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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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like HTML pages. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. retail. are not considered web components. Figure 1. like the client tier. enterprise edition Figure 1. processes it (if necessary). is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.java platform. 1.7 business components Business code. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. and sends it back to the client program. processes it (if necessary). might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. or finance.2 Server communication 1. 5 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. The web tier. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.1 . Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.

9 java EE Containers Normally. database systems. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). In addition.9. enterprise bean.java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. For example. Before a web. and other legacy information systems. 1. mainframe transaction processing. 6 . Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. resource pooling. or application client component can be executed.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.1 . thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. and other complex low-level details.3 Web. 1. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. multithreading. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Business and EIS Tiers 1.

The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. data persistence. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 1. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.4. For example. database connection resource pooling. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and remote connectivity. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.java platform. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. After an enterprise bean is created. 7 .1 . transaction management. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.9. including services such as security.

A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. For example. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. program files. 8 . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Applet container . text-based standard for representing data. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. video.10. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Application clients and their container run on the client. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.java platform. maps. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of application client components.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.1 . Application client container . XML data.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. When XML data is exchanged between parties. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of applets.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. extensible. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Web container . To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. test. 1. develop. 1.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. or for document-oriented web services. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. or any kind of binary data such as audio.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . enterprise edition Figure 1.

such as Universal Description.10. 1. and ways to communicate with the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. enterprise edition 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).1 .java platform.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. The description includes the name of the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 9 . the location of the service. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.10. 1.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.

the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. If the client terminates.11. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.11.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. Commonly.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. or if the server shuts down. enterprise edition Figure 1. and XML) and JSP elements.1 . or enterprise bean.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. When the client finishes executing. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. In Java EE 5. 1.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. standard set of tags. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. 1. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. WML. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.java platform. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. No extra coding is needed.1 . it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. a module. JTA. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. and JNDI 1. Once deployed on a local platform. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. it is ready to be deployed. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or better customer support. better tools.ear extension. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. servlet. SAAJ. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean.java platform. the application is ready to run. or a component. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. such as better performance. JSP page. module. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . 15 . A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . At runtime. or component accordingly.

An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. classes. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . GIF and HTML files. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . JSP files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. which contain all Java interfaces.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. For example. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . native libraries.java platform. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. for example. such as caching directives. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Application client modules. enterprise edition Figure 1.jar extension. supporting class files.war (Web ARchive) extension. Web modules. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. which contain servlet class files. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.1 . Resource adapter modules.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. and other documentation. Together. • • 16 . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.jar extension.

namely HTTP 1.2 . The client sends a request message to the server. as follows: 1. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. 2. so far) version. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. These messages may have different contents. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).HTTP 2. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. . HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. we recommend www.w3. check the official HTTP site – www.org/Protocols . As a site for understanding how HTTP works. The second (and last.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .apps.1.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).html). a blank line (CR/LF) 4. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. RFC 2616 (06/99). POST.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. The server answers with a response message.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. HEAD. but they also have some common structural elements. was the object of several RFCs.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.. an initial line 2.com/easy/http.. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1945.. zero or more header lines 3.jmarshall.. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.HTTP 2 . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .

POST 4. 2. . PUT 8. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. GET 2.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. Here is their list: 1.2 .Posting a message to a bulletin board. in the HTTP 1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. 18 .HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. TRACE Three other commands are listed. mailing list. but lack of support makes them obsolete. HTTP/1.1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.Annotation of existing resources. as well.1 specification. DELETE 6. GET /path/to/the/file/index. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. CONNECT 5. OPTIONS 7.html HTTP/1. newsgroup. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. HEAD 3.0).

after the “?” character.Extending a database through an append operation. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.8 the status code A three-digit integer. separated by the character “&” or “. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. . as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.HTTP or similar group of articles. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. 3. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.Providing a block of data. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). like storing or updating data. or a record is subordinate to a database. or ordering a product. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.2 . or sending E-mail 2. to a data-handling process. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. In this case.6 differences between GET and POST 1. or in the message body. while POST may involve anything. 2. such as the result of submitting a form. .” On the other side. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . When used for form data submission.0 404 Not Found 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.

The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.0 version specifies 16 headers. In particular. header values are. and section 10 for HTTP 1.g. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. file or script output) is returned in the message body.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. header name and header value.1 only) . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. such as text/html or image/jpg. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. 2. 20 .1 version specifies 46 of them. none of them mandatory. while the HTTP 1. The HTTP 1. out of which. one (Host) is mandatory. where the requested resource is returned to the client. The most common use of the message body is in a response.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. fails. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.0. separated a semicolon. or otherwise can't run correctly. In a request.2 . and should be automatically retrieved by the client.an unexpected server error. that is. 500 Server Error . and the resulting resource (e. Although the header names are not case sensitive. 404 Not Found .the request succeeded. If an HTTP message includes a body. 2.the requested resource doesn't exist.1).

partial.html first open a socket to the host web.html HTTP/1.ro. gif 6. . digest. postscript 5.ietf. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. with subtypes rfc822.2 . alternative. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. video.info.ro/path/file. 21 . audio.apps.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtypes jpeg.0 200 OK Date: Fri.0 From: someuser@yahoo.HTTP 2. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. application.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. text. multipart.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. external-body 4. 1.uvt.org/rfc/rfc1521. with subtype plain 2. image. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . Then. parallel 3. with subtype basic 7. Here is the list of the seven types. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). with subtype mpeg 2. RFC 1521 (www. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtypes octet-stream. message.info.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.uvt. with subtypes mixed.

2 . 22 .HTTP . the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response.

3.2 (3. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. www. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .0) dates from 08.01. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. Since it fits in a couple of pages. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. a working draft for the next major revision. The first official version – HTML 2. Mosaic.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.0. Originally named Web Applications 1. Version 4.org/Markup .blooberry. From 1999 on.jmarshall. The latest version (XHTML 2. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 draft was released in 01.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.HTML 3. However.01) can be found at this address: http://www.htmlgoodies.com/easy/html .html.99. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. Other helpful sites . The first version of HTML.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/indexdot/html . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.HTML 3 .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. The newest version of HTML is 4.apps. check the official HTML site – www.w3c.org/rfc/rfc1866. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).0.html) and was widely supported. A newer standard.www.3 . As a practical reference site use – www.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.com/tutors.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. The XHTML 1. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. It is a revision of 4. HTML describes how text. HTML 3.ietf.w3. namely HTML 1.0 . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0 and was accepted in December 1997.

HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.3 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

BORDER. HTML 4. 4. Check the address http://www. …. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. VSAPCE are omitted.3 . three DTDs (HTML 4. “&quot”. An example: <!-.0 contains an SGML declaration. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. You get the point.0 Transitional DTD. like ALIGN. CONTROLS. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Strict DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. <><> --> 25 . with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. DYNSRC. "&#x6C34. though. This section deals with some of the most common elements. 3.w3.and end at the first occurrence of -->. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.01 specification. the specification of HTML 4. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.the chinese character for water.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element." (in hexadecimal) . If you wonder what a character reference is. HTML 4. Overall.acesta este un comentariu. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. 3.

uvt.HTML 3.3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. image.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.5 tables 26 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. NAME.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.info.3.3 . Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc.ro/webmail/src/login. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.

columns. headers and cells are <TABLE>. <THEAD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. its rows. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .3 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Here is their description and attributes. <TR>. Usually. <TH> and <TD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.3 .7 forms A form is a basic component container. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .

"radio". 3. specifies how data will be sent to the server. "checkbox". "file".?. Example: http://web.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. after a quotation mark . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .HTML • METHOD .3 .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.8. "button".if specified.uvt. "password". • 3. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. allows multiple selections from the choice list.8. "text/plain" • • 3. "GET" . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. "reset". NAME . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . Main attributes: 29 . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . the browser appends the values to the URL. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "image". "hidden". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.info.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Main attributes: • TYPE .required.8. SIZE . specifies the parameter name.8 form related elements 3.:. may have the values GET or POST.sends the form values in a single transmission.the default value. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.required.required.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . however. "submit".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .maximum number of options visible to the user.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

java 2. 4.class file. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The current version (as of 10. Inc.2 version. -g : generate all debugging info.) in 08. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The current version (as of 10. The first time a class is loaded.class file.4.95.90. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.95. a tool named Just In Time compiler.0.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. the compilation process occurs.2 java the interpreter.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. javac -classpath .. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. Early versions of Java were released in 12. jit From source to execution. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. but next time execution is much faster.JAVA PRIMER 4. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.class 3. project started in 12.java One example of command line compilation: 4. following the 1.3 java applications 31 . Example: Edit the file prog1. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.4 . To overcome this significant shortage. Java bytecode – a file with extension .java.JAVA PRIMER 4 .C:\TW\myPackages -g login. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.C:\TW\mySource. Java source – a file with extension .class. In terms of execution time. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.

an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. An example: 32 . the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.jar file. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.java. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. Generally. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). In general. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. or is derived from A.4 object oriented concepts 4.4 . 4. or that it extends A).1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.

