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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.java platform. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary). processes it (if necessary).1 . 1. retail.2 Server communication 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. or finance. 5 . Figure 1. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.7 business components Business code. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. and sends it back to the client program. like HTML pages. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. like the client tier. The web tier. enterprise edition Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.

enterprise bean. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. or application client component can be executed. 6 .9 java EE Containers Normally. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. Business and EIS Tiers 1. and other complex low-level details. Before a web. 1. resource pooling. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. database systems. and other legacy information systems. For example.1 .java platform. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. multithreading.9. In addition.3 Web. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. 1. mainframe transaction processing. enterprise edition Figure 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.

4.1 . and access to the Java EE platform APIs.9. database connection resource pooling. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. For example. including services such as security. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.java platform. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 1. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. transaction management. and remote connectivity. 7 . data persistence. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.

you send documents containing the service data back and forth. XML data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. or any kind of binary data such as audio.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. enterprise edition Figure 1. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.1 . Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Web container . This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. or for document-oriented web services.manages the execution of application client components. maps. extensible.manages the execution of applets. 1. When XML data is exchanged between parties. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. 1.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. Application clients and their container run on the client. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Application client container . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. program files. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. 8 . video. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. develop. For example.10.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Applet container . all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.java platform. test. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. text-based standard for representing data.

5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 9 .2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. the location of the service. such as Universal Description.java platform. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. enterprise edition 1. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The description includes the name of the service. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and ways to communicate with the service.1 . and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.

and XML) and JSP elements. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.11. you employ a single.java platform. 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. In Java EE 5. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. standard set of tags. Commonly.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. enterprise edition Figure 1. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. the session bean and its data are gone. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.11. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. When the client finishes executing. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. WML. If the client terminates. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. 1. or if the server shuts down. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.1 .5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. or enterprise bean. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.11.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. 1. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . Although servlets can respond to any type of request.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. SAAJ.java platform. 15 . better tools. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or component accordingly. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. it is ready to be deployed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Once deployed on a local platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. No extra coding is needed.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. the application is ready to run. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file.1 . JSP page. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.ear extension. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. such as better performance. At runtime. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. a module. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. or a component. module. and JNDI 1. or better customer support. servlet. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. JTA.

JSP files. Application client modules. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. and other documentation.jar extension. Together. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. GIF and HTML files. for example. which contain servlet class files. For example.1 . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . native libraries. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.java platform. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. supporting class files.jar extension.war (Web ARchive) extension. • • 16 . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. enterprise edition Figure 1. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Resource adapter modules. such as caching directives. classes. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Web modules.

namely HTTP 1. HEAD.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.ietf. an initial line 2. The server answers with a response message.. POST. RFC 2616 (06/99).) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . The first oficial version – HTTP 1. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.. zero or more header lines 3.1.2 .HTTP 2. The second (and last. 2. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).apps.com/easy/http. so far) version. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.. was the object of several RFCs. check the official HTTP site – www.org/Protocols .w3..0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. we recommend www. These messages may have different contents. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.org/rfc/rfc1945. but they also have some common structural elements.html).HTTP 2 . of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). . As a site for understanding how HTTP works. The client sends a request message to the server. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. as follows: 1. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.jmarshall.

but lack of support makes them obsolete. TRACE Three other commands are listed. POST 4. 18 . CONNECT 5. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. in the HTTP 1. newsgroup.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. PUT 8. as well. DELETE 6. mailing list.1 specification. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.0).html HTTP/1. . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. GET 2.Annotation of existing resources.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. OPTIONS 7.1. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.2 . HEAD 3.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. Here is their list: 1. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.Posting a message to a bulletin board. HTTP/1. 2. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.

2 . (encoded as multipart/form-data). after the “?” character. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. or ordering a product.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. or a record is subordinate to a database. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.Providing a block of data. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.0 404 Not Found 2.HTTP or similar group of articles.Extending a database through an append operation.” On the other side. 2. while POST may involve anything. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. such as the result of submitting a form. In this case. When used for form data submission. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. separated by the character “&” or “. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. 2. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. or sending E-mail 2. . 3. like storing or updating data. or in the message body.6 differences between GET and POST 1. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. to a data-handling process. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.8 the status code A three-digit integer.

The most common use of the message body is in a response.g. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. out of which. one (Host) is mandatory. where the requested resource is returned to the client.the request succeeded. that is. Although the header names are not case sensitive.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. separated a semicolon. fails. 20 . This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.1 version specifies 46 of them. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. none of them mandatory. file or script output) is returned in the message body.1 only) . header values are. and the resulting resource (e. 2. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. 2. such as text/html or image/jpg.an unexpected server error.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. and section 10 for HTTP 1. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 500 Server Error . while the HTTP 1. In particular. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . or otherwise can't run correctly.0 version specifies 16 headers.the requested resource doesn't exist. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. header name and header value. If an HTTP message includes a body. 404 Not Found .1). The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. In a request. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The HTTP 1.2 .0. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.

parallel 3.HTTP 2.ietf. partial.info. text.ro/path/file. application. with subtype mpeg 2.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. multipart. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.html HTTP/1. with subtypes mixed. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. video. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). postscript 5.uvt.2 . gif 6. audio.ro. 21 . Then.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.0 200 OK Date: Fri. with subtype plain 2. Here is the list of the seven types.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. external-body 4.info. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .uvt. .11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. 1. with subtypes rfc822. alternative. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtypes jpeg.0 From: someuser@yahoo.html first open a socket to the host web. digest. with subtype basic 7.org/rfc/rfc1521. RFC 1521 (www. message. with subtypes octet-stream. image.apps.

HTTP .2 . </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 . the server closes the socket.

However. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. check the official HTML site – www.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.01) can be found at this address: http://www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. Originally named Web Applications 1. The first official version – HTML 2.HTML 3.0. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.ietf.html.apps. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.HTML 3 . Mosaic. Other helpful sites .2 (3. HTML 3. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. namely HTML 1. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). The newest version of HTML is 4.com/indexdot/html .0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. a working draft for the next major revision. Since it fits in a couple of pages.org/Markup .www.org/rfc/rfc1866. The latest version (XHTML 2. Version 4. www.com/tutors.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.com/easy/html .html) and was widely supported. 3.3 . using a variety of tags and their related attributes. HTML describes how text. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .01.0 . From 1999 on. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.htmlgoodies.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. As a practical reference site use – www.99. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.0 and was accepted in December 1997. The first version of HTML.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0) dates from 08. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.w3c.jmarshall.0 draft was released in 01. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.blooberry. The XHTML 1.w3.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. A newer standard. It is a revision of 4.0.

3 .-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 Transitional DTD.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. “&quot”. If you wonder what a character reference is. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4. An example: <!-. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs.acesta este un comentariu.0 contains an SGML declaration. 3. 3. though.01 specification. "&#x6C34. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Strict DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. HTML 4.the chinese character for water. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.3 . like ALIGN." (in hexadecimal) . VSAPCE are omitted. Check the address http://www. …. DYNSRC. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. You get the point. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. CONTROLS. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. This section deals with some of the most common elements. Overall. look at these examples: “&lt”. BORDER. <><> --> 25 .gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.and end at the first occurrence of -->. the specification of HTML 4.

5 tables 26 .3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.ro/webmail/src/login.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc. image. NAME. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.info.uvt.3 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.

Here is their description and attributes. Here is a an example of a table: 3.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . columns.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Usually. <TH> and <TD>. <THEAD>. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. its rows. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.3 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.

allowing user input and parameter submittal.required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

"button". "password". "checkbox".if specified. specifies the parameter name. the browser appends the values to the URL.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. specifies how data will be sent to the server. "submit".8.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . however. "radio".info. Main attributes: • TYPE .required. "hidden".required. Main attributes: 29 . 3.the default value. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.maximum number of options visible to the user.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.?.8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".uvt. SIZE . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. after a quotation mark . allows multiple selections from the choice list.sends the form values in a single transmission. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "image". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. "reset".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.8. "text/plain" • • 3.8 form related elements 3.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.required. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .3 . "file". may have the values GET or POST. NAME .HTML • METHOD . • 3. Example: http://web.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "GET" .& or (sometimes) by semicolon .:.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

java 2. In terms of execution time.class.) in 08.0. Example: Edit the file prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.class 3. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Java source – a file with extension . The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.4 . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. 4. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Early versions of Java were released in 12. To overcome this significant shortage. -g : generate all debugging info.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. Java bytecode – a file with extension . jit From source to execution. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.90.2 java the interpreter..java One example of command line compilation: 4.class file. project started in 12. but next time execution is much faster.C:\TW\mySource. Inc.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.95. a tool named Just In Time compiler.4.class file. The current version (as of 10.3 java applications 31 .2 version.95. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.JAVA PRIMER 4 . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. The current version (as of 10. javac -classpath . The first time a class is loaded.JAVA PRIMER 4.java.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. the compilation process occurs.

each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . An example: 32 . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. 4.java. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or is derived from A.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.4 object oriented concepts 4.jar file.4.4. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. or that it extends A). This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. In general.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . Generally.

Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.1 bit char . a Java class can extend a single base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.4. 4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Float. 4. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Double. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. namely: Byte.4 . and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. In fact. Character.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Short. The return type of a method is not part of this signature.4. Integer. Therefore. Long.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 33 . In OO jargon. providing its own implementation. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). called Object. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. with the root the class Object.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. Therefore. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Boolean. 4. this is called method overloading.

which is visible only to the classes in the same package.http.access from any class anywhere private . method . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. has the same value for all class instances. no templates.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).one which is constant method . automatic garbage collection. which extends the class javax.http. A final variable (method. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the class is visible from any class.servlet.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. inherited).4 .. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.does not have any subclasses. 34 . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. anywhere abstract .HttpServlet implements Serializable { .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . 4. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . } declares an abstract class. • • • • no specifier . they have the same basic meaning as in C++.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. class .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.no access from outside the class itself protected . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. Except for the "package" concept.one which is defined at class level.. rather than at class instance. A final: • • • variable .servlet. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.

java errors .4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . programmer defined exceptions 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. division by 0. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. array index out of bounds. not at execution time. 4.like invalid cast.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.7. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. as defined in the java.7. 4. 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. In Java. 2.4 .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. code or data errors . namely class Error and the class Exception.7.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.JAVA PRIMER 4.7.ThreadDeath. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. Exception categories: 1.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . standard method exceptions 3. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.

finally construct.ccards. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.awt .util. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). the class (the . 4.*. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.net java.awt. date and time info java.io java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . import.8.util . An example: package com.Properties.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. catch.sql. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. All other packages must be explicitly imported. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.4 . import javax. 4.lang . 4. In the example above. the default package is used). As a general rule. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .rmi java.nio java.support for java archives creation java.java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.event .support for user interface java.default.bank11.awt.by adding the key word throws. they have to be unique inside a package.geom . followed by the import statements.lang (automatically available).8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.util..zip . The package containing the standard classes is java.servlets..class file. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. don't have to import java. therefore.this can be done by providing a try. .support for event handling java.security 36 .sql java.support for data collections. string analyzers.1 Package names The default package has no name.

text javax.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.4 . it must be declared as abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. All variables (actually.support for event handling 4. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).accessibility javax.event . 37 . static and final.

Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript statement like this: document. and . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. 5. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.HTML authors are normally not programmers. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. However. other 38 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. The origins of this language date back to 1995. as JavaScript.JAVASCRIPT 5.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. This is not always what we want. Subsequently.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . then LiveScript and finally.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.5 . like QtScript or ActionScript.javaScript 5 .depending on the browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.

.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.js file extension. When you place a script in the head section. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.5 . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . without having to write the same script on every page. 39 .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. 5. </script> </body> 5.. To simplify this.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. Save the external JavaScript file with a . go in the head section.3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.. </script> </head> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3... or when an event is triggered. point to the .javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3.

.4.1 JavaScript for.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"..4. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.javaScript 5. 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.In statement The for. switch()..4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. while(). break. in and the try .. 5.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".5 . The code in the body of the for ... else. namely – if . Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . continue.. while() it is worth mentioning the for . in loop is executed once for each element/property...4.. for()..4. 5.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. catch constructs.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.5..

for (x in mycars) { document. or a property of an object.3 try. The try block contains the code to be run. Mozilla 1..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").catch statement (available in IE5+. Example Using for.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. mycars[2] = "BMW". When users see errors... Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . } </script> </body> </html> 5. an array element...5. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event..5. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".catch statement The try. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. they often leave the Web page. mycars[0] = "Saab". mycars[1] = "Volvo".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. var mycars = new Array().in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.0.5 . so you don't lose your audience.

} catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.description + "\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). Also. txt+="Error description: " + err.\n\n". 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. When an alert box pops up. Syntax: 42 .7 popup boxes 5.7.5 .1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. alert(txt).6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

7. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.8 functions 5. Now. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the script is not executed before the user hits the button."defaultvalue") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.5 . Syntax: prompt("sometext".js file).3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel". When a prompt box pops up.8.7. the box returns false. the box returns null. If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. If the user clicks "OK". The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a confirm box pops up. in the <head> section.

otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. 5.5 . var2.9 javaScript objects 5.. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.length). The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.write(txt. and how they are used. and will be stored in the variable called product.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. document.9. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.9. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".8.var2.javaScript function functionname(var1.. 5. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects..2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. So. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.varX) { some code } var1. etc are variables or values passed into the function. 5.

document.toUpperCase()). which will be specified in the next section. The other class are the language specific objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". </script> 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects.9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. 45 .javaScript 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str.5 .

Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.5 . Properties FF: Firefox. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.11.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.com/jsref/default. For example. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.w3schools. Even this Document itself is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. as well). For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. which are called Objects. or when the user interacts with a Web page. At its most basic level.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. every Link on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered.asp 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . every Image on the page is an Object. N: Netscape. check the site http://www. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.

javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . depending on the browser. as a four-digit number. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.

to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. according to Greenwich time. Properties FF: Firefox. according to universal time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.11. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .5 . to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. N: Netscape.

javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.11. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 4 .5 .5 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number). IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .

Properties FF: Firefox.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . N: Netscape.11.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 .

Properties FF: Firefox.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 0. 0. N: Netscape.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 2. 3. 1. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.434) Returns PI (approx.y) min(x. 0.javaScript 5. 2.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) pow(x.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.11. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .5 .14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.

12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.write(personObj. 53 .2 Methods An object can also contain methods. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. play().you can give it properties named firstname.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.firstname).eyecolor="blue".5 . etc.lastname="Doe". skin tone.age=30. personObj. personObj. weight.12. All persons have these properties.firstname="John". age.firstname="John".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. eye color.12. with a collection of properties and methods.age=50. document. personObj. Objects also have methods. work(). sleep(). Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.eyecolor="blue".1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. age.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.12. personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. personObj. height. lastname. The persons' methods could be eat().lastname="Doe". The code above will generate the following output: John 5. etc.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). The persons' properties include name. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. Assume that the personObj already exists . 5.

eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname. this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname."green").eat=eat.age=age.eyecolor=eyecolor. this. 5."Doe". you can create new instances of the object.12. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. like this: myFather=new person("John".firstname=firstname. this.propertyName.48.lastname. this.eyecolor) { this.lastname=lastname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj."blue"). } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.newlastname=newlastname.lastname=lastname. Once you have the template. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).50."Rally". You can also add some methods to the person object.5 .firstname=firstname. this.lastname=new_lastname. this. myMother=new person("Sally". That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. } Notice that the template is just a function.eyecolor) { this.age.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.age. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.age=age. 54 . this.

now you can write: myMother.. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. For example. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. So. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions..13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.". We define the events in the HTML tags.newlastname("Doe"). F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.5 . we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.

w3schools. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. 5. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.13.13. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. 5.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . the submit should be cancelled. If the field values are not accepted.5 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.2 onFocus. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.13. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. For example. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie.

5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.

Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).. XML. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. structure. CSS. Right now (oct. By October 1998. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. In other words.g. the Document Object Model activity is closed. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. and style of a document.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. SVG. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. HTML.6 . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.HTML DOM 6. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. However. As of January 2008. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. particularly those used in Web browsers.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .Html DOM 6 . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . or WebAPI being among them. 2010). The W3C 58 . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. 6.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.

and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. a new DOM Core specification.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. filtered views and events. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 XPath. Level 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 2.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . To claim to support a level. each of which contains required and optional modules. 3. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. which further enhances the DOM 6. 2. 6. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Load and Save.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Level 2 XML namespace support. and 6. DOM Level 3 Requirements. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications.6 . DOM Level 3 Core. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. As of 2005. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. 4. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. 5.

