. 404 if the page is not found . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 1: connection established.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".open: create a connection. onreadystatechange . boolean) . they call functions associated to elements of the web page. . GET or POST . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. It allows the interaction with the servers. These events are user actions.holds a Xml loaded file. 3: answer in process. . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. url.

the data to send to the server. if (window.readyState == 4) { // received.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . OK } else { // wait. // Firefox. true).fr/somefile.. for browser compatibility.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. The request below reads a document on the server. http_request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.send: with POST only. Safari. true for asynchronous. but two options must be tried.. ..open: command GET or POST.AJAX .send(null). http_request.. request. if (request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .open('GET'. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.xul. } else if (window. 73 .7 . 'http://www. .XMLHTTP").xml'.6 building a request. URL of the document.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().null for a GET command 7.

XMLHTTP).AJAX 7.readyState == 4) if(req.7 .ajax.7. req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. "data. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn=""Received:" + req. }.status.item(0).7 examples 7.getElementsByTagName('root').send(null).status == 200) document.open("GET". by this code: var doc = req. else document.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". if(window. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").dyn="Received:" + req.7.responseText.dyn="Error code " + req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.responseText. req.xml".responseXML. req. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. else if (window.ajax.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ajax. true).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 5.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Others. 2. data persistence. like: 1. web.. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Servlet. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. classes. database connection resource pooling. For example. 6.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .ccards. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. JSPs and Java Server Faces.8 .bank11. but typical web. entries related to session configuration.servlets. After an enterprise bean is created. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. Here is a small.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. 8.)> <web-app> <!-. Initialization of parameters for servlets.. 4. servlet classes. Servlet.class>com. like what pages are error.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.xml file: <?xml version="1. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. descriptions). MIME types used by the web application. 3. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.

The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Then the "EnrollServlet. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.bank11. Basicly. for flexibility. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.8 . 1. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".servlets".xml" file. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.ccards. it is the alias of the real servlet class. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.ccards. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.servlets.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Unfortunately.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . Behind a very benign URL. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.ccards. the name of the web application. basicly.xml" 2.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml file of the web application. However. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.class" and that it is part of the package "com.bank11. In general. For example.xml". whose name is rather long.servlets".bank11. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.

modular design 9.SERVLETS 9 . 2010. tjws spec 2.0 specification is available for public review. more often. this is just a work in progress. 9.9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. from BEA Systems. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .4. but through a web container. 9. Technically speaking. the HttpServlet) class. As of oct.0 specification. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. but at this point. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.SERVLETS 9. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).2.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .2. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. in most cases as part of an application server. platform independent programs. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.5 and is in final state. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. which extend the functionality of the web server. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. small footprint. the Java Servlet 3. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.

WebSphere.servlet javax. IOException. from IBM 9.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. from Apple Inc.servlet package are protocol independent. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. the javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. while the second one.servlet.9 . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet package. public void service(ServletRequest req.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. Enterprise Edition.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. public void destroy() throws ServletException. These packages are: • • javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . 82 .

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.9 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. as well.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. This method has two arguments. 83 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. ServletConfig. 9.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet API provides such a specific class. respectively. Throwable t) 9. After instantiating the servlet. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. namely the HttpServlet class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. The method performs all initialization required. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req.

ServletException javax.Exception class.lang. It also extends the java. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. service().SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.9 . containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.servlet.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .Exception and can be thrown by the init().lang. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.

Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.9 . JSP or JSF. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. DB connection opening. Typically. After instantiation. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. which will service all incoming requests.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.SingleThreadModel. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. Typically. etc. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. If the servlet does not implement the javax. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Also.servlet. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. 9. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. 85 . or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. respectively. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 . Here are the most important ones: 86 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.

html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. import java.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. 87 . A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.9 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. This is done in server's (container's) server. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*.bank11. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.servlets.io.java" file: package com. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.ccards.xml file.

out.println("</head>"). out.println("<html>").setContentType(“text/html”).*.9 . PrintWriter out = resp. } } 88 . public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("</html>").println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</body>").println("merge"). out.getWriter(). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("<body>"). import javax. out.servlet. // output your page here out.http.*.init(config).close(). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.servlet.println("<head>"). out.println("<br>"). out. out. out.SERVLETS import javax. IOException { resp.

JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. Type 1. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).jdbc. This solution is inefficient. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. These drivers fall into four standard categories. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.JDBC 10. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.sun.1. 10. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.sql package 2. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. After that.odbc. 89 . The JDBC 4.0 while the current (4.JDBC 10 .0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).10 . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0.sql package. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. Starting with version 3. the javax. as recognized by the DB industry.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. the java.JdbcOdbcDriver . 1997.

All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. 90 . Type 3. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Part Java. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. which in turn. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Type 4. forwards them to the JDBC driver. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. because it eliminates one level of indirection.JDBC Type 2.10 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers.

10 .Time java.Timestamp java.SQLData java.sql.JDBC 10. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. java.Types java. let's remind some of the most important ones.Connection java.sql.sql.3 the java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql.Wrapper 91 .DriverManager java.sql.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.Array java.SQLWarning java.sql.Statement java.Driver java.SQLXML java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.SQLInput java.sql.sql.0 API.Date java.SQLException java.0).SQLOutput java.Blob java.sql.sql.Clob java.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.SQLPermission java.PreparedStatement java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.Struct java.

loading a database driver 2.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.PreparedStatement java.sql.Connection java. processing the result set 92 .sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.NClob java.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.sql.sql.Blob java.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLXML java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.RowId java.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.10 . java.sql.SQLDataException java.StatementEvent javax.sql.sql package.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.Wrapper javax.SQLException java.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.0.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.SQLTransientException java.Statement java.Types java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.Clob java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.SQLInput java. querying the database 4.