4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. namely: Byte.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. with the root the class Object. Float.4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Therefore.4 . Short. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Therefore. Double. Long. 33 . 4.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. a Java class can extend a single base class. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. providing its own implementation.1 bit char . Boolean. called Object. this is called method overloading. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Integer. In fact. Character. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.4.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). In OO jargon. a class can have more than one method with the same name. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.

the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . automatic garbage collection. has the same value for all class instances.http.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.servlet.access from any class anywhere private . inherited). More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .no access from outside the class itself protected .4 .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the class is visible from any class. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. 4.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. A final variable (method.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. 34 . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. } declares an abstract class. class .servlet.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . A final: • • • variable .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).one which is defined at class level.. no templates. anywhere abstract . Except for the "package" concept. • • • • no specifier .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . rather than at class instance. method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.one which is constant method .. which extends the class javax.does not have any subclasses. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.http. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.

standard method exceptions 3. namely class Error and the class Exception.ThreadDeath.7. as defined in the java. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 4.like invalid cast.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. not at execution time. division by 0. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.7.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). Exception categories: 1. 2. 4.7. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. programmer defined exceptions 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. array index out of bounds.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. In Java.4 . 4. code or data errors . java errors .

nio java. . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.rmi java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). date and time info java.this can be done by providing a try.bank11. All other packages must be explicitly imported. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.event . ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . In the example above.Properties. 4.util. 4.awt.net java.4 . therefore. they have to be unique inside a package. The package containing the standard classes is java.class file.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. As a general rule. finally construct.zip .9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . catch. the default package is used). don't have to import java.lang (automatically available).servlets.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. string analyzers.java.*. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.geom . the package statement is the first one in a java source file.support for java archives creation java. 4. followed by the import statements.8.. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.sql.ccards. An example: package com.default.support for event handling java.awt .awt.io java.util.util .support for user interface java. the class (the .. import javax.support for data collections.1 Package names The default package has no name.lang .security 36 .by adding the key word throws.sql java. import.

text javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. it must be declared as abstract. 37 . All variables (actually. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing . static and final.4 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.support for event handling 4.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.accessibility javax. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.event .swing. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.

like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. like QtScript or ActionScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . However.depending on the browser . and .A JavaScript statement like this: document. The origins of this language date back to 1995. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.JAVASCRIPT 5. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. then LiveScript and finally. This is not always what we want.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .5 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. 5.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. as JavaScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Subsequently.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. other 38 .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .

</script> </head> 5. point to the . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. 5. without having to write the same script on every page. 39 . go in the head section.3. To simplify this.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js file extension.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.3.5 ..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. </script> </body> 5. or when an event is triggered...js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a .3.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. When you place a script in the head section.

else.4. catch constructs.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5.. namely – if . or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". switch(). in loop is executed once for each element/property.. for(). Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .5 ....4... The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. 5. while().3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5. The code in the body of the for ..4..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs..In statement The for.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. break. in and the try .4.javaScript 5. continue..1 JavaScript for. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script..

.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. When users see errors. so you don't lose your audience..catch statement The try. Example Using for. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". for (x in mycars) { document.. an array element. they often leave the Web page. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. The try block contains the code to be run. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.5 .5. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. or a property of an object.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . var mycars = new Array().5. Mozilla 1. } </script> </body> </html> 5. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5...3 try.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). mycars[1] = "Volvo".. mycars[0] = "Saab".2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. mycars[2] = "BMW".0.catch statement (available in IE5+.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors..

\n\n". Also.7. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Syntax: 42 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.description + "\n\n". When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. txt+="Error description: " + err. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.7 popup boxes 5.5 . 5.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue. alert(txt).

1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Now.js file).8.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the box returns null. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.5 .javaScript alert("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up.8 functions 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.7. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. in the <head> section."defaultvalue") 5. the box returns false. in the example above had not been written within a function. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. the box returns true. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a prompt box pops up. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . If the user clicks "OK". Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.7. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "Cancel".. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.

2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. etc are variables or values passed into the function. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.length).var2.varX) { some code } var1. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". document. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name..write(txt.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. and will be stored in the variable called product. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .5 . 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.8. var2. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.. 5. and how they are used. So.9.9 javaScript objects 5.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.9. 5.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.javaScript function functionname(var1.

write(str. 45 .9.5 .javaScript 5. </script> 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The other class are the language specific objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". which will be specified in the next section. document.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.toUpperCase()). The first class consists of browser specific objects.

For example. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.asp 5.w3schools. as well). This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Even this Document itself is an Object. At its most basic level.5 . which are called Objects. every Image on the page is an Object. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. check the site http://www.11. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. every Link on the page is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.com/jsref/default. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . When an event message has been triggered.

11.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.5 .

as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. as a four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.5 . depending on the browser.

N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time.5 . according to local time.11. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to universal time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time.

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 4 .5 4 3 4 .5 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object. Properties FF: Firefox. var myNum=new Number(number). IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .11.

5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .11.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.5 . Properties FF: Firefox.

Properties FF: Firefox. 2. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.434) Returns PI (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 0. 0. 0.5 .442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.11.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) min(x. 1.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 3. N: Netscape.javaScript 5.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) pow(x.

age=50. document. 5.12.eyecolor="blue". play().12.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Objects also have methods. 53 .firstname="John".5 . The persons' properties include name. age. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj.you can give it properties named firstname.write(personObj.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Properties are the values associated with the object. All persons have these properties. weight. personObj. lastname.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().2 Methods An object can also contain methods.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. sleep(). personObj. age.lastname="Doe". and eyecolor as follows: personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj.12. skin tone. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. personObj. personObj.lastname="Doe". with a collection of properties and methods. The persons' methods could be eat(). etc. height.age=30.eyecolor="blue". etc. Assume that the personObj already exists . eye color.firstname).1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. personObj.firstname="John".methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. work(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.

you can create new instances of the object.lastname=lastname. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.50.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.5 . Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.48. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."green"). 54 . The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.eyecolor) { this.lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.newlastname=newlastname.firstname=firstname."Rally". this. Once you have the template. this.lastname. like this: myFather=new person("John"."blue").age. You can also add some methods to the person object.propertyName. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this. this. myMother=new person("Sally". this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.lastname=lastname. this.age.eat=eat.firstname=firstname.12. 5. } Notice that the template is just a function.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname=new_lastname. this.age=age.eyecolor) { this.age=age.eyecolor=eyecolor."Doe".

. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. 5. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.". now you can write: myMother.. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. For example. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. So. We define the events in the HTML tags. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.newlastname("Doe").javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.5 . F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .

13. 5.13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. If the field values are not accepted.w3schools. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. The name is then stored in a cookie. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. the submit should be cancelled.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. For example. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.13.2 onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.5 .3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". If it returns true the form will be submitted. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .

5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

As of January 2008.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. HTML. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). XML. However. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. In other words. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. By October 1998. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004.Html DOM 6 .6 . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.HTML DOM 6.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. and style of a document. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. SVG. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. 2010). the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. The W3C 58 . an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. 6.g. particularly those used in Web browsers. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. Right now (oct. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. or WebAPI being among them. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. the Document Object Model activity is closed. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. structure. CSS.

3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. 2. Level 1. DOM Level 3 Validation. 4. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. each of which contains required and optional modules. As of 2005. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. filtered views and events. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 2. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 XPath. 6.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. a new DOM Core specification.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 3. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. To claim to support a level. and 6. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 5. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM.6 . which further enhances the DOM 6. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.

The Window object represents a browser window. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x were still widely used in 2000. support multiple browsers. that is. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. interoperability problems were numerous.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Konqueror. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Opera.x and Netscape 4. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. along with their containing text and attributes. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. By 2005. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. All HTML elements. can be accessed through the 60 . including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.6 . In order to be cross-browser compatible. and Safari. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.