6. All HTML elements. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. By 2005. Opera. and Safari.6 . including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. along with their containing text and attributes.x and Netscape 4. that is. interoperability problems were numerous. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. In order to be cross-browser compatible. The Window object represents a browser window. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. can be accessed through the 60 .x were still widely used in 2000. Konqueror. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. support multiple browsers. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.

Html DOM DOM. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.6 . and VBScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java.

"DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.6 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.Html DOM 6. 6. 62 . <head> and <body>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The tree structure is called a node-tree. However. 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8. the element node <title>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. The <html> node has two child nodes. everything in an HTML document is a node.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.9.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <head> node holds a <title> node.

and the connections between them.getElementById('main').2 node parents. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.9. By navigating the node tree.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and new elements can be created. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.9. • • • • • In a node tree. By using the getElementById() method 2. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.6 . has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.getElementsByTagName("p"). The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. The terms parent. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). the top node is called the root Every node. except the root. Their contents can be modified or deleted. using the node relationships.getElementsByTagName("p"). 63 . Parent nodes have children. child. children.

length.write("<br />"). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.Html DOM for (i=0. } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).write(x[i]. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). each node is an object. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i<x.9. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.6 . document.i++) { document.innerHTML).

9.Html DOM 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.5 example . 6.firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro"). The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .nodeValue. txt=x.6 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.

objects and images. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. For elements.6 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. including window. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements.

Fires when an element is activated. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Safari.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Also. also supports these methods. Mozilla. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. 6. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified.6 . Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.3. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. 67 . and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). When the user clicks on the inner element.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). say "click". Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. During the event flow. as of version 1. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. and then bubbled up. DOMNodeInserted.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. through a mouse click or a keypress. for instance. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.

meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Unfortunately. including information about target element. key pressed. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). mouse position.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event.Html DOM 6. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. preventDefault 68 . Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. etc. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area.6 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. mouse button pressed. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.

optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. fields of forms. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. dynamic website. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. For improving sharing of resources. etc.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. It is not a technology in itself. choices of user. The server does some processing — retrieving data. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.AJAX 7. using web services or Php scripts. For example. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. menus. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. but also to save resources.AJAX 7 . 69 . 7. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. crunching numbers. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.7 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. before the whole page was sent within the network.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.

So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. 70 .7 . Instead of loading a web page. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around. Obviously. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. waiting. but the opposite is true. what’s the user doing? That’s right. And at every step in a task.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. While the server is doing its thing. the user waits some more. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. waiting around for the server to do something. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. at the start of the session. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Once an interface is loaded. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience.

usually using XML. loading additional interface code. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 .7 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. editing data in memory. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .for a simple text. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . boolean) .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. 7.returned by the server . onreadystatechange . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.url: the location of the file 72 .mode: type of request. 3: answer in process. To get data on the server.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 404 if the page is not found . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. and in this purpose. 1: connection established. It allows the interaction with the servers. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. This object provides two methods: . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.holds loaded data as a string of characters. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.AJAX 7.200 is ok. .for a Xml file or . .responseText . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. thanks to its methods and attributes.7 . DOM's method allows to extract data. These events are user actions.responseXml .holds a Xml loaded file.send: send a request to the server. GET or POST . url.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. 2: request received. 4: finished.open: create a connection.

} Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . true for asynchronous. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. .7 .send(null). Safari. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.XMLHTTP"). the data to send to the server. request.. // Firefox. http_request.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.fr/somefile.readyState == 4) { // received. OK } else { // wait. http_request. if (window.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .send: with POST only. The request below reads a document on the server. if (request. for browser compatibility..AJAX .xul.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest()..open('GET'. URL of the document. but two options must be tried. 73 . } else if (window. true).6 building a request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.open: command GET or POST.xml'.null for a GET command 7. .. 'http://www.

} </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn="Error code " + req.item(0). }. by this code: var doc = req.open("GET".ajax.7 examples 7.7 .getElementsByTagName('root'). else document.responseText. if(window.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.send(null).status.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.XMLHTTP).readyState == 4) if(req. else if (window.xml".setRequestHeader("Content-Type".ajax. true). // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.responseText.dyn="Received:" + req.ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . "data. req.7.7.dyn=""Received:" + req.responseXML.status == 200) document. req. req.AJAX 7.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


like what pages are error.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. database connection resource pooling. 6.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. welcome pages.bank11. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Servlet.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 3.xml file: <?xml version="1. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.. 2. After an enterprise bean is created. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. but typical web.servlets. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Others. descriptions). classes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . JSPs and Java Server Faces.. 5. Initialization of parameters for servlets. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. 8. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.)> <web-app> <!-. Here is a small.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. web.8 .class>com. 4. entries related to session configuration. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.ccards. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. data persistence. servlet classes. MIME types used by the web application. like: 1. For example. Servlet.

Then the "EnrollServlet.8 .bank11. the name of the web application.ccards.servlets". Behind a very benign URL. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. Basicly. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. However.servlets".EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. basicly. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". it is the alias of the real servlet class.class" and that it is part of the package "com.xml" file.bank11. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.xml".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.bank11. 1.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. For example.ccards.servlets.ccards. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml" 2. whose name is rather long. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. for flexibility. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. In general. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml file of the web application. Unfortunately. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.

The current Java Servlet specification is 2.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. this is just a work in progress. from BEA Systems. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . 9.2. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. tjws spec 2. As of oct. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. small footprint. the Java Servlet 3.4. platform independent programs. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. more often.SERVLETS 9. 9.9 . Web containers are implemented by various vendors. but at this point.SERVLETS 9 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. modular design 9.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2. but through a web container. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.0 specification is available for public review. Technically speaking. which extend the functionality of the web server. the HttpServlet) class. in most cases as part of an application server.0 specification. 2010.5 and is in final state. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .

from IBM 9.9 . public void service(ServletRequest req. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from Apple Inc.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet package are protocol independent. the javax. WebSphere. 82 . from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . Enterprise Edition. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet. while the second one. IOException.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.servlet javax. These packages are: • • javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet package.

Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg.9 . 83 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. This method has two arguments. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). the web container calls its init() method. The method performs all initialization required. namely the HttpServlet class. respectively. in a different section. as well. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. ServletConfig. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. After instantiating the servlet. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. More on the servlet life cycle. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Throwable t) 9. 9. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly.

servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. 9. It also extends the java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. service().9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 .servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.lang. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception class. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). HttpServletResponse resp) 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.lang. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.

Typically. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.9 . or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. Typically. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. If the servlet does not implement the javax. After instantiation. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. which will service all incoming requests.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. etc.servlet. Also. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. this method contains JDBC driver loading. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. 9.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. 85 . The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. JSP or JSF. respectively. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. DB connection opening.SingleThreadModel. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.

Here are the most important ones: 86 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.SERVLETS 9.9 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.

xml file.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.servlets.*. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.ccards. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.io.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.java" file: package com. 87 .SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.9 . String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. import java. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.

out.servlet.println("merge"). IOException { resp. PrintWriter out = resp.*. out.getWriter().println("</html>").println("</head>"). out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. } } 88 .SERVLETS import javax. out. import javax.println("<body>").println("<title>Servlet</title>"). // output your page here out. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("</body>").println("<html>").println("<br>").setContentType(“text/html”). out. out.http.println("<head>").init(config). out.servlet.9 . out.*.close().

JDBC 10.jdbc. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 while the current (4. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.JdbcOdbcDriver .JDBC 10 . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. the java.0.10 . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). These drivers fall into four standard categories. as recognized by the DB industry. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.sun. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. 89 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.odbc. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. Type 1.1. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.sql package 2. The JDBC 4. After that.sql package. Starting with version 3. 1997. 10. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). the javax. This solution is inefficient.

All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.JDBC Type 2. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 4. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. which in turn.10 . Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. 90 . It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Type 3. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Part Java. because it eliminates one level of indirection. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).

sql.SQLDataException java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.Array java.Statement java.3 the java.sql. java.DriverManager java.sql.sql.Clob java.sql.Timestamp java.sql.Date java.SQLOutput java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.SQLPermission java.Connection java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.Time java.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLWarning java.sql.Struct java.Types java.0 API.sql.0).sql. defined in the JDBC 3.Blob java.ResultSet java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.10 .sql.SQLException java.Driver java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.sql.SQLData java.JDBC 10.

sql.SQLTransientException java.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.Blob java.sql package. establishing a database connection 3.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.Clob java.sql.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.StatementEventListener 10.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.0.SQLNonTransientException java.PreparedStatement java.Connection java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.Statement java.NClob java.sql. java.sql.sql.sql.SQLXML java.10 .sql.sql.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.SQLInput java.RowId java. processing the result set 92 .sql.CallableStatement java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.Types java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql. querying the database 4.sql. loading a database driver 2.StatementEvent javax.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLException java.SQLDataException java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.

