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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


like HTML pages. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. 5 .java platform. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. retail. are not considered web components.1 . and sends it back to the client program. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. or finance. Figure 1.7 business components Business code.2 Server communication 1. processes it (if necessary). Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. 1. like the client tier. processes it (if necessary). enterprise edition Figure 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. The web tier. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.

1. or application client component can be executed. resource pooling. 1. enterprise edition Figure 1. and other complex low-level details. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. enterprise bean. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.9. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.java platform. For example. mainframe transaction processing. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Business and EIS Tiers 1. Before a web. In addition. 6 . database systems.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). multithreading. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.9 java EE Containers Normally.3 Web. and other legacy information systems.1 .1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 7 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. and remote connectivity. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. including services such as security.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. data persistence. transaction management. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.9. 1. database connection resource pooling.1 . enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. After an enterprise bean is created.4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. For example. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.java platform.

For example. Applet container . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. 8 .1 . Application clients and their container run on the client.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. text-based standard for representing data.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. 1. or for document-oriented web services. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. maps.java platform. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. program files. Application client container . When XML data is exchanged between parties. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. extensible. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.manages the execution of application client components. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. video. 1. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. test. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. enterprise edition Figure 1. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. develop. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Web container .manages the execution of applets. XML data.10. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.

1. enterprise edition 1. The description includes the name of the service. such as Universal Description.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10.10.1 .java platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 9 .11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.10.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 1. the location of the service. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. and ways to communicate with the service.

A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. the session bean and its data are gone. enterprise edition Figure 1. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. or enterprise bean. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.11. When the client finishes executing.java platform. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.11. In Java EE 5.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. you employ a single. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. or if the server shuts down. 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. standard set of tags. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.11. 1.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. If the client terminates. Commonly. WML. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.1 . entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11. and XML) and JSP elements. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. JSP page. SAAJ. a module. Once deployed on a local platform. No extra coding is needed.1 . the application is ready to run. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or a component. it is ready to be deployed. module. such as better performance. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. or better customer support. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . servlet. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. At runtime. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. 15 . it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. JTA. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. and JNDI 1.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system.java platform.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. better tools. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. or component accordingly.ear extension.

A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.war (Web ARchive) extension. which contain servlet class files. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. supporting class files. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. native libraries. • • 16 . An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. Resource adapter modules.jar extension. enterprise edition Figure 1. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. such as caching directives. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. for example.1 . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. GIF and HTML files. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . For example.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor.jar extension.java platform. Application client modules. and other documentation. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. JSP files. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. Web modules. Together. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. classes.

. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. as follows: 1. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). POST.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.w3. an initial line 2. The client sends a request message to the server.2 . but they also have some common structural elements. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. was the object of several RFCs. check the official HTTP site – www. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet..3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. zero or more header lines 3.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.HTTP 2 .) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . The second (and last.org/Protocols . .. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.1.org/rfc/rfc1945. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. namely HTTP 1.com/easy/http. HEAD.html). RFC 2616 (06/99). so far) version.HTTP 2. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).. 2. The server answers with a response message. These messages may have different contents.apps. we recommend www.ietf. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .jmarshall.

OPTIONS 7.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.2 . POST 4. DELETE 6. 18 . HTTP/1. TRACE Three other commands are listed.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. 2.html HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. GET 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. Here is their list: 1. in the HTTP 1. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. mailing list.0). there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.1 specification.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. HEAD 3. but lack of support makes them obsolete. PUT 8. . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . as well. GET /path/to/the/file/index. CONNECT 5. newsgroup. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.Annotation of existing resources.1.

separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. after the “?” character. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.2 . separated by the character “&” or “.6 differences between GET and POST 1. or a record is subordinate to a database.Providing a block of data. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. 3. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. 2. to a data-handling process. . while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. such as the result of submitting a form.Extending a database through an append operation. . In this case. or ordering a product. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. When used for form data submission. while POST may involve anything. like storing or updating data.0 404 Not Found 2.” On the other side. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. or in the message body. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. or sending E-mail 2. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .8 the status code A three-digit integer. (encoded as multipart/form-data).HTTP or similar group of articles. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1.

500 Server Error . out of which. that is. In a request.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. The HTTP 1. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.the request succeeded.1 version specifies 46 of them. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.0. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. The most common use of the message body is in a response. none of them mandatory. where the requested resource is returned to the client. while the HTTP 1. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. If an HTTP message includes a body. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. one (Host) is mandatory. separated a semicolon. 20 . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. 2.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . and the resulting resource (e. header name and header value. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. In particular. Although the header names are not case sensitive. file or script output) is returned in the message body.g.0 version specifies 16 headers. fails. 404 Not Found . such as text/html or image/jpg.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. and section 10 for HTTP 1. header values are.1).1 only) .the requested resource doesn't exist. or otherwise can't run correctly. 2.2 .an unexpected server error. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.

with subtypes jpeg.org/rfc/rfc1521.ro/path/file. audio. alternative.ro. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .uvt. with subtypes octet-stream. external-body 4. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. partial.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.2 .HTTP 2. multipart.ietf. postscript 5.0 From: someuser@yahoo. . digest. 21 . with subtypes rfc822. video.0 200 OK Date: Fri.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtype basic 7. with subtype mpeg 2.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.info.apps.info. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. Then. image.html first open a socket to the host web.html HTTP/1.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.uvt. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. gif 6. RFC 1521 (www. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. message. with subtypes mixed. 1. with subtype plain 2. Here is the list of the seven types. application. text. parallel 3.

22 .2 . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket.HTTP .

All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. www.org/Markup .apps.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.com/easy/html .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.HTML 3.99.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a revision of 4. The latest version (XHTML 2.html. The first version of HTML.html) and was widely supported.com/indexdot/html . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.htmlgoodies.0) dates from 08.01) can be found at this address: http://www.HTML 3 . As a practical reference site use – www.0 draft was released in 01.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. From 1999 on.jmarshall. check the official HTML site – www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . HTML 3. The first official version – HTML 2. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. The newest version of HTML is 4. However.2 (3.0 . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.01. HTML describes how text.3 . Since it fits in a couple of pages. Other helpful sites . A newer standard. The XHTML 1. Version 4. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0 and was accepted in December 1997. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. a working draft for the next major revision.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. namely HTML 1.org/rfc/rfc1866. Originally named Web Applications 1. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. Mosaic. 3.w3c.0.com/tutors. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0.www. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.blooberry. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).w3.ietf.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.

implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.3 .

the chinese character for water. three DTDs (HTML 4.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. This section deals with some of the most common elements. An example: <!-. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. CONTROLS." (in hexadecimal) . A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. You get the point. <><> --> 25 . with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. VSAPCE are omitted.0 contains an SGML declaration.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. "&#x6C34. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. the specification of HTML 4. 3. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Overall. 4.acesta este un comentariu. 3. DYNSRC.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. “&quot”. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. look at these examples: “&lt”. like ALIGN. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. BORDER. though. HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. …. Check the address http://www.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.0 Strict DTD.3 .w3.01 specification. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.0 Transitional DTD. If you wonder what a character reference is. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.and end at the first occurrence of -->. HTML 4.

uvt.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3 .info.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.ro/webmail/src/login. etc.HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. NAME.3. image. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.5 tables 26 . indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3.

Usually. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. its rows. Here is a an example of a table: 3.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.3 . the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. columns. <TR>. <TH> and <TD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is their description and attributes.

7 forms A form is a basic component container. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 .

specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". SIZE . Main attributes: • TYPE .8.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. after a quotation mark . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.HTML • METHOD .info. "GET" . Example: http://web.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.8.8. 3.required.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "radio". "image". Main attributes: 29 .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "password".8 form related elements 3.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".if specified. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. specifies how data will be sent to the server. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .required. the browser appends the values to the URL. "checkbox". "hidden". may have the values GET or POST.?. however. • 3. "button". "reset". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. NAME .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.the default value. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "submit".maximum number of options visible to the user.3 . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .:. allows multiple selections from the choice list. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . specifies the parameter name.sends the form values in a single transmission. "text/plain" • • 3. "file".uvt. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.required.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

To overcome this significant shortage.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. 4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. -g : generate all debugging info.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.java.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. the compilation process occurs.class 3. Java bytecode – a file with extension . jit From source to execution. Example: Edit the file prog1.95. The first time a class is loaded.class file. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.JAVA PRIMER 4 .. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. Inc.java 2.3 java applications 31 .2 version.0.4 . In terms of execution time. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. but next time execution is much faster. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1. Java source – a file with extension . a tool named Just In Time compiler. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.4.90.JAVA PRIMER 4.) in 08. Early versions of Java were released in 12.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. project started in 12. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.95. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The current version (as of 10. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.2 java the interpreter.java One example of command line compilation: 4.class. javac -classpath .C:\TW\mySource. The current version (as of 10.class file.

as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.java. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . or is derived from A. Generally. In general. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.4. or that it extends A).4 object oriented concepts 4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. 4.4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4 .1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). An example: 32 .jar file.