6 . JavaScript. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The contents can be modified or deleted. and VBScript.Html DOM DOM. It can be used by any programming language like Java. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8. <head> and <body>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. The tree structure is called a node-tree.6 . The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the element node <title>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <html> node has two child nodes. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.9. However.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.Html DOM 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. 6. everything in an HTML document is a node. 6. 62 .9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.8.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.

Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). Their contents can be modified or deleted.getElementsByTagName("p"). The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. the top node is called the root Every node. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).2 node parents. 63 . using the node relationships. except the root.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.getElementsByTagName("p"). and new elements can be created. children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. • • • • • In a node tree.6 . By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.9. Parent nodes have children. child. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.9. By using the getElementById() method 2. and the connections between them.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementById('main'). The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. The terms parent. By navigating the node tree.

write(x[i].i<x.Html DOM for (i=0. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .length. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. each node is an object. } 6.9. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. document.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).6 .innerHTML).write("<br />").

get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro"). The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 .nodeValue. txt=x.Html DOM 6. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.firstChild.5 example . 6.

including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. objects and images.6 .

cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). also supports these methods.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. for instance. through a mouse click or a keypress. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). say "click". but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. 6. and then bubbled up.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. 67 .6 . Fires when an element is activated. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. as of version 1. Safari. DOMNodeInserted. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Mozilla.3. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. During the event flow. When the user clicks on the inner element. Also. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.

there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Unfortunately.Html DOM 6. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). mouse position. preventDefault 68 . meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.6 . Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. key pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. etc. including information about target element. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. etc. using web services or Php scripts.AJAX 7 . • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. dynamic website. menus. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.7 . crunching numbers. fields of forms. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. It is not a technology in itself. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. before the whole page was sent within the network. 7.AJAX 7. 7. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. For example.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. 69 . Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. For improving sharing of resources. but also to save resources.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. choices of user. The server does some processing — retrieving data.

the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting. at the start of the session. And at every step in a task. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. what’s the user doing? That’s right.7 . Instead of loading a web page. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. Obviously. but the opposite is true. 70 . waiting around for the server to do something.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. we wouldn’t make users wait around. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. the user waits some more. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. While the server is doing its thing. Once an interface is loaded.

without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. loading additional interface code.7 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 .

DOM's method allows to extract data. It allows the interaction with the servers.responseXml . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .holds loaded data as a string of characters.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.AJAX 7. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.holds a Xml loaded file. 1: connection established. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. .for a simple text. onreadystatechange .200 is ok.responseText .url: the location of the file 72 . thanks to its methods and attributes. boolean) . This object provides two methods: . 3: answer in process. GET or POST . To get data on the server. 4: finished. 404 if the page is not found .send: send a request to the server. .returned by the server . These events are user actions. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.open: create a connection.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.for a Xml file or .7 .mode: type of request. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. url. and in this purpose. 2: request received. . 7.

OK } else { // wait. the data to send to the server. but two options must be tried.7 .XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). .null for a GET command 7. 73 . // Firefox.. if (request.. request. URL of the document.fr/somefile.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.send: with POST only.6 building a request. true for asynchronous. Safari. true).XMLHTTP"). The request below reads a document on the server. 'http://www.readyState == 4) { // received.send(null).xul.. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. .xml'. if (window. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. } else if (window.. http_request.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .open('GET'.open: command GET or POST. for browser compatibility.AJAX . http_request.

setRequestHeader("Content-Type".getElementsByTagName('root'). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.responseText.responseXML.AJAX 7. req.readyState == 4) if(req.XMLHTTP). true).XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().dyn=""Received:" + req. "data.ajax.status. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. }. req.open("GET".onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7.send(null).responseText. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").status == 200) document.item(0). req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.dyn="Error code " + req.ajax.xml".ajax. by this code: var doc = req.7.dyn="Received:" + req.7 examples 7. else if (window.7 . req. if(window. else document.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

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7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

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After an enterprise bean is created. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.bank11. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. like: 1. classes. like what pages are error. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. 2. 4. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.ccards.xml file: <?xml version="1. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.class>com. 8. welcome pages.)> <web-app> <!-..8 . and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 3. 5. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. entries related to session configuration..WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. 6. but typical web. JSPs and Java Server Faces. servlet classes. Initialization of parameters for servlets. Servlet. Servlet. Others. Here is a small.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. web. data persistence. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. descriptions). an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .servlets. For example.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. database connection resource pooling. MIME types used by the web application.

servlets.class" and that it is part of the package "com.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. In general. Behind a very benign URL.xml" 2. Basicly.servlets".ccards.bank11. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml file of the web application. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. For example. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Unfortunately. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. basicly. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.servlets". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".bank11. However. it is the alias of the real servlet class. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. for flexibility. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. the name of the web application. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. Then the "EnrollServlet.ccards. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.8 . the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".bank11. 1.xml" file.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. whose name is rather long.ccards.

Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. but through a web container.4. from BEA Systems. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. Technically speaking. 9. small footprint. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.4.2. As of oct. but at this point. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). Web containers are implemented by various vendors.0 specification.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. the Java Servlet 3. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. more often. platform independent programs.0 specification is available for public review. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. 9. the HttpServlet) class. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.SERVLETS 9 .2. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . tjws spec 2.9 . Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. this is just a work in progress.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.5 and is in final state. which extend the functionality of the web server. in most cases as part of an application server. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. modular design 9.SERVLETS 9. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. 2010.

from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). IOException.servlet javax.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . WebSphere. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from IBM 9. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet package are protocol independent. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. the javax.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void service(ServletRequest req.9 . 82 .servlet. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. while the second one.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from Apple Inc. public void destroy() throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. These packages are: • • javax.

Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. as well. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The method performs all initialization required.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. Throwable t) 9. respectively. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.9 . The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. The servlet API provides such a specific class.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. ServletConfig. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. 83 . in a different section. After instantiating the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. namely the HttpServlet class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. the web container calls its init() method. More on the servlet life cycle. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.

ServletException javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .servlet. It also extends the java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 .lang.servlet. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.lang.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.Exception and can be thrown by the init().Exception class.

or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. JSP or JSF. DB connection opening. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. etc. After instantiation.SingleThreadModel. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. If the servlet does not implement the javax. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Typically. 85 . method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. respectively. this method contains JDBC driver loading. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. 9.servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. which will service all incoming requests. Typically. Also. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.9 .

11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.ccards. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.java" file: package com.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.9 . String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.xml file. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. import java. 87 . The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.servlets. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.io.bank11.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.

HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.*. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.*. out. out.servlet. } } 88 .println("<html>"). out.http. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("</html>").println("<br>").println("<head>"). out.println("merge").servlet.getWriter(). out.close().9 . IOException { resp. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</head>").init(config). // output your page here out. out.println("<body>"). PrintWriter out = resp. out.setContentType(“text/html”).SERVLETS import javax.println("</body>"). import javax.

odbc.jdbc.sun.JDBC 10 . The JDBC 4.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. 1997.JdbcOdbcDriver . as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. This solution is inefficient. the javax.JDBC 10. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . 89 .0 while the current (4. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.sql package. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.sql package 2. Starting with version 3. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. as recognized by the DB industry. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10.0. the java. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. After that. Type 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).10 . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.1. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. These drivers fall into four standard categories. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.

The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 4. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. 90 . Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. which in turn. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.JDBC Type 2.10 . The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Part Java. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.

ResultSetMetaData java.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLDataException java.SQLPermission java.Array java.Time java.JDBC 10.Types java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Clob java.3 the java.sql.sql.sql.SQLData java.DriverManager java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.sql.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Struct java.Statement java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Blob java.10 .sql.sql.Connection java.SQLInput java.ResultSet java. let's remind some of the most important ones.SQLOutput java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp. java.sql.Date java.sql.sql.0).Timestamp java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.Wrapper 91 .Driver java.sql.SQLException java.sql.CallableStatement java.0 API.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.

sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.NClob java.Connection java.sql package. loading a database driver 2.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLDataException java.sql.CallableStatement java.sql. java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.0.sql. querying the database 4.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.StatementEvent javax.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.Types java.sql.RowId java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.Blob java.Statement java.SQLOutput java.SQLNonTransientException java.StatementEventListener 10.CommonDataSource javax. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.SQLWarning java.SQLException java.RowIdLifeTime java.DatabaseMetaData java.Clob java.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.10 .

jdbc.ibm.jdbc.JDBC 10. A database driver is specified by the driver name. The first one is loading a database driver.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.10 .JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .net.odbc.DataStoreDriver com.OracleDriver sun.SybDriver com.jdbc.datastore.borland.jdbc.driver.db2.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.sybase.