DataStoreDriver com.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver. A database driver is specified by the driver name.OracleDriver sun.datastore.DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.sybase.net.driver.JDBC 10.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .borland.jdbc.jdbc.odbc.10 .db2.jdbc.ibm.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.SybDriver com.

mm.10 . user.forName("org.bank11. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.Driver"). passwd).util. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).sql. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". 94 .printStackTrace(). let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.gjt. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. but let's take it for granted: import java.getConnection(connURL. try { Class. Since we just used it. String user = "root". import java.newInstance().mysql.*.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.*. as specified by the driver vendor. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. by using the connection URL.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.

sql package.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. prp.put("create". java. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.10 .sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. 10. int resultSetConcurrency. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. "true"). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Connection conn = DriverManager. prp.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.getConnection(connURL. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. String user. prp). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Properties prp = new Properties().util. we can use it for various purposes.JDBC 10.put("autocommit".

The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. respectively. prepared statements and stored procedures. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .JDBC 10. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 . namely. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.

.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql.. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. 10. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. stmt.".createStatement().executeUpdate(sqlString).10 .

The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. not at 0) or the column name. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. 98 . PreparedStatement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. and CallableStatement objects.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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It is part of the javax.produces a standard Connection object 2. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.DataSource object. a factory for creating DB connections.0 optional package. Connection pooling implementation -.math.produces a Connection object that will 103 . Basic implementation -.10 .sql.sql. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql package.sql. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. There are three types of implementations: 1.Time java.math. time.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal Object float 10. secs date. basicly. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. mins.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. This interface is.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.

javax. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). Distributed transaction implementation -.sql.*.getLogger(TestDataSource.naming. 104 . throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.servlets.io.class.servlet.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.http. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.lookup("java:comp/env").*.*. 3.getName()). private DataSource theDataSource. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.bank11. java. javax.*. javax.ccards.servlet. import import import import import import java.*.sql. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".10 .

. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 .10 . ServletException { .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet. 11.jsp and javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.jsp. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.1 and is related to the 2. The package javax. The package javax.2 the java.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.JSP 11.5 Java Servlet specification. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). namely javax. 11. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet.11 . IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp.servlet.servlet.JSP 11 .tagext.jsp.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. The javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. If the JSP is modified.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

JSP • if the URL does not start with / . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container..11 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. 111 . include and taglib..

11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. Assigns it to available name or id.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.JSP 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11.7. 11. In Tomcat. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7 scripting elements 11.7.7. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. this code goes to inside the service() method.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.

the name of a bean instance.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. you must specify param.11 . Attributes description: • • • name . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .

name of the property to be retrieved 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.13 the forward standard action 114 . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .only the "true" value is supported.11 .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:plugin> actions. 11. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. flush .the URL of the page. <jsp:forward>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.

the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.the type of object the plugin will execute. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. depending on request. code="classFileName" . . You must include the .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).class extension in the name following code. servlet or to a static resource. archive="URIToArchive... when we want to separate the application into different views.the name of a bean instance.. name . 11. You must specify either bean or applet. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. It is used mainly. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.11 .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .a name for the Bean or applet instance.. If you do not supply a value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . as this attribute has no default value. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. as well. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . name="instanceName" ." .

it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.it represents the buffered version of java. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.represents server's response to the request.11 . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . with a protocol name. page .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. it has java.the amount of space. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. in pixels.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.1" .16 scopes 1.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.the initial height and width. based on the servlet API.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. objects which are automaticly available.lang. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. session .servlet. config . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. 1. and domain name.jsp.PrintWriter. request .JspWriter type and scope page 7. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . application .io. out . optional port number.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. writes to the output stream to the client. pageContext . Must be a small nonzero number. The default value is 1. of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has javax.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. response .Object type and scope page 11.represents the servlet context. request . in pixels.1. The value is a full URL. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.JSP request object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. session . Object value) method 3. Object value) method 2. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. page .bank11. application .beans.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 11.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp file.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.11 .init().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.ccards. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. Object value) method 4. if (enrollBean.

a boolean and another String).io. private String optional. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.examples.java: package com. 11.devsphere. private String colors[]. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. an int. The public constructor could have been omitted.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private int integer. private float number. private boolean flag. private SimpleSubBean subBean.18. The SimpleBean class is declared public. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.register().mapping.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.11 . a float.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.Serializable { private String string. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private int list[]. a software development and consulting company. SimpleBean. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.string. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).simple.

} // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.string = value.integer.colors = values.colors[index].colors.JSP this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.number = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.number. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } 119 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer = value.flag.11 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.flag = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.

optional = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.11 .subBean = value. String value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index] = value.colors[index] = value.optional.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list[index]. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list = values. } } 120 . } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.subBean. int value) { this.list.

html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.Serializable { private String string.number = value.string = value.java: package com.18. private float number.examples. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number.io.mapping.11 .simple. SimpleSubBean. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } } 11.devsphere.string.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.

11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.string subBean.

the list of optional properties.integer]". error messages. new int[] { 2.mapping.flag]".java: package com. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the processing order. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.simple. "abc" }. new Float(0.colors]". the form's name and the processor's name.18.examples. There are three error messages. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.util. new String[] { 123 . The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. "An option must be selected" }. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.123) }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. a float.devsphere. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. a boolean and an int[]. new Boolean(true) }. The list of optional properties has a single element.number]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "One or more items must be selected" }. The default values are defined for a String.list]".string]". 3 } }.11 . The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. SimpleBeanResources.list]". "One or more colors must be selected" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.

com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. string values are converted to numbers. "SimpleProc.logging.JSP "optional" } }.simple. "subBean" } }.examples. "colors". { "[PROC_NAME]". If necessary. } } 11. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.mapping.html" }.*. For a better understanding of this example.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .18. "optional". "integer".devsphere.mapping. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").11 . SimpleHndl. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere. "SimpleForm.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. { "[FORM_NAME]". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.mapping. "flag". "list". a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.devsphere. new String[] { "string".jsp" } }.util. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". The formToBean() method of com.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). The beanToForm() method of com.mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere. "number".

