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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Figure 1. processes it (if necessary). and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. enterprise edition Figure 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.1 . retail. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. The web tier. or finance. are not considered web components. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. like the client tier.2 Server communication 1. and sends it back to the client program. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.7 business components Business code.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. 1.java platform. processes it (if necessary). like HTML pages. 5 . which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.

1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. 1. 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.java platform.9. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. database systems. Business and EIS Tiers 1.3 Web.1 . thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Before a web. or application client component can be executed. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. resource pooling. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. mainframe transaction processing. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. enterprise edition Figure 1. enterprise bean. and other legacy information systems. and other complex low-level details. 6 . Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. In addition.9 java EE Containers Normally.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). For example. multithreading.

JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. including services such as security. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. transaction management. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. data persistence. database connection resource pooling. For example. After an enterprise bean is created. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. and remote connectivity. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.4. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 1.9.1 . an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.java platform. 7 .

XML data. or for document-oriented web services.1 . all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.manages the execution of applets. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. program files. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . enterprise edition Figure 1. 1. For example. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.10. Application client container . 1. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Applet container . A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. test.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of application client components. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.java platform. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. Web container . extensible. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. text-based standard for representing data. video. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. maps. Application clients and their container run on the client. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. develop.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. When XML data is exchanged between parties. or any kind of binary data such as audio. 8 .

2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. enterprise edition 1. such as Universal Description. 1.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. the location of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).10. The description includes the name of the service. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 1.java platform. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.1 .11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 9 . and ways to communicate with the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.

allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. WML. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. you employ a single.1 . Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. enterprise edition Figure 1.11. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. or if the server shuts down. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. If the client terminates. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. Commonly. or enterprise bean. 1. When the client finishes executing.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. In Java EE 5.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11.11. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1.11.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.java platform. standard set of tags. and XML) and JSP elements.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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java platform. JTA. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. At runtime. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. better tools. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. or better customer support. and JNDI 1. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.ear extension. servlet. No extra coding is needed. such as better performance. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. module. the application is ready to run. SAAJ. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced.1 . JSP page. or component accordingly. Once deployed on a local platform.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. or a component. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. 15 . a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. it is ready to be deployed. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. a module. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .

Web modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.jar extension.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. for example. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain all Java interfaces. classes. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . GIF and HTML files. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor.jar extension. Application client modules. Resource adapter modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. • • 16 . such as caching directives. and other documentation. native libraries. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.java platform. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. For example. supporting class files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. Together.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.1 . which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.war (Web ARchive) extension. enterprise edition Figure 1. JSP files.

As a site for understanding how HTTP works. so far) version.com/easy/http.HTTP 2. The second (and last.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. we recommend www. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. 2.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. HEAD. an initial line 2.org/Protocols . as follows: 1.. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).1.org/rfc/rfc1945.2 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. The server answers with a response message.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. was the object of several RFCs..1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. These messages may have different contents. RFC 2616 (06/99). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.HTTP 2 . POST. The client sends a request message to the server. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. zero or more header lines 3.ietf.. .html).apps. namely HTTP 1.jmarshall.. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. check the official HTTP site – www. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. but they also have some common structural elements. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .w3. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.

5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.Annotation of existing resources. POST 4. GET 2.2 . 2. OPTIONS 7. newsgroup. Here is their list: 1. HTTP/1.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.0). DELETE 6. 18 . there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.html HTTP/1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.1.1 specification. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. GET /path/to/the/file/index. in the HTTP 1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. CONNECT 5. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. TRACE Three other commands are listed. but lack of support makes them obsolete.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . mailing list. as well. . All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. HEAD 3. PUT 8.

either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. 2. When used for form data submission. . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. after the “?” character.2 . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. or a record is subordinate to a database. (encoded as multipart/form-data). . The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. while POST may involve anything. like storing or updating data.8 the status code A three-digit integer. or in the message body. such as the result of submitting a form. or ordering a product.6 differences between GET and POST 1. separated by the character “&” or “. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. In this case. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).” On the other side. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . 3. to a data-handling process.Extending a database through an append operation.Providing a block of data.HTTP or similar group of articles.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 2. or sending E-mail 2. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.0 404 Not Found 2.

the request succeeded. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. header values are.1 version specifies 46 of them. such as text/html or image/jpg.0 version specifies 16 headers. that is. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. 2.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. file or script output) is returned in the message body. out of which. and section 10 for HTTP 1. and the resulting resource (e.1 only) . The HTTP 1.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. none of them mandatory. separated a semicolon.the requested resource doesn't exist.an unexpected server error.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. where the requested resource is returned to the client. If an HTTP message includes a body.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.0. The most common use of the message body is in a response. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. Although the header names are not case sensitive. 404 Not Found . In particular. In a request. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 2. fails. one (Host) is mandatory. header name and header value. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. or otherwise can't run correctly. 500 Server Error . 20 . and should be automatically retrieved by the client.g.2 .1). 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. while the HTTP 1. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.

text. postscript 5. gif 6. with subtypes jpeg.ietf.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtypes rfc822.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.ro. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.0 From: someuser@yahoo. partial. with subtype plain 2. Here is the list of the seven types. audio.info. image. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. digest. with subtypes mixed.org/rfc/rfc1521.info. video. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtypes octet-stream. external-body 4. Then.uvt. RFC 1521 (www.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.ro/path/file.0 200 OK Date: Fri. parallel 3.uvt.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. application.html first open a socket to the host web. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. . 1. multipart. with subtype basic 7.html HTTP/1. message.HTTP 2.apps.2 . with subtype mpeg 2. 21 . alternative.

the server closes the socket. 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP .2 .

namely HTML 1. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.apps.jmarshall. Originally named Web Applications 1. The XHTML 1.blooberry.com/indexdot/html . Other helpful sites .htmlgoodies.01) can be found at this address: http://www. A newer standard.3 . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.0 .was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.com/easy/html .org/Markup . www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.w3c.2 (3. Since it fits in a couple of pages.0 and was accepted in December 1997. a working draft for the next major revision.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.HTML 3 . An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.html.com/tutors. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. It is a revision of 4. HTML describes how text. The newest version of HTML is 4. 3. Mosaic. The first official version – HTML 2. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The first version of HTML.HTML 3. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. From 1999 on. Version 4.org/rfc/rfc1866.ietf.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0 draft was released in 01.99. The latest version (XHTML 2. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.01.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.html) and was widely supported.0. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.www. As a practical reference site use – www.0) dates from 08. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.0. However. HTML 3.w3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. check the official HTML site – www.

SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.3 .-_:" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.

If you wonder what a character reference is. This section deals with some of the most common elements. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.w3.3 . 4. DYNSRC." (in hexadecimal) . A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. though. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.acesta este un comentariu. 3. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.0 contains an SGML declaration. <><> --> 25 .gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. VSAPCE are omitted.0 Transitional DTD. Check the address http://www. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. CONTROLS.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. look at these examples: “&lt”.01 specification.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. HTML 4. BORDER.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. You get the point. “&quot”.0 Strict DTD. 3. three DTDs (HTML 4. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.the chinese character for water. the specification of HTML 4. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. like ALIGN. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.and end at the first occurrence of -->. An example: <!-. …. Overall. "&#x6C34. HTML 4.

info.HTML 3. etc. image. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.ro/webmail/src/login.5 tables 26 .3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.3 .3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.uvt. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. NAME. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.

The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TR>.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . Usually. Here is their description and attributes. columns. headers and cells are <TABLE>. its rows.3 . <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <TH> and <TD>.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . allowing user input and parameter submittal.

Main attributes: • TYPE .sends the form values in a single transmission. specifies the parameter name.8.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. allows multiple selections from the choice list. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .maximum number of options visible to the user. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "password".required.8 form related elements 3.3 . Main attributes: 29 .if specified. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".8. "reset". however. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . specifies how data will be sent to the server. • 3. Example: http://web. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.?.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.uvt. "file". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. may have the values GET or POST. "submit". "radio". "hidden". Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .required.the default value.HTML • METHOD . "checkbox". "text/plain" • • 3.:. the browser appends the values to the URL. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". "GET" .8. after a quotation mark .required.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .info. "button". SIZE . NAME .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. 3. "image".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

C:\TW\mySource. jit From source to execution.3 java applications 31 . javac -classpath . pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. Example: Edit the file prog1. the compilation process occurs. but next time execution is much faster. Java bytecode – a file with extension . Inc.2 version.) in 08. To overcome this significant shortage.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.java 2. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. 4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.90.class 3.java. In terms of execution time.95. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.95. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. project started in 12. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The first time a class is loaded.4 .JAVA PRIMER 4 .class. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .java One example of command line compilation: 4.2 java the interpreter.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. The current version (as of 10.class file.0. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. Java source – a file with extension . Early versions of Java were released in 12. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. -g : generate all debugging info.class file. following the 1. The current version (as of 10.4..2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.JAVA PRIMER 4.