In OO jargon.4. 33 .JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. namely: Byte. Integer.4 . While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. 4. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Character. providing its own implementation. In fact. Float.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. Therefore. Short. a Java class can extend a single base class. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. with the root the class Object. this is called method overloading.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Double. a class can have more than one method with the same name. called Object.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . 4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Therefore. Boolean. Long.4.1 bit char . provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.

the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .the class is visible from any class. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).HttpServlet implements Serializable { .does not have any subclasses. Except for the "package" concept.http.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. automatic garbage collection. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . which extends the class javax.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.. } declares an abstract class.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. 4. 34 . no templates. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. anywhere abstract . has the same value for all class instances.one which is constant method .servlet. A final: • • • variable . rather than at class instance. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. class . • • • • no specifier .4 .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. inherited).http.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.servlet. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .one which is defined at class level.access from any class anywhere private . A final variable (method.no access from outside the class itself protected .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.

4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7. In Java. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. java errors .7. division by 0. programmer defined exceptions 4.4 .ThreadDeath. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.like invalid cast. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. code or data errors . an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. 4. 4.7. as defined in the java. Exception categories: 1. array index out of bounds. standard method exceptions 3. 4. 2. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. not at execution time.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.

1 Package names The default package has no name. . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). 4.Properties.sql java. 4.default.bank11.support for java archives creation java..zip . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. followed by the import statements. the default package is used).support for event handling java.security 36 .lang (automatically available).event . As a general rule.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. date and time info java. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.lang .sql. The package containing the standard classes is java.support for data collections.4 . they have to be unique inside a package.geom .util .this can be done by providing a try. 4.nio java.awt . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. An example: package com.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . therefore.by adding the key word throws. finally construct.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. All other packages must be explicitly imported.8. the class (the . don't have to import java. catch.java. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . import javax.support for user interface java. import..rmi java.net java. string analyzers.io java.awt. In the example above. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.util.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.servlets.awt.*.util. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.ccards.class file.

support for event handling 4. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).swing .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.text javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing. static and final.accessibility javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.4 . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.event . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. 37 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. All variables (actually. it must be declared as abstract.

the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . like QtScript or ActionScript. However.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.5 . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript statement like this: document. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. and . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. then LiveScript and finally.HTML authors are normally not programmers.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. 5.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.JAVASCRIPT 5. Subsequently. as JavaScript. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. other 38 . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. This is not always what we want. The origins of this language date back to 1995.depending on the browser .javaScript 5 .

go in the head section.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. point to the . When you place a script in the head section..js file extension. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . To simplify this.5 . 39 .3. Save the external JavaScript file with a .. 5..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. </script> </body> 5. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </head> 5. or when an event is triggered..2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script..3.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.

. namely – if . in and the try .. 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. 5. 5.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .4. else..5 .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.. The code in the body of the for . break..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.1 JavaScript for. catch constructs. while() it is worth mentioning the for ..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.5. switch().4... while(). for()..4.4.javaScript 5.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".In statement The for.. continue.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". in loop is executed once for each element/property.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.

. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. mycars[2] = "BMW"..0..catch statement The try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . Mozilla 1. an array element.5.catch statement (available in IE5+..5.. or a property of an object. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. var mycars = new Array().2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. Example Using for.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. When users see errors. The try block contains the code to be run.3 try. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. mycars[0] = "Saab".5 .. } </script> </body> </html> 5. mycars[1] = "Volvo". we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. for (x in mycars) { document.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. so you don't lose your audience.. they often leave the Web page.

5 .\n\n". 5. Syntax: 42 . txt+="Error description: " + err. alert(txt).6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). txt+="Click OK to continue. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Also. When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.description + "\n\n".7 popup boxes 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n".

If the user clicks "OK". If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Now. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . If the user clicks "Cancel". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.5 . in the <head> section. the box returns true. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the box returns null. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5."defaultvalue") 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. When a prompt box pops up.. Syntax: prompt("sometext". in the example above had not been written within a function. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.js file). When a confirm box pops up. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.8.7. If the user clicks "Cancel".7. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. the box returns false. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.8 functions 5.

b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.5 . etc are variables or values passed into the function.var2.. So. and how they are used. and will be stored in the variable called product.varX) { some code } var1.9.write(txt.. var2. 5..3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. document.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.length). 5.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.javaScript function functionname(var1.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.8.. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.9 javaScript objects 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". 5. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.

</script> 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. document.javaScript 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects.5 .toUpperCase()). In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". which will be specified in the next section. 45 .9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.write(str. The other class are the language specific objects.

w3schools. every Link on the page is an Object. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. When an event message has been triggered. as well). Properties FF: Firefox. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.11.com/jsref/default. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . At its most basic level. check the site http://www. which are called Objects. For example. or when the user interacts with a Web page.asp 5. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. Even this Document itself is an Object.5 . This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. N: Netscape. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Image on the page is an Object.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape.5 .2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.11. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. as a four-digit number.5 . depending on the browser. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to universal time. according to Greenwich time.5 . according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. according to local time.

var myNum=new Number(number). Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 .11.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 .5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .

5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 . Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . N: Netscape.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 .11.

1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 2. 0. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.434) Returns PI (approx. N: Netscape. 3.11.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.y) min(x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 2. 0.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.javaScript 5.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 1.y) pow(x. 0.

personObj. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.12. height. etc. skin tone.eyecolor="blue". with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. All persons have these properties.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.12.lastname="Doe".firstname="John".eyecolor="blue". personObj. work(). eye color.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.age=30. weight.write(personObj.lastname="Doe". The persons' methods could be eat(). Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj. personObj. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.firstname).2 Methods An object can also contain methods. age.5 .javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. sleep().3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). 53 . age. Properties are the values associated with the object. 5. personObj. personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.firstname="John". lastname. play(). personObj.you can give it properties named firstname.age=50. Objects also have methods. Assume that the personObj already exists .12. The persons' properties include name. etc. document.

lastname. this.lastname=new_lastname. this.lastname=lastname. like this: myFather=new person("John".javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.50. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. You can also add some methods to the person object. this.12. } Notice that the template is just a function.eyecolor=eyecolor.age.eyecolor=eyecolor."blue"). this. 5. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. you can create new instances of the object. 54 . this.age."Rally". That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.48.lastname=lastname.propertyName. myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor) { this. Once you have the template.firstname=firstname.eyecolor) { this.age=age.newlastname=newlastname.age=age."Doe". this. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.5 . The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.lastname.eat=eat."green"). Inside the function you need to assign things to this.firstname=firstname. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).

5 ..13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.".newlastname("Doe"). and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.. So. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. 5. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. For example. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. now you can write: myMother.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . We define the events in the HTML tags.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.

Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". the submit should be cancelled.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.5 . The name is then stored in a cookie. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.13. 5. If the field values are not accepted. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.13. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. 5.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.2 onFocus. For example. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.w3schools. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .javaScript event').

Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.6 . CSS.. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. particularly those used in Web browsers. As of January 2008. and style of a document. By October 1998. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. or WebAPI being among them. In other words. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. XML. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.g.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. structure. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. 6. HTML. However. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. 2010). The W3C 58 .defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the Document Object Model activity is closed. Right now (oct. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.HTML DOM 6. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. SVG. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.Html DOM 6 .

including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. To claim to support a level. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. DOM Level 3 Requirements.6 . Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. 4. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. which further enhances the DOM 6.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 XPath. 2. each of which contains required and optional modules.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. As of 2005. 3. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 2. a new DOM Core specification. Level 1. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). filtered views and events. 5. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. HTML-specific elements are included as well. 6. and 6.

