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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. and sends it back to the client program. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. or finance. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary).3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. The web tier.2 Server communication 1. 1. retail. Figure 1.1 .java platform. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. 5 . might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.7 business components Business code. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. like the client tier.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. processes it (if necessary). like HTML pages. enterprise edition Figure 1.

Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.1 . enterprise bean. multithreading.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. resource pooling. Before a web. or application client component can be executed. and other complex low-level details. 6 . 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.9 java EE Containers Normally. 1. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.java platform. For example. Business and EIS Tiers 1. In addition. enterprise edition Figure 1. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.3 Web. mainframe transaction processing. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). database systems. and other legacy information systems.9. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. data persistence. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 7 . The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.4. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. After an enterprise bean is created. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.9. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. For example.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. and remote connectivity. database connection resource pooling. transaction management.java platform. 1. including services such as security.1 .

XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. video. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.manages the execution of applets. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. For example. develop. XML data.10. program files. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Applet container . The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. When XML data is exchanged between parties.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Application clients and their container run on the client.java platform. 1. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation.manages the execution of application client components. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. or for document-oriented web services. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. test. Web container . 8 .manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. extensible. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Application client container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.1 . text-based standard for representing data. maps. 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio.

such as Universal Description. 1.10. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. enterprise edition 1. and ways to communicate with the service. the location of the service. 1.java platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. The description includes the name of the service.1 . The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. 9 . The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10.

entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. 1. and XML) and JSP elements.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. the session bean and its data are gone. In Java EE 5. 1. 1. standard set of tags.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.1 . Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.11.11. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . or enterprise bean. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.11. you employ a single.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. or if the server shuts down. WML. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. Commonly. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. enterprise edition Figure 1. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. When the client finishes executing.java platform. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. If the client terminates.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


No extra coding is needed. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. or a component.ear extension. JTA. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application.java platform. 15 . a module. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . such as better performance. it is ready to be deployed. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.1 . module. better tools. SAAJ. servlet. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. JSP page.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. Once deployed on a local platform. At runtime. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or component accordingly. or better customer support. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. and JNDI 1. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. the application is ready to run. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.

EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . such as caching directives. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. For example. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. for example. JSP files. native libraries. • • 16 . Resource adapter modules. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. enterprise edition Figure 1.rar (resource adapter archive) extension.1 . and other documentation. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. and a web application deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Together. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. classes. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain servlet class files. GIF and HTML files.java platform. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.jar extension. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain all Java interfaces. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. supporting class files. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.jar extension.war (Web ARchive) extension. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Application client modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. Web modules.

RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.w3.. we recommend www.1.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. an initial line 2. HEAD.org/rfc/rfc1945. 2.apps. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .com/easy/http.. These messages may have different contents. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.. but they also have some common structural elements.ietf. was the object of several RFCs. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.. so far) version. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). as follows: 1.html).jmarshall. check the official HTTP site – www. RFC 2616 (06/99). The first oficial version – HTTP 1. POST. zero or more header lines 3. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. The server answers with a response message. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. namely HTTP 1.HTTP 2. The second (and last.2 .HTTP 2 . The client sends a request message to the server.org/Protocols . .

The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. 18 . Here is their list: 1.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. mailing list.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. 2.1 specification. but lack of support makes them obsolete. PUT 8. HTTP/1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.2 . DELETE 6.0). The only difference is that the response must not have a body. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. in the HTTP 1. newsgroup. TRACE Three other commands are listed.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.html HTTP/1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.Annotation of existing resources. GET 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. CONNECT 5. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. . as well. POST 4.Posting a message to a bulletin board.1. OPTIONS 7. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . HEAD 3. GET /path/to/the/file/index.

form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).0 404 Not Found 2.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.6 differences between GET and POST 1. . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. In this case. separated by the character “&” or “. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or ordering a product. 2. . a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . like storing or updating data. after the “?” character. to a data-handling process. (encoded as multipart/form-data).8 the status code A three-digit integer. 2.Providing a block of data.2 . When used for form data submission. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.Extending a database through an append operation. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or a record is subordinate to a database. while POST may involve anything. or in the message body.” On the other side.HTTP or similar group of articles. such as the result of submitting a form. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. or sending E-mail 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. 3. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.