*. Since we just used it.newInstance(). The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. as specified by the driver vendor. 94 . let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. String user = "root". user.util.printStackTrace(). the only protocol allowed in JDBC).sql. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. import java.Driver").10 .*. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. but let's take it for granted: import java.mm.getConnection(connURL. try { Class. by using the connection URL. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". passwd). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.forName("org.bank11.mysql.gjt.

7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. "true"). Connection conn = DriverManager. String user.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. "true"). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.10 .JDBC 10.put("create".util. prp).sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. we can use it for various purposes. java. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. int resultSetConcurrency. 10. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp. prp. Properties prp = new Properties().put("autocommit".sql package.getConnection(connURL.

Statement.JDBC 10. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section.10 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. respectively. namely. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .

10 . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. 10.. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .createStatement(). Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.executeUpdate(sqlString)..sql.".

all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. a concurrency of read only. 98 . The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. PreparedStatement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. as the argument.10 . not at 0) or the column name. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and CallableStatement objects.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. mins.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql package.0 optional package. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.produces a Connection object that will 103 . This interface is.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.Time java. basicly.10 . It is part of the javax.sql. Basic implementation -. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.math. time. secs date. There are three types of implementations: 1. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.DataSource object.sql. Connection pooling implementation -. a factory for creating DB connections.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.produces a standard Connection object 2.math.sql.Big Decimal Object float 10. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.

servlets. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.sql.*.http. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.getLogger(TestDataSource.*.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.io.getName()).ccards.sql.*.class.servlet. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.naming. javax. import import import import import import java. javax. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. javax. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).bank11.*. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.10 . Distributed transaction implementation -.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.servlet.lookup("java:comp/env"). java. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*. 104 . 3. private DataSource theDataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". javax.*.

. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource")..10 . } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). ServletException { .

2 the java. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.jsp and javax. namely javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.tagext.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.JSP 11 . A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JSP 11.servlet.11 .jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. 11.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The package javax. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.1 and is related to the 2. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The package javax.jsp.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. 11.servlet. If the JSP is modified.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.5 Java Servlet specification. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.servlet.jsp.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated. The javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

11 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . include and taglib. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". 111 . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page...6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".

In Tomcat.JSP 11. Assigns it to available name or id. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7.7 scripting elements 11. this code goes to inside the service() method. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.11 . 11. 11.7.7. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.

stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. and if so. Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . you must specify param. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.the name of a bean instance.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .11 .

11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. <jsp:forward>.11 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.the URL of the page.name of the property to be retrieved 11. same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.13 the forward standard action 114 .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . flush . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . 11. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.

. servlet or to a static resource.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). depending on request. as well.class extension in the name following code. as this attribute has no default value. .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. code="classFileName" . It is used mainly. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. 11. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.. If you do not supply a value.a name for the Bean or applet instance. name ." . archive="URIToArchive.the name of a bean instance. when we want to separate the application into different views. You must specify either bean or applet. You must include the ...the type of object the plugin will execute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .11 . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. name="instanceName" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .

height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. in pixels.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.PrintWriter. page . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .11 .represents server's response to the request.16 scopes 1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. application . optional port number. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .1.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.jsp.io.JspWriter type and scope page 7.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. it has javax. and domain name.Object type and scope page 11. config . based on the servlet API. with a protocol name. pageContext . out .servlet. objects which are automaticly available. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.the initial height and width.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.lang. in pixels. 1. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the amount of space.1" .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.it represents the buffered version of java.represents the servlet context. request . of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . The default value is 1. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. The value is a full URL. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. request . it has java.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. session .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. Must be a small nonzero number. writes to the output stream to the client.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. response .

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.beans.ccards. Object value) method 2. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.bank11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. if (enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. Object value) method 11.init().EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.jsp file.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.JSP request object.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. application .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 4.11 .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. Object value) method 3. page . session .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .

private String colors[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. private boolean flag. private int list[].1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.examples. an int.mapping. private int integer. The SimpleBean class is declared public. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).simple.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. The public constructor could have been omitted. 11. %> <jsp:forward page="response.java: package com. private SimpleSubBean subBean.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private float number. a float.devsphere.Serializable { private String string. private String optional.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. a software development and consulting company.18.11 .io. a boolean and another String).register(). } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .string. SimpleBean.

colors[index].flag = value.JSP this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.integer = value.number. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number = value.string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } 119 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.flag.colors = values.11 .integer.

} // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list[index] = value. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.11 . int value) { this.subBean = value.list. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list = values.colors[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.optional. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list[index]. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. String value) { this.optional = value. } } 120 .

mapping. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.string.11 .2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.examples. private float number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.Serializable { private String string.string = value.number = value. SimpleSubBean.devsphere. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.simple.io.18.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } } 11.number.java: package com.

11 .number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.JSP colors list optional subBean.

SimpleBeanResources. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.integer]". new Boolean(true) }.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.11 . "One or more items must be selected" }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.java: package com. "An option must be selected" }.util.number]".examples. The list of optional properties has a single element. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. "abc" }.devsphere. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. the list of optional properties. new int[] { 2.123) }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. There are three error messages. error messages.simple. 3 } }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string]". the form's name and the processor's name.list]".flag]".mapping. the processing order.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.18.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. new String[] { 123 .colors]". a boolean and an int[]. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The default values are defined for a String. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. new Float(0. "One or more colors must be selected" }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. a float.

simple. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". For a better understanding of this example.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.util. new String[] { "string". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.mapping. com. } } 11. The beanToForm() method of com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.devsphere.18.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . "number".logging. "flag".jsp" } }.mapping. { "[FORM_NAME]".examples. "colors". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.*. "SimpleForm. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.JSP "optional" } }. "integer".devsphere.html" }.mapping.11 . "list". If necessary. "subBean" } }. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.mapping. string values are converted to numbers. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere. "optional". "SimpleProc. SimpleHndl. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). { "[PROC_NAME]".

// Construct the base path String basePath = request. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.forward(request.lastIndexOf('/').getMethod().Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.getTemplate(new java.removeUserErrors(errorTable). formPath = application.substring(0.util. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.trim(). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).JSP = HandlerUtils. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. 125 . logger).getClass()).formToBean(formData.getDocument().getServletPath(). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.11 . errorTable = HandlerUtils.trim().equals("POST"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).io. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). int slashIndex = basePath.File(formPath)).getRealPath(formPath). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getBeanResources(simpleBean.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). simpleBean. slashIndex+1) : "". response).

JSP elements logger).examples.length == 0) return "".getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. } %> 11.18. if (list. document.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.simple.getSubBean(). // Send the form document document.getSubBean().beanToForm(simpleBean.devsphere. for (int i = 0.getString() %> <P> subBean. strbuf.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. i++) 126 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.11 .mapping.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean.number = <%= simpleBean.send(out). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("{ "). SimpleProc.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. i < list. errorTable.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.length.

ComplexForm. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. if (list. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.18. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). In addition.length.length == 0) return "". Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.append(" "). strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. A single call to FormUtils.append("}"). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. i++) { strbuf.examples.formToBean() call. i < list.length == 1) return Integer.util. } %> 11. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. ComplexHndl.toString(list[0]).beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.append("{ ").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier.mapping.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.append(list[i]).toString(). Using the framework. for (int i = 0. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.11 . return strbuf.toString(). In addition.append(list[i]).JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. } strbuf.append(" ").Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .simple. return strbuf. } strbuf.devsphere.append("}").jsp files.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.

i++) { boolean checked = false. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. "Blue" }.getColors().11 . "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Option 2". "green".length. i < integerLabels. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". i < colorValues. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". for (int i = 0. "blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. 128 . "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "Option 3" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. for (int i = 0. j++) if (colors[j].getInteger() == value. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. j < colors.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. i++) { int value = i+1. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Green". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.