By 2005. The Window object represents a browser window. interoperability problems were numerous.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. support multiple browsers. Opera.6 . All HTML elements. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. 6. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.x and Netscape 4.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). and Safari. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. In order to be cross-browser compatible.x were still widely used in 2000. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. can be accessed through the 60 . that is. Konqueror. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. along with their containing text and attributes. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.

It can be used by any programming language like Java. The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. JavaScript. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 .

However. 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.9. The <html> node has two child nodes.6 . everything in an HTML document is a node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <head> node holds a <title> node. 6. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The tree structure is called a node-tree. <head> and <body>.8. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the element node <title>. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.Html DOM 6. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 62 .

and new elements can be created.2 node parents. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. children.6 . Parent nodes have children. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). except the root. • • • • • In a node tree. the top node is called the root Every node.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. By using the getElementById() method 2. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By navigating the node tree.getElementsByTagName("p").getElementById('main'). child. 63 . The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and the connections between them.getElementsByTagName("p"). Their contents can be modified or deleted.9.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). using the node relationships. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6.9. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The terms parent.

4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).i<x.9.Html DOM for (i=0.i++) { document.innerHTML). } 6. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).write("<br />").length. document. each node is an object.write(x[i]. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .6 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.

A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. txt=x. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .5 example . 6.6 .getElementById("intro"). Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.nodeValue.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.firstChild.Html DOM 6.9.

including window. objects and images. For elements. frames.6 . For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.

there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). as of version 1.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. 67 . Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. say "click". and then bubbled up. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Also.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).6 . Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. for instance. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. When the user clicks on the inner element.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Safari. DOMNodeInserted. through a mouse click or a keypress. 6. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. also supports these methods.3. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Fires when an element is activated. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Mozilla.

Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. mouse position. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.6 . Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. key pressed. preventDefault 68 . Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Unfortunately. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. including information about target element. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.

1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. before the whole page was sent within the network. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. menus. It is not a technology in itself.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. crunching numbers. 7. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. fields of forms.7 . but also to save resources. using web services or Php scripts. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.AJAX 7 . it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. The server does some processing — retrieving data. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. 69 . etc. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. For example. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. choices of user. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. dynamic website. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. For improving sharing of resources. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.AJAX 7.

why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. what’s the user doing? That’s right. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. Instead of loading a web page. Once an interface is loaded. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting. we wouldn’t make users wait around. the user waits some more. but the opposite is true. While the server is doing its thing. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. waiting around for the server to do something. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.7 .AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. Obviously. And at every step in a task. at the start of the session. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. 70 .

without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. usually using XML. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.7 . editing data in memory.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. loading additional interface code. 71 . or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.

returned by the server . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. .for a Xml file or . thanks to its methods and attributes.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 1: connection established. DOM's method allows to extract data.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.send: send a request to the server. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.200 is ok. GET or POST .mode: type of request. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. This object provides two methods: . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . It allows the interaction with the servers.holds a Xml loaded file. These events are user actions.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. 3: answer in process. url.7 .responseText .open: create a connection. 4: finished.responseXml .for a simple text. onreadystatechange . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .url: the location of the file 72 .holds loaded data as a string of characters. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. and in this purpose. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 2: request received. 404 if the page is not found . To get data on the server. 7.AJAX 7.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. . boolean) .

'http://www. if (window.open('GET'.XMLHTTP").fr/somefile. URL of the document. if (request.readyState == 4) { // received. request. .xul.. http_request. } else if (window.. true).AJAX . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.7 .XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest()..open: command GET or POST. .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.null for a GET command 7. the data to send to the server. 73 .xml'.send: with POST only. but two options must be tried. true for asynchronous. http_request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . for browser compatibility.send(null).ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.6 building a request. The request below reads a document on the server. Safari.. OK } else { // wait. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. // Firefox.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .

send(null).dyn="Received:" + req.item(0).7.ajax.responseXML. "data.dyn=""Received:" + req.readyState == 4) if(req.AJAX 7.dyn="Error code " + req. req. else if (window.responseText.getElementsByTagName('root').onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".responseText. true). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.7.status.xml".1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.status == 200) document.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. req.XMLHTTP).ajax.7 .ajax. by this code: var doc = req. }. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .7 examples 7. else document. if(window. req.open("GET".

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


6. After an enterprise bean is created. descriptions). Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.servlets. 4. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.)> <web-app> <!-. Initialization of parameters for servlets.8 .. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JSPs and Java Server Faces. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. classes. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.class>com. 5. welcome pages. web. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. servlet classes. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. database connection resource pooling. entries related to session configuration.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. Servlet.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.ccards. like what pages are error. Here is a small. but typical web. 8. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 2. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. like: 1. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. Others.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. 3.bank11. For example. data persistence.. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Servlet.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. MIME types used by the web application.xml file: <?xml version="1.

5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.bank11. it is the alias of the real servlet class. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.8 .EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml". However. Then the "EnrollServlet.xml file of the web application. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.servlets.ccards. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.servlets". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.bank11. Unfortunately. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. For example.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.servlets".ccards. 1. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. basicly.xml" file.ccards.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. In general. the name of the web application. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Behind a very benign URL. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). whose name is rather long. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.xml" 2. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. for flexibility. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.class" and that it is part of the package "com. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".bank11. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. Basicly.

5 and is in final state. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . 2010. which extend the functionality of the web server. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. the Java Servlet 3. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. 9. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.SERVLETS 9 . As of oct. but at this point. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. 9. Technically speaking. in most cases as part of an application server.0 specification is available for public review. modular design 9.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.4. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. the HttpServlet) class. but through a web container.SERVLETS 9.9 .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. this is just a work in progress. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. platform independent programs.0 specification. small footprint.2. from BEA Systems. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. tjws spec 2.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . more often.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.2.4. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).

from Apple Inc. Enterprise Edition. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. 82 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void service(ServletRequest req. These packages are: • • javax. WebSphere.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. while the second one. IOException. the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.servlet javax.servlet package.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from IBM 9. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet.9 . from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet.servlet package are protocol independent.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . public void destroy() throws ServletException.

9. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. 83 .SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). ServletConfig. This method has two arguments. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. More on the servlet life cycle. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. The method performs all initialization required. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. respectively. Throwable t) 9. in a different section. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req.9 . as well. The servlet API provides such a specific class. namely the HttpServlet class. the web container calls its init() method. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. After instantiating the servlet.

9.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). It also extends the java. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. service().Exception class.ServletException javax.9 .lang.servlet. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.

etc. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Typically. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. 85 . The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Also. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. If the servlet does not implement the javax.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. Typically. DB connection opening. respectively. After instantiation. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.servlet. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. 9. JSP or JSF. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.9 . which will service all incoming requests. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed.SingleThreadModel. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself.

One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: 86 .12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.9 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.SERVLETS 9.

This is done in server's (container's) server.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.xml file.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.servlets.bank11. 87 .ccards. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. import java. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.9 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.io. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.java" file: package com. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.

out. out.println("<head>").*.getWriter(). out. // output your page here out. out.println("</html>").println("</body>").println("<html>"). } } 88 . public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.servlet. PrintWriter out = resp. out.http. out.println("</head>").*.println("<br>").setContentType(“text/html”). import javax.servlet. out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.9 . out.close(). IOException { resp. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("<body>").println("merge").SERVLETS import javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.init(config).

as recognized by the DB industry.odbc. the java.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.sql package 2.JdbcOdbcDriver . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. The JDBC 4. Starting with version 3. Type 1.1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. After that.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.0. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 89 .sun. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.10 .JDBC 10. 1997.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.sql package. These drivers fall into four standard categories. 10. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. the javax. This solution is inefficient. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.JDBC 10 .0 while the current (4. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.jdbc. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.

which in turn. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Part Java. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. 90 . The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Type 4.10 . Type 3. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.JDBC Type 2. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. forwards them to the JDBC driver.

sql.CallableStatement java.Struct java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.Array java.sql.0).sql.10 .SQLOutput java.SQLPermission java.Statement java.ResultSet java.Timestamp java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.Blob java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql.sql.sql.Clob java.PreparedStatement java. java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.Date java.Connection java.sql.DriverManager java.0 API.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.Driver java.Time java.sql.3 the java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.Types java.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.Wrapper 91 .SQLDataException java.SQLException java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.ResultSetMetaData java. let's remind some of the most important ones.JDBC 10.sql.SQLData java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.

SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.Statement java.Types java.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.0. java. querying the database 4.SQLWarning java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.RowId java. loading a database driver 2.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.10 .sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql package.RowIdLifeTime java.sql. processing the result set 92 .CommonDataSource javax.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLDataException java.sql.Clob java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLException java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.Wrapper javax.sql.sql.SQLInput java.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.Blob java.Connection java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.NClob java.SQLTransientException java.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.

driver.10 .db2. The first one is loading a database driver.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .datastore. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.jdbc.SybDriver com.net. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.DB2Driver oracle.JDBC 10.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.sybase.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.borland.ibm.odbc.jdbc.

forName("org. try { Class. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. import java. 94 .mm. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).util.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.newInstance(). as specified by the driver vendor. Since we just used it. String user = "root".*.*. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).Driver"). but let's take it for granted: import java.10 .gjt. passwd). user. by using the connection URL.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.sql.printStackTrace(). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".getConnection(connURL.bank11.mysql. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.

7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. prp.getConnection(connURL.util. Properties prp = new Properties(). java. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. String user. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp). int resultSetConcurrency. Connection conn = DriverManager. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("autocommit".10 .JDBC 10. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. we can use it for various purposes. "true"). Once we get the hold of a Connection object. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. "true").put("create". int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.sql package. 10. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.

The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. namely. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. prepared statements and stored procedures. respectively.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. Statement.10 .JDBC 10.

JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .. stmt. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.10 . Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . 10..".9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.createStatement(). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.executeUpdate(sqlString).ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.sql.

The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. PreparedStatement. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. a concurrency of read only. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. and CallableStatement objects. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.10 . not at 0) or the column name. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. as the argument. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. 98 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.Big Decimal Object float 10. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.DataSource object.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. a factory for creating DB connections.math.sql. It is part of the javax. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.Time java. This interface is. secs date.sql.sql. basicly.0 optional package.math. Connection pooling implementation -.produces a standard Connection object 2. mins. There are three types of implementations: 1. Basic implementation -.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. time.produces a Connection object that will 103 .sql package.10 .

} public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -.http.servlet. java. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".sql.*.10 .class.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.servlets.*. 3.*.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. 104 .sql. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.servlet.naming.getName()).getLogger(TestDataSource.*. javax.bank11. private DataSource theDataSource. javax. javax. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. import import import import import import java.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().ccards.io. javax.*.

.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.10 .. ServletException { . } } 105 .

HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.servlet.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. 11.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.2 the java. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.11 . A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp.servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.JSP 11.jsp and javax.JSP 11 .jsp. the servlet code is regenerated. namely javax. The javax.servlet.tagext.1 and is related to the 2. The JSP specific interfaces. 11.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.servlet. The package javax.jsp. The package javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. If the JSP is modified. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


include and taglib...JSP • if the URL does not start with / . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".11 . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". 111 . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.

4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7.11 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7. In Tomcat. Assigns it to available name or id. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . this code goes to inside the service() method.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.JSP 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7 scripting elements 11.7.7.

the name of a bean instance. you must specify param. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. and if so. Attributes description: • • • name .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.11 .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.

same format as the <%@include> directive. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.13 the forward standard action 114 . <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. <jsp:plugin> actions. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 .the URL of the page.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . flush . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.

. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.the name of a bean instance. code="classFileName" . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.class extension in the name following code. as this attribute has no default value.a name for the Bean or applet instance.. 11. If you do not supply a value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags." . as well. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. depending on request. It is used mainly. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. archive="URIToArchive. You must include the . servlet or to a static resource. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .the type of object the plugin will execute... name .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).11 .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . when we want to separate the application into different views. .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. You must specify either bean or applet. name="instanceName" .

it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. with a protocol name. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . it has java.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.1" . request .PrintWriter.represents the servlet context. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.lang.the initial height and width. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .1. pageContext .io.JspWriter type and scope page 7. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. Must be a small nonzero number. optional port number.16 scopes 1.the amount of space.servlet.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. request .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. writes to the output stream to the client. config . The default value is 1.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. in pixels. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .it represents the buffered version of java. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . and domain name. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. out . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has javax. response .jsp.11 .Object type and scope page 11.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. session . The value is a full URL. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. of the image the applet or Bean displays.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. 1. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents server's response to the request. application .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. objects which are automaticly available. based on the servlet API. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. in pixels. page .

the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. application . Object value) method 2. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 3. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 11.JSP request object.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.ccards.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. page .EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.bank11.11 . session .beans.jsp file. if (enrollBean.init().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 4. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.

SimpleBean.11 .io.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.devsphere.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. The SimpleBean class is declared public. private String colors[]. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private SimpleSubBean subBean.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. a software development and consulting company. a boolean and another String). two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).string. private String optional.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. private boolean flag. private float number.examples. private int list[].Serializable { private String string. an int. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.register(). 11.18.mapping. a float.simple.java: package com. The public constructor could have been omitted. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private int integer.

number. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.integer.flag.string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.number = value.colors[index].flag = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors = values.integer = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } 119 .JSP this.colors.11 .

subBean = value. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list. } } 120 . } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.optional. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list = values.11 .JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.optional = value.list[index].list[index] = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.colors[index] = value. int value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. String value) { this.

string. } } 11.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .number.mapping. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.devsphere.simple.number = value.18.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.11 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.io. SimpleSubBean.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.Serializable { private String string. private float number.string = value.examples.java: package com.

JSP colors list optional subBean.11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.number SimpleForm.

These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. the list of optional properties.simple. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The default values are defined for a String. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.java: package com. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. "One or more colors must be selected" }.util. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. There are three error messages. new String[] { 123 .integer]". error messages. "One or more items must be selected" }.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "abc" }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.flag]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.devsphere.examples.list]".number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.list]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The list of optional properties has a single element. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the form's name and the processor's name.mapping. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.123) }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. SimpleBeanResources. "An option must be selected" }. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. 3 } }.number]". new int[] { 2. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.11 . a float.colors]". the processing order. a boolean and an int[]. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new Float(0.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.string]". new Boolean(true) }.18. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.

11 . a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. For a better understanding of this example. } } 11.simple.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.jsp" } }.devsphere.*. new String[] { "string".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "number".devsphere. "subBean" } }.examples.devsphere. SimpleHndl.mapping. "list". com. { "[FORM_NAME]". If necessary. The beanToForm() method of com. string values are converted to numbers.mapping. "SimpleForm.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. { "[PROC_NAME]". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "flag". "colors". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.mapping.logging. "SimpleProc.util. "optional".18. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.html" }.devsphere.mapping.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .JSP "optional" } }.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. "integer".

errorTable = HandlerUtils.trim(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.forward(request. // Process the valid data bean instance application.11 . slashIndex+1) : "". response).getServletPath().substring(0. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.formToBean(formData. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.lastIndexOf('/').getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). 125 .Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getClass()).equals("POST"). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.File(formPath)).removeUserErrors(errorTable).getMethod().JSP = HandlerUtils. simpleBean. formPath = application.getDocument(). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. int slashIndex = basePath.io.getBeanResources(simpleBean.trim(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getRequestDispatcher(procPath). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. logger).getRealPath(formPath).getTemplate(new java.util.getString("[FORM_NAME]").

// Send the form document document.append("{ "). SimpleProc.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getString() %> <P> subBean. } %> 11.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.beanToForm(simpleBean.JSP elements logger).send(out).jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. errorTable.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. if (list. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). strbuf.mapping.11 . document. i < list. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.number = <%= simpleBean.devsphere.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.examples.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. i++) 126 .simple.getSubBean().getSubBean().length == 0) return "".18.length. for (int i = 0.string = <%= simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.