trim().getDocument(). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getServletPath().JSP = HandlerUtils. int slashIndex = basePath. simpleBean.getClass()).getString("[PROC_NAME]").getTemplate(new java.11 .getMethod().trim().getRealPath(formPath).getBeanResources(simpleBean. formPath = application.forward(request. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.util. // Process the valid data bean instance application.removeUserErrors(errorTable).getString("[FORM_NAME]").io.lastIndexOf('/').equals("POST"). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. errorTable = HandlerUtils. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. slashIndex+1) : "". // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).substring(0.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).File(formPath)). logger). 125 . // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.formToBean(formData. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. response). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.

jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. // Send the form document document. i < list.examples.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean. document. } %> 11.getSubBean(). for (int i = 0.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].length.number = <%= simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. SimpleProc.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. errorTable.append("{ ").getString() %> <P> subBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().length == 0) return "".beanToForm(simpleBean.18. i++) 126 .send(out).11 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple.devsphere. strbuf.getSubBean().JSP elements logger).getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. if (list.mapping.

examples. In addition. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. strbuf. The localization of the Complex*. Using the framework.11 .jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. A single call to FormUtils. } strbuf.append(list[i]). if (list.mapping. ComplexForm.append(list[i]).JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. } strbuf.simple. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . In addition. for (int i = 0. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.formToBean() call.toString().toString(). strbuf. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append(" "). return strbuf.jsp files.append(" ").length == 0) return "". strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier.devsphere.append("}"). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.18.append("}").toString(list[0]).append("{ "). return strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. i++) { strbuf.util. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.length == 1) return Integer.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. } %> 11.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. ComplexHndl.length.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. i < list.

%> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j < colors. i < colorValues. "Option 2". if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. 128 .length.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }.getColors(). for (int i = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value.length. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }. i < integerLabels.11 . i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. j++) if (colors[j]. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "Green". boolean checked = simpleBean. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "green".length.

"optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.simple.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. i < listItems.length. for (int i = 0.examples. j < list.mapping.SimpleSubBean()). } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".getList(). break. boolean selected = false.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP break. "Item 3" }. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { int value = i+1.length.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.setSubBean( new com.devsphere. "Item 2".getSubBean().string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. "subBean.11 . "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.

Hashtable errorTable.setString("abc"). } %> ComplexHndl.examples. if (message == null) message = "".simple.examples.getString() == null || simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.simple.getSubBean().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. boolean isPostMethod = request.getMethod().SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.11 .get(property).length() == 0) { simpleBean.devsphere.util.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.equals("POST"). "subBean. 130 .setSubBean(simpleSubBean).mapping. return message.getString().Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.devsphere.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.

if (flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number".length() != 0) simpleBean.getParameter("number").setNumber(0. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "Must be a number").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. "Must be filled"). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "integer". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.123f).length == 0) { 131 . "number". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getColors() == null || simpleBean. else { simpleBean. } simpleBean. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getColors().123f). "string".equals("false")) flagValue = null. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "Must be filled").setFlag(flagValue != null).11 . "An option must be selected").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.trim().getParameter("flag").length() == 0 || flagValue.

getString() == null || simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.getList().11 .floatValue()). //* subBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2. "colors". "Must be filled"). 3 }).setNumber(new Float(numberValue). 132 . "Must be } //* subBean. "One or more colors must be selected").getOptional() == null) simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.string". "subBean. "list".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.setString("").getString().number : text try { String numberValue = request. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("subBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length == 0) { simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").number").getList() == null || simpleBean.number".

helpers. "subBean. message).BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.mapping. 3 }).SimpleBean.Hashtable errorTable.examples.helpers.put(property.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.properties or web. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.JSP filled"). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.setFlag(true). String property.jsp. simpleSubBean.number".123f). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. simpleBean.code=com.setString("abc"). simpleBean.18.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.mapping.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. } } else { simpleBean.11 .setNumber(0.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. } %> 11. errorTable.simple. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. The com.setList(new int[] { 2. "Must be a number").devsphere. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.\ 133 .setString("").devsphere.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. simpleBean.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.util.setOptional(""). simpleBean.xml: SimpleHndl.devsphere.

helpers.host.devsphere.helpers. 11.another. you could add a few other lines to servlets. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.devsphere.devsphere.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. A servlet can be made bean-independent.examples.simple. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .xml) file: ServletName.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.11 .BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.18.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.properties: AnotherHndl.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.properties (or web.devsphere. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.company.mapping. a servlet is identified with its class.AnotherBean. If you have another bean-form pair.host.code=com. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.host.examples.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.code=com. In many cases.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.mapping.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.

11 .JSP 135 .

0 supersedes version 1. 12. builds a component tree.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. Version 2. processes events.12 . There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.JAVASERVER FACES 12. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.javaserver faces 12 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. This technology includes: 1. like input fields.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. 2. which loads the appropriate view template.0. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. Version 2. buttons. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.

JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.12 .4. As of version 1.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.javaserver faces 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .2 of the JFS specification. 12.

A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. 12. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. columns and rows. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .4.12 . see the column tag documentation. such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. Common formatting techniques. footers. respectively. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.

The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkout}" /> 139 . The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4.4. your options include using plain HTML forms.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.12 . and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.

user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. red for error.</span> 12.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.user.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .12 .5.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.

dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . 12.5.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. For example. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.

12. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. Any component that receives user input.customer.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.5. validateLength. can publish value change events. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.12 .mycompany.5. Without this JavaScript event. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. The body content of this tag must be empty. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.javaserver faces 12. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.