Generally. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 object oriented concepts 4.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .4 .4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .jar file. An example: 32 . 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or that it extends A).2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.java. In general. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.

While C++ allows multiple inheritance. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. called Object. In OO jargon.1 bit char . 4. Therefore. Character. 33 . a class can have more than one method with the same name. a Java class can extend a single base class.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Double. with the root the class Object. this is called method overloading. Boolean.4 . Therefore.4.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . providing its own implementation. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.4. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. 4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Short. Long. 4. Integer.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Float.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. namely: Byte. In fact. The return type of a method is not part of this signature.

.one which is defined at class level. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.servlet.4 . which extends the class javax.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. no templates. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. A final: • • • variable .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . class .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).one which is constant method . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .http.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. } declares an abstract class. has the same value for all class instances. A final variable (method. method . anywhere abstract .no access from outside the class itself protected . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. inherited). Except for the "package" concept. automatic garbage collection.servlet.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . 34 .does not have any subclasses.access from any class anywhere private . 4.. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. rather than at class instance.the class is visible from any class. • • • • no specifier . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .http.

2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. standard method exceptions 3. java errors . division by 0.JAVA PRIMER 4. In Java. 4. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7.7.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). code or data errors . Exception categories: 1. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.ThreadDeath. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.like invalid cast.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4.4 . programmer defined exceptions 4.7. not at execution time.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. array index out of bounds. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. 2.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.7. as defined in the java. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.

by adding the key word throws.nio java.util .. 4. An example: package com.awt . finally construct. import javax.support for user interface java. .class file.servlets. import.4 . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.lang . therefore.support for event handling java.geom .java.default.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).io java.1 Package names The default package has no name.net java.ccards. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. In the example above. the default package is used). Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.util. 4. catch.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.sql.support for java archives creation java. As a general rule.awt.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . they have to be unique inside a package.security 36 . don't have to import java.Properties.lang (automatically available).*.awt.support for data collections. All other packages must be explicitly imported.this can be done by providing a try.util.rmi java.bank11.zip .sql java. date and time info java. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. 4. followed by the import statements.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.event . string analyzers.8. The package containing the standard classes is java. the class (the . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. The names in a package are qualified by the package name..

event .swing .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.accessibility javax. it must be declared as abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.support for event handling 4. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. 37 .text javax.swing.4 . static and final.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All variables (actually.

then LiveScript and finally.JAVASCRIPT 5. as JavaScript.HTML authors are normally not programmers.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. like QtScript or ActionScript. other 38 . This is not always what we want. and .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. The origins of this language date back to 1995. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. However.A JavaScript statement like this: document. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. 5. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.javaScript 5 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .5 .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.depending on the browser .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . Subsequently.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .

3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. 39 .. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.js file extension. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3..2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. point to the .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .. To simplify this.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.5 . When you place a script in the head section. Save the external JavaScript file with a . without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </head> 5.. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. 5. or when an event is triggered.3. go in the head section.. </script> </body> 5.

..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.javaScript 5... 5..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. for().4. in and the try . 5. switch(). The code in the body of the for . while() it is worth mentioning the for . continue. while().4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration..4. 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.In statement The for. in loop is executed once for each element/property.1 JavaScript for...5.4. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.4.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. namely – if .2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". else. catch constructs.5 . break...

Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. Example Using for. Mozilla 1.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. an array element. mycars[1] = "Volvo".2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. they often leave the Web page..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.5. mycars[2] = "BMW".. for (x in mycars) { document. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. so you don't lose your audience. } </script> </body> </html> 5. The try block contains the code to be run.3 try. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. var mycars = new Array()... mycars[0] = "Saab".in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. When users see errors. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.catch statement (available in IE5+.5. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".write(mycars[x] + "<br />").0.5 .. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 ..catch statement The try.. or a property of an object.

javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").description + "\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Syntax: 42 . 5. Also.5 . txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. alert(txt). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.7 popup boxes 5.7.\n\n".\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

javaScript alert("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel". Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the box returns null. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. When a confirm box pops up. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. in the example above had not been written within a function."defaultvalue") 5. in the <head> section.. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .8. the box returns false.8 functions 5. When a prompt box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.5 .js file).3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). If the user clicks "OK".7. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.7. the box returns true. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.

An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. var2.9.var2. 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9.. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.length). and how they are used. 5. document. and will be stored in the variable called product. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.write(txt.. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. 5. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function..9 javaScript objects 5.. etc are variables or values passed into the function. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.varX) { some code } var1.5 . you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.javaScript function functionname(var1.8. So.

5 . 45 .toUpperCase()). </script> 5. document.9. The first class consists of browser specific objects.javaScript 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The other class are the language specific objects. which will be specified in the next section.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.com/jsref/default.5 . Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. every Link on the page is an Object. At its most basic level. N: Netscape.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.asp 5. every Image on the page is an Object. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Properties FF: Firefox. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. When an event message has been triggered. as well). For example. or when the user interacts with a Web page. Even this Document itself is an Object.w3schools.11. check the site http://www. which are called Objects.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.5 .11. N: Netscape.

javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 . depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. according to local time. N: Netscape.5 .11. according to universal time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.

The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 .5 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 .

javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . N: Netscape.5 1 .5 .11.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.

x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 1.11. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.y) pow(x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 3.javaScript 5. 2.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 0. 0. N: Netscape.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. Properties FF: Firefox. 1.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.5 . 2. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.y) min(x.434) Returns PI (approx.

firstname).javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.lastname="Doe". work(). personObj.firstname="John". sleep(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.5 . skin tone. 5. personObj.age=30. play(). personObj.12.eyecolor="blue". The persons' properties include name.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Properties are the values associated with the object. age. height. document. etc. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The persons' methods could be eat(). eye color. All persons have these properties.12. personObj.firstname="John".lastname="Doe". etc.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). age.age=50.12.eyecolor="blue".methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. personObj. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. Assume that the personObj already exists . 53 . weight. personObj.you can give it properties named firstname.write(personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. lastname. Objects also have methods.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.

eyecolor) { this. you can create new instances of the object. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.48. this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this."Rally".eyecolor) { this. myMother=new person("Sally". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.age=age.12.lastname. this. like this: myFather=new person("John".javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this.5 .lastname=lastname. } Notice that the template is just a function. this.newlastname=newlastname."blue"). this. 5.age. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.eyecolor=eyecolor. this.eat=eat.age."green").4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.lastname=new_lastname."Doe".eyecolor=eyecolor.50. this. Once you have the template. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.propertyName.lastname=lastname. You can also add some methods to the person object. 54 .firstname=firstname.age=age.lastname.firstname=firstname.

Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.5 . 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. For example. now you can write: myMother.. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . So. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. We define the events in the HTML tags..". we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.newlastname("Doe").

htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. For example.w3schools. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. If the field values are not accepted. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. the submit should be cancelled. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.5 . Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The name is then stored in a cookie. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. 5.2 onFocus. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. 5. If it returns true the form will be submitted. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.

W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. HTML. structure. or WebAPI being among them. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. Right now (oct. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SVG. As of January 2008.HTML DOM 6. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. In other words. The W3C 58 . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. CSS. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.6 . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass.Html DOM 6 .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. However. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . 2010). The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. the Document Object Model activity is closed.g. particularly those used in Web browsers. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. By October 1998. XML. 6. and style of a document.

an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. 6.6 . 2. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 XPath. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. which further enhances the DOM 6. To claim to support a level. DOM Level 3 Requirements. Level 2. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. 3. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. As of 2005. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and 6. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. filtered views and events. each of which contains required and optional modules.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 5. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Validation. 4. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Level 1. Level 2 XML namespace support.