ComplexHndl. In addition.toString(). i++) { strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.length == 0) return "". ComplexForm.length. } strbuf. In addition. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.jsp files.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. strbuf. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append(" ").devsphere. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. if (list. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. i < list.examples.toString(list[0]).append(" ").18.append(list[i]).append("}").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append("}"). A single call to FormUtils.formToBean() call. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.11 .length == 1) return Integer. strbuf. return strbuf.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.mapping. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. making the testing and the debugging easier. strbuf.append(list[i]).toString(). Using the framework. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. for (int i = 0. return strbuf.append("{ ").util.simple. } strbuf. } %> 11.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .

for (int i = 0.length.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < colorValues. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".length. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. boolean checked = simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1. "green". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "Option 3" }.getColors(). "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { boolean checked = false. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". 128 . i < integerLabels. "blue" }.getInteger() == value. "Option 2".11 . "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green". "Blue" }.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. j < colors. String colorValues[] = { "red".

i++) { int value = i+1.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. i < listItems. "subBean.examples.SimpleSubBean()).devsphere. boolean selected = false. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.simple. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.setSubBean( new com.mapping.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .JSP break. "Item 2". } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.11 .getSubBean(). "Item 3" }.getList().length. break. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". if (list == null) list = new int[0]. j < list.

getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.Hashtable errorTable.simple.setString("abc"). 130 .getSubBean().number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getMethod().jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getString(). "subBean.mapping.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).11 . if (message == null) message = "".SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.length() == 0) { simpleBean.util.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.equals("POST").Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.util.mapping.devsphere. } %> ComplexHndl.get(property).examples.simple. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() == null || simpleBean. boolean isPostMethod = request. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. return message.examples.

if (numberValue != null && numberValue.length == 0) { 131 .getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). "string".equals("false")) flagValue = null.getParameter("number"). else { simpleBean.123f).getColors() == null || simpleBean.11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "An option must be selected").length() != 0) simpleBean.setNumber(0. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.trim(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number").getColors().getParameter("flag"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.length() == 0 || flagValue. "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer".setFlag(flagValue != null). "number". "number".floatValue()). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue.123f).setNumber(0. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.

getString(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 .getList(). //* subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getList() == null || simpleBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setOptional(""). "colors". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).floatValue()).string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "list".setList(new int[] { 2.11 . "subBean. 3 }).string". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "One or more items must be selected"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.number").number".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). "Must be } //* subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "subBean.setString(""). "One or more colors must be selected").

BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. simpleBean.util. simpleBean.jsp. "Must be a number").setOptional(""). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setList(new int[] { 2.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.JSP filled").7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. simpleSubBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.setString("abc"). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.xml: SimpleHndl. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".\ 133 .11 .helpers.mapping. message).123f). errorTable.devsphere.examples.SimpleBean.setNumber(0.devsphere.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. The com.properties or web.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.setString(""). The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.number".Hashtable errorTable. simpleBean.simple.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.mapping.setFlag(true). } %> 11.code=com. "subBean.18. } } else { simpleBean.devsphere. 3 }). That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.helpers. String property.put(property.

devsphere.host. you could add a few other lines to servlets. In many cases.devsphere.code=com. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.mapping.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.company.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.AnotherBean.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.properties (or web.helpers.simple. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.18.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.properties: AnotherHndl.helpers. 11.examples.another.host.mapping. a servlet is identified with its class.examples.devsphere. If you have another bean-form pair. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.code=com.xml) file: ServletName. A servlet can be made bean-independent. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.mapping. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.11 .com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .

JSP 135 .11 .

JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. like input fields. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.javaserver faces 12 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. builds a component tree.0 supersedes version 1.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.12 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. buttons.JAVASERVER FACES 12. Version 2.0. Version 2. 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. processes events. This technology includes: 1. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. which loads the appropriate view template. 2.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.

1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4. 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1.javaserver faces 12. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . there are 25 HTML JSF tags.2 of the JFS specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.12 .4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

4.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. see the column tag documentation.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. columns and rows. Common formatting techniques. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. 12.12 . respectively. such as alternating row colors. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. footers.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. For more information about columns. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.

00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.12 .checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4. your options include using plain HTML forms.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.

5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. 12.12 . You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. red for error. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.user.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.user.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".</span> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4." /> 12.

2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. 12. For example. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.12 .5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.

You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.5. can publish value change events.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.javaserver faces 12.5.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. but only if the new input is validated successfully.12 . The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.customer. Any component that receives user input. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. The body content of this tag must be empty. Without this JavaScript event.mycompany.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. validateLength. 12.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .

JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.5. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.12 .MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. Example: welcome_en.mycompany. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. myJSFapp 143 . You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.javaserver faces 12. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.mycompany. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. for each locale you wish to support. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. including images and styles. If you have not specified a default locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.

included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.exadel. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.html.xml web. mandatory for any JSF application web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. static resources.xml – the JSF configuration file. jsf-api.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Create managed beans 4.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. It has a deployment descriptor.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Create properties files 144 . custom tag libraries. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. Define navigation rules 3.jar faces-config. like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar jsf-api. Create JSP pages 2. and so on.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.contains libraries required by the application.javaserver faces /ant build.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .12 . JSP pages. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.

Compile the application 8.jsp to greeting.javaserver faces 5.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. You just need to create its contents. we can create a navigation rule. we just want to go from inputname.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp is greeting.xml file. Deploy and run the application 12.12 .7.jsp. The directory structure already exists.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. And that's all there is to this. In our application.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Edit JSP pages 6.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. As a diagram.jsp and greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp. These files will act as place holders for now. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.7. Now that we have the two JSP pages. Create an index. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. 12.jsp file 7.

3 creating the Managed Bean Next. You can easily create more complex ones. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. we will create a PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule.3 faces-config.7. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. The next line is the full class name.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. To read more about navigation rules. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.xml file should look like this: 146 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. Inside this myJFSapp folder. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml Now. public class PersonBean { String personName.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.3. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.7. of course. request sets the bean scope in the application.1 PersonBean. 12.3.xml Your final faces-config.PersonBean.) 12.12 .7. myJFSapp. This class is straight-forward. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. 12. the second part of faces-config.java file.7.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.javaserver faces This is.

Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.sun.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. 12.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.sun.1//EN" "http://java.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.properties file in the bundle folder.1 messages.4. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.5.7. 12.1 inputname. Inc.7.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.7.7.

bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.12 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. <h:inputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .bundle.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. Then.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.sun.

.6 creating the index.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.sun. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Creates an HTML input text box. and also print its contents on the page. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.jsp page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.2 greeting. Having an index. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.bundle.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.. The second line will access a Java bean.7.javaserver faces Line 1. That's how JSF knows where to go next.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.7. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.xml file.greeting_text}" />. Line 6. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. name! 12. Line 2.sun.12 .jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . Lines 3-5. 12.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Create the index. specifically the bean attribute personName. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.</h3> tags. The first three lines are identical to our first page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.

javaserver faces Now. 12.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. though. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12. we need to deploy it.xml file for the application *. We are almost done with this example.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.7. This is used here. To do this. Your setup. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.7. 12.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.8.12 . 12.jsp. When Tomcat is done loading. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. you'll notice the file suffix is .bat in Tomcat's bin directory).1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.xml file.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.html . which asks an user for an ID and password.7. might possibly be different).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. This is a "login" application. because in the web. 150 .xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page. verifies the information. To build the application run the build.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.jsf and not . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.sourceforge. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. Of course. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.

The New Project wizard appears. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 1. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. name the folder pages. a. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-..src | +-. in the wizard that appears. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. say. 9.. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). Enter project name. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.. click Yes through messages that appear. 3. c.. and set up folders for a web application. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. click Next. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 10. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. click Next. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. select the Source tab. your mileage may vary. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. click Finish 4. click Next d. Select Java Project.xml Editor (see faces-config. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. 12. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. see Installing & Uninstalling. 2.12 . 6.. and to add JSF libraries to the project.. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. Select the Amateras node.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial..javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. jsf-login. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. name the folder webroot 5.8. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the Add JSF Support page.webroot | +-.WEB-INF 151 . click Add Folder. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 7. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config.. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.

lib | +-. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. 2. c.8. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. click Managed Bean. if ( _uid. in the Name field enter LoginManager.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.javaserver faces | | | +-.pages 12. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. The New Java Class wizard appears.java package login. private String _pwd = "". The faces-config. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.12 .xml Editor. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } 4. else action = "loginFail". for class enter login. Click Finish. for name enter mgr. In the Package field.xml.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". In Package Explorer select the src folder. enter login. } return action. for scope select 152 . b. input widgets appear d. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.xml editor opens. 1. a. The Java code editor opens. click Add. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. 3.LoginManager.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. from its context menu select New/Class. We then configure it to be a managed bean.