In a request. or otherwise can't run correctly.0. and section 10 for HTTP 1.the requested resource doesn't exist. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.1 version specifies 46 of them.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). header values are. 500 Server Error . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. fails. separated a semicolon.an unexpected server error. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. none of them mandatory.2 . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The HTTP 1. such as text/html or image/jpg.the request succeeded.g.1 only) . 2. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. out of which. and the resulting resource (e. file or script output) is returned in the message body. 2. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.1). while the HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client.0 version specifies 16 headers. 20 . The most common use of the message body is in a response. 404 Not Found . This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. If an HTTP message includes a body. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. Although the header names are not case sensitive. In particular.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . that is. header name and header value.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. one (Host) is mandatory.

2 .html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. partial. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). external-body 4.ro/path/file.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. 21 . alternative. message. with subtypes rfc822. with subtype basic 7.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.org/rfc/rfc1521.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. text. digest. 1. image.apps. video. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtypes mixed.html first open a socket to the host web. .info. audio. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. RFC 1521 (www.0 200 OK Date: Fri.HTTP 2. with subtype mpeg 2. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.uvt. gif 6.html HTTP/1. multipart. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. Then. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtypes octet-stream.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.ietf.0 From: someuser@yahoo. parallel 3.ro. postscript 5. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. application.info. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes jpeg.uvt. with subtype plain 2.

2 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP . the server closes the socket. 22 .

html.htmlgoodies. check the official HTML site – www.www. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.org/Markup . www. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. The first version of HTML.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. However.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.html) and was widely supported. namely HTML 1.01) can be found at this address: http://www.HTML 3 . As a practical reference site use – www. The newest version of HTML is 4. The first official version – HTML 2.0 draft was released in 01. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions. Version 4. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).w3.com/easy/html .jmarshall.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.2 (3. 3.com/tutors. HTML 3.01. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.0 and was accepted in December 1997.0 . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. The latest version (XHTML 2. A newer standard. The XHTML 1.ietf.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.apps.0) dates from 08. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. Originally named Web Applications 1. It is a revision of 4.org/rfc/rfc1866.HTML 3. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.com/indexdot/html .02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0. From 1999 on.w3c.blooberry.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Since it fits in a couple of pages. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. a working draft for the next major revision.0. Other helpful sites . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. HTML describes how text. Mosaic. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.3 .99.

SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".3 .implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.

0 Strict DTD. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. Overall.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 Transitional DTD. DYNSRC. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. An example: <!-.w3.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. 3." (in hexadecimal) . the specification of HTML 4. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.acesta este un comentariu. Check the address http://www. VSAPCE are omitted.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. look at these examples: “&lt”. <><> --> 25 . This section deals with some of the most common elements. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.0 contains an SGML declaration.the chinese character for water. like ALIGN. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. though.01 specification. CONTROLS.3 .and end at the first occurrence of -->. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. BORDER. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. three DTDs (HTML 4. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. 4. "&#x6C34. 3. …. If you wonder what a character reference is. “&quot”.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. You get the point. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. HTML 4. HTML 4. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.

ro/webmail/src/login.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.HTML 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.5 tables 26 .3 . image. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3.uvt.info.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. NAME. etc. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.

Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TR>. <THEAD>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. its rows. Usually. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . columns. <TH> and <TD>. headers and cells are <TABLE>.3 . the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Here is their description and attributes.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .required.