JDBC 10.jdbc.net.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .SybDriver com.odbc.DataStoreDriver com.10 .ibm.jdbc.driver.sybase. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.DB2Driver oracle.OracleDriver sun. The first one is loading a database driver.borland.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name.db2.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.jdbc.datastore.

JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. passwd). but let's take it for granted: import java.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.newInstance(). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). import java.mysql. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.forName("org.*.10 .util.printStackTrace(). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. try { Class. as specified by the driver vendor. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). Since we just used it. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.*. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.gjt.mm. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.bank11. by using the connection URL. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. user.Driver"). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.getConnection(connURL. 94 . Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". String user = "root".sql.

Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. we can use it for various purposes.getConnection(connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Connection conn = DriverManager.put("autocommit". 10. "true"). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. int resultSetConcurrency.put("create". prp. String user. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. java.util.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. prp. prp). Properties prp = new Properties().JDBC 10.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. "true").10 . The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .

method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. prepared statements and stored procedures. Statement.JDBC 10. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.10 . namely. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . respectively. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.

Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.10 .. 10. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors..ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.executeUpdate(sqlString).". Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .sql. stmt.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.

10 . and CallableStatement objects. as the argument. not at 0) or the column name. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. PreparedStatement. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. 98 . and cursors are held over commit boundaries. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


This interface is.0 optional package.10 .JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.Time java.produces a standard Connection object 2. mins. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.math.Big Decimal Object float 10. Basic implementation -.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.sql. Connection pooling implementation -.math.sql. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.produces a Connection object that will 103 .14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.sql.DataSource object. There are three types of implementations: 1. secs date.sql package. a factory for creating DB connections. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. It is part of the javax. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. time. basicly. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.

} public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.servlet. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.*.bank11. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. 104 . String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.naming. 3.*. javax.10 . This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.http. java.servlets.servlet.getName()).getLogger(TestDataSource.ccards. javax. Distributed transaction implementation -.class.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).sql.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. import import import import import import java. private DataSource theDataSource.io. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*.*. javax. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*.*.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.sql.lookup("java:comp/env").

ServletException { .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e)... HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } } 105 .10 .

jsp.1 and is related to the 2. 11.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.11 .tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet.jsp. 11. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JSP 11.JSP 11 . IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The package javax.jsp and javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. The JSP specific interfaces. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.2 the java.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.tagext.5 Java Servlet specification.jsp. If the JSP is modified.servlet. namely javax. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.servlet. The javax. The package javax.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


.. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".. 111 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). include and taglib. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.JSP • if the URL does not start with / ..11 . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.

JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7. In Tomcat. 11. 11. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11.7.7 scripting elements 11. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.11 .3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. Assigns it to available name or id.7. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.

Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . and if so.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. you must specify param.11 .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.the name of a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.

JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.only the "true" value is supported. <jsp:forward>. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.the URL of the page. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. flush .13 the forward standard action 114 .name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. 11.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.

a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . when we want to separate the application into different views. name .. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. as this attribute has no default value. You must include the . If you do not supply a value.a name for the Bean or applet instance. depending on request. You must specify either bean or applet. 11. code="classFileName" .11 .the type of object the plugin will execute.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.. archive="URIToArchive." . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. It is used mainly.. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .class extension in the name following code. name="instanceName" . . servlet or to a static resource. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other..the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).the name of a bean instance. as well.

1. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . writes to the output stream to the client.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.16 scopes 1.the amount of space.it represents the buffered version of java.1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. in pixels. in pixels.PrintWriter. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. response .represents server's response to the request. of the image the applet or Bean displays.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. The default value is 1.io.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.lang.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. session . optional port number. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. with a protocol name. config . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .servlet. page . based on the servlet API. out . and domain name. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . objects which are automaticly available.1" .represents the servlet context.the initial height and width. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.11 .jsp.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. request . application .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.JspWriter type and scope page 7. The value is a full URL. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. Must be a small nonzero number. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. request . it has javax.Object type and scope page 11. pageContext .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. it has java.

jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .11 .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. session . application .init(). Object value) method 2. Object value) method 4.beans.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.ccards. if (enrollBean. page . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 3. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.jsp file.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11.

private SimpleSubBean subBean.18. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.examples.io.Serializable { private String string. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private int integer. a software development and consulting company. an int. private float number.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private String colors[]. 11. %> <jsp:forward page="response.string. The public constructor could have been omitted.11 .register(). private int list[].devsphere.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. The SimpleBean class is declared public. a float.simple.java: package com. a boolean and another String). private String optional.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. SimpleBean.mapping. private boolean flag.

flag. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.colors.number = value.JSP this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } 119 .colors = values. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.colors[index].integer.integer = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.string = value.11 .number. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.flag = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.

optional.colors[index] = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list. String value) { this. int value) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.subBean.list = values.list[index] = value.subBean = value.list[index]. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } } 120 . } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.11 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.

} } 11.11 .html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .examples.string. SimpleSubBean.string = value.simple. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.mapping.java: package com. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.number. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.devsphere. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).18.Serializable { private String string. private float number.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.io.number = value.

number SimpleForm.string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.

The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. the list of optional properties.number]".string]". No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The list of optional properties has a single element.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.list]". The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.18. "One or more colors must be selected" }.examples. the form's name and the processor's name.mapping.util. SimpleBeanResources. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.11 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.colors]". new int[] { 2. a float. error messages.list]". The default values are defined for a String. "One or more items must be selected" }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. "abc" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.devsphere. 3 } }.flag]". the processing order. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.java: package com. new Boolean(true) }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".integer]". "An option must be selected" }. new Float(0. new String[] { 123 .simple.123) }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. There are three error messages.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. a boolean and an int[].

devsphere.mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere. "SimpleForm.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. SimpleHndl.mapping.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.mapping.util.jsp" } }. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").html" }. new String[] { "string". "list". { "[PROC_NAME]".*. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.logging.11 . The beanToForm() method of com. "SimpleProc. "flag". The formToBean() method of com.simple.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.18.examples. com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.devsphere.devsphere. "number".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. string values are converted to numbers. "integer". For a better understanding of this example. { "[FORM_NAME]". } } 11. "subBean" } }. "colors". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping. If necessary.JSP "optional" } }.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.devsphere. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. "optional".

io.trim(). int slashIndex = basePath. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.removeUserErrors(errorTable).File(formPath)).getTemplate(new java.getMethod(). response).getRealPath(formPath). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. formPath = application.JSP = HandlerUtils. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getDocument(). slashIndex+1) : "".lastIndexOf('/'). errorTable = HandlerUtils.getBeanResources(simpleBean.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getServletPath().trim(). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. simpleBean. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.equals("POST"). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getString("[PROC_NAME]").11 .util. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). logger). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getClass()).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.formToBean(formData.substring(0.forward(request. 125 .

i++) 126 . errorTable.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. // Send the form document document.11 .length.beanToForm(simpleBean.getSubBean(). if (list.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. strbuf.mapping.JSP elements logger).simple.send(out).getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). } %> 11. i < list.string = <%= simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].examples.getSubBean(). for (int i = 0. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. SimpleProc.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.number = <%= simpleBean.18.getString() %> <P> subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.length == 0) return "".append("{ "). document.devsphere.