success. index. Create error. 1. then close the editor 12.jsp.12 .jsp. Then we create login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. Create index. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.8. b.jsp. save the file and close the editor.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. but in webroot/pages. so we create them first. from its context menu select New/File.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. e. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp and error.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. the New File wizard appears.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. in Package Explorer select webroot. </body> Please try 153 . Create success. enter the following code. again. for File name enter index.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp are simple pages with static content. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-. the JSP Editor opens. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.webroot/index. from the menubar select File/Save. click Finish.jsp).jsp: create this file similarly to index. All pages except login. <!-.javaserver faces session. c.jsp).jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/error. and 3 content pages (login. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp: a.webroot/pages/success.

charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. click Finish. To see this in action. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. Create login.javaserver faces </html> 4. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. from its context menu select New/Other. 154 . make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. as shown below. Open the JSF palette. and choose default for Template.jsp: a. with the following template code. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.. and the JSP Editor can help with code.sun. the New wizard appears.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. place your cursor in one of these lines.jsp. b. now we want to add attributes to this element. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. for File name enter login. (See Show View Dialog) f. and uses them for code completion as well. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. d. etc. g.sun. enter jsf-login e. click Next c.. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.completion.12 . the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. <%@ page contentType="text/html. a code-completion window pops up. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and dock it along the right. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar.

a code-completion window pops up.sun. insert a <h:commandButton> element.) j. complete the expression with the closing { k. select userID from the code-completion window.sun.12 .com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. with bean properties available in mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. i. with the barest presentational formatting.loginAction} The final code. enter #{mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.javaserver faces h. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor. and hit Enter. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.password}" l.. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. insert another <h:inputText> element. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. set its value to Login.

Select the Navigation tab 3. This is shown below. click on Page. 2. 156 . using a FacesIDE editor.xml.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.12 .xml Editor.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. this inserts a page icon into the editor. then click inside the editor window. it should open in the faces-config.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 1.8. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. Open faces-config. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.

5.jsp. and set them to /pages/login. then click first on the icon for login. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index. 6.jsp 4.12 . Its properties appear in the Properties view. select Navigation Case. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. in the Properties view. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. from the palette at left. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. add 3 more pages. and is represented by an arrow.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp. /pages/success. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.

1. since we have such a trivial application. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and extension-based mapping is turned on. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.xml. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. As it turns out. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . and you should be automatically forwarded to login. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. Once deployed browse to index. We'll set some properties in web. or leave it as-is. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. so uncomment it. The application is now complete. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.jsp to error.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.javaserver faces 7. all we need do in web.jsp. 12.6 Editing web. Similarly add a forward-action from login.8. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. and you should be sent to the success page.xml for the specifics of our application.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.xml. any other id/password should send you to the error page. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.xml Here we edit web.jsp.12 . We want virtual path-based mapping.jsp. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. open web.

faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. the Manager application should reload. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.el javax.10 the javax.html javax.faces.faces.faces.. 12.12 . for Context path enter /jsf-login.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.javaserver faces 12. For a given factory class name.lifecycle javax.8.component javax.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.model javax.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2..faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. start Tomcat.webapp 12. scroll down to Deploy. click Deploy 3..faces. open its Manager application in a browser.faces javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces. that factory is used. Click on its link to launch the application.application javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.convert javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.faces.render javax.faces.component.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 . as file:///. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.event javax.context javax.faces.validator javax.0 1.

with the last one taking precedence. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. handling events and input validation.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .represents a single validation (or other) message.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . FacesMessage.12 . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. defining page navigation.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. StateManager .11 the javax. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. If none of the above steps yield a match. 12.Severity . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. FacesMessage . ViewHandler . ViewHandlerWrapper . which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. ApplicationFactory . those factories are used. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). StateManagerWrapper .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.faces. with the last one taking precedence. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.

implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. or a hyperlink. UICommand .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. ActionSource2 .context. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.restoreView(javax. UIComponentBase . NamingContainer .12 . Here they are: • • UIColumn .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. • ViewExpiredException . String) results in failure on postback.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. when activated by the user.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. StateHolder . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.FacesContext.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. a menu item.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. ContextCallBack . EditableValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.faces.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.12 the javax. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. UIComponent . 12. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. ValueHolder . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.faces. String. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. • • 161 . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.

UISelectOne . The user can modify the selected value.13 the java.html package 162 . The user can modify the selected values. UIInput . identified by a clientId. that is displayed to the user. it is for display purposes only. Optionally. This component has no rendering. UISelectItem . it just serves as the root of the component tree. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UISelectBoolean . UISelectMany .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that has a value. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.12 .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIOutput .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.faces. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIGraphic . it is for display purposes only.component. Optionally. The user cannot manipulate this component. UIForm . UIMessage .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIParameter . UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIViewRoot . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UINamingContainer . by storing it as the value property of the component.javaserver faces • UIData . UIPanel .

This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputText .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.renders child components in a table. HtmlInputSecret . or not.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlInputTextarea . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. On a redisplay. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML label element.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlOutputText . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlMessage . The checkbox will be rendered as checked.faces. The label text is specified by the component value. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlColumn .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type text.faces. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.Message".javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.renders the component value as text. HtmlPanelGroup .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. and renders the result.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputHidden . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML img element.by default. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlMessages . HtmlForm . but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlCommandLink . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.12 . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents an HTML input element of type password.by default. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlPanelGrid .

14 the java. HtmlSelectOneListbox .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .convert package 164 .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.15 the java.faces.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. and potentially modified by.javaserver faces property.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • 12. and the rendering of the corresponding response.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext . It is passed to. showing a single available option at a time.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. ResponseWriter . In particular.faces. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectManyMenu . showing a single available option at a time. FacesContextFactory . HtmlSelectOneRadio . ResponseWriterWrapper .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. HtmlSelectManyListbox .12 .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseStream . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. • • • • • • 12.

Classes: MethodBinding .15.12 . ValueBinding .faces.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.16 the java. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. 12.javaserver faces 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver . PropertyResolver . • • • • 165 .

166 .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. PhaseListener . PhaseEvent .17 the java. • • • • 12. Interfaces: ActionListener .AbortProcessingException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. ValueChangeListener . FacesListener .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • • One exception .faces.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. FacesEvent .12 .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). and event implementation classes.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseId . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. MethodNotFoundException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PropertyNotFoundException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.

18 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . 12.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces. DataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. ScalarDataModel .faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ListDataModel . • • • • • • • • • 12. ResultDataModel .faces. SelectItemGroup . DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ResultSetDataModel .javaserver faces 12.12 . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. SelectItem . Renderer .19 the java.

and concrete validator implementation classes. together. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. ResponseStateManager . • RenderKit . RenderKitFactory .validator package Interface defining the validator model.22 the java. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. base classes for JSP custom component tags. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . LongRangeValidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. • • 12.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. as well. ConverterTag .faces. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. The package contains an exception. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.faces. markup language.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. including a standard servlet. and/or user Locale.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. AttributeTag . which perform the actual rendering process for each component. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.12 . 12. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . Typically.

related to a UIComponent. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. When a web server receives a request. FacetTag . which has several implications. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). or some other web technology. servlets.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. ValidatorTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the controller is the 169 . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. the controller sends a message to the model. • • • • • FacesServlet . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the JSF life cycle does not apply. When the user takes some action with the presentation. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. When the model is updated. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. the process includes a few more components or pages. which passes the request to the page class. the life cycle is more complicated. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. telling the model to update its data. UIComponentBodyTag . or when an exception occurs. the controller sends a message to the view. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. 12. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.12 . that request is passed to the container.a base class for all JSP custom actions. but basically. UIComponentTag . In MVC. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. Also. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. telling the view to update its presentation. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. In JSF. When using JSF. that need to process their tag bodies. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Likewise.

• Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the conversion occurs in this phase. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. • Invoke Application: During this phase. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. depending on the request. not every request will flow through all six phases. the JSF implementation must create the view. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. As with the previous phase. Data for some components. These objects update their state with the data values. For a JSF-enabled application. In addition. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. from cookies sent as part of the request. In addition. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. The components are stored in a component tree. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. and the response is sent to the client. or from request headers. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. If this is a subsequent request. converting a String to a Date object). 170 . and a piece of data failed validation. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. However. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request.12 . this does not yet update the business objects in the application. and what happens during the processing and response. Data can come from input fields in a web form.javaserver faces JSF implementation. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. it creates UI objects for each view component. such as components that create HTML input fields. It updates only the UI components with the new data. is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase.