This allows you to design localized versions of each page. including images and styles.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.12 .jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.mycompany. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. Example: welcome_en. for each locale you wish to support. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.javaserver faces 12.5. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. myJSFapp 143 . This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.mycompany. If you have not specified a default locale.

xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.12 .xml – the JSF configuration file. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Create JSP pages 2.exadel. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. It has a deployment descriptor. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. mandatory for any JSF application web. JSP pages.contains libraries required by the application.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. like third party jar files jsf-impl.javaserver faces /ant build.jar.jar faces-config.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar – files included in the /lib directory.jar jsf-api. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. custom tag libraries. jsf-api.xml web. and so on. Create managed beans 4. Create properties files 144 . Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Define navigation rules 3.html.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. static resources.

xml file.jsp to greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. You just need to create its contents. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.javaserver faces 5. These files will act as place holders for now. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.12 .jsp.7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. You only need to create the JSP files. As a diagram. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. we can create a navigation rule. Compile the application 8.jsp.jsp file 7.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp and greeting. The directory structure already exists.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. we just want to go from inputname. Create an index.jsp is greeting. In our application.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .7. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. Deploy and run the application 12. 12. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. And that's all there is to this. Edit JSP pages 6.

) 12. This class is straight-forward.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. 12.7.PersonBean.1 PersonBean. of course. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. To read more about navigation rules. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.3 faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml Now. The next line is the full class name.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.7. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3. Inside this myJFSapp folder. a very simple navigation rule.java file.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. the second part of faces-config.12 .xml file should look like this: 146 . <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp. request sets the bean scope in the application.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. 12. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. You can easily create more complex ones.3.xml Your final faces-config. we will create a PersonBean.javaserver faces This is.

this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.12 .properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12.properties file in the bundle folder. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.7.5.1 inputname.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.sun.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.sun. 12.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.1 messages.4. Inc.1//EN" "http://java. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.

messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.sun.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. Then.bundle.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.bundle. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.sun. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.12 .prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.

12. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Create the index.5.sun.12 . The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.7. name! 12.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The second line will access a Java bean.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp page. Creates an HTML input text box.2 greeting. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.7. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Having an index.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.</h3> tags. specifically the bean attribute personName.greeting_text}" />. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Line 6..sun. Lines 3-5. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.bundle. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The first three lines are identical to our first page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.6 creating the index. Line 2. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.. and also print its contents on the page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces Line 1.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.xml file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

we need to deploy it.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.xml file for the application *. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.javaserver faces Now.7. To build the application run the build.xml file.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. Your setup. When Tomcat is done loading.html . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. might possibly be different). 12.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. This is a "login" application. 12. because in the web. We are almost done with this example.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.7.12 .9 Running Next. To do this.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. which asks an user for an ID and password.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).7.sourceforge.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. Of course. This is used here. and forwards the user to a success or error page. though. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.jsf and not . We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. 150 .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12.jsp. you'll notice the file suffix is . verifies the information. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.8.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.

enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.xml Editor (see faces-config. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. in the wizard that appears. 6. c. select the Source tab. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.src | +-. click Next. jsf-login. click Next. Enter project name. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. a. Select Java Project.12 .webroot | +-. click Next d. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. name the folder pages. and to add JSF libraries to the project. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. click Finish 4. click Add Folder. and set up folders for a web application.. 3. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the Add JSF Support page. say..Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.. Select the Amateras node. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. see Installing & Uninstalling. 7. your mileage may vary. 2. The New Project wizard appears.. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.. make sure all checkboxes are checked.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.8.WEB-INF 151 . make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. name the folder webroot 5. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Yes through messages that appear. 10. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 12.. 9. 1. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.

} void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. We then configure it to be a managed bean. in the Name field enter LoginManager. else action = "loginFail". input widgets appear d. } return action.lib | +-. click Add. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } 4.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. In Package Explorer select the src folder. 2. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. a. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.8. if ( _uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.xml Editor.LoginManager. In the Package field. The Java code editor opens. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". } String getPassword() { return _pwd.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. for class enter login. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.12 .xml. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. 3.pages 12. enter login. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. click Managed Bean. for name enter mgr. The faces-config.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". Click Finish. b. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login. for scope select 152 .javaserver faces | | | +-.xml editor opens. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. 1. private String _pwd = "". c. The New Java Class wizard appears. from its context menu select New/Class.

12 . Then we create login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. for File name enter index. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp is placed directly in webroot. Create index.webroot/pages/error.jsp). from its context menu select New/File. </body> Please try 153 .jsp and error. Enter the following code: <!-. but in webroot/pages.jsp). so we create them first.javaserver faces session. Create success.jsp: a. success. the New File wizard appears.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp. All pages except login. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.8. in Package Explorer select webroot. enter the following code. again. Enter the following code: <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.webroot/index.jsp. then close the editor 12. Create error. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. but in webroot/pages. b.jsp: create this file similarly to index. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. <!-. and 3 content pages (login.jsp. e. save the file and close the editor. c.jsp. from the menubar select File/Save. the JSP Editor opens.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. index.webroot/pages/success. 1. click Finish.jsp are simple pages with static content.

and hit CTRL + Spacebar.jsp. 154 . a code-completion window pops up. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. enter jsf-login e. and uses them for code completion as well. for File name enter login. now we want to add attributes to this element. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and choose default for Template. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. click Finish. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. with the following template code. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.sun. To see this in action. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and dock it along the right. Open the JSF palette. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. d.javaserver faces </html> 4. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.12 . from its context menu select New/Other. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. the New wizard appears. b. etc. Create login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. g. place your cursor in one of these lines. as shown below. (See Show View Dialog) f. <%@ page contentType="text/html. click Next c.completion.. and the JSP Editor can help with code.jsp: a. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.sun.

insert another <h:inputText> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.sun.sun. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.javaserver faces h. select userID from the code-completion window. i. a code-completion window pops up. enter #{mgr. with bean properties available in mgr. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. with the barest presentational formatting. complete the expression with the closing { k. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and hit Enter. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.) j.12 . this inserts value="" at the cursor.password}" l. set its value to Login.. insert a <h:commandButton> element.loginAction} The final code. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.

using a FacesIDE editor. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 156 . 2. this inserts a page icon into the editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Open faces-config.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. then click inside the editor window.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. click on Page.xml Editor.12 .xml. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. Select the Navigation tab 3.8. it should open in the faces-config. This is shown below. 1.

6. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. in the Properties view.jsp 4. from the palette at left.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp. add 3 more pages.jsp.12 . You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). and set them to /pages/login. then click first on the icon for login. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. /pages/success. Its properties appear in the Properties view. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp. 5.jsp and then on the icon for success. This is shown below: 157 . select Navigation Case. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index. and is represented by an arrow.

and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. We want virtual path-based mapping.12 .xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.jsp. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. We'll set some properties in web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. since we have such a trivial application. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. 12. so uncomment it. and extension-based mapping is turned on. and you should be sent to the success page. all we need do in web.xml.jsp. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. 1. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.8. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml.jsp.6 Editing web. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . open web.javaserver faces 7.xml Here we edit web.jsp to error. or leave it as-is. Once deployed browse to index. As it turns out. any other id/password should send you to the error page. Similarly add a forward-action from login. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).

context javax.faces.component.0 1.faces.faces.component javax.faces. scroll down to Deploy.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.8.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.event javax.faces.faces.faces..application javax.render javax.lifecycle javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. that factory is used.faces javax.12 .html javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.webapp 12.faces. the Manager application should reload. 12. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.validator javax. as file:///. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name..el javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.model javax.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.. For a given factory class name. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. open its Manager application in a browser.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. click Deploy 3.convert javax.javaserver faces 12. start Tomcat. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 .10 the javax.

its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.faces.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. ViewHandler . handling events and input validation. ViewHandlerWrapper . and supporting internationalization and accessibility. FacesMessage. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.Severity .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. 12. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. those factories are used. ApplicationFactory .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . StateManager . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. with the last one taking precedence. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.11 the javax. FacesMessage . If none of the above steps yield a match. StateManagerWrapper .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). defining page navigation. with the last one taking precedence. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.12 .represents a single validation (or other) message.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.

Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. NamingContainer .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". • • 161 .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. ActionSource2 . UIComponentBase . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. a menu item. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. UICommand . when activated by the user. String. StateHolder .12 the javax.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.12 . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. String) results in failure on postback.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.FacesContext. • ViewExpiredException . or a hyperlink.context.restoreView(javax. ContextCallBack . EditableValueHolder .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. Here they are: • • UIColumn . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. 12.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.faces. ValueHolder .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.faces. UIComponent . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.

The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UISelectItem .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UINamingContainer .javaserver faces • UIData .13 the java.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UISelectOne . that is displayed to the user. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. Optionally. UIParameter . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).12 . it is for display purposes only. The user can modify the selected values. by storing it as the value property of the component. UIInput .a UIComponent that has a value.html package 162 . UIForm .faces.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIMessages .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. it just serves as the root of the component tree. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally. UIGraphic . UIMessage . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. it is for display purposes only.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIOutput . UIViewRoot . The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UISelectBoolean . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. identified by a clientId.component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIPanel . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UISelectMany .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.

faces. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlCommandLink . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. On a redisplay. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlForm .represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML textarea element.12 . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.Message".represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlMessages . HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML img element. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML form element. HtmlOutputText . The label text is specified by the component value. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlColumn . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlGraphicImage .renders the component value as text.by default. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .by default. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlDataTable . HtmlOutputLink .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML label element.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.faces. HtmlInputText . and renders the result. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.renders child components in a table. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlMessage . but the application wishes to render more than one. This component must be placed inside a form.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlPanelGroup .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. or not.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.

javaserver faces property. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing a single available option at a time. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. In particular. ResponseWriterWrapper .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. • • • • • • 12.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectOneRadio .faces. FacesContextFactory .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. ResponseStream .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . ResponseWriter . HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. showing a single available option at a time.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.14 the java. HtmlSelectOneMenu .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.15 the java. • • • • 12.convert package 164 . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectManyListbox . It is passed to.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. FacesContext . and potentially modified by. HtmlSelectOneListbox .12 .

The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . ValueBinding .faces.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. PropertyResolver .16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. • • • • 165 . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.12 .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. 12. VariableResolver .javaserver faces 12.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.15. Classes: MethodBinding .

Interfaces: ActionListener . PropertyNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.faces.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.17 the java. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ValueChangeListener . 166 . ValueChangeEvent .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ReferenceSyntaxException . MethodNotFoundException . PhaseEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. and event implementation classes.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. • • • • 12. PhaseId . • • • • • One exception . FacesEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.12 .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesListener .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseListener .AbortProcessingException .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .

• • • • • • • • • 12. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ResultSetDataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. ListDataModel . 12. SelectItemGroup .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.12 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. SelectItem . ScalarDataModel .faces. ResultDataModel .javaserver faces 12. DataModel .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.18 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.faces.faces.19 the java.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.20 the java. Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.

The package contains an exception. AttributeTag .22 the java.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . LongRangeValidator . and concrete validator implementation classes.12 . • RenderKit .represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. and/or user Locale. RenderKitFactory .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.validator package Interface defining the validator model. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. ConverterTag .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. as well.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.faces.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). including a standard servlet. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. base classes for JSP custom component tags. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.faces. ResponseStateManager .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. markup language. together. • • 12. 12. Typically.21 the java.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.