"subBean. j < list. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. i++) { int value = i+1. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 3" }. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP break.mapping.11 .length.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list == null) list = new int[0]. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. break.getSubBean().getList(). boolean selected = false.examples. for (int i = 0.setSubBean( new com. "Item 2".devsphere. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i < listItems.SimpleSubBean()).

equals("POST").simple.getString().getSubBean(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.examples. 130 .SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getString() == null || simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.setString("abc").getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.examples.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).get(property).11 .SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.mapping.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl. return message. "subBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere.Hashtable errorTable.getMethod().util.devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".util. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.mapping.simple.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

"number".getParameter("number"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.11 . "integer".123f). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setNumber(0. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length() != 0) simpleBean. } simpleBean. "Must be a number"). "Must be filled").setNumber(0.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { simpleBean.trim().equals("false")) flagValue = null. "string". if (flagValue.getColors(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getParameter("flag"). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "An option must be selected").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setFlag(flagValue != null). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.123f). setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0 || flagValue. "number".getColors() == null || simpleBean.floatValue()).length == 0) { 131 . "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.

setErrorMessage(errorTable.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "Must be } //* subBean.floatValue()). "list".getOptional() == null) simpleBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .number").length == 0) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.getList().string". "colors".setOptional("").length() != 0) simpleSubBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "subBean.setList(new int[] { 2.setString("").getString().getParameter("subBean. 132 .number : text try { String numberValue = request. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. 3 }).getList() == null || simpleBean.number".getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). //* subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "Must be filled"). "One or more items must be selected"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.

} } else { simpleBean.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.JSP filled").examples.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. simpleBean. errorTable.jsp.SimpleBean. } %> 11.11 . 3 }). "Must be a number").devsphere. simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.setString("abc").put(property. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.xml: SimpleHndl. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.util. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f). simpleSubBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setOptional("").jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.properties or web.devsphere.setNumber(0.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".18. message). "subBean.code=com.Hashtable errorTable.helpers.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.helpers. The com.setString(""). simpleBean. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.devsphere.simple. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.mapping.setFlag(true).mapping. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. simpleBean.number".\ 133 . String property.

devsphere.helpers.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.simple.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.another.helpers.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .xml) file: ServletName. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. you could add a few other lines to servlets.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.mapping.mapping.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. 11. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.devsphere.devsphere.mapping. a servlet is identified with its class. In many cases. A servlet can be made bean-independent.properties (or web.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping.code=com.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.host.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. If you have another bean-form pair.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.host.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.examples.11 .code=com.18. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.devsphere.examples.AnotherBean.company.host.

JSP 135 .11 .

This technology includes: 1.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. Version 2. which loads the appropriate view template.JAVASERVER FACES 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.javaserver faces 12 .0. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. like input fields. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. 12. builds a component tree.12 . JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. 2. processes events. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.0 supersedes version 1.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.

4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.2 of the JFS specification.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.javaserver faces 12.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.12 . 12. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.

A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. see the column tag documentation. columns and rows.12 .items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. 12. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. respectively. For more information about columns. such as alternating row colors. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. Common formatting techniques.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . footers.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.4. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.

jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. your options include using plain HTML forms. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.12 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.4.4.checkout}" /> 139 .price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.

red for error. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component." /> 12.5.user. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.</span> 12.4.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.12 .user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). 12.

dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. For example. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5.12 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. 12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.

A component fires a value change event when its input changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.mycompany. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. but only if the new input is validated successfully.5.customer.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.javaserver faces 12. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. The body content of this tag must be empty.5. Without this JavaScript event.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. can publish value change events. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.12 . and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Any component that receives user input. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. validateLength.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. 12.

JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.12 . The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.javaserver faces 12. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. If you have not specified a default locale. including images and styles. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. Example: welcome_en. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.5. myJSFapp 143 . By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. for each locale you wish to support.mycompany. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.

Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.javaserver faces /ant build.xml web. static resources.jar. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. like third party jar files jsf-impl. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. It has a deployment descriptor. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.contains libraries required by the application. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Define navigation rules 3. custom tag libraries.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . jsf-api. JSP pages. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.jar – files included in the /lib directory.12 .xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. Create managed beans 4.xml – the JSF configuration file.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. and so on.jar faces-config.exadel. Create JSP pages 2. Create properties files 144 .html.jar jsf-api.

This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7. As a diagram. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp file 7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .jsp files in WebContent/pages/. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.xml file. Now that we have the two JSP pages. Deploy and run the application 12. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Create an index. Edit JSP pages 6. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. 12. And that's all there is to this. In our application. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp is greeting. we can create a navigation rule.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. we just want to go from inputname.jsp to greeting. You just need to create its contents. The directory structure already exists.7. Compile the application 8.12 .jsp.javaserver faces 5.jsp. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp and greeting.

) 12.xml Now. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.7. public class PersonBean { String personName.3 faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. The next line is the full class name. we will create a PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. Inside this myJFSapp folder.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule.javaserver faces This is.java file. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.xml file should look like this: 146 .3. You can easily create more complex ones.3.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.xml Your final faces-config.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.1 PersonBean.12 .7.3.7. 12. myJFSapp. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. This class is straight-forward.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. the second part of faces-config. 12. To read more about navigation rules. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. of course.

sun. 12.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .5.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.properties file in the bundle folder.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. Inc.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. 12.1//EN" "http://java.4.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 messages.7. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.1 inputname.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.7. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.sun.7.12 .5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.

javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .bundle. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.sun.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.sun.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. Then.12 .

and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.xml file.6 creating the index. specifically the bean attribute personName. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The second line will access a Java bean. Having an index.12 . The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.greeting_text}" />. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.bundle.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.7.. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Line 6.. Lines 3-5. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. That's how JSF knows where to go next.2 greeting.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Creates an HTML input text box. The first three lines are identical to our first page.sun. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. name! 12.jsp page. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.sun.7.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Create the index.javaserver faces Line 1. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Line 2.</h3> tags. 12.5.

When Tomcat is done loading.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. might possibly be different). To build the application run the build.9 Running Next.7. 12. 150 . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.xml file for the application *.html .7.jsp. This is a "login" application. 12.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.sourceforge.jsf and not . 12. We are almost done with this example. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. we need to deploy it.8. and forwards the user to a success or error page. you'll notice the file suffix is . put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. 12. To do this.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.xml file.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.12 . verifies the information. Your setup. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). because in the web.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. This is used here.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. Of course.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.7. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.javaserver faces Now.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. which asks an user for an ID and password. though.

and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. select the Source tab. jsf-login.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.xml Editor (see faces-config. click Next d. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. name the folder webroot 5. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. in the Add JSF Support page.. your mileage may vary.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. 3. c.. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). Select the Amateras node.. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. 7. from the menubar select File/New/Other. 9. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the wizard that appears..webroot | +-. and set up folders for a web application.12 . 2. click Finish 4. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. name the folder pages. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click Next. see Installing & Uninstalling.. 12. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. say. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.. 10.. Select Java Project.WEB-INF 151 . click Next. The New Project wizard appears. 1. click Yes through messages that appear. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.src | +-. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.8. and to add JSF libraries to the project. click Add Folder. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. Enter project name. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. a. 6. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. make sure all checkboxes are checked.

b. enter login. if ( _uid. Click Finish. else action = "loginFail".LoginManager. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". } return action.lib | +-.xml editor opens. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. 1. for name enter mgr. } 4. in the Name field enter LoginManager. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. from its context menu select New/Class. The New Java Class wizard appears. click Add. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. for class enter login. In Package Explorer select the src folder. click Managed Bean.xml. private String _pwd = "". 3. In the Package field. 2. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.8.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". We then configure it to be a managed bean. input widgets appear d.javaserver faces | | | +-.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. c. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. The Java code editor opens. for scope select 152 .java package login. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.xml Editor. a. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. The faces-config. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.pages 12.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.12 .