171 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases.12 .javaserver faces In the above figure. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. if errors occur during any of the phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. skipping any remaining phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. Also. For example. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

Thus the DNS name sales. names a file hello in the file directory usr. c:\bin\autoexec. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. Using JNDI.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. For example.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. NDS.COM.2.1 names To look up an object in a naming system.sun. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. DNS.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. which is located in the root of the file system. when you use an electronic mail system.48. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. naming and directory services using a common API. For example. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system."). such as LDAP. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.9. When using almost any computer program or system.Wiz. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.JNDI 13 . in turn. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. It enables applications to access different.JNDI 13. The DNS entry Wiz.COM. 13. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". you are always naming one object or another. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. /usr/hello. 172 .1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. For example. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. identifiers. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. To access a file in the computer. 13.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. or objects typically used by computer programs. A file system maps a filename (for example. and NIS(YP). with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").5). for example. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. such as addresses. The UNIX pathname. possibly multiple. In addition. you supply it the name of the object. you must supply its name. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.13 . the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.

the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time."). might contain the state of the printer. Typically. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. 173 . on the other hand. 13. in the UNIX file system is a context. 13. Using the reference. is relative to c=us. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. Finally. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. is a context. that is. a file directory. they must be stored by reference. By contrast. o=Sun. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. such as /usr. For example. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. such as its print server name and printing protocol. such as COM. for example. which in turn. For example. its flight plan. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. For example. delimited by the comma character (". in a file directory /usr/bin. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. that is. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. A printer object. unbinding names.COM. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. and its flight number and departure time. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. is accessed using a file reference. and listing bound names. A reference is information about how to access an object. relative to the entry o=Sun. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. an LDAP entry.2. while the object itself might contain more state information. Instead.13 . An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. a file name is bound to a file. also called a file handle.2. in the DNS domain Sun.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. a DNS domain.2. 13. Every context has an associated naming convention. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For simplicity. is a context. some objects cannot be stored directly. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. For example. A printer object reference. such as c=us. for example. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). A file object. For example.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. That is.c=us. In another example. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. and fuel and instrument status.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding.

and computer account information. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. a name is unique 13. a person. For example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. 13. because we can. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. various telephone numbers.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. An example is the telephone company's directory service. however. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.13 . This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.2. And it kind of makes sense. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. and color. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes.3. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. two different computer 174 . 13. one context can be viewed. A directory object can be used. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. or a network. to some extent. For example.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. programs. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. For example. resolution. For example. a computer. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. for example. postal mail address. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. and even the computer itself and other computers. to represent a printer. Thus.

an organization object.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. Many examples of directory services are possible. The email address. Alternatively. The query is called a search filter. that is. 175 .2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. printers. "mail" is the attribute identifier. 13. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. many directories.4. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. like any other program running on the network. support the notion of searches. adding. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. for example. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.113. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. called a directory information tree (DIT). 13.com". 13. Within the DIT. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. the ability to access directory services will become essential. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. such as that relating to machines. networks. such as those based on the LDAP. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. removing. Similarly. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. 13. For example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. When you search. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The service is accessed through its own interface. By using a directory service. can use the directory in the traditional way. such as the file and print services.50". for example. 13. A Java mail client program.13 . can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. When directory objects are arranged in this way. for example. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.3. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.3. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. and users. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.3. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. For example.smith@somewhere.

The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. Thus a variety of directories--new. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. For example. 13. To use the JNDI. emerging. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. more coherent and manageable.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.ldap 176 .5. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.4.naming. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. v1. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.13 .2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.3 and later releases. v1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.1 and the Java 2 SDK. and even the network. It extends the v1.directory javax. The Java 2 SDK.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. For example.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). that is to store and retrieve Java objects.naming.naming.1 and v1. v1.2. 13. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. 13.event javax. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.naming javax.1 and Java 2 SDK.2.

and the object itself. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.6.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.1 context The javax. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.JNDI • javax. and so on. 13.String name argument represents a composite name.spi 13.String name. that is.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.naming package defines a Context interface.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.6. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. a 177 . and it returns the object bound to that name. list() is similar to listBindings(). printer. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. binding/unbinding.naming. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. composing them. comparing components. For example. However. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . For the methods in the Context interface. the name of the object's class.lang.lookup("treekiller"). Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.13 . (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. The overloads that accept java.6. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. 13.6. 13. A java. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. which is the core interface for looking up.print(report). for some objects in the directory. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.lang. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.lang.6 the naming package The javax. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. In this case. 13. Furthermore.

6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.7 directory package The javax.7. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.directory package extends the javax.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.13 . 13. they should catch NamingException. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). replace. In the simplest and most common form of usage. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.6. 13. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.naming. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. There are no absolute roots. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. InitialContext.7. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).6. 178 . whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 13. Once you have an initial context. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. You can add. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. Otherwise. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. For example.

These operations are called "extended" operations. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. 13. For example. such as information about the object before and after the change. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. controls.9. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. To receive event notifications. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. In fact. called controls .1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.directory package. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.13 .9 LDAP package The javax.naming.ldap package at all. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. such as "object changed. such as "object added. and vice versa. 13. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .naming.JNDI 13.8 event package The javax." and those that do not. 13.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. 13. For example.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Once registered. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. that is. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .9. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. or unsolicited notifications.naming.naming.9.

13. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. import javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.2 java object support The javax. For example. 13.naming package. implementors of Context.10 service provider package The javax. This support is provided in the form of state factories.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.9.13 . This package also provides support for doing the reverse.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.1 plug-In architecture The javax. In the process of completing an operation.11.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.spi package supports implementors of Context. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.Context. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. This support is provided in the form of object factories.naming.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.java. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. and receiving response controls.naming. That is.10. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 13. sending request controls.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 180 .naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.10. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming. 13.10. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. create a file named Lookup.

// Look up an object Object obj = ctx. // Print it System. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). you compile the source file using the Java compiler. create an initial context. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. } catch (NamingException e) { System.fscontext.jndi. If the compilation succeeds.11. then the JNDI classes are already included. If you are still having problems.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). If the compilation fails.11. 13.JNDI import javax. Object obj = ctx.11.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.3. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.11. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). v1.sun.naming.lookup(name). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.lookup() to look up an object. 181 .out.5 compiling the program Next. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.NamingException. 13.put(Context.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. For this reason.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. you must have access to the JNDI classes. using the capitalization shown.13 .java). "com. To compile to program. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.err. } 13. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). as follows.naming. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.InitialContext.lookup(name). import javax.3 looking up an Object Next. env.jar as an installed extension. 13. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. use Context. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.RefFSContextFactory"). Otherwise. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.

ldap.12.naming.Attributes.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. env. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. include the directory that contains your Lookup.naming.sun. javax.naming. 13.jndi.LdapCtxFactory").class).bat If you supply a file directory.naming and javax. then you will see something like the following. you need access to the JNDI classes.naming. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. javax. v1.jndi.directory.NamingException.JNDI 13. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. javax. create a file named Getattr. 182 . and your example class (Lookup. To run the program. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). "com.naming.directory. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.11.directory. Finally.java. create an initial directory context. the file system service provider. supply the name of a file in your file system.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.directory packages. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.jar).naming.jar and providerutil.DirContext. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. import import import import import javax.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.put(Context.12.3.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.put(Context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.6 running the program To run the program. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.Context. env.sun. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.fscontext.PROVIDER_URL. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. 13. javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.13 .InitialDirContext.

Similar to the naming example. 13. If you are still having problems. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.java). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. If the compilation fails. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.12.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. 183 . // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. } catch (NamingException e) { System. For this reason. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. ou=People").println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).get() on it to get its value: attrs.13 .get(). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.out.12. If the compilation succeeds. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. compile the source file using the Java compiler.12. 13. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. As with the naming example.println("sn: " + attrs. } 13. ou=People"). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.12.err.get() and then from that attribute get its value.get("sn").get()). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).6 compiling the program Next. For now.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. 13. Attributes. using the capitalization shown.

You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. env.7 running the program As with the naming example. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). then see the Common Problems lesson.3.jar). Once it has the attributes. With this configuration. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.12. v1.13 . this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.JNDI 13.put(Context. then these classes are already included.class. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.PROVIDER_URL. ou=People". it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). Getattr. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.jar and providerutil. 184 . If you have any trouble running this example.

14 . JMS message . JMS queue . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. In this model. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. unless it has established a durable 185 . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. Here. the messages are delivered in the order sent.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS topic . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . As the name queue suggests.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. Enterprise Edition.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS producer . • 14. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.a JMS client that receives messages. JMS consumer .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS client .