When a web server receives a request. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. or when an exception occurs.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. UIComponentTag . the controller sends a message to the model. telling the model to update its data. Also. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the controller is the 169 . You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the JSF life cycle does not apply. servlets. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. In JSF.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. that request is passed to the container. which passes the request to the page class. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. 12. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the process includes a few more components or pages. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. but basically. that need to process their tag bodies. When the model is updated. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. ValidatorTag . you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. which has several implications. the controller sends a message to the view. When the user takes some action with the presentation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. related to a UIComponent. In MVC.12 . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. Likewise. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). or some other web technology.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. telling the view to update its presentation. the life cycle is more complicated. FacetTag . When using JSF. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. UIComponentBodyTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions. • • • • • FacesServlet . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.

depending on the request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. converting a String to a Date object). and a piece of data failed validation. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. it creates UI objects for each view component. The components are stored in a component tree. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). or from request headers. 170 . In addition. and the response is sent to the client.12 . and what happens during the processing and response. However. These objects update their state with the data values. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. As with the previous phase. If this is a subsequent request. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called.javaserver faces JSF implementation. such as components that create HTML input fields. For a JSF-enabled application. Data for some components. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. In addition. • Invoke Application: During this phase. the conversion occurs in this phase. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. from cookies sent as part of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. It updates only the UI components with the new data. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the JSF implementation must create the view. not every request will flow through all six phases. Data can come from input fields in a web form.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also.12 . For example. if errors occur during any of the phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. 171 . skipping any remaining phases.

with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). relative to the DNS entry Wiz. The DNS entry Wiz.5). in turn. which is located in the root of the file system. Thus the DNS name sales.COM. The UNIX pathname. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. c:\bin\autoexec. For example. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". you must supply its name.1 names To look up an object in a naming system."). such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. 172 .48. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. /usr/hello. Using JNDI. you supply it the name of the object. such as LDAP. you are always naming one object or another.9. such as addresses.Wiz. When using almost any computer program or system.JNDI 13. For example.JNDI 13 . applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. A file system maps a filename (for example. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. and NIS(YP). DNS. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. for example. or objects typically used by computer programs.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. identifiers. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. NDS.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. 13. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.sun. names a file hello in the file directory usr.13 . 13. For example.2. In addition.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. It enables applications to access different. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. when you use an electronic mail system. possibly multiple.COM. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. To access a file in the computer. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. naming and directory services using a common API.

delimited by the comma character (". an LDAP entry. Every context has an associated naming convention. unbinding names. For example.").2. 13. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For simplicity. a file name is bound to a file. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. For example. 13. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew.c=us. is relative to c=us. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. A printer object reference. such as /usr. its flight plan. Finally. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. That is. and fuel and instrument status. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. and listing bound names. For example. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. they must be stored by reference. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. A reference is information about how to access an object. which in turn. while the object itself might contain more state information. A printer object. is a context. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. that is. for example. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. in a file directory /usr/bin. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. is accessed using a file reference. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. for example.13 . o=Sun. By contrast. a DNS domain.COM. In another example. For example. is a context. For example.2.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. Instead. such as COM.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. some objects cannot be stored directly. relative to the entry o=Sun. and its flight number and departure time. Typically.2. in the UNIX file system is a context. might contain the state of the printer. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. in the DNS domain Sun. a file directory. Using the reference. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. such as c=us. on the other hand. that is. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. such as its print server name and printing protocol. A file object. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. also called a file handle. 13. 173 . the directory bin is a subcontext of usr.

A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service.2. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. for example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. and computer account information. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. programs. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). or a network. because we can. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries.13 . a computer. two different computer 174 . identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. resolution. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. An example is the telephone company's directory service.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. and color. various telephone numbers. postal mail address. one context can be viewed. For example. A directory object can be used. 13.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. Thus. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. however. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.3. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. 13.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. to represent a printer. And it kind of makes sense. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a name is unique 13. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. to some extent. and even the computer itself and other computers. For example. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. For example. a person. For example. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users.

175 . 13. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. and users. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. an organization object. Alternatively.3. For example. adding. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. 13. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Similarly.3. By using a directory service. many directories. The query is called a search filter. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. networks.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. such as those based on the LDAP. for example. When you search. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. that is. such as that relating to machines. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. like any other program running on the network. When directory objects are arranged in this way. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. for example.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. 13.13 .com". removing. 13. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.50". printers.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. such as the file and print services.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.smith@somewhere. Many examples of directory services are possible. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. "mail" is the attribute identifier.4.3. For example.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. called a directory information tree (DIT). The email address. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. The service is accessed through its own interface. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. the ability to access directory services will become essential. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. A Java mail client program. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter.113. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. for example. support the notion of searches. Within the DIT. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.

naming. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.5. v1. more coherent and manageable. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.1 and Java 2 SDK. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.ldap 176 . 13. 13.2. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. Thus a variety of directories--new. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.2. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.5. For example.naming. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13. v1. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. To use the JNDI. It extends the v1.4.event javax.directory javax.naming. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. 13. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1.13 . For example.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1. v1.3 and later releases.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. emerging.naming javax. The Java 2 SDK. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. and even the network.

it is potentially a much more expensive operation.6. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. and the object itself. a 177 .String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.JNDI • javax. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.lang. 13. 13. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.naming package defines a Context interface.6 the naming package The javax. and it returns the object bound to that name.print(report). list() is similar to listBindings(). binding/unbinding. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. for some objects in the directory. the name of the object's class. 13. However. composing them.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. that is. printer. comparing components. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.6. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. For the methods in the Context interface. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. 13. and so on.13 .String name.lang. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. Furthermore. A java.1 context The javax. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. For example. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. The overloads that accept java. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.naming.lang.String name argument represents a composite name. In this case.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. which is the core interface for looking up.lookup("treekiller").spi 13.

There are no absolute roots. they should catch NamingException. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13.7. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. Once you have an initial context. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.6. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. 13.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. Otherwise. InitialContext. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.7 directory package The javax.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.6. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.naming. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).7. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.directory package extends the javax.13 . You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. replace. In the simplest and most common form of usage.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. 13.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 178 . For example. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). You can add. 13. 13. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.

Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.8 event package The javax.JNDI 13. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. For example. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. For example. 13.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.9 LDAP package The javax. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.directory package. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.naming. called controls . most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .naming. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.13 .naming. Once registered. To receive event notifications. such as "object added.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.naming." and those that do not. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. or unsolicited notifications. such as information about the object before and after the change. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. such as "object changed. that is. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. controls. In fact.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.9. These operations are called "extended" operations.naming. 13. 13.ldap package at all. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.9.9. 13. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. and vice versa. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .

This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.naming. 13. and receiving response controls.java.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13. implementors of Context. For example. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. 13. 13. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.13 . In the process of completing an operation.10.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. if you look up a printer name from the directory.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. This support is provided in the form of state factories. 13.10. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.11.naming.10 service provider package The javax.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. This support is provided in the form of object factories. sending request controls. 13. That is. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming package. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.9.1 plug-In architecture The javax. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.naming.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.2 java object support The javax. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. import javax. 180 .JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.10.naming. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.spi package supports implementors of Context. create a file named Lookup.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.

If the compilation fails. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.java). 181 . Object obj = ctx.11. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.sun.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). v1. For this reason.5 compiling the program Next.3 looking up an Object Next.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.naming.JNDI import javax. If you are still having problems. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.put(Context. then the JNDI classes are already included. } catch (NamingException e) { System. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().err.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.13 . env.jar as an installed extension.lookup(name). 13.RefFSContextFactory"). Otherwise. as follows. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.11.11. import javax. If the compilation succeeds. 13.InitialContext. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. // Print it System.11.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. 13.jndi. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). you compile the source file using the Java compiler. create an initial context. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "com. To compile to program. using the capitalization shown.lookup(name). use Context. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).lookup() to look up an object.3.out.naming. you must have access to the JNDI classes.NamingException. } 13.fscontext. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.

javax.naming. then you will see something like the following. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.naming and javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. create a file named Getattr. import import import import import javax.class). To run the program. the file system service provider. 13. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.sun.Attributes. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.naming.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.3.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.naming. Finally.jar and providerutil. create an initial directory context.java. 13.DirContext. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.12.InitialDirContext.directory packages.directory.directory.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. "com. supply the name of a file in your file system. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.JNDI 13. include the directory that contains your Lookup.ldap.naming. you need access to the JNDI classes.bat If you supply a file directory.13 .PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.jndi.11.Context.put(Context.put(Context.jar). 182 . javax.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.directory.6 running the program To run the program. and your example class (Lookup. env.jndi.LdapCtxFactory").sun. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. javax. javax. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").NamingException. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. env. v1.fscontext. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.12. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming.naming.

} 13.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.12.out. using the capitalization shown. For now.6 compiling the program Next. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. ou=People").get() and then from that attribute get its value. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.err. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If the compilation fails. Similar to the naming example. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. 13.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.12.12. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If you are still having problems. For this reason.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).get(). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.println("sn: " + attrs. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.java). compile the source file using the Java compiler. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.get()). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. If the compilation succeeds.13 . use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. 13.12. Attributes. ou=People"). } catch (NamingException e) { System. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. 183 .get() on it to get its value: attrs. 13.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn"). As with the naming example.get("sn").

Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). 184 . Once it has the attributes. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. ou=People". If you are using the Java 2 SDK. With this configuration.7 running the program As with the naming example. then these classes are already included.jar). you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.12.class.JNDI 13.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.13 . Getattr.put(Context.3.jar and providerutil. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then see the Common Problems lesson. If you have any trouble running this example. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. env.PROVIDER_URL. v1.

the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.a JMS client that receives messages. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. Here.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . Enterprise Edition.14 . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS topic . JMS message . As the name queue suggests. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS queue . JMS client .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. unless it has established a durable 185 . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. • 14.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS producer .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS consumer . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. the messages are delivered in the order sent. In this model.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.

The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Using Java. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.4. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Depending on the type of message. 14.3 the JMS API programming model 14. In that case. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.jms.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. 186 . the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.14 . On the receiving side. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.

which is where messages are delivered and consumed. For example. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). you call the stop() method. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.createConnection(). you must call the connection's start() method. It is either a queue or a topic.close(). Depending on the connection type.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Before an application completes. Before your application can consume messages. It receives messages sent to a destination. Like the connection factory. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . Connections implement the Connection interface.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. you must close any connections that you have created. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. For example. In a J2EE application.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. and users discover them using JNDI. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. The JMS administrator creates these objects.lookup("jms/MyQueue").14 . 14.4.4. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. connection. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. 14.4. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.

In the onMessage() method. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. you are likely to miss messages.14 . depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. and you can use it to receive messages.) When message delivery begins.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. This method is valid only if you are using a topic.receive(). The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. Moreover.receive(1000). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. (Remember always to call the start() method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. usually expect a specific message type and format. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().start(). MessageConsumer consumer = session. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. onMessage(). however. Message m = consumer. consumer. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. For example. After you register the message listener. This object implements the MessageListener interface.start(). After you have created a message consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. For example. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. a message listener object may be used. which contains one method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.4. A message listener does. 14. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 188 .createConsumer(myQueue). connection. You use the Session. it becomes active. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.createConsumer(myTopic). Message m = consumer. if it needs to reply to messages. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.setMessageListener(myListener).

and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. 14. from one application to another.createProducer(null). if you created an unidentified producer. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. // msg_text is a String producer.14 . It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). Here. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. map message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.4. message). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. 189 . that is. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. MessageProducer producer = session. message. After you have created a message producer. to create and send a TextMessage.setText(msg_text).createProducer(myTopic).send(message). you do not specify a destination until you send a message.createProducer(myQueue).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. bytes message. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. anon_prod. You must first create the messages. and object message). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.send(myQueue. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.4.createTextMessage().7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. With an unidentified producer. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 3. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. For example.receive(). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. At the consuming end. A message has three main parts: 1. stream message.send(message).