4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp is placed directly in webroot. 1. from the menubar select File/Save.webroot/index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp: create this file similarly to index. success. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp. Create error.webroot/pages/error. e.jsp: create this file similarly to index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.8.12 . Enter the following code: <!-. enter the following code. Create index. c. but in webroot/pages. <!-. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. </body> Please try 153 . but in webroot/pages.jsp. from its context menu select New/File. All pages except login. save the file and close the editor. then close the editor 12. the New File wizard appears. Create success. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.webroot/pages/success.jsp.jsp are simple pages with static content. and 3 content pages (login.jsp).jsp.jsp). Enter the following code: <!-.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. the JSP Editor opens.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.javaserver faces session. index. click Finish. so we create them first. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. for File name enter index. b.jsp and error. Then we create login.jsp: a. again.

create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. for File name enter login. Open the JSF palette.sun. from its context menu select New/Other.jsp. click Next c. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. the New wizard appears.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.. <%@ page contentType="text/html. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. and choose default for Template.. with the following template code.jsp: a. and dock it along the right. now we want to add attributes to this element. (See Show View Dialog) f. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. b. and the JSP Editor can help with code. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.completion. place your cursor in one of these lines. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. 154 . and uses them for code completion as well. as shown below. enter jsf-login e.sun. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. To see this in action. click Finish. Create login. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element..javaserver faces </html> 4. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. d.12 . a code-completion window pops up. g. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. etc. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens.

with bean properties available in mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". select userID from the code-completion window.loginAction} The final code. enter #{mgr.12 . i. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.) j.sun.sun. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. set its value to Login.password}" l. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.javaserver faces h.. with the barest presentational formatting. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . and hit Enter. insert another <h:inputText> element. complete the expression with the closing { k.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. a code-completion window pops up. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.

xml. Open faces-config. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Select the Navigation tab 3.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.8. 1. This is shown below.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. then click inside the editor window. 156 . 2. click on Page. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.xml Editor. this inserts a page icon into the editor.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.12 . using a FacesIDE editor.

5.jsp 4. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. notice that the warning triangle disappears. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp and then on the icon for success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. This is shown below: 157 . then click first on the icon for login.jsp and /pages/error. and set them to /pages/login.jsp.jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. change the value of path to /index. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. select Navigation Case. Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 . and is represented by an arrow. from the palette at left. 6. add 3 more pages. /pages/success. in the Properties view.jsp.jsp. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.

and you should be sent to the success page. so uncomment it. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. We'll set some properties in web. The application is now complete.jsp.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. or leave it as-is. open web. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). 12.jsp.jsp to error. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .12 . Similarly add a forward-action from login. and extension-based mapping is turned on. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.xml. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.6 Editing web. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml.javaserver faces 7.jsp.xml Here we edit web. We want virtual path-based mapping. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml for the specifics of our application. Once deployed browse to index. since we have such a trivial application.8. all we need do in web. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. As it turns out. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. 1.

model javax..render javax.faces. 12.faces javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces. For a given factory class name. as file:///.convert javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.el javax.10 the javax..0 1.application javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces.faces.faces.validator javax.component javax.html javax. click Deploy 3.12 . and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.. scroll down to Deploy. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. open its Manager application in a browser. Click on its link to launch the application.event javax.lifecycle javax. start Tomcat.faces.8.faces.faces.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login.context javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.component.CONFIG_FILES 159 . that factory is used.javaserver faces 12.webapp 12.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. the Manager application should reload.faces.faces.

Severity . If none of the above steps yield a match. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. StateManagerWrapper .represents a single validation (or other) message. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).application package Contains the following classes: • Application .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. with the last one taking precedence. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.12 . FacesMessage. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. with the last one taking precedence. StateManager .11 the javax.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. those factories are used. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. defining page navigation. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. handling events and input validation.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. ViewHandlerWrapper . FacesMessage .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.faces. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. ApplicationFactory . 12.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . ViewHandler .

or a hyperlink. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. • ViewExpiredException . when activated by the user. a menu item.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. NamingContainer . Here they are: • • UIColumn .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. String. ValueHolder . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. StateHolder .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.12 . • • 161 .restoreView(javax. String) results in failure on postback. UICommand . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .context.faces. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.12 the javax.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. UIComponentBase .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. UIComponent . EditableValueHolder .FacesContext.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. ContextCallBack . ActionSource2 . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. 12. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.faces.

a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. The user can modify the selected value. UISelectOne .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIViewRoot . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIOutput . UISelectMany . by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. The user can modify the selected values.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. This component has no rendering. UIMessage .13 the java. UISelectBoolean . UINamingContainer .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.component. it just serves as the root of the component tree. identified by a clientId. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UIParameter . Optionally. The user cannot manipulate this component. Optionally. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIMessages .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. it is for display purposes only.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.html package 162 .faces.a UIComponent that has a value. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.javaserver faces • UIData . that is displayed to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIPanel . UIInput .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. it is for display purposes only.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UISelectItem . UIForm .12 . UIGraphic .

renders the component value as text. HtmlPanelGroup . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputHidden . and renders the result. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlMessages . HtmlColumn .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. On a redisplay.represents an HTML label element.faces. HtmlCommandLink . HtmlMessage .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. or not. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlForm . HtmlCommandButton . HtmlDataTable . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . This component must be placed inside a form.faces. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.by default. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.12 .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML textarea element.by default. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML form element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlInputSecret . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlInputTextarea .renders child components in a table. The label text is specified by the component value. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlOutputLink .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.Message".represents an HTML img element. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlInputText . The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML input element of type text. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputText . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.

ResponseWriterWrapper . ResponseWriter . and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectManyMenu . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. showing a single available option at a time.convert package 164 .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. FacesContextFactory .javaserver faces property. and potentially modified by.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectOneMenu . In particular.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyListbox .14 the java.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. It is passed to.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext . • • • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12.15 the java. ResponseStream .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.12 . each phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces. HtmlSelectOneRadio .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. HtmlSelectOneListbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing a single available option at a time.

an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.12 .javaserver faces 12. Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. 12.15. ValueBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. VariableResolver .16 the java.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.faces. PropertyResolver . • • • • 165 .

faces. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ReferenceSyntaxException .17 the java.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .12 . FacesListener . PhaseEvent .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. and event implementation classes.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. • • • • • One exception . MethodNotFoundException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PropertyNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. ValueChangeEvent .AbortProcessingException . • • • • 12. FacesEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. Interfaces: ActionListener .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. PhaseId .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. 166 .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. PhaseListener . ValueChangeListener .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.

depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.12 .18 the java.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. ListDataModel .20 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. 12.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. Renderer .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. ScalarDataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Classes: ArrayDataModel .19 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. ResultDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . SelectItem . • • • • • • • • • 12. ResultSetDataModel . DataModelEvent .faces. SelectItemGroup .javaserver faces 12.

Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.faces. • RenderKit .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . which perform the actual rendering process for each component. and/or user Locale. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.faces. ResponseStateManager . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.22 the java.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . base classes for JSP custom component tags. 12.12 . together.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. • • 12. RenderKitFactory .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. LongRangeValidator . markup language. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. The package contains an exception. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . AttributeTag .21 the java. and concrete validator implementation classes. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. including a standard servlet.validator package Interface defining the validator model. as well. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. Typically. ConverterTag .

the JSF life cycle does not apply.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. which passes the request to the page class. In MVC. When the user takes some action with the presentation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. FacetTag . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. that need to process their tag bodies. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). but basically. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded.12 . a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. Likewise. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. When a web server receives a request. UIComponentBodyTag . the life cycle is more complicated. telling the model to update its data. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. related to a UIComponent. UIComponentTag . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. When using JSF. Also. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. telling the view to update its presentation. the process includes a few more components or pages. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. • • • • • FacesServlet . the controller sends a message to the view. the controller is the 169 . In JSF.a base class for all JSP custom actions. or when an exception occurs. which has several implications. the controller sends a message to the model. that request is passed to the container. or some other web technology. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. ValidatorTag .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. servlets. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When the model is updated. 12.

• Invoke Application: During this phase. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. converting a String to a Date object). from cookies sent as part of the request. and the UI components are the view. it creates UI objects for each view component. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. is validated at this time. However. Data for some components. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. These objects update their state with the data values. In addition. For a JSF-enabled application. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. the conversion occurs in this phase. In addition. and a piece of data failed validation.12 . • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). It updates only the UI components with the new data. the JSF implementation must create the view. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. As with the previous phase. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. If this is a subsequent request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. such as components that create HTML input fields. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. The components are stored in a component tree. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. Data can come from input fields in a web form.javaserver faces JSF implementation. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and the response is sent to the client. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. and what happens during the processing and response. not every request will flow through all six phases. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. or from request headers. 170 . depending on the request.

Also. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. 171 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. For example. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.