In order to be cross-browser compatible. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. The Window object represents a browser window. along with their containing text and attributes. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.x and Netscape 4. 6.6 . interoperability problems were numerous. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).x were still widely used in 2000. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. By 2005. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). Konqueror. that is. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. support multiple browsers. Opera.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. can be accessed through the 60 . All HTML elements. and Safari. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.5 web browsers implementation Earlier.

The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. It can be used by any programming language like Java. JavaScript.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

However.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.8. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. The <html> node has two child nodes.Html DOM 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.6 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. everything in an HTML document is a node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node. 6.9.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. <head> and <body>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. the element node <title>. 6. 62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.

By navigating the node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted. Parent nodes have children.getElementsByTagName("p"). Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).2 node parents. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.9. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. the top node is called the root Every node. • • • • • In a node tree. children. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By using the getElementById() method 2. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.getElementById('main'). and the connections between them. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.getElementsByTagName("p").6 . using the node relationships.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. child.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. 63 .9. The terms parent. except the root. and new elements can be created.

length.i<x. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.Html DOM for (i=0.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).9.i++) { document.write(x[i]. each node is an object. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. document. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.innerHTML).write("<br />").6 .

firstChild.Html DOM 6.nodeValue.6 . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. txt=x.5 example .getElementById("intro").9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.

it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. including window. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . objects and images. frames. For elements.6 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.

Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). When the user clicks on the inner element. for instance. 6. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). DOMNodeInserted. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. say "click". Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Mozilla. also supports these methods. Fires when an element is activated. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). and then bubbled up.3.6 . but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. During the event flow. Also. through a mouse click or a keypress. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. 67 . as of version 1.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Safari.

Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. mouse position. including information about target element. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. key pressed. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. mouse button pressed. Unfortunately. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.Html DOM 6.6 .12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. preventDefault 68 . etc. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive).

The processing of web page formerly was only server-side.AJAX 7 . SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. fields of forms.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. For improving sharing of resources. For example.7 . and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. 69 . XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. crunching numbers. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. The server does some processing — retrieving data. etc.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. using web services or Php scripts. 7. before the whole page was sent within the network. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. dynamic website. choices of user. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. 7. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. menus. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.AJAX 7. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. It is not a technology in itself. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but also to save resources.

waiting. at the start of the session. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. but the opposite is true. Once an interface is loaded. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. Instead of loading a web page. And at every step in a task. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. While the server is doing its thing. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Obviously. we wouldn’t make users wait around. waiting around for the server to do something.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications.7 . It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. 70 . but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the user waits some more.

loading additional interface code.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. 71 . editing data in memory. usually using XML.

7.200 is ok. thanks to its methods and attributes. 1: connection established. It allows the interaction with the servers.for a Xml file or .mode: type of request. and in this purpose.7 .responseXml . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.responseText . This object provides two methods: .open: create a connection.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. DOM's method allows to extract data. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. These events are user actions. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.for a simple text. boolean) . 404 if the page is not found .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.send: send a request to the server. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.url: the location of the file 72 . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . GET or POST . they call functions associated to elements of the web page.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 4: finished. . url.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. .holds a Xml loaded file. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. To get data on the server. 2: request received. onreadystatechange .AJAX 7. 3: answer in process.returned by the server .holds loaded data as a string of characters.

// Firefox. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.readyState == 4) { // received.null for a GET command 7.XMLHTTP").onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }..6 building a request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). OK } else { // wait.. request. . http_request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .AJAX .send(null)..boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . if (request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Safari.open: command GET or POST. if (window.. but two options must be tried. true for asynchronous. . URL of the document. 73 . true).xul.7 .open('GET'.send: with POST only. The request below reads a document on the server. 'http://www.fr/somefile. http_request. for browser compatibility. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.xml'. } else if (window. the data to send to the server.

7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.open("GET".responseText.dyn=""Received:" + req.readyState == 4) if(req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.status.send(null).ajax.dyn="Received:" + req.AJAX 7.xml".item(0).dyn="Error code " + req. if(window.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". req. "data.getElementsByTagName('root'). }.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7 . true).ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. req. req.ajax. by this code: var doc = req.7.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().responseText. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").responseXML.ajax.XMLHTTP). req.status == 200) document. else if (window.7 examples 7. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. else document.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

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7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

Initialization of parameters for servlets. like what pages are error. data persistence. 6. 2. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.)> <web-app> <!-. 8.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. Servlet.bank11. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. like: 1. but typical web. classes. JSPs and Java Server Faces. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . Others. database connection resource pooling. servlet classes. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. web. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. For example. entries related to session configuration. Servlet.class>com. 5. 4. MIME types used by the web application. After an enterprise bean is created.8 .xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.servlets. 3. Here is a small.ccards. descriptions).xml file: <?xml version="1. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. welcome pages. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.

The "/ccards" part of the URL is. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. However.ccards.ccards.xml".xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.servlets". basicly. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets. Unfortunately. 1. Basicly. Then the "EnrollServlet. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml" file. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". whose name is rather long.ccards.xml file of the web application.class" and that it is part of the package "com. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. for flexibility. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. In general. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. For example. Behind a very benign URL.bank11. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.bank11.servlets".xml" 2.bank11.8 . the name of the web application. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .

but through a web container. tjws spec 2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. from BEA Systems. in most cases as part of an application server. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.0 specification is available for public review. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. As of oct. Technically speaking. which extend the functionality of the web server. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). 2010. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. more often. but at this point.SERVLETS 9 . Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .4. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. platform independent programs. the HttpServlet) class. small footprint.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.5 and is in final state. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.2. 9. the Java Servlet 3.9 .0 specification. this is just a work in progress.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.SERVLETS 9. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. 9.4. modular design 9.

SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. 82 . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet javax. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.servlet package. the javax.servlet.9 . The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. WebSphere. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. These packages are: • • javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . IOException.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from Apple Inc. from IBM 9. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). public void destroy() throws ServletException. while the second one.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. Enterprise Edition. public void service(ServletRequest req.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet.servlet package are protocol independent. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.

Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. Throwable t) 9. the web container calls its init() method. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. This method has two arguments. 9. After instantiating the servlet. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. The method performs all initialization required. namely the HttpServlet class.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. 83 . public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. in a different section. respectively. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle.9 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. as well. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. ServletConfig. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo().

UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. It also extends the java. 9. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). service(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.9 .lang. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.servlet.servlet.lang.

JSP or JSF. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. Typically. respectively. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Also. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. etc. 85 . this method contains JDBC driver loading. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. which will service all incoming requests. the container calls the init() method of the servlet.SingleThreadModel. Typically. DB connection opening. 9. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. If the servlet does not implement the javax. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.9 . After instantiation. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. method which performs the initialization of the servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.

9 .SERVLETS 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.

servlets.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.bank11. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.xml file. This is done in server's (container's) server.java" file: package com.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.9 .io. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.ccards. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. 87 . String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. import java.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.*. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.

public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.close().println("merge").servlet.*. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out. out.init(config).println("</body>").println("<title>Servlet</title>").SERVLETS import javax. PrintWriter out = resp.servlet. import javax. out.setContentType(“text/html”).println("</head>").println("<br>").*. out. out.println("<head>"). IOException { resp.9 .http. out. out.println("<body>"). // output your page here out.println("</html>").println("<html>"). } } 88 .getWriter(). out.

JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. After that. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.jdbc. 89 . 1997. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. the java.JDBC 10 .sun.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.10 . as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).JDBC 10. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.sql package 2. This solution is inefficient.odbc. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. 10. These drivers fall into four standard categories. the javax. The JDBC 4. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.1. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . Type 1.sql package. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.JdbcOdbcDriver . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. Starting with version 3.0.0 while the current (4. as recognized by the DB industry.

90 .10 . Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Type 3. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Part Java. which in turn. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Type 4.JDBC Type 2. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). forwards them to the JDBC driver. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.

sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.PreparedStatement java.Statement java.Wrapper 91 .Date java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql. java.3 the java.sql.sql.sql.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.Clob java.DriverManager java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.sql.Array java.SQLData java. let's remind some of the most important ones.Timestamp java.SQLOutput java.sql.Types java.Driver java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Struct java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.SQLInput java.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.Blob java.sql.sql.Connection java.0 API.0).Time java.sql.sql.SQLDataException java. defined in the JDBC 3. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.SQLXML java.JDBC 10.10 .

sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.RowIdLifeTime java.PreparedStatement java.SQLOutput java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.NClob java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.RowId java.StatementEvent javax.CallableStatement java.sql.Wrapper javax.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql package.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.0.sql.Blob java.sql.SQLInput java.10 .sql.sql. loading a database driver 2.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.SQLWarning java.Statement java.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java. establishing a database connection 3.Connection java. querying the database 4. processing the result set 92 .sql.CommonDataSource javax.SQLException java.StatementEventListener 10.sql.Types java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql. java.Clob java.sql.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.