A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. After you create a Connection object.14 . meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.getText()). The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. } else { // Handle error } 14. 190 . you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.4. and message consumers to receive messages.println("Reading message: " + message. Sessions implement the Session interface.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. then delivers the messages. If the user selects transaction support. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. 0). Before committing the transaction.createSession(false. Session. use the following code: Session session = connection.createSession(true. To create a transacted session. the first argument means that the session is transacted.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). Here. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.out. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.

especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .DB interaction transactions . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.object oriented representation of data in a DB. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.transaction management can be complex. 15.consistent error handling framework . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. improved performance security . The component lives inside a container. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0. bundled into a single unit. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . message-driven beans The 2. Version 1.jar file into the application server. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . container which offers services to the component.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . On the other side.no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 .15 . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.logging. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. server which provides an execution environment for containers. the container lives (in general) in an application server.0. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.

called ejb-jar. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. as follows: 1. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the home interface of the bean 3. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the deployment descriptor. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.15 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).xml 15.

While the Remote interface declares no methods. import java. import java. RemoteException.*. int custId) throws RemoteException. } 15.ejb. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.15 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException.rmi. import. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.javax. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.*. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.ejb.javax. The developer does not implement this interface.rmi. } 193 . import. String lastName. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.RemoteException.

PROVIDER_URL. creating them for the client application.interfaces. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "org.jnp. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). } 194 .put(Context.NamingContextFactory". Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). prop. In the case of an web application. we need to know: 1. if the client executes outside the container. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. this can be done (for example) through SSL. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. prop.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.15 . "localhost:1099"). how to create or find the bean 2.

do not have the concept of casting. This is done through the javax. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.e.Remote interface). to the appropriate type.lookup("MyBean"). do implements the java. 195 . It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. and this means that there are some limitations.narrow(homeRef. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. • if the client executes outside the container. that is part of CORBA standards. more specifically. IIOP has not been designed for Java. Some languages. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.rmi. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.15 . using the narrow() method. in fact. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. the client has a stub). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.class)..rmi. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. but for generic languages. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). in fact. Why? For EJB.rmi. Problem is.PortableRemoteObject class and. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. MyBeanHome.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").

set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).. public class MyBean implements javax.15 .. remove the bean instance myObject. "Vasile". } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. import javax. as well).ccards.bank11.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.SessionContext. 15. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . call business methods on the bean myObject.processEntry("Dumitrascu".ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.ejb. 1102). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ejbeans.remove().create(). String lastName.ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . the code implementing this class may look like this: package com..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.

10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. namely stateful and stateless beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. A stateless bean does not.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. the object is activated.15 . 15.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. 197 . public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. that is. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.

At the end of the life cycle. is inside the bean class. Figure 15. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. or passivate. All other methods in Figure 15.15 . 198 .1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean. For example. and then moves it to the ready stage. the client invokes the remove method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. 15. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. The ejbCreate method.1 are invoked by the EJB container. for example.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. (Typically. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.

13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). support for concurrent access 3. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. stored in a Database). container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.15 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.

On the other side.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. as the parameters in the original create() method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. We can have more create() methods. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. 200 .15 . CreateException.14. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. in the same order.bank11.ccards. Read.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. 15. Update and Delete.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. an instance of that bean is created. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. all throwing RemoteException.lang. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). methods which have the same parameters. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. state data is stored into data store (usually.

the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.14. for BMPs. 201 . not null. it's business methods can be invoked. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. it is empty. in BMP. actual SQL update code. First. On the second path.14. After the EJB container creates the instance. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.14. 15. for BMP. the client invokes the create method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. left empty most of the time in CMP. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 . 15. but in general. the programmer will create actual SQL code. All instances in the pool are identical. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. Second. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. a client can invoke the remove method. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. While in the pooled stage. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. After instantiation. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). On the first path. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. but the developer returns null for CMP.

16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. or a Web component . it does not automatically set the primary key. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.getPrimaryKey(). another enterprise bean. 202 . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. the values of the instance variables are not needed. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. In the pooled state. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. Therefore. In the pooled state. 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.an application client. If the primary key is incorrect. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.15 . It acts as a JMS message listener. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. With bean-managed persistence.

and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. max-beans-infree-pool. the message will be redelivered. 15. but not asynchronously. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.15 . 203 . Previously. If message processing is rolled back.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.16.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. In several respects. To ensure concurrency. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.16. For more information on this element see. message-driven bean can be used. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. 15. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. an open database connection. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. If this element is set to more than one. To avoid tying up server resources. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. When a message arrives.for example.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. Unlike a session or entity bean. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. a JMS API connection. 15. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.

onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. As with other EJB types. or create a new one. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. methods. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and it must not // accept parameters. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.} // onMessage() is required.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. public void ejbRemove() {.Message. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. finalize{}. 3. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.0 specification.16. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.. Note: These instances can be pooled.jms.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.Message MessageName) {. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.jms. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.16.. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . 15. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). public void onMessage(javax. 15. Classes. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.15 . 2.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.ejb...}. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.. // An EJB constructor is required.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.16. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. Obtain a new bean instance.

For example. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().onMessage() for more information. getUserTransaction().16. 15. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. even in onMessage(). If any method throws such an exception. See javax. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.jms. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. 15. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.15 . Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.This is not a client context. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.16.16. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .MessageListener. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. getRollbackOnly() . It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. However. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.16.

Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.16.16.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .xml. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. In either case. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. 15. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. as required by the EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.15 . the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.0 specification.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. as described in the EJB 2. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).

ejb20.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.0 specification. 207 . 2.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. 15. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.jms.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.message.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. </message-driven> ..xml deployment file.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. the weblogic-ejb-jar.15 ... For each instance. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. as described in the EJB 2. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.xml elements. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE..

the remote interface name 8. access control entries . attributes . 15.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. security 208 . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. entity specific elements 10. control descriptors . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.like transaction.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.15 . EJB class name 5. bean home name .security issues. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. a message-driven bean is never passivated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. isolation level. the home interface name 7. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. At the end of the life cycle. environment properties 6.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9.

ejb.ccards.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.15 .ccards.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.bank11.bank11.bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.lang.

lang.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..15 ..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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