1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. you supply it the name of the object. naming and directory services using a common API. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. Using JNDI. names a file hello in the file directory usr. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. In addition. NDS.Wiz. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. 13. It enables applications to access different.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.COM.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). The DNS entry Wiz.sun. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.13 . or objects typically used by computer programs. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. When using almost any computer program or system. you must supply its name. To access a file in the computer. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.5). These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.9. you are always naming one object or another. For example. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. The UNIX pathname. c:\bin\autoexec. and NIS(YP).JNDI 13. identifiers.48. when you use an electronic mail system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. /usr/hello. such as addresses. such as LDAP. For example. for example. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. DNS. possibly multiple.JNDI 13 .COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.COM. in turn. Thus the DNS name sales. 13. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.2. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation."). which is located in the root of the file system. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. For example. 172 . A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. A file system maps a filename (for example.

is a context. and its flight number and departure time. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. For example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. A printer object reference. also called a file handle. is a context. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. an LDAP entry. for example. a file directory.2. For example."). is accessed using a file reference. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time.c=us. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. relative to the entry o=Sun. its flight plan.2. such as COM. For simplicity. they must be stored by reference. and fuel and instrument status. delimited by the comma character (".2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. that is. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).2. for example. In another example. a DNS domain. Finally. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. and listing bound names. is relative to c=us.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. 13. 173 . Typically. Using the reference. such as its print server name and printing protocol. such as /usr. might contain the state of the printer. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. which in turn.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. some objects cannot be stored directly. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. A reference is information about how to access an object. in a file directory /usr/bin.COM. such as c=us. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.13 . The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. unbinding names. o=Sun. For example. Every context has an associated naming convention.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. while the object itself might contain more state information. 13. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. 13. Instead. on the other hand. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. A printer object. For example. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. For example. A file object. in the DNS domain Sun. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). in the UNIX file system is a context. that is. By contrast. That is. a file name is bound to a file.

Thus. to some extent. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. And it kind of makes sense. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users.3. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. for example. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. For example. For example. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. and computer account information. or a network. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). For example. A directory object can be used. a name is unique 13. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. and color. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. to represent a printer. postal mail address. For example. various telephone numbers. 13. resolution. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. because we can. programs. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. An example is the telephone company's directory service. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system.13 . A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. For example. one context can be viewed. two different computer 174 . a person. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. a computer. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. 13. however.2.

can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. 13. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. For example. 13. for example. The email address. 175 . and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. removing. When directory objects are arranged in this way. 13.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. the ability to access directory services will become essential.3. an organization object.4. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. that is.113. Alternatively. A Java mail client program. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. adding. For example. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. such as those based on the LDAP.com". called a directory information tree (DIT). might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.50". networks. 13.3. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information.smith@somewhere. support the notion of searches. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. Within the DIT. printers. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. By using a directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. like any other program running on the network. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. The service is accessed through its own interface. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects.13 . you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. 13. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. for example. "mail" is the attribute identifier.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. When you search.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.3. Many examples of directory services are possible. such as that relating to machines. such as the file and print services. The query is called a search filter. can use the directory in the traditional way. and users. many directories. Similarly. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. for example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.

printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.5.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.4. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. 13. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.2.directory javax.ldap 176 . emerging. v1. For example.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. It extends the v1.1 and Java 2 SDK. v1. more coherent and manageable. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.naming.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. 13. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.event javax. For example. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. Thus a variety of directories--new.naming. The Java 2 SDK.naming. v1. To use the JNDI. and even the network.5.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.2.13 . v1.3 and later releases. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1.naming javax.1 and the Java 2 SDK.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.

13. 13. and so on.String name argument represents a composite name. Furthermore. 13. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.lang. However. In this case. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. A java. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. The overloads that accept java.JNDI • javax. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.6 the naming package The javax. for some objects in the directory. list() is similar to listBindings(). The most commonly used operation is lookup() . renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.naming. that is.lang.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. comparing components.spi 13.String name. and it returns the object bound to that name. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. printer. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.6. the name of the object's class. 13.1 context The javax. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.lookup("treekiller"). A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.13 . and the object itself. For example.lang. a 177 .3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.naming package defines a Context interface. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.print(report).String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. which is the core interface for looking up.6.6. For the methods in the Context interface. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.6. composing them. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . binding/unbinding.

A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. You can add.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. 13. replace.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. they should catch NamingException. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. There are no absolute roots. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. InitialContext.7. Once you have an initial context. 13. 13. 13.6.13 .7. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.6.directory package extends the javax. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 13.naming.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. 178 . A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. Otherwise. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().7 directory package The javax. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. For example.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.

a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.naming. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. 13. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. controls. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. such as "object added.9 LDAP package The javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .JNDI 13. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. These operations are called "extended" operations. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. called controls .13 . most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. For example.ldap package at all.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services." and those that do not. such as "object changed.naming.naming.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13.naming.directory package. In fact. To receive event notifications.8 event package The javax. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Once registered.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.naming.9. or unsolicited notifications. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. and vice versa.9. such as information about the object before and after the change. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. that is.9. 13. For example.

lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.java.spi package supports implementors of Context. In the process of completing an operation. 13.9. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.naming. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. create a file named Lookup.1 plug-In architecture The javax. This support is provided in the form of state factories.10. if you look up a printer name from the directory. 13. 180 .naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This support is provided in the form of object factories. and receiving response controls.naming. 13.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system.10. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. implementors of Context.10 service provider package The javax. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. That is. 13. sending request controls.11.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.10. 13.2 java object support The javax. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. For example.naming package. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. import javax.13 .naming.Context.

you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.naming. 181 .INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.err.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.JNDI import javax.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.sun. as follows.RefFSContextFactory"). you must have access to the JNDI classes.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).put(Context.InitialContext. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). For this reason.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. env. Object obj = ctx.11. 13.jndi. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. "com. To compile to program.5 compiling the program Next. If the compilation succeeds. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). v1.3. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.11.11. } 13. } catch (NamingException e) { System. 13. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.lookup() to look up an object. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. use Context.java).out.jar as an installed extension. 13.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. // Print it System.lookup(name). Otherwise.fscontext. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.3 looking up an Object Next. import javax.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).naming. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). you compile the source file using the Java compiler. If the compilation fails. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.13 . Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. then the JNDI classes are already included. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. using the capitalization shown.NamingException. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.lookup(name). If you are using the Java 2 SDK. If you are still having problems.11. create an initial context.

12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.12.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. create a file named Getattr.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.directory packages. create an initial directory context.ldap. Finally.jndi. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. v1.6 running the program To run the program. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.JNDI 13. "com. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.sun. 13. import import import import import javax. and your example class (Lookup. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").13 . 13.naming. javax.directory.LdapCtxFactory"). javax. env.naming. javax.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.naming and javax.put(Context. you need access to the JNDI classes.java.sun.InitialDirContext.bat If you supply a file directory. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.naming. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. the file system service provider.11. javax.DirContext. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.NamingException. 182 . Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.class). To run the program. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.12.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.jar). Hashtable env = new Hashtable().Attributes. env.Context.PROVIDER_URL. supply the name of a file in your file system. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.directory.naming.3. include the directory that contains your Lookup. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.put(Context.fscontext.jndi.naming.directory.naming. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.jar and providerutil. then you will see something like the following.

13.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.out. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.12.get() and then from that attribute get its value. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get().3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. } catch (NamingException e) { System.get("sn").get() on it to get its value: attrs.12. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. If the compilation fails. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. ou=People").JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). ou=People"). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If you are still having problems.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. For this reason. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.java). using the capitalization shown. For now.get("sn"). As with the naming example.12.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. 13. Similar to the naming example. } 13. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Attributes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.12. 183 .6 compiling the program Next. If the compilation succeeds.err. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.println("sn: " + attrs.get()). // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). compile the source file using the Java compiler.13 . 13.

) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.JNDI 13. If you have any trouble running this example. then these classes are already included. With this configuration. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. 184 . then see the Common Problems lesson. ou=People". # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. Getattr.12. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jar and providerutil.PROVIDER_URL. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. env. Once it has the attributes. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").7 running the program As with the naming example. v1. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.jar).class. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.put(Context.3.13 .