5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.DataStoreDriver com. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.borland.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.jdbc.10 .SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.ibm.net.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .db2.jdbc.odbc.JDBC 10.sybase.driver.datastore. The first one is loading a database driver. A database driver is specified by the driver name.

*. try { Class.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. passwd).printStackTrace(). user. by using the connection URL.10 . Since we just used it. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.bank11. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).util. import java. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.mm. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.forName("org.newInstance(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".*. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.mysql.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.getConnection(connURL.Driver"). String user = "root". but let's take it for granted: import java. as specified by the driver vendor. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).gjt. 94 .sql.

The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. we can use it for various purposes.JDBC 10. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . java. prp). There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. prp. prp.getConnection(connURL. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("autocommit". "true"). String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.put("create". let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Properties prp = new Properties().Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. String user. Connection conn = DriverManager.sql package.10 . int resultSetConcurrency. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. 10. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.util.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.

8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.10 . methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. respectively. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5.JDBC 10. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. Statement. namely.

..createStatement().10 . 10.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql.executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.". Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.

and cursors are held over commit boundaries. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. PreparedStatement. a concurrency of read only.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. as the argument. and CallableStatement objects. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 . not at 0) or the column name.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. 98 . all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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a factory for creating DB connections. There are three types of implementations: 1.Big Decimal Object float 10. secs date.produces a standard Connection object 2.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. mins.sql.sql package. Basic implementation -.produces a Connection object that will 103 . It is part of the javax.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.DataSource object.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. basicly.0 optional package. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.sql.Time java. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math. This interface is. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql. time.math. Connection pooling implementation -.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.10 .

javax.http. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. 104 .io. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. Distributed transaction implementation -.lookup("java:comp/env").lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). javax.getName()).class.servlet.*.*.naming. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*.getLogger(TestDataSource.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.bank11. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlets.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax.servlet.10 .sql. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. javax.*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. java.*.ccards. 3. private DataSource theDataSource. import import import import import import java.sql. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.*.

} } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.10 ... } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { .

servlet.JSP 11 . The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The package javax.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The JSP specific interfaces. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. namely javax. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet.JSP 11.jsp and javax.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. 11. The package javax.2 the java.jsp. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet.jsp.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. If the JSP is modified. 11.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp.11 .tagext.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.1 and is related to the 2. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

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the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".JSP • if the URL does not start with / . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).11 .. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. include and taglib. 111 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11...

11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. Assigns it to available name or id.11 .2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.7. In Tomcat.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.JSP 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11.7 scripting elements 11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.

JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .the name of a bean instance. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. Attributes description: • • • name .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. you must specify param. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. and if so.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.

<jsp:plugin> actions. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .only the "true" value is supported.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the URL of the page.11 .13 the forward standard action 114 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. 11. flush . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. <jsp:forward>.

as this attribute has no default value. 11. If you do not supply a value. name="instanceName" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . as well." . You must specify either bean or applet. code="classFileName" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.the type of object the plugin will execute.11 . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . when we want to separate the application into different views..the name of a bean instance.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). It is used mainly. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. You must include the .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. . archive="URIToArchive.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.class extension in the name following code.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. name . depending on request.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 ....a name for the Bean or applet instance. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.. servlet or to a static resource.

11 . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. session . config . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.1. out . writes to the output stream to the client. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.represents server's response to the request. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. The value is a full URL. objects which are automaticly available. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . and domain name. page . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the amount of space.represents the servlet context.lang. request .16 scopes 1. in pixels. pageContext . it has java.servlet. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .PrintWriter.Object type and scope page 11. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. Must be a small nonzero number. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. of the image the applet or Bean displays. in pixels. it has javax. The default value is 1.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.JspWriter type and scope page 7.jsp.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. with a protocol name. request . 1.it represents the buffered version of java.1" .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.the initial height and width.io. based on the servlet API. application . optional port number. response .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.

session .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp file.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.init(). the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11. Object value) method 4.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. if (enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. application .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.11 . page .beans. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. Object value) method 3. Object value) method 2.ccards. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.bank11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.

private String colors[]. The SimpleBean class is declared public.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.simple. a software development and consulting company. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private int list[].11 .devsphere. %> <jsp:forward page="response.examples.string.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private boolean flag. an int. a boolean and another String). // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. SimpleBean. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private float number.mapping. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.Serializable { private String string. private String optional.io. private int integer. The public constructor could have been omitted. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .java: package com.18.register(). 11. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). a float.

} // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.colors. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.integer.integer = value.11 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.flag. } 119 .string = value.colors[index].JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.flag = value.number = value.colors = values. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.number. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.

list[index].list[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list = values. int value) { this. } } 120 . } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.colors[index] = value.optional. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.optional = value. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.subBean = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.subBean. String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.11 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.

string.11 .2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. SimpleSubBean.examples.simple.mapping.number = value.Serializable { private String string. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). private float number. } } 11. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .java: package com.io.string = value.18.devsphere. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.

string subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

"One or more items must be selected" }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. The list of optional properties has a single element. 3 } }.mapping.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. error messages.colors]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.123) }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.number]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "abc" }.simple. The default values are defined for a String. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.devsphere.list]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the processing order. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. new int[] { 2.list]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. new String[] { 123 . The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. SimpleBeanResources. a float. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".util.java: package com. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. the list of optional properties.18. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. There are three error messages. new Boolean(true) }. "An option must be selected" }.11 .integer]". The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.flag]". new Float(0. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.examples.string]". a boolean and an int[]. "One or more colors must be selected" }. the form's name and the processor's name.

mapping. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.simple.devsphere.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . string values are converted to numbers. "SimpleForm. { "[PROC_NAME]". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "subBean" } }.devsphere. } } 11. "integer". { "[FORM_NAME]".mapping. "list".examples. For a better understanding of this example.html" }. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.devsphere. "optional".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.logging.18.mapping. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. The beanToForm() method of com. new String[] { "string". "SimpleProc.devsphere.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). If necessary.jsp" } }. SimpleHndl.mapping. The formToBean() method of com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.util.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.*. "colors".11 . "number". "flag".JSP "optional" } }. com.

// Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.trim(). int slashIndex = basePath. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getTemplate(new java.util. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.lastIndexOf('/'). errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. logger). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. simpleBean.forward(request. formPath = application.equals("POST").getBeanResources(simpleBean.getClass()). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getDocument(). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.trim().11 .JSP = HandlerUtils.getString("[FORM_NAME]").io. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.File(formPath)). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.removeUserErrors(errorTable). slashIndex+1) : "".getRealPath(formPath).getString("[PROC_NAME]"). 125 .getRequestDispatcher(procPath).substring(0.getServletPath().getMethod(). response).formToBean(formData.

number = <%= simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. i < list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getString() %> <P> subBean.18.length == 0) return "". // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. // Send the form document document. i++) 126 .beanToForm(simpleBean. } %> 11.examples.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.devsphere.simple.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. document. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().JSP elements logger). if (list.length.send(out).mapping. errorTable. for (int i = 0. strbuf.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean().11 .getSubBean().append("{ "). SimpleProc.string = <%= simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.

simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.toString(). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . } strbuf.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().mapping. strbuf.examples.11 .jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.length == 0) return "". return strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.append("}").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(" ").JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append("}"). A single call to FormUtils.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.18.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. In addition.length == 1) return Integer. In addition.util. } %> 11. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. ComplexHndl. strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. Using the framework.append(" ").formToBean() call.jsp files. if (list. for (int i = 0. ComplexForm. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.append("{ "). strbuf.devsphere. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. making the testing and the debugging easier. } strbuf.append(list[i]).length. i < list. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.toString().append(list[i]). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. i++) { strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.toString(list[0]).