In addition. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. } %> 11. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. In addition.toString(list[0]). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.examples.append("}"). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. return strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. for (int i = 0.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. The localization of the Complex*. } strbuf.util. making the testing and the debugging easier.append(list[i]).append(" "). strbuf. i < list. strbuf.length == 0) return "". return strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.jsp files. A single call to FormUtils.append("{ ").append(" ").11 . StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). ComplexHndl.mapping. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.toString().simple.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.append("}").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. } strbuf. strbuf.formToBean() call.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.length. i++) { strbuf. if (list.append(list[i]).length == 1) return Integer.toString().devsphere. Using the framework.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. ComplexForm.18.

getInteger() == value. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. boolean checked = simpleBean. "Green". i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "green". j++) if (colors[j]. "Option 3" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }.11 . "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". for (int i = 0. "Option 2". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors(). i < colorValues. i++) { boolean checked = false. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red". 128 . j < colors.length. "blue" }. i < integerLabels. for (int i = 0. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.

boolean selected = false. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. i++) { int value = i+1. i < listItems. break.getSubBean(). "Item 3" }.simple.setSubBean( new com. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.11 .devsphere.JSP break. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. "Item 2".SimpleSubBean()). String listItems[] = { "Item 1".length. for (int i = 0. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.mapping.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "subBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getList().

util.get(property). if (message == null) message = "".mapping. 130 .simple.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere.simple. "subBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getMethod().setString("abc").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.util. boolean isPostMethod = request. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.examples.examples.equals("POST").getString().length() == 0) { simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).getSubBean().devsphere.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.11 .JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.Hashtable errorTable.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. return message.

length() == 0 || flagValue.setFlag(flagValue != null). else { simpleBean. "number".getParameter("number"). if (flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "Must be filled"). } simpleBean. "integer". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.floatValue()). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "string".getColors() == null || simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleBean.123f).11 . } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.getColors().setNumber(0.equals("false")) flagValue = null.length == 0) { 131 .getParameter("flag"). "An option must be selected").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be a number"). "Must be filled").123f).setNumber(new Float(numberValue).trim().getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.

getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "Must be filled"). "subBean. "subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "One or more colors must be selected").string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. 3 }). "colors". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.number").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.floatValue()).length() != 0) simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean. "list".length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.number".getString(). "One or more items must be selected").getList(). 132 . //* subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.setOptional("").string".setString("").setList(new int[] { 2. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .

mapping. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. "subBean.properties or web.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.18.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.number".SimpleBean.JSP filled").setNumber(0.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.helpers. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.devsphere. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.Hashtable errorTable.\ 133 .isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.setOptional("").xml: SimpleHndl. simpleSubBean. simpleBean.123f).code=com. } %> 11. The com. "Must be a number").devsphere. simpleBean.devsphere. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.examples. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.helpers.util. String property. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.put(property. errorTable.mapping. } } else { simpleBean. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".setString("abc"). simpleBean.setString("").11 .simple. message).jsp.setFlag(true). 3 }). simpleBean.

mapping. In many cases.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.helpers.examples.examples.host. A servlet can be made bean-independent.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.devsphere.mapping.properties: AnotherHndl.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.AnotherBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.devsphere. you could add a few other lines to servlets. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.devsphere.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. a servlet is identified with its class.helpers.properties (or web.host.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.18.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.code=com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.simple. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.company. 11.another.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.host. If you have another bean-form pair.xml) file: ServletName.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.code=com.11 .BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.mapping. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.

11 .JSP 135 .

0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. Version 2. Version 2. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.12 . built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. which loads the appropriate view template. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.0. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. This technology includes: 1. processes events. like input fields. buttons.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. builds a component tree. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0 supersedes version 1. 2. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.javaserver faces 12 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.

4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.2 of the JFS specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. 12. As of version 1.12 .javaserver faces 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.

Common formatting techniques. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.4.12 . The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. footers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. columns and rows. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. 12. respectively. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. see the column tag documentation. such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. your options include using plain HTML forms.12 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkout}" /> 139 .4. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.

6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. red for error.4." /> 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.4.12 .5.</span> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .user.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. 12.

5. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.12 . For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. 12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.

The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.javaserver faces 12.mycompany.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.12 . Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Any component that receives user input. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.5. can publish value change events. The body content of this tag must be empty. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.5.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.customer.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. 12. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Without this JavaScript event. validateLength. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.

JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. If you have not specified a default locale. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.javaserver faces 12.mycompany. for each locale you wish to support. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. Example: welcome_en. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.5. myJSFapp 143 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. including images and styles.12 . The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.

Create managed beans 4.html. static resources.exadel. jsf-api. like third party jar files jsf-impl.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create properties files 144 .javaserver faces /ant build.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.jar jsf-api.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar faces-config.xml – the JSF configuration file.jar. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.12 .xml web.jar – files included in the /lib directory.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. mandatory for any JSF application web. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Define navigation rules 3.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. and so on. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. custom tag libraries. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. JSP pages.contains libraries required by the application. Create JSP pages 2.

<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. You just need to create its contents.12 . we just want to go from inputname. As a diagram.jsp file 7. Edit JSP pages 6. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. The directory structure already exists. we can create a navigation rule.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Compile the application 8.xml file. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.7.7. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp.jsp. Now that we have the two JSP pages. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. These files will act as place holders for now. Create an index. And that's all there is to this. 12.jsp is greeting. Deploy and run the application 12.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. In our application.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.javaserver faces 5.jsp and greeting.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp to greeting. You only need to create the JSP files.

myJFSapp. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. public class PersonBean { String personName.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7. we will create a PersonBean.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. 12.3.xml Now.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.xml file should look like this: 146 . /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.java file. To read more about navigation rules.7. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. request sets the bean scope in the application.javaserver faces This is. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.3 faces-config.PersonBean.12 . visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml Your final faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.) 12. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule.7. 12.7. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. The next line is the full class name. You can easily create more complex ones. Inside this myJFSapp folder.3.1 PersonBean.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.3. the second part of faces-config. This class is straight-forward. of course.

12 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7.1 inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. Inc.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7. 12.properties file in the bundle folder. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.1//EN" "http://java.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.sun.4.1 messages.7.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12.sun.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.

sun.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle. Then.12 . The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.bundle. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.

Line 2.12 .jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. Having an index. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. That's how JSF knows where to go next.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. 12.jsp page.xml file.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Create the index.2 greeting. Lines 3-5. Line 6. The second line will access a Java bean.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Creates an HTML input text box. name! 12. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.5.7. specifically the bean attribute personName.bundle.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.sun..javaserver faces Line 1. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.</h3> tags. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. and also print its contents on the page. The first three lines are identical to our first page.6 creating the index.sun.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.greeting_text}" />.7. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.

xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.html . To build the application run the build.7. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.9 Running Next. 150 .8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. When Tomcat is done loading. This is a "login" application. which asks an user for an ID and password. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.javaserver faces Now. might possibly be different).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. We are almost done with this example.sourceforge. we need to deploy it. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. This is used here.jsp. you'll notice the file suffix is .7. 12. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. because in the web. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. Of course.8. and forwards the user to a success or error page.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. Your setup. To do this.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml file for the application *.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. 12. verifies the information.jsf and not . We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. 12.12 .xml file. though.7. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.

and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.src | +-.8. c. and to add JSF libraries to the project. jsf-login. click Next d. 7. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. 12. in the Add JSF Support page. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. click Yes through messages that appear. 2. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. 3. click Next. 9. The New Project wizard appears. click Next.. 10. say. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. Select the Amateras node. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. name the folder webroot 5.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. 1. click Finish 4.. your mileage may vary. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.. a.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. Enter project name.. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-.xml Editor (see faces-config.WEB-INF 151 . and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. click Add Folder.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. see Installing & Uninstalling.. select the Source tab. 6. from the menubar select File/New/Other.. in the wizard that appears. Select Java Project. and set up folders for a web application..12 .. name the folder pages. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.webroot | +-. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. make sure all checkboxes are checked.

lib | +-. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. from its context menu select New/Class. b.LoginManager. } 4. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".javaserver faces | | | +-. if ( _uid.8. In Package Explorer select the src folder. click Managed Bean.java package login. input widgets appear d. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. a. for scope select 152 . private String _pwd = "". } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. click Add. 1. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.xml Editor.xml editor opens. The New Java Class wizard appears. else action = "loginFail". } return action. in the Name field enter LoginManager. for name enter mgr.pages 12. We then configure it to be a managed bean. The Java code editor opens. enter login. c. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. In the Package field. 2.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. Click Finish.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. 3. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.12 . } public String loginAction() { String action = null.xml. The faces-config.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. for class enter login.

jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Enter the following code: <!-.12 . c.webroot/pages/success.jsp are simple pages with static content. but in webroot/pages. Then we create login.jsp). and 3 content pages (login. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. All pages except login. for File name enter index. e.jsp is placed directly in webroot. from the menubar select File/Save.8. <!-. Create error.jsp: a.webroot/pages/error.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. so we create them first. save the file and close the editor. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp. enter the following code. index. in Package Explorer select webroot. click Finish. but in webroot/pages. then close the editor 12. Create success.jsp.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.webroot/index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. </body> Please try 153 .jsp). Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. success. the New File wizard appears.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. 1. again. the JSP Editor opens.jsp: create this file similarly to index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp: create this file similarly to index. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.javaserver faces session.jsp.jsp. b. from its context menu select New/File.jsp and error. Create index.

and the JSP Editor can help with code.jsp. enter jsf-login e. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. To see this in action.sun. from its context menu select New/Other. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. for File name enter login. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. 154 .. and dock it along the right. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Create login. a code-completion window pops up.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. with the following template code. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and choose default for Template. (See Show View Dialog) f. as shown below. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. g.jsp: a.sun. click Next c. click Finish. the New wizard appears. <%@ page contentType="text/html. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. d.javaserver faces </html> 4. place your cursor in one of these lines.. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. b.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. etc. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. and uses them for code completion as well. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.completion. Open the JSF palette.12 . the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens.. now we want to add attributes to this element. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar.

this inserts value="" at the cursor. enter #{mgr.) j. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and hit Enter. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. i. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .password}" l. with the barest presentational formatting. a code-completion window pops up. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.javaserver faces h. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. set its value to Login.sun. insert another <h:inputText> element. select userID from the code-completion window. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. complete the expression with the closing { k. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.. with bean properties available in mgr.loginAction} The final code. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.

userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Select the Navigation tab 3. 2. click on Page.xml Editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. it should open in the faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. this inserts a page icon into the editor. 1.8. using a FacesIDE editor. This is shown below.xml.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. 156 . Open faces-config. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.12 . then click inside the editor window.

from the palette at left. notice that the warning triangle disappears. add 3 more pages. and is represented by an arrow. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). and set them to /pages/login.jsp and then on the icon for success. /pages/success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. 6. change the value of path to /index. 5.jsp. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. select Navigation Case. then click first on the icon for login. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. in the Properties view.jsp 4. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp and /pages/error.12 .jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .

by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. As it turns out. 1.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml. 12. or leave it as-is. Similarly add a forward-action from login. any other id/password should send you to the error page. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.xml Here we edit web.6 Editing web.xml for the specifics of our application. since we have such a trivial application. and you should be sent to the success page. We'll set some properties in web. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. so uncomment it.8. open web.jsp. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.xml.javaserver faces 7. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.jsp. We want virtual path-based mapping. Once deployed browse to index. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.jsp to error.12 .xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. and extension-based mapping is turned on.jsp. all we need do in web. The application is now complete. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.

a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.lifecycle javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. open its Manager application in a browser. scroll down to Deploy.0 1.faces. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.el javax.convert javax.webapp 12.faces.context javax.javaserver faces 12.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.8.faces.. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.event javax.component javax.faces. Click on its link to launch the application. click Deploy 3.faces.validator javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces. 12.. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces javax. that factory is used.10 the javax.faces.faces. the Manager application should reload.12 .application javax.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces.. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. For a given factory class name.html javax. start Tomcat.component. as file:///.render javax.faces.model javax.

FacesMessage.Severity . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. with the last one taking precedence.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. 12. with the last one taking precedence. defining page navigation. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). ViewHandler . NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. ViewHandlerWrapper . and supporting internationalization and accessibility.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . FacesMessage . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. ApplicationFactory . those factories are used. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. StateManagerWrapper . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. handling events and input validation. StateManager .12 .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. If none of the above steps yield a match.faces.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.11 the javax. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.represents a single validation (or other) message. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions.

an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. UICommand . String) results in failure on postback. or a hyperlink. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". UIComponent .an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. • • 161 . a menu item. UIComponentBase . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . String. ActionSource2 . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. ContextCallBack .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.12 the javax.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. Here they are: • • UIColumn .context.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. EditableValueHolder .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. when activated by the user.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. ValueHolder .faces. NamingContainer . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. StateHolder . • ViewExpiredException .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. 12.FacesContext.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.restoreView(javax.12 .

The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. This component has no rendering. UIInput . UIForm . Optionally. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.faces. UISelectOne . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.13 the java. The user cannot manipulate this component.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UIMessages . it is for display purposes only. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.12 .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. identified by a clientId. UISelectBoolean . by storing it as the value property of the component. it just serves as the root of the component tree. UIMessage . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIOutput . it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UISelectItem .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIPanel .html package 162 . that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that has a value. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UINamingContainer . UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UIGraphic . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. The user can modify the selected value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.javaserver faces • UIData .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. The user can modify the selected values. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally.component.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIParameter .

or not. On a redisplay. HtmlInputHidden . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlMessages . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML label element. HtmlInputSecret .represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlOutputText . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.faces. This component must be placed inside a form.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML img element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlPanelGroup . The label text is specified by the component value. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlCommandLink . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.by default. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.renders the component value as text. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlCommandButton .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlPanelGrid . HtmlInputText . The checkbox will be rendered as checked. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.faces.12 .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlDataTable . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.by default.Message".represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlGraphicImage . and renders the result.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.renders child components in a table. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputLink .represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlColumn . HtmlForm . but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlMessage . the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.

showing either all available options or the specified number of options.javaserver faces property.12 .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseStream .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . ResponseWriterWrapper . FacesContextFactory . FacesContext .15 the java. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. showing a single available option at a time.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. It is passed to.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.faces. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.14 the java. ResponseWriter .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.convert package 164 .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectOneMenu . HtmlSelectOneListbox .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. and potentially modified by. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . • • • • 12. In particular.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. HtmlSelectManyListbox . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. • • • • • • 12. showing a single available option at a time. and the rendering of the corresponding response.

faces.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. PropertyResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. • • • • 165 .12 . Classes: MethodBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.16 the java. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12.15. VariableResolver .javaserver faces 12. ValueBinding .

typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ReferenceSyntaxException . PhaseId .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . PropertyNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. FacesListener . Interfaces: ActionListener .12 . FacesEvent .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.17 the java. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces. • • • • 12.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). PhaseListener . • • • • • One exception .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. 166 .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. and event implementation classes. ValueChangeListener .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. PhaseEvent .AbortProcessingException . ValueChangeEvent .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. MethodNotFoundException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. Renderer . ResultSetDataModel . DataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.javaserver faces 12. 12.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. SelectItem .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".faces. • • • • • • • • • 12. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.19 the java. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.20 the java. ResultDataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.faces. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.faces. SelectItemGroup .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .18 the java.12 . DataModelEvent . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ScalarDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.

which perform the actual rendering process for each component.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .faces. together. The package contains an exception. and concrete validator implementation classes.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.validator package Interface defining the validator model. 12. ConverterTag . A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. Typically. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. • RenderKit .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.22 the java.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.21 the java.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. base classes for JSP custom component tags. as well. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. RenderKitFactory . and/or user Locale.12 . RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. • • 12. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). including a standard servlet. LongRangeValidator . ResponseStateManager . AttributeTag .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. markup language.faces. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .

that need to process their tag bodies. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. telling the view to update its presentation.a base class for all JSP custom actions. 12. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the life cycle is more complicated. which has several implications. Also. UIComponentTag . or some other web technology. When using JSF. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. UIComponentBodyTag . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model).a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. but basically. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). In JSF. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. the controller sends a message to the view. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the controller is the 169 .the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. When the user takes some action with the presentation. In MVC. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the process includes a few more components or pages. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. related to a UIComponent. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. telling the model to update its data.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. servlets. Likewise.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the controller sends a message to the model. that request is passed to the container. ValidatorTag . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. • • • • • FacesServlet . or when an exception occurs. When a web server receives a request. which passes the request to the page class.12 . a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. When the model is updated. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. FacetTag .

However. converting a String to a Date object). any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.javaserver faces JSF implementation. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. depending on the request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. For a JSF-enabled application. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. 170 . It updates only the UI components with the new data. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the response is sent to the client. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the conversion occurs in this phase. If this is a subsequent request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). These objects update their state with the data values. it creates UI objects for each view component. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated.12 . In addition. is validated at this time. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. or from request headers. • Invoke Application: During this phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. Data for some components. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. As with the previous phase. The components are stored in a component tree. and a piece of data failed validation. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. and what happens during the processing and response. the JSF implementation must create the view. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. such as components that create HTML input fields. and the UI components are the view. Data can come from input fields in a web form. In addition.

information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.12 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. skipping any remaining phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. For example. if errors occur during any of the phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. Also. 171 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure.