14. In that case.14 .4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.4. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Depending on the type of message. On the receiving side.jms. Using Java. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.3 the JMS API programming model 14. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 186 .

It receives messages sent to a destination. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.14 . the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. The JMS administrator creates these objects. It is either a queue or a topic. you must call the connection's start() method.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Depending on the connection type. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. connection. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/MyQueue").4. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. you must close any connections that you have created. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory.close(). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.4. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . and users discover them using JNDI. which is where messages are delivered and consumed.createConnection(). Like the connection factory.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). 14. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). In a J2EE application.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. 14. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Before an application completes. For example.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Connections implement the Connection interface. For example. 14. Before your application can consume messages.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.4. you call the stop() method. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.

Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. For example. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.createConsumer(myQueue). 14. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. if it needs to reply to messages. A message listener does. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. consumer.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.start(). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). usually expect a specific message type and format. connection.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.setMessageListener(myListener). onMessage(). you are likely to miss messages. however. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. which contains one method. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. After you register the message listener. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.) When message delivery begins. Message m = consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. and you can use it to receive messages. After you have created a message consumer. You use the Session. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. For example. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. This object implements the MessageListener interface. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. it becomes active.start(). MessageConsumer consumer = session.receive(). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. Moreover. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.4. Message m = consumer.receive(1000). (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myTopic). 188 . a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. (Remember always to call the start() method.14 . In the onMessage() method. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. a message listener object may be used. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.

189 . message. anon_prod. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. and object message). message).send(message). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.createProducer(myQueue). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. bytes message.setText(msg_text). A message has three main parts: 1. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. With an unidentified producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.send(message).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. At the consuming end. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). 14. that is.createProducer(null). // msg_text is a String producer. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. stream message. 3. MessageProducer producer = session.14 . if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.receive().createTextMessage().4.send(myQueue. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. map message.createProducer(myTopic). from one application to another. After you have created a message producer. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. For example.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. You must first create the messages.4. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. Here.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. if you created an unidentified producer. to create and send a TextMessage.

} else { // Handle error } 14. then delivers the messages.out. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).getText()). the first argument means that the session is transacted. Here. If the user selects transaction support. 190 . To create a transacted session.createSession(false. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. 0). A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. and message consumers to receive messages.4. Before committing the transaction. Sessions implement the Session interface. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. After you create a Connection object.println("Reading message: " + message.createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. use the following code: Session session = connection.14 .

object oriented representation of data in a DB. On the other side. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. 15.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .DB interaction transactions . improved performance security . bundled into a single unit.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.logging.transaction management can be complex. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.consistent error handling framework . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . message-driven beans The 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . component recovery scalability portability 191 .0.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Version 1. the container lives (in general) in an application server. The component lives inside a container. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.15 .no developer coding. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. server which provides an execution environment for containers. container which offers services to the component. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.0. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .jar file into the application server.

Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). the home interface of the bean 3. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the remote interface of the bean 4. which is an xml file. called ejb-jar. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.15 . RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.xml 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. the deployment descriptor. as follows: 1. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.

} 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. While the Remote interface declares no methods.javax. int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. String lastName. } 193 . RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.ejb.*.15 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.javax. import java.rmi. import.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.RemoteException.RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.*. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.rmi. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. import. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.

INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.put(Context. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.NamingContextFactory". how to create or find the bean 2. In the case of an web application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. creating them for the client application.interfaces. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().put(Context. if the client executes outside the container.PROVIDER_URL. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. prop. this can be done (for example) through SSL.jnp. "localhost:1099"). Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). "org. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. } 194 . prop. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). we need to know: 1.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.

rmi. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.class). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. in fact.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. Some languages. This is done through the javax. more specifically.rmi. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. the client has a stub). using the narrow() method. and this means that there are some limitations. MyBeanHome. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). do implements the java. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.Remote interface).. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. that is part of CORBA standards. Problem is. in fact. but for generic languages.lookup("MyBean"). to the appropriate type. Why? For EJB. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. • if the client executes outside the container. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.15 . 195 . The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.e. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.PortableRemoteObject class and. do not have the concept of casting. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.narrow(homeRef.rmi.

. public class MyBean implements javax. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.ccards.ejbeans. String lastName..ejb.15 .ejb. "Vasile".remove(). } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .SessionContext. as well).processEntry("Dumitrascu". set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).create(). remove the bean instance myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. int custId) { // method implementation .. call business methods on the bean myObject. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.bank11. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. 15. import javax. 1102)..

A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 197 . the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 15. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. 15. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.15 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory. that is. A stateless bean does not. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. namely stateful and stateless beans. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.

11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.15 . For example. The ejbCreate method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. and then moves it to the ready stage.1 are invoked by the EJB container. At the end of the life cycle. or passivate.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. (Typically. the client invokes the remove method. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. the EJB container activates the bean. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. is inside the bean class. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. for example. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. 15. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. 198 . All other methods in Figure 15. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.

equals() 199 .15 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. stored in a Database). This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. support for concurrent access 3. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().

bank11. 200 . CreateException. all throwing RemoteException. 15. We can have more create() methods.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. as the parameters in the original create() method. an instance of that bean is created. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.15 . Read. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). in the same order.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. methods which have the same parameters.lang. state data is stored into data store (usually. Update and Delete. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section.ccards.14. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. On the other side. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).

The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. but in general.14. While in the pooled stage. After instantiation. 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. Second. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. After the EJB container creates the instance. actual SQL update code. 201 . While an entity bean is in the ready stage.14.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. a client can invoke the remove method. for BMPs. First.2 read • • • ejbLoad().14.15 . in BMP.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. the client invokes the create method. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but the developer returns null for CMP. All instances in the pool are identical. left empty most of the time in CMP. it is empty. for BMP. 15. it's business methods can be invoked. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. On the second path. On the first path. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. not null.

but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. If the primary key is incorrect.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.an application client. the values of the instance variables are not needed. another enterprise bean. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. it does not automatically set the primary key.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . 202 . Therefore. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 15. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.15 . In the pooled state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.getPrimaryKey(). or a Web component . the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. With bean-managed persistence. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener.

and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Previously. message-driven bean can be used. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. The onMessage method may call helper methods. If this element is set to more than one. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. Unlike a session or entity bean. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. a JMS API connection. If message processing is rolled back. To avoid tying up server resources. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. an open database connection. the message will be redelivered. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. In several respects.16.for example. When a message arrives. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. For more information on this element see. max-beans-infree-pool. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. To ensure concurrency.15 . 15.16. but not asynchronously. 15.16.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. 15. 203 .16.

Obtain a new bean instance. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.Message MessageName) {.} // onMessage() is required. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. finalize{}. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.jms. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. 15..16. 3. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.ejb.16.. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.15 . As with other EJB types. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. // An EJB constructor is required.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. Note: These instances can be pooled.}. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. public void onMessage(javax.16.Message. 2..0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. or create a new one.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.jms. 15. Classes. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.0 specification. public void ejbRemove() {. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. and it must not // accept parameters. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. methods.

11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.16.jms. However.MessageListener.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.15 . If any method throws such an exception. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. See javax. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.This is not a client context. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. even in onMessage().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. 15.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.16. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.16.16. 15. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. getRollbackOnly() . For example. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. getUserTransaction(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.onMessage() for more information. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. 15. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. 15.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .

WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.0 specification. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.16. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.xml. as described in the EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.0 specification. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions.16. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.15 .0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16. 15.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. as required by the EJB 2. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. In either case. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.

2.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.15 . • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.message. 207 .4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax...Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. the weblogic-ejb-jar. as described in the EJB 2.. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. 15.jms. For each instance.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. </message-driven> . the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml elements.ejb20.xml deployment file. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.0 specification.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.

the remote interface name 8.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. access control entries . control descriptors . 15. isolation level. security 208 . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. environment properties 6. a message-driven bean is never passivated. entity specific elements 10.15 . At the end of the life cycle. the container calls the ejbRemove method. attributes .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.security issues.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. bean home name . session specific elements 9. EJB class name 5. the home interface name 7.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.like transaction. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.

AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ejb.bank11.bank11.ccards.bank11.ccards.ejb.lang. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.ccards.ccards.ccards.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.ejb.bank11.15 .ccards.

Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.lang.15 ..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .


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