"number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. i < integerLabels. i < colorValues. j++) if (colors[j]. for (int i = 0. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. 128 . String colorValues[] = { "red".length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.getInteger() == value.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. "Option 3" }. "green". boolean checked = simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1. j < colors.11 . String colorLabels[] = { "Red".length. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.getColors(). "Blue" }. for (int i = 0. "Green". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Option 2".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.

"subBean.getSubBean().SimpleSubBean()). boolean selected = false. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. "Item 2". "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.examples. i++) { int value = i+1. "Item 3" }.getList().simple. break. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.length.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.11 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. i < listItems.length. if (list == null) list = new int[0].setSubBean( new com. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".JSP break.devsphere.

setString("abc").equals("POST").get(property).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getString() == null || simpleBean.devsphere.getString().examples.util. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.11 .setSubBean(simpleSubBean).length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.examples.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.Hashtable errorTable.mapping. boolean isPostMethod = request.mapping.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "subBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. } %> ComplexHndl.simple. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.simple. 130 .number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getSubBean().devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".getMethod().

"Must be filled").length() != 0) simpleBean.setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f).floatValue()).getColors().trim(). "Must be a number"). else { simpleBean. "An option must be selected"). "integer".setNumber(0.getParameter("flag"). "string". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("number"). } simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).11 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue.123f). "number". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "Must be filled"). "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (flagValue.setFlag(flagValue != null). setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 . } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.

setString(""). "One or more items must be selected").string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "One or more colors must be selected").getParameter("subBean.11 . "subBean. "Must be filled"). "Must be } //* subBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getList() == null || simpleBean.string". //* subBean. "list".number").setList(new int[] { 2. "subBean. 132 .getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getString().setOptional("").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.number". else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()). "colors".length == 0) { simpleBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.getList(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. 3 }).length() != 0) simpleSubBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.

Hashtable errorTable.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.setOptional(""). } %> 11.devsphere. simpleBean.setString(""). message).isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } } else { simpleBean. simpleBean.examples.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.util.setString("abc"). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. errorTable.helpers. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.code=com.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. simpleSubBean. simpleBean. "Must be a number").setNumber(0. The com.setFlag(true).helpers. 3 }).mapping. String property.devsphere. simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.properties or web.SimpleBean. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.jsp.devsphere. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.put(property.number". The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.simple.\ 133 .JSP filled"). String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".xml: SimpleHndl.setList(new int[] { 2.18. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.123f).11 .mapping. "subBean.

initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.host.mapping.mapping.mapping.mapping.devsphere.properties (or web.examples.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .host.devsphere.company.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.another.code=com. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.code=com. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. In many cases. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.devsphere.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A servlet can be made bean-independent.helpers.examples. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.xml) file: ServletName.18. you could add a few other lines to servlets.11 .simple.properties: AnotherHndl. If you have another bean-form pair.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.host.AnotherBean.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.helpers. a servlet is identified with its class.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. 11.

JSP 135 .11 .

Version 2. Version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. like input fields.0 supersedes version 1. processes events. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .12 . 2.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.javaserver faces 12 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 12.JAVASERVER FACES 12. which loads the appropriate view template. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. This technology includes: 1.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. builds a component tree. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.

12 .javaserver faces 12. 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.2 of the JFS specification. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.

The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. 12. For more information about columns. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. respectively. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. see the column tag documentation.12 . columns and rows. such as alternating row colors. footers.4. Common formatting techniques. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.

jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.12 .4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkout}" /> 139 . The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4.4. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. your options include using plain HTML forms.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.

4." /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .12 .</span> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.user. 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. red for error.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. 12.12 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example.5. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .

javaserver faces 12.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.12 . The body content of this tag must be empty. can publish value change events.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. 12. Any component that receives user input. validateLength. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.customer. but only if the new input is validated successfully.5.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.mycompany.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. Without this JavaScript event. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5.

welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.javaserver faces 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.mycompany. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. Example: welcome_en.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. for each locale you wish to support.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.mycompany. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If you have not specified a default locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.5. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. myJSFapp 143 . It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. including images and styles.12 .jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.

like third party jar files jsf-impl. It has a deployment descriptor. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. Create JSP pages 2.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Create properties files 144 .jar – files included in the /lib directory. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.exadel.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.contains libraries required by the application.xml – the JSF configuration file. mandatory for any JSF application web. custom tag libraries.12 .xml web.jar jsf-api.javaserver faces /ant build. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.jar faces-config. Create managed beans 4. JSP pages.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. and so on. jsf-api. static resources. Define navigation rules 3.jar.html.

<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp and greeting.jsp.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . And that's all there is to this.7.jsp file 7. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. You only need to create the JSP files.7.12 . Now that we have the two JSP pages. These files will act as place holders for now.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp to greeting. The directory structure already exists.jsp. As a diagram. we just want to go from inputname. In our application.jsp is greeting. Deploy and run the application 12. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. 12. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. we can create a navigation rule. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. Create an index.javaserver faces 5.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. You just need to create its contents. Compile the application 8.xml file.

The next line is the full class name. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.javaserver faces This is.) 12. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. a very simple navigation rule.7.1 PersonBean. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp. the second part of faces-config. of course.3 faces-config. Inside this myJFSapp folder.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. This class is straight-forward. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.3. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. we will create a PersonBean.12 .3 creating the Managed Bean Next.xml file should look like this: 146 .7.7. To read more about navigation rules. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.PersonBean.3.xml Your final faces-config.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.3.xml Now. You can easily create more complex ones. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. 12.java file.7.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. 12.

sun.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.1 messages. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.4.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.sun. Inc. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.12 . 12. 12.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.1//EN" "http://java.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7.1 inputname.7.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.sun.properties file in the bundle folder.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.

look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. Then.bundle.12 .button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.sun.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. <h:inputText value="#{msg. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.sun. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.

Create the index. name! 12.javaserver faces Line 1. That's how JSF knows where to go next.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . and also print its contents on the page..jsp page. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.xml file.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The first three lines are identical to our first page.sun. Having an index.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun. Line 6. The second line will access a Java bean.7.2 greeting.bundle. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.greeting_text}" />. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.6 creating the index. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Line 2. Creates an HTML input text box. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.5. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. specifically the bean attribute personName. Lines 3-5.7. 12.12 .</h3> tags.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

javaserver faces Now. verifies the information. We are almost done with this example.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.xml file for the application *.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). Your setup. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.sourceforge. To build the application run the build.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.7.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. 12.12 . To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.7. because in the web. 12. This is a "login" application. 12.7.jsf and not . we need to deploy it. To do this.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. 150 . might possibly be different).html .8. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. which asks an user for an ID and password.xml file. Of course.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsp. When Tomcat is done loading. you'll notice the file suffix is . This is used here. and forwards the user to a success or error page. though.

select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. your mileage may vary. 3. 7... From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. 2. 1. select the Source tab.WEB-INF 151 . note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.. see Installing & Uninstalling. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Finish 4. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. make sure all checkboxes are checked. in the wizard that appears. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. name the folder pages. and set up folders for a web application. Select Java Project. click Add Folder. jsf-login. 6.8. and to add JSF libraries to the project.src | +-. click Next d.12 . Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.. click Yes through messages that appear. 12.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. a.. click Next.xml Editor (see faces-config. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. say. 9. Enter project name.webroot | +-. click Next. name the folder webroot 5..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. The New Project wizard appears. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. c. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. in the Add JSF Support page. 10. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed..xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.. from the menubar select File/New/Other. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. Select the Amateras node. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).

8. else action = "loginFail".lib | +-. click Managed Bean.pages 12. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.LoginManager. click Add. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.xml Editor. In the Package field. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.12 . for class enter login. Click Finish. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". } return action.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. The New Java Class wizard appears. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.xml. if ( _uid. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. 3. input widgets appear d. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. The Java code editor opens. for name enter mgr. for scope select 152 .equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. a. private String _pwd = "". 2. in the Name field enter LoginManager. c.xml editor opens. } 4. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. The faces-config. b.java package login. enter login.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. 1. In Package Explorer select the src folder. from its context menu select New/Class.javaserver faces | | | +-. We then configure it to be a managed bean.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.

e.webroot/pages/error.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp). Then we create login. from its context menu select New/File.webroot/pages/success.jsp is placed directly in webroot. again. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. the JSP Editor opens.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp). <!-. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp: a. then close the editor 12.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. b. so we create them first.8.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. All pages except login.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp. index. Create success.jsp and error. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.javaserver faces session. c. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. from the menubar select File/Save. Enter the following code: <!-. for File name enter index. click Finish.jsp. Create index. success. </body> Please try 153 . the New File wizard appears.12 . enter the following code. but in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages.jsp. save the file and close the editor.jsp. Create error.webroot/index. Enter the following code: <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. 1. and 3 content pages (login.