Wiz. The DNS entry Wiz. in turn. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".48. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. names a file hello in the file directory usr.2.sun."). These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.JNDI 13 . Using JNDI. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Thus the DNS name sales. It enables applications to access different.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. /usr/hello.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. identifiers. In addition.COM. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. you supply it the name of the object. naming and directory services using a common API. 13. for example. DNS. which is located in the root of the file system. 13.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.JNDI 13. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. and NIS(YP). This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.COM. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. 172 . possibly multiple. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). c:\bin\autoexec. such as LDAP.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. or objects typically used by computer programs. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. For example. To access a file in the computer. when you use an electronic mail system. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. you are always naming one object or another. The UNIX pathname.9. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. When using almost any computer program or system.13 .5). The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. you must supply its name.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. A file system maps a filename (for example. such as addresses.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example. NDS. For example. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.

For example. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. that is. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. that is. For example. Using the reference. For simplicity. is relative to c=us. on the other hand. In another example. A printer object reference. For example. which in turn.c=us. Typically. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. 13. while the object itself might contain more state information. relative to the entry o=Sun. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. a file name is bound to a file. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. for example. in the DNS domain Sun. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. A file object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. and its flight number and departure time.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.2. and fuel and instrument status. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. such as c=us. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. is a context. is accessed using a file reference. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. such as /usr. Finally. such as COM. By contrast. an LDAP entry. Every context has an associated naming convention."). 173 . this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. for example. is a context.2. delimited by the comma character (".2.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. might contain the state of the printer. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). and listing bound names. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. o=Sun. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. they must be stored by reference. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. A printer object. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. a file directory. 13. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. in a file directory /usr/bin.13 . 13. unbinding names. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. For example. such as its print server name and printing protocol.COM. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. Instead. also called a file handle. For example. some objects cannot be stored directly. A reference is information about how to access an object. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. a DNS domain.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. in the UNIX file system is a context. That is. its flight plan.

a name is unique 13. For example. For example. Thus. a computer. or a network. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. because we can. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. programs.3. A directory object can be used. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. And it kind of makes sense. and even the computer itself and other computers. and computer account information. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. 13. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. postal mail address. For example. 13. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. and color.2. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. resolution. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. one context can be viewed. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. An example is the telephone company's directory service. to some extent. however. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. two different computer 174 . a person. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. various telephone numbers.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. to represent a printer. for example. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. For example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. For example. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.13 .

can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. 13. Similarly.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.4. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. For example.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. adding. support the notion of searches. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. 175 . and users. The service is accessed through its own interface. A Java mail client program. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.113. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.13 . And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. Alternatively. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.com". might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. such as the file and print services. called a directory information tree (DIT). 13. 13. Within the DIT. that is. for example. When you search. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. the ability to access directory services will become essential. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. 13. printers. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. By using a directory service. "mail" is the attribute identifier. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. networks. for example.3. The email address.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. Many examples of directory services are possible. removing.50".smith@somewhere. 13. many directories. The query is called a search filter. for example.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.3. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. like any other program running on the network. such as that relating to machines. such as those based on the LDAP.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. an organization object.3.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. When directory objects are arranged in this way. For example. can use the directory in the traditional way.

emerging.2.naming. The Java 2 SDK. 13.5.2.ldap 176 . Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.1 and v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. 13.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. v1. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.13 . Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1. It extends the v1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.directory javax. more coherent and manageable.5. 13.3 and later releases. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. and even the network. For example. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).naming. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.naming.1 and Java 2 SDK. For example. Thus a variety of directories--new.4. To use the JNDI. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13.naming javax.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.event javax. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. v1.

and it returns the object bound to that name.6.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.1 context The javax.6.String name argument represents a composite name. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.spi 13. and so on.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lookup("treekiller"). list() is similar to listBindings().JNDI • javax.lang.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. However.naming package defines a Context interface. Furthermore.naming. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. and the object itself. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.print(report). 13. 13. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. the name of the object's class. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. A java. The overloads that accept java. 13. that is. printer.6 the naming package The javax.lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. For the methods in the Context interface. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . for some objects in the directory.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. comparing components. a 177 . list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.13 . In this case. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. which is the core interface for looking up. binding/unbinding. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. 13. composing them. For example. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6.String name.

Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. Once you have an initial context.directory package extends the javax. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.13 . A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 13.6. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. In the simplest and most common form of usage.6. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. InitialContext. You can add. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Otherwise. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. For example.naming. 13. There are no absolute roots.7. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. they should catch NamingException. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.7 directory package The javax. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().7. 13.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. replace. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 178 .

These operations are called "extended" operations. In fact. For example. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. that is.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. To receive event notifications. For example. such as information about the object before and after the change. called controls ." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. and vice versa.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.directory package.9 LDAP package The javax.13 .9.naming.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. 13. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. controls. 13. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.9.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. such as "object changed. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. 13. 13.naming. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Once registered.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.naming.9. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .ldap package at all.8 event package The javax. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. such as "object added. or unsolicited notifications.JNDI 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor." and those that do not.naming.

lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. This support is provided in the form of state factories.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. In the process of completing an operation. 13.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.10 service provider package The javax.naming.Context.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.naming. That is.11.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.spi package supports implementors of Context. import javax. 13. create a file named Lookup. 13.2 java object support The javax. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. sending request controls. 180 . 13. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.10. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.10.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.13 . if you look up a printer name from the directory. and receiving response controls. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This support is provided in the form of object factories. It uses a service provider for the file system. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.naming.1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming package.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. For example.10. implementors of Context. 13.9.java.naming.

then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.sun. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). you must have access to the JNDI classes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.3 looking up an Object Next. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. as follows.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). then the JNDI classes are already included. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).jndi. } catch (NamingException e) { System. v1.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. 13. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.lookup(name). // Print it System.jar as an installed extension. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. To compile to program. 13.JNDI import javax. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11. For this reason.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. create an initial context.naming.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.11. "com. env. If you are still having problems.RefFSContextFactory").13 .11. } 13.fscontext. 13.naming.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). using the capitalization shown. If the compilation succeeds.11. use Context.put(Context.lookup() to look up an object. If the compilation fails. Object obj = ctx.out. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.InitialContext. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.java). import javax.lookup(name).err.3.NamingException.5 compiling the program Next. 181 .jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. Otherwise.

jar and providerutil. 13.sun.12.jndi. create a file named Getattr. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").put(Context.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. supply the name of a file in your file system. javax. and your example class (Lookup.ldap.Context.naming. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().Attributes. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.naming. then you will see something like the following. create an initial directory context. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.put(Context. you need access to the JNDI classes.directory packages.jndi.DirContext. 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.13 .NamingException.12. javax.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.11. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. 182 . as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.naming. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. javax.directory.directory.3.naming.directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. import import import import import javax. env.PROVIDER_URL. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. "com.LdapCtxFactory"). To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.sun.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. the file system service provider. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. v1.JNDI 13.bat If you supply a file directory.class).java.InitialDirContext.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.fscontext.naming. javax.naming.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. env.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.6 running the program To run the program. To run the program. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. Finally.jar). See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. include the directory that contains your Lookup.naming and javax.

3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. 13. For this reason. compile the source file using the Java compiler.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.12.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).13 . } 13.java). use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. using the capitalization shown.out. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. 183 . // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. If the compilation succeeds. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. Similar to the naming example. 13. If the compilation fails.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. For now. ou=People").12.get()).get("sn"). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.6 compiling the program Next.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. ou=People"). } catch (NamingException e) { System. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.12.get("sn"). 13. Attributes. As with the naming example.get() and then from that attribute get its value.err. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.get().get() on it to get its value: attrs. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.println("sn: " + attrs. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If you are still having problems.12.

7 running the program As with the naming example. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. env. then these classes are already included. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.PROVIDER_URL. v1. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.jar). Once it has the attributes. 184 .jar and providerutil.3.13 . ou=People". then see the Common Problems lesson.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. Getattr. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.class.12. With this configuration.put(Context.JNDI 13. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). If you have any trouble running this example. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.

Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. Enterprise Edition. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.14 . JMS producer . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. As the name queue suggests.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. In this model. unless it has established a durable 185 . JMS consumer .a JMS client that receives messages.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. Here. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS client . the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS queue .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS message .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . • 14.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. JMS topic .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.14 .3 the JMS API programming model 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. On the receiving side. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Using Java. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. In that case. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Depending on the type of message. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.4. 186 .jms.

Depending on the connection type. connection. Like the connection factory.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. It is either a queue or a topic. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.lookup("jms/MyTopic").close(). Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. The JMS administrator creates these objects.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. It receives messages sent to a destination. 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). For example.4.4.createConnection(). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.14 . a connection to a JMS provider can be created. and users discover them using JNDI. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you call the stop() method.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. 14. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. For example. Before an application completes.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. Before your application can consume messages. In a J2EE application. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Connections implement the Connection interface. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. you must close any connections that you have created. you must call the connection's start() method.

if it needs to reply to messages. A message listener does.start(). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. After you register the message listener. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. a message listener object may be used. For example. For example. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message m = consumer. 14. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. Message m = consumer. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.4.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. After you have created a message consumer.createConsumer(myQueue). Moreover. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 188 .receive(). it becomes active. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. You use the Session.setMessageListener(myListener). usually expect a specific message type and format. onMessage(). (Remember always to call the start() method. MessageConsumer consumer = session.start(). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. connection. In the onMessage() method.createConsumer(myTopic). which contains one method. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.) When message delivery begins. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. and you can use it to receive messages.14 . The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.receive(1000). This object implements the MessageListener interface. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. you are likely to miss messages. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). consumer. however.

map message. anon_prod. 14. bytes message. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if you created an unidentified producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.createTextMessage(). A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. message). A message has three main parts: 1.send(message).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. and object message). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. to create and send a TextMessage. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).14 . After you have created a message producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.4. Here. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.send(message).setText(msg_text). that is. from one application to another. stream message. At the consuming end. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. For example. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. MessageProducer producer = session. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.createProducer(null). message. 3. // msg_text is a String producer. With an unidentified producer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.receive().createProducer(myTopic).send(myQueue. 189 . The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.4. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.createProducer(myQueue). You must first create the messages.

14 . To create a transacted session. After you create a Connection object. the first argument means that the session is transacted. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. use the following code: Session session = connection. Before committing the transaction.createSession(false. and message consumers to receive messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. 0).createSession(true.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). Here. If the user selects transaction support. } else { // Handle error } 14.4. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.out.println("Reading message: " + message. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. then delivers the messages. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Sessions implement the Session interface. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. Session. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. 190 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.getText()).

intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).jar file into the application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.no developer coding. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.consistent error handling framework . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.transaction management can be complex. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. Version 1. bundled into a single unit.0.DB interaction transactions . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . improved performance security . message-driven beans The 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .15 . These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. 15. On the other side. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.0. container which offers services to the component.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .object oriented representation of data in a DB. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.logging. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. component recovery scalability portability 191 . the container lives (in general) in an application server. server which provides an execution environment for containers. The component lives inside a container.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.

RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4. as follows: 1. which is an xml file. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the home interface of the bean 3.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. called ejb-jar.xml 15. the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .

String lastName.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. import java. import. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.*. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.ejb. import.*.rmi. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.15 . While the Remote interface declares no methods.ejb.rmi. The developer does not implement this interface. } 193 . public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. int custId) throws RemoteException.javax.RemoteException.javax. RemoteException.RemoteException. } 15.

NamingContextFactory". The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL.jnp. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. "localhost:1099"). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. "org.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. this can be done (for example) through SSL.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. if the client executes outside the container. how to create or find the bean 2. creating them for the client application. In the case of an web application. prop. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. prop. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.15 . This object acts like a factory for EJBs. we need to know: 1. } 194 .interfaces. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). what methods to use (know its interface) 3.

PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. but for generic languages. This is done through the javax. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. in fact. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. the client has a stub).rmi.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").15 .. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.Remote interface). and this means that there are some limitations. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. to the appropriate type. Why? For EJB. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. do not have the concept of casting. Problem is. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.lookup("MyBean"). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. in fact. 195 . IIOP has not been designed for Java. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).e. • if the client executes outside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. using the narrow() method.class). MyBeanHome. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. do implements the java. Some languages.rmi.narrow(homeRef. more specifically. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. that is part of CORBA standards.PortableRemoteObject class and. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.

. String lastName. import javax.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. 15. call business methods on the bean myObject. public class MyBean implements javax.ccards.bank11.ejb. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. as well). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. int custId) { // method implementation .ejbeans..15 .create()..SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejb. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. "Vasile".ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . remove the bean instance myObject.processEntry("Dumitrascu". } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . the code implementing this class may look like this: package com..remove().SessionContext. 1102).

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.15 . When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. that is. 197 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. namely stateful and stateless beans. 15. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. A stateless bean does not. the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.

11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. For example. for example. (Typically. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.1 are invoked by the EJB container. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. All other methods in Figure 15. is inside the bean class. the EJB container activates the bean. The ejbCreate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. the client invokes the remove method. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. 15.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.15 . Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. 198 . Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. or passivate. At the end of the life cycle.

12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database).15 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4. support for concurrent access 3. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.

On the other side. Update and Delete. all throwing RemoteException.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. an instance of that bean is created.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).lang.bank11. methods which have the same parameters. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().15 . an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Read.ccards. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. 15. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. as the parameters in the original create() method. We can have more create() methods. in the same order. CreateException. state data is stored into data store (usually. 200 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.

15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. actual SQL update code. but in general. While in the pooled stage.14. left empty most of the time in CMP.14. a client can invoke the remove method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. for BMPs. After instantiation. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the programmer will create actual SQL code. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. After the EJB container creates the instance. in BMP. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. not null.14. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. On the second path. it is empty. All instances in the pool are identical. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. for BMP. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. On the first path. First. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. the client invokes the create method. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. but the developer returns null for CMP. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it's business methods can be invoked. Second.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. 15. 201 .4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).15 .

the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.getPrimaryKey().15 . Therefore. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . It acts as a JMS message listener. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. it does not automatically set the primary key. or a Web component . another enterprise bean. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. In the pooled state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. In the pooled state. 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. 202 . If the primary key is incorrect. With bean-managed persistence. the values of the instance variables are not needed. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.an application client.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.

If this element is set to more than one. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.16. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The onMessage method may call helper methods. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.15 . a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. max-beans-infree-pool. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. a JMS API connection. message-driven bean can be used. Unlike a session or entity bean.for example. but not asynchronously. an open database connection. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.16.16. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. To ensure concurrency. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To avoid tying up server resources. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. In several respects. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. 15. If message processing is rolled back.16.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. 15. 203 . When a message arrives. For more information on this element see. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. Previously. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . the message will be redelivered. 15.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.

Message. methods. public void onMessage(javax.Message MessageName) {. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. Classes. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. Note: These instances can be pooled. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . 2. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.} // onMessage() is required..}..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Obtain a new bean instance. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. As with other EJB types. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class..16.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.15 .0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. finalize{}.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). or create a new one. and it must not // accept parameters.jms.16..} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. 15. // An EJB constructor is required.ejb. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. public void ejbRemove() {.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.jms. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.0 specification. 3. 15.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.

passing the full JMS message object as an argument. 15. 15. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16. For example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.15 . It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.This is not a client context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.jms. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. getRollbackOnly() . WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. getUserTransaction().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. However. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. 15. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. even in onMessage(). The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.16. 15. See javax. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.onMessage() for more information. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.MessageListener. If any method throws such an exception. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.

WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.xml. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. 15. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). as described in the EJB 2. In either case.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.16. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. as required by the EJB 2.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .15 . If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.16.0 specification.0 specification.

0 specification.jms.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.ejb20. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. For each instance. 207 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.message..MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. </message-driven> . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. the weblogic-ejb-jar.xml deployment file. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. as described in the EJB 2.15 . The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.xml elements..17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. 2. 15. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.

security 208 . a message-driven bean is never passivated. environment properties 6. the remote interface name 8.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. session specific elements 9. the container calls the ejbRemove method. bean home name . access control entries .15 .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. 15. entity specific elements 10. the home interface name 7.security issues. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.like transaction. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. control descriptors . isolation level. attributes . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. EJB class name 5. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.

CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.ccards.ccards.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.lang.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.15 .bank11.ccards.ccards.ccards.bank11.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ejb.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .15 ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.lang.


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