The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS queue . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. As the name queue suggests. the messages are delivered in the order sent.14 . JMS message . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. • 14. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS producer . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. In this model.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS consumer . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . Here.a JMS client that receives messages. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. Enterprise Edition.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS client .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. unless it has established a durable 185 . JMS topic .

the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.4. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 186 .4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Depending on the type of message. In that case. Using Java.3 the JMS API programming model 14. On the receiving side. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.14 .jms. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.

you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. The JMS administrator creates these objects.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. you must close any connections that you have created. Like the connection factory. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. 14. Connections implement the Connection interface. In a J2EE application. and users discover them using JNDI. It is either a queue or a topic.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Before your application can consume messages.4. 14. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Before an application completes. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). you call the stop() method.4. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Depending on the connection type. It receives messages sent to a destination. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. For example. For example. you must call the connection's start() method.close().lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). 14. connection.createConnection().2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/MyTopic").14 . The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.

Message m = consumer. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. connection. 188 .createConsumer(myQueue). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.4. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.start(). which contains one method.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. Moreover. After you have created a message consumer. A message listener does. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.start().setMessageListener(myListener). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. and you can use it to receive messages. (Remember always to call the start() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. Message m = consumer. After you register the message listener. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.receive(). however. consumer.14 . For example. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. MessageConsumer consumer = session. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. In the onMessage() method. it becomes active.receive(1000). This method is valid only if you are using a topic. onMessage().) When message delivery begins.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. This object implements the MessageListener interface. usually expect a specific message type and format.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. You use the Session. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. if it needs to reply to messages. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. For example. 14. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you are likely to miss messages. a message listener object may be used. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myTopic). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().

189 .createProducer(myQueue). bytes message. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. map message.receive(). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if you created an unidentified producer.send(message). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. and object message). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 3. A message has three main parts: 1.14 . a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.send(message). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. At the consuming end. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(myQueue. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. 14. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. With an unidentified producer.createTextMessage().7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.4. Here. stream message.createProducer(null). // msg_text is a String producer. that is.createProducer(myTopic). message). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. from one application to another. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. MessageProducer producer = session. For example. to create and send a TextMessage. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. After you have created a message producer. anon_prod.setText(msg_text).4. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. message. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. You must first create the messages.

190 . If the user selects transaction support. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. } else { // Handle error } 14.println("Reading message: " + message. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.4.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(true. then delivers the messages. 0). the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. Session.createSession(false. Before committing the transaction. use the following code: Session session = connection. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. To create a transacted session. the first argument means that the session is transacted.14 .out. After you create a Connection object. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. and message consumers to receive messages. Sessions implement the Session interface.getText()).AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). The first argument means that the session is not transacted.

transaction management can be complex. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.0. The component lives inside a container.no developer coding. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. container which offers services to the component. Version 1. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.object oriented representation of data in a DB.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. bundled into a single unit. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . On the other side. improved performance security .DB interaction transactions .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.jar file into the application server. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. 15. the container lives (in general) in an application server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .0.logging. server which provides an execution environment for containers.consistent error handling framework .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . component recovery scalability portability 191 .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.15 . message-driven beans The 2. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.

the home interface of the bean 3. as follows: 1. the remote interface of the bean 4. called ejb-jar. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.15 .4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the deployment descriptor. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.xml 15. which is an xml file.

The developer does not implement this interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. } 15. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi. RemoteException. } 193 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. import.RemoteException.ejb.javax.rmi. import. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. While the Remote interface declares no methods.*.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.*. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. import java.ejb. import java. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.javax. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException.15 . String lastName.RemoteException.

what methods to use (know its interface) 3. } 194 .NamingContextFactory". prop.jnp.interfaces. we need to know: 1. "localhost:1099").PROVIDER_URL.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. creating them for the client application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. how to create or find the bean 2. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). This object acts like a factory for EJBs. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. this can be done (for example) through SSL.put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.15 . The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. if the client executes outside the container. prop. In the case of an web application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.put(Context. "org. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.

Some languages. Problem is. Why? For EJB. MyBeanHome. the client has a stub).e. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. more specifically. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.rmi. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.15 . and this means that there are some limitations. do implements the java. but for generic languages..lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").lookup("MyBean"). The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). in fact. in fact. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.narrow(homeRef. that is part of CORBA standards. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.class). • if the client executes outside the container. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. 195 . the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do not have the concept of casting. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. This is done through the javax.rmi.Remote interface). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. to the appropriate type. using the narrow() method.PortableRemoteObject class and.

} public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .15 ..ejb.create(). public class MyBean implements javax.ejbeans. call business methods on the bean myObject. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.processEntry("Dumitrascu". we concentrate now on the bean class itself.. 1102).ejb. "Vasile".remove(). the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. remove the bean instance myObject.. int custId) { // method implementation . import javax. as well).SessionContext.ccards. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. String lastName.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). 15. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com..bank11.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.

The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 197 . 15. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. the object is activated. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. namely stateful and stateless beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. A stateless bean does not. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. that is. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.15 . The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. 15.

and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. Figure 15. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.1 are invoked by the EJB container. For example.15 . (Typically.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. 198 . allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. or passivate. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. is inside the bean class. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. The ejbCreate method. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the EJB container activates the bean. the client invokes the remove method. At the end of the life cycle. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. All other methods in Figure 15. for example. and then moves it to the ready stage. 15.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. stored in a Database). equals() 199 .2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.15 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). maintaining a cache between transactions 4. support for concurrent access 3. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.

the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. all throwing RemoteException. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.lang. state data is stored into data store (usually. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.14.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.15 .1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. 15. Read. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. 200 . On the other side. CreateException. methods which have the same parameters. as the parameters in the original create() method. in the same order.ccards. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). an instance of that bean is created. Update and Delete.bank11. We can have more create() methods.

the programmer will create actual SQL code. While in the pooled stage.14. On the second path. 201 . the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it is empty. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. for BMPs. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. left empty most of the time in CMP. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. but in general. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. All instances in the pool are identical. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.14.14. Second. 15. for BMP. the client invokes the create method. After instantiation. First.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). actual SQL update code. but the developer returns null for CMP. it's business methods can be invoked. On the first path. in BMP.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.15 . it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. not null. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. After the EJB container creates the instance. a client can invoke the remove method.

With bean-managed persistence. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 15. another enterprise bean.getPrimaryKey(). Therefore. the values of the instance variables are not needed. or a Web component . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. it does not automatically set the primary key. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. In the pooled state.15 . 202 .an application client. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. If the primary key is incorrect. It acts as a JMS message listener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.

by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. The onMessage method may call helper methods.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. max-beans-infree-pool. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.for example. Previously. 15. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. 15. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.16. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. When a message arrives. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. an open database connection. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16.15 . but not asynchronously. If this element is set to more than one. In several respects. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. To ensure concurrency.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. the message will be redelivered.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 203 . allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. For more information on this element see. 15. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. message-driven bean can be used.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. To avoid tying up server resources. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.16. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. a JMS API connection. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. If message processing is rolled back.16. Unlike a session or entity bean. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.

3..jms. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.}. Classes. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.0 specification.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.} // onMessage() is required. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. // An EJB constructor is required.16. 15.16. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.Message MessageName) {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.jms. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. methods. 2.16.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. As with other EJB types. 15. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). and it must not // accept parameters. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.15 . public void ejbRemove() {.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. Obtain a new bean instance. finalize{}. Note: These instances can be pooled.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. public void onMessage(javax. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.Message.ejb. or create a new one.

passing the full JMS message object as an argument.onMessage() for more information. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . 15. getRollbackOnly() . The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.MessageListener. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. However.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. even in onMessage(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. 15. If any method throws such an exception.16. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().16. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. getUserTransaction().10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.jms.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. For example. See javax.This is not a client context.15 . whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().

15 .13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.16. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.0 specification. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. as required by the EJB 2. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.0 specification. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. 15. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). In either case.xml.

the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.15 .ejb20. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. the weblogic-ejb-jar.xml elements.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.xml deployment file.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. For each instance.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean..jms. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar..17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.message. as described in the EJB 2.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. 207 .0 specification. 2. </message-driven> . 15. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.

EJB class name 5.security issues. the home interface name 7. a message-driven bean is never passivated. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. attributes . bean home name . 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. session specific elements 9.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. isolation level. security 208 .15 .like transaction. access control entries . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the remote interface name 8.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. At the end of the life cycle. control descriptors . entity specific elements 10.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. the container calls the ejbRemove method. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. environment properties 6.

bank11.bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.ccards.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ejb.bank11.15 .ccards.ejb.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.lang.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application..15 .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2..lang.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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