12 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and uses them for code completion as well. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. the New wizard appears. Open the JSF palette. <%@ page contentType="text/html. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.javaserver faces </html> 4. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and choose default for Template. click Next c. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. g.sun. as shown below.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. enter jsf-login e.. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. d. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and the JSP Editor can help with code. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. Create login. now we want to add attributes to this element.. place your cursor in one of these lines. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. 154 . a code-completion window pops up. etc. (See Show View Dialog) f.sun. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.jsp: a.completion. from its context menu select New/Other. click Finish. b.jsp. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. To see this in action. and dock it along the right. for File name enter login.. with the following template code. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.

com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. and hit Enter. with the barest presentational formatting.password}" l. insert another <h:inputText> element. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . set its value to Login. select userID from the code-completion window. i. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.javaserver faces h. a code-completion window pops up. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. with bean properties available in mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.) j. insert a <h:commandButton> element. enter #{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k.12 . and hit CTRL + Spacebar. this inserts value="" at the cursor. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.loginAction} The final code.

2.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. 1. 156 . click on Page.8. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. then click inside the editor window.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. This is shown below. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Open faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. using a FacesIDE editor.xml Editor.xml. Select the Navigation tab 3.12 .

from the palette at left.jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp and /pages/error. 6. and set them to /pages/login. in the Properties view.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. add 3 more pages. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). select Navigation Case. change the value of path to /index. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp.jsp. then click first on the icon for login. This is shown below: 157 . Its properties appear in the Properties view. /pages/success. 5.12 . "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp 4.

You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. Similarly add a forward-action from login. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.javaserver faces 7. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. 1.xml for the specifics of our application. and you should be sent to the success page. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.jsp. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.jsp to error. open web. 12. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.xml.xml Here we edit web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . all we need do in web. The application is now complete. and extension-based mapping is turned on.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. since we have such a trivial application. We want virtual path-based mapping.xml.12 . Once deployed browse to index. or leave it as-is.6 Editing web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.jsp. so uncomment it. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. As it turns out.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. We'll set some properties in web.8.jsp.

and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces. as file:///.faces.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.0 1..event javax.faces.application javax. scroll down to Deploy. 12.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces javax.component.component javax.javaserver faces 12. that factory is used.faces..faces.faces. click Deploy 3. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. start Tomcat. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.convert javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.context javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login.html javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces.faces.model javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 ..faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.el javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.validator javax.render javax.10 the javax. open its Manager application in a browser.lifecycle javax.8.12 .faces. the Manager application should reload. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.webapp 12. For a given factory class name.

those factories are used.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . ViewHandlerWrapper . 12. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. StateManagerWrapper . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. FacesMessage . with the last one taking precedence. handling events and input validation. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.12 . defining page navigation. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. If none of the above steps yield a match.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.11 the javax.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .faces. ApplicationFactory . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. with the last one taking precedence.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. FacesMessage. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.Severity . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. ViewHandler . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.represents a single validation (or other) message. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. StateManager .

implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. ValueHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. ContextCallBack .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.context. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. UIComponent . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. UIComponentBase . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. Here they are: • • UIColumn .faces.faces. • • 161 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. StateHolder . String) results in failure on postback.FacesContext.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. • ViewExpiredException .restoreView(javax.12 the javax. a menu item. or a hyperlink. UICommand .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.12 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. 12. String. ActionSource2 .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. NamingContainer . EditableValueHolder . when activated by the user. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.

UISelectMany . identified by a clientId.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. by storing it as the value property of the component. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UISelectBoolean . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UIParameter . UIGraphic . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UISelectOne . UIViewRoot . UISelectItem . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. it is for display purposes only. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. it is for display purposes only.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. The user can modify the selected values. UINamingContainer .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.13 the java.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. Optionally.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIOutput .12 .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIForm . it just serves as the root of the component tree. This component has no rendering. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. The user can modify the selected value. UIInput . UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UIMessage .faces. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. Optionally. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIPanel .component.html package 162 . The user cannot manipulate this component.

the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML form element. HtmlDataTable .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlOutputLabel .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.by default. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlColumn .by default.represents an HTML input element of type text. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML label element. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlForm . HtmlInputSecret .faces.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. and renders the result. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. On a redisplay.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlInputText . or not. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlPanelGrid . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.Message".represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlOutputFormat .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlCommandLink . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. but the application wishes to render more than one.12 .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlGraphicImage .faces.represents an HTML textarea element. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.renders the component value as text. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML img element. HtmlMessages . The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlOutputText . HtmlPanelGroup . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlMessage .renders child components in a table. HtmlOutputLink . This component must be placed inside a form.

faces. FacesContextFactory .convert package 164 .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectOneRadio . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . showing a single available option at a time. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. In particular.15 the java. It is passed to. and the rendering of the corresponding response. ResponseWriterWrapper . and potentially modified by. showing a single available option at a time.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.javaserver faces property. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.12 . HtmlSelectOneListbox . HtmlSelectManyListbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseStream . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. • • • • 12. • • • • • • 12.14 the java. ResponseWriter .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneMenu . FacesContext .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectManyMenu .faces.

15.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. Classes: MethodBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. PropertyResolver .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.faces.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.16 the java.javaserver faces 12. • • • • 165 . 12.12 . ValueBinding . VariableResolver . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.

MethodNotFoundException .12 . and event implementation classes. 166 .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . ReferenceSyntaxException .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .faces.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • • One exception .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. PhaseEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. Interfaces: ActionListener . FacesEvent . PhaseListener .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.AbortProcessingException .17 the java. FacesListener .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseId .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. ValueChangeListener . PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. ValueChangeEvent .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). • • • • 12.

ListDataModel .faces. DataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.19 the java.faces. SelectItem .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. SelectItemGroup .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. Renderer . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).20 the java.javaserver faces 12. Classes: ArrayDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.12 . DataModelEvent . ResultSetDataModel . 12. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. ScalarDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.18 the java.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .faces. ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.

and/or user Locale. • • 12. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.12 . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. The package contains an exception.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. base classes for JSP custom component tags. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.21 the java.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.faces. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. ResponseStateManager . including a standard servlet. as well. Typically. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.22 the java. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. AttributeTag .validator package Interface defining the validator model. ConverterTag . RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. and concrete validator implementation classes. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .represents a collection of Renderer instances that. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). 12. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. RenderKitFactory .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . markup language.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . • RenderKit .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. LongRangeValidator .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. together.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.faces.

servlets. the controller is the 169 . UIComponentBodyTag . the controller sends a message to the view. Also. UIComponentTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). the process includes a few more components or pages. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). which has several implications.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. When the model is updated. When the user takes some action with the presentation. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. the life cycle is more complicated. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. FacetTag . you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. 12. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. or some other web technology. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. • • • • • FacesServlet . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. the controller sends a message to the model. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. Likewise. In JSF. that request is passed to the container. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. or when an exception occurs. In MVC. When using JSF. related to a UIComponent.a base class for all JSP custom actions. telling the model to update its data. that need to process their tag bodies. ValidatorTag .javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. but basically. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.12 . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. When a web server receives a request. which passes the request to the page class.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. telling the view to update its presentation.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.

and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests.12 . 170 . the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. In addition. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the conversion occurs in this phase. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. • Invoke Application: During this phase. is validated at this time. The components are stored in a component tree. In addition. Data for some components. or from request headers. These objects update their state with the data values. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. and what happens during the processing and response. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. the JSF implementation must create the view. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). If this is the client’s first visit to a page. depending on the request. As with the previous phase. If this is a subsequent request. converting a String to a Date object). However. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and the response is sent to the client. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. and a piece of data failed validation. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the UI components are the view. not every request will flow through all six phases. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. For a JSF-enabled application. it creates UI objects for each view component.javaserver faces JSF implementation. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. It updates only the UI components with the new data. from cookies sent as part of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below.

javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases. 171 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.12 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. For example. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.48. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.COM. When using almost any computer program or system. The UNIX pathname. and NIS(YP). In addition.5). It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. you are always naming one object or another.13 .COM. For example. in turn. To access a file in the computer. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. possibly multiple.2. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. /usr/hello.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. 13.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. naming and directory services using a common API. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. or objects typically used by computer programs.JNDI 13 . with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. 172 . c:\bin\autoexec. It enables applications to access different. names a file hello in the file directory usr. which is located in the root of the file system. Using JNDI. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.sun. 13. DNS. such as LDAP. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. identifiers. NDS.9. For example.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. Thus the DNS name sales. when you use an electronic mail system. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. For example. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. A file system maps a filename (for example. you must supply its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.JNDI 13.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. you supply it the name of the object.Wiz. The DNS entry Wiz. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. for example. such as addresses.").

an LDAP entry.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. A printer object reference. 13.2. which in turn. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. for example. By contrast. is a context. Every context has an associated naming convention. for example. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time.2. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. delimited by the comma character (".c=us.").3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. Instead. 13. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. such as its print server name and printing protocol. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. A reference is information about how to access an object. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. unbinding names. For example. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. Typically. that is. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. on the other hand. and its flight number and departure time. A printer object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. a DNS domain. For example. For example. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. such as COM. some objects cannot be stored directly. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. For example. in a file directory /usr/bin. might contain the state of the printer. relative to the entry o=Sun.13 . A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. also called a file handle. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. its flight plan. In another example. is accessed using a file reference.2. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. in the UNIX file system is a context. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). and listing bound names.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. For simplicity. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. Finally. a file name is bound to a file. is a context. is relative to c=us. such as /usr.COM. Using the reference. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. they must be stored by reference. A file object. that is. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. in the DNS domain Sun. That is. For example. while the object itself might contain more state information. 13. such as c=us. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. 173 . and fuel and instrument status. a file directory. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. o=Sun.

because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. postal mail address. programs. a person. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A directory object can be used.2. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. and even the computer itself and other computers. one context can be viewed.3. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. for example. to some extent. various telephone numbers. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. however. and color. resolution. and computer account information. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to represent a printer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. or a network.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. And it kind of makes sense. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. For example. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. Thus. a name is unique 13. For example. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. 13. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).13 . identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. For example. For example. a computer.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. two different computer 174 . in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. because we can. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.

adding. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. such as those based on the LDAP. networks.3. 13. 13. For example. such as the file and print services. for example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. 13. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. can use the directory in the traditional way. the ability to access directory services will become essential. The email address. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. 175 . such as that relating to machines. A Java mail client program. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. that is. When you search. support the notion of searches. an organization object. printers. Within the DIT. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. Many examples of directory services are possible. The service is accessed through its own interface. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. called a directory information tree (DIT). "mail" is the attribute identifier. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.13 . When directory objects are arranged in this way. By using a directory service. removing.113.smith@somewhere. 13.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. and users. The query is called a search filter.3.50".2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Similarly. many directories.com". Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.3. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. like any other program running on the network. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. 13. for example. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. for example.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.4. Alternatively. For example.

13.1 and the Java 2 SDK.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. emerging.naming. v1.2. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.ldap 176 . and even the network. 13. 13. The Java 2 SDK. v1.directory javax.naming javax. v1. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1.naming. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.3 and later releases.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. Thus a variety of directories--new.5. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. To use the JNDI.naming.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.event javax. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. For example. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5. It extends the v1.1 and Java 2 SDK. For example.2. more coherent and manageable. v1.13 .1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).4.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.

) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.13 . A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.naming package defines a Context interface. binding/unbinding. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.String name. 13. printer.6.spi 13.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. For example. and it returns the object bound to that name. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .lookup("treekiller"). 13. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. 13. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. the name of the object's class. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.1 context The javax.lang. In this case.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. that is.print(report). comparing components. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.lang.6 the naming package The javax. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. 13.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Furthermore.JNDI • javax.6. However. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. A java. For the methods in the Context interface. composing them.6. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.naming. and so on. a 177 .String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. list() is similar to listBindings(). The overloads that accept java. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. for some objects in the directory. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. which is the core interface for looking up. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. and the object itself.String name argument represents a composite name.lang. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.

Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. In the simplest and most common form of usage. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. For example. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. they should catch NamingException.directory package extends the javax. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. Otherwise. 178 .6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).13 . 13. replace. 13. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.7.6. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13.naming. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). Once you have an initial context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. There are no absolute roots. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.7.6.7 directory package The javax.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. You can add. InitialContext.

Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. or unsolicited notifications. In fact.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. For example. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . To receive event notifications. such as "object changed.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. 13. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. called controls .9. such as information about the object before and after the change.8 event package The javax.directory package. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.9 LDAP package The javax. These operations are called "extended" operations. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. that is. and vice versa.naming." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.naming. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.9. Once registered.13 . Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. 13.ldap package at all. For example. such as "object added.naming.9. 13. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.naming. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail." and those that do not.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.JNDI 13. 13. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. controls.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.

3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. if you look up a printer name from the directory.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10 service provider package The javax. It uses a service provider for the file system. import javax. 180 . for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. sending request controls. That is. In the process of completing an operation.2 java object support The javax. 13. This support is provided in the form of object factories. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.10. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.naming. This support is provided in the form of state factories. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.java.11.10. 13.1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming package. implementors of Context.Context.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.13 . Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 13.10. and receiving response controls.spi package supports implementors of Context. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. For example.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. 13. create a file named Lookup. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.9.

lookup(name). try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).put(Context.5 compiling the program Next. env. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.NamingException. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. v1. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.jndi.3 looking up an Object Next. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.java). 181 .println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). 13. then the JNDI classes are already included. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.jar as an installed extension. } 13. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.sun.11. Object obj = ctx. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. 13. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.JNDI import javax. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). If the compilation fails.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. create an initial context. If you are still having problems. If the compilation succeeds. use Context. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.11. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Otherwise.11.out. you must have access to the JNDI classes.InitialContext. For this reason.lookup() to look up an object.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.err. using the capitalization shown.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. as follows. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). // Print it System.naming.11. 13.naming.lookup(name).13 .3.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. import javax. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. To compile to program. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. "com.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory").

Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming and javax.put(Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.13 .InitialDirContext.java.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.directory. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").PROVIDER_URL. "com. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.ldap.12. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. javax.LdapCtxFactory"). then you will see something like the following. 182 .naming. v1.directory. you need access to the JNDI classes.NamingException.naming. supply the name of a file in your file system. Finally.12.6 running the program To run the program.Attributes. include the directory that contains your Lookup.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.sun.directory.directory packages.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. create a file named Getattr.naming. the file system service provider.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.sun. create an initial directory context. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.naming.class). javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.3.fscontext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). javax.naming. 13.JNDI 13.11.jar and providerutil. javax.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.jar).bat If you supply a file directory. import import import import import javax. and your example class (Lookup. env. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. To run the program. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.Context. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.DirContext.put(Context.jndi. env.naming.jndi. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. 13.

If you are still having problems.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. 13. compile the source file using the Java compiler. As with the naming example.13 .out. } catch (NamingException e) { System.err. } 13.get()).JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). For now. If the compilation succeeds. Similar to the naming example. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.6 compiling the program Next.12.get("sn"). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.get(). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. using the capitalization shown. 13.get() and then from that attribute get its value.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.get() on it to get its value: attrs. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.println("sn: " + attrs. For this reason. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.java).3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. ou=People").5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. 13.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. If the compilation fails. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People"). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. Attributes. 183 . try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.12. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.

Getattr.13 .12. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. then these classes are already included.7 running the program As with the naming example. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.jar and providerutil. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.JNDI 13. ou=People". env. then see the Common Problems lesson.jar). Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. 184 . With this configuration. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. If you have any trouble running this example.3.PROVIDER_URL.class. v1.put(Context. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). Once it has the attributes.

In this model.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. Enterprise Edition. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS producer . JMS client . JMS message .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS queue . JMS topic . JMS consumer .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. As the name queue suggests. Here. unless it has established a durable 185 . the messages are delivered in the order sent. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). • 14. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.a JMS client that receives messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.14 .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.

1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. 14. 14.4. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Using Java. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.3 the JMS API programming model 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 186 .jms. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. Depending on the type of message.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. On the receiving side.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. In that case. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.

3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you must close any connections that you have created. 14.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Before your application can consume messages. Connections implement the Connection interface. For example.4. Depending on the connection type. you must call the connection's start() method. It receives messages sent to a destination.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. For example. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. In a J2EE application. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.close().14 . It is either a queue or a topic. you call the stop() method. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. 14. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. Before an application completes. connection. The JMS administrator creates these objects.createConnection(). connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. Like the connection factory.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. and users discover them using JNDI. 14.4. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .

receive(1000). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). Message m = consumer. however. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. connection.createConsumer(myTopic).start().createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. After you have created a message consumer. This method is valid only if you are using a topic.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.createConsumer(myQueue). a message listener object may be used. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. For example. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. which contains one method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. In the onMessage() method. usually expect a specific message type and format. it becomes active.14 . a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you are likely to miss messages. if it needs to reply to messages. Moreover. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. A message listener does. 14. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. and you can use it to receive messages.start(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.4. 188 . which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. consumer. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. Message m = consumer. For example.receive(). onMessage(). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. (Remember always to call the start() method. This object implements the MessageListener interface. After you register the message listener. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.) When message delivery begins. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. MessageConsumer consumer = session. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You use the Session.setMessageListener(myListener).

the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. message).4.14 . 14. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. if you created an unidentified producer. and object message). It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.setText(msg_text). You must first create the messages. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.4. A message has three main parts: 1. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. from one application to another. that is. bytes message. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer.createProducer(myTopic).send(myQueue.send(message). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. MessageProducer producer = session. // msg_text is a String producer. stream message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.createTextMessage(). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. For example. With an unidentified producer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 189 .7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.createProducer(null). anon_prod.send(message). map message. message. Here. 3. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. to create and send a TextMessage.receive(). After you have created a message producer. At the consuming end. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.createProducer(myQueue).

createSession(true. Here. use the following code: Session session = connection. After you create a Connection object. Session. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. then delivers the messages. 0). The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.14 . meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. 190 . the first argument means that the session is transacted. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. To create a transacted session.println("Reading message: " + message.createSession(false.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). } else { // Handle error } 14. If the user selects transaction support. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. and message consumers to receive messages. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Sessions implement the Session interface. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Before committing the transaction.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.out.getText()). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.4.

consistent error handling framework .0.jar file into the application server. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .transaction management can be complex. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . server which provides an execution environment for containers.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .object oriented representation of data in a DB.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. bundled into a single unit. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . The component lives inside a container. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. the container lives (in general) in an application server. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . container which offers services to the component.logging. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.15 .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .0.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . On the other side. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. component recovery scalability portability 191 .DB interaction transactions . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. message-driven beans The 2. improved performance security .no developer coding. Version 1. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the deployment descriptor. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. called ejb-jar. the home interface of the bean 3.xml 15.15 .4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the remote interface of the bean 4. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. as follows: 1. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. which is an xml file.

void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. } 193 . called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. The developer does not implement this interface. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. RemoteException. String lastName. int custId) throws RemoteException.javax.RemoteException.*. import. import java.ejb. While the Remote interface declares no methods.*.rmi. import java.rmi. } 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.RemoteException. import.javax.15 .ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.

} 194 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. how to create or find the bean 2. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. "localhost:1099").NamingContextFactory". Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.15 . getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). this can be done (for example) through SSL. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.PROVIDER_URL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.put(Context. prop. if the client executes outside the container. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.interfaces. we need to know: 1.jnp.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. creating them for the client application. "org. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. prop. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. In the case of an web application.put(Context. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().

do not have the concept of casting. Problem is. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. Why? For EJB..lookup("MyBean").Remote interface). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.narrow(homeRef. more specifically.rmi.15 . that is part of CORBA standards. This is done through the javax. Some languages. • if the client executes outside the container. in fact. 195 . and this means that there are some limitations. using the narrow() method. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. but for generic languages. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.rmi.rmi. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.e.PortableRemoteObject class and.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. the client has a stub). IIOP has not been designed for Java. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. MyBeanHome. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. to the appropriate type. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.class). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. do implements the java.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). in fact.

Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.create()..ejbeans.bank11. int custId) { // method implementation .ejb.. String lastName. call business methods on the bean myObject.processEntry("Dumitrascu".. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejb. import javax. as well).ccards.15 . } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . remove the bean instance myObject. public class MyBean implements javax.remove().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. "Vasile".SessionContext. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. 15. 1102).

namely stateful and stateless beans. 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 15.15 . The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 15.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. the object is activated. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. that is.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. A stateless bean does not. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.

allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the EJB container activates the bean. or passivate. (Typically. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.1 are invoked by the EJB container. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. 198 .1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. 15.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the client invokes the remove method. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and then moves it to the ready stage. For example.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. At the end of the life cycle. The ejbCreate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. All other methods in Figure 15. is inside the bean class. for example. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 .

For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). maintaining a cache between transactions 4.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 . The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. support for concurrent access 3. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.

Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. CreateException. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. all throwing RemoteException.lang. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. methods which have the same parameters. Read. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. We can have more create() methods.bank11.15 .14. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. On the other side. as the parameters in the original create() method.ccards.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. an instance of that bean is created. state data is stored into data store (usually. 200 . an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. 15. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. Update and Delete. in the same order.

but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. On the first path. 15. but the developer returns null for CMP. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. for BMPs.14. it's business methods can be invoked.15 . 201 . the client invokes the create method. After instantiation. Second. left empty most of the time in CMP. On the second path. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. While in the pooled stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. in BMP. for BMP. a client can invoke the remove method. the programmer will create actual SQL code. but in general. not null. First. After the EJB container creates the instance. actual SQL update code.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. All instances in the pool are identical.14. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it is empty. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).2 read • • • ejbLoad().14. 15.

the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. In the pooled state. Therefore.15 . 202 .or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.getPrimaryKey(). The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . another enterprise bean. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.an application client. If the primary key is incorrect. With bean-managed persistence.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. In the pooled state. or a Web component . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. it does not automatically set the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.

rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. Unlike a session or entity bean. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. 203 . message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. In several respects. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. To avoid tying up server resources. The onMessage method may call helper methods. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16. 15. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.16. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.16. To ensure concurrency. 15.for example. Previously.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. If this element is set to more than one. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . the message will be redelivered. a JMS API connection. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. message-driven bean can be used.15 . a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. an open database connection. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. For more information on this element see.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.16. If message processing is rolled back. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. but not asynchronously. max-beans-infree-pool. When a message arrives. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.

or create a new one. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. Note: These instances can be pooled. 3.} // onMessage() is required. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.. 15. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.16..Message MessageName) {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. finalize{}. Obtain a new bean instance.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.jms.Message.16. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.jms. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Classes. and it must not // accept parameters.16.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. As with other EJB types. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. public void ejbRemove() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.. methods. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. // An EJB constructor is required. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..15 . 15.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . and must take a single parameter of // type javax. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 2. public void onMessage(javax.ejb.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification.}. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.

message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types.onMessage() for more information. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. 15. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16.15 .MessageListener.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.This is not a client context.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. getUserTransaction(). 15. getRollbackOnly() .16. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. For example. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). If any method throws such an exception.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. 15. See javax. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.16. However. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().jms. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). even in onMessage(). if the EJB throws a runtime exception).16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().

Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. as required by the EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. as described in the EJB 2. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.16.0 specification. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.15 . WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.16.0 specification. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.xml. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. 15. In either case. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.

• • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.ejb20.message..MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . </message-driven> .17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.jms. 15..xml elements. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.xml deployment file.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.0 specification. the weblogic-ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 207 ... • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. For each instance. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 2. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. as described in the EJB 2. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. 15.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. the container calls the ejbRemove method.security issues. the remote interface name 8. At the end of the life cycle. entity specific elements 10. security 208 . the home interface name 7. a message-driven bean is never passivated.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. EJB class name 5.like transaction. attributes . bean home name . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. control descriptors . here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. environment properties 6. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. isolation level.15 . access control entries .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. session specific elements 9. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.

ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.bank11.bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.ejb.bank11.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.15 .bank11.ejb.ccards.lang.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .lang. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

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