if specified. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.the default value.HTML • METHOD . "reset".info. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".& or (sometimes) by semicolon .8.8 form related elements 3.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.required.8. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "submit". "radio". Example: http://web.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .sends the form values in a single transmission. the browser appends the values to the URL. "button". may have the values GET or POST.required. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "checkbox".3 .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "GET" .:. "file". • 3.maximum number of options visible to the user.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. SIZE . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .uvt. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.8. however. "image".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. specifies how data will be sent to the server. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . Main attributes: 29 .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. Main attributes: • TYPE . data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "password". after a quotation mark . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.required. "text/plain" • • 3. NAME . allows multiple selections from the choice list. "hidden".1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . specifies the parameter name.?. 3.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

jit From source to execution.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. following the 1.4 . A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The current version (as of 10.java.class.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.) in 08.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.class file. the compilation process occurs..95.95.90. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . javac -classpath .4. Java source – a file with extension . Example: Edit the file prog1.class file. but next time execution is much faster.JAVA PRIMER 4 .JAVA PRIMER 4. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.2 version. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.java One example of command line compilation: 4.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.3 java applications 31 .2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. Inc. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. -g : generate all debugging info. 4. In terms of execution time. The current version (as of 10.java 2. Java bytecode – a file with extension . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Early versions of Java were released in 12. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class 3.0.2 java the interpreter. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The first time a class is loaded. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.C:\TW\mySource. To overcome this significant shortage. project started in 12. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.

the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. An example: 32 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4.java. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.4. Generally.4 object oriented concepts 4.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. In general. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. 4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. or that it extends A).jar file. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.

Boolean.1 bit char . provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. In fact. Therefore. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. providing its own implementation. namely: Byte.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Character.4. 4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. In OO jargon. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Double. called Object.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. Float. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Integer. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). a Java class can extend a single base class.4. with the root the class Object. Therefore. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 33 . 4. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. this is called method overloading.4 . 4. Short. Long.

which is visible only to the classes in the same package. which extends the class javax. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. Except for the "package" concept.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .access from any class anywhere private .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.one which is constant method .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.. 34 .http.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . automatic garbage collection. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.no access from outside the class itself protected . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .servlet.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. inherited). 4.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . method .the class is visible from any class. rather than at class instance.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). no templates. A final variable (method.. class . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.4 .servlet.one which is defined at class level. • • • • no specifier .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. } declares an abstract class.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.does not have any subclasses. anywhere abstract .http. A final: • • • variable . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. has the same value for all class instances.

Exception categories: 1.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. division by 0.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).7. standard method exceptions 3.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 2. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . programmer defined exceptions 4.ThreadDeath. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs.JAVA PRIMER 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.4 . 4. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. java errors . namely class Error and the class Exception. as defined in the java. In Java. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. not at execution time. array index out of bounds. code or data errors . 4.like invalid cast.7. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.7.

8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.support for user interface java.ccards.sql java. string analyzers.geom . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. . The package containing the standard classes is java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.awt . the class (the .bank11.support for java archives creation java.awt.sql.rmi java.4 . the package statement is the first one in a java source file. All other packages must be explicitly imported.lang (automatically available).security 36 .event .util .by adding the key word throws. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).util. don't have to import java.support for event handling java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. As a general rule. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.Properties. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .8. import. they have to be unique inside a package.class file. 4.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. An example: package com.util. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.nio java. import javax.support for data collections.this can be done by providing a try. followed by the import statements. In the example above.lang . finally construct. 4. catch.1 Package names The default package has no name.default.awt... 4.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .zip .*. date and time info java.net java. therefore. the default package is used).java.servlets.io java.

static and final.text javax.accessibility javax. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing.support for event handling 4. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. it must be declared as abstract. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. 37 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.swing . All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All variables (actually.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.4 .event .

5. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .JAVASCRIPT 5.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript statement like this: document.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. then LiveScript and finally. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. This is not always what we want.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. as JavaScript.depending on the browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .javaScript 5 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . like QtScript or ActionScript. other 38 .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. However. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . Subsequently. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.5 . and .

point to the . When you place a script in the head section.js file extension. without having to write the same script on every page. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3. or when an event is triggered.3. To simplify this.. </script> </body> 5. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. 5.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. </script> </head> 5..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.5 . go in the head section..javaScript times when a user triggers an event. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3. 39 . Save the external JavaScript file with a .

.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd"... Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . in loop is executed once for each element/property.1 JavaScript for..4. 5. catch constructs.5..4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. switch().2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. else. in and the try .4. 5. continue. namely – if .. 5.. while() it is worth mentioning the for ..4. while().5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. for(). This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. The code in the body of the for ..javaScript 5.. break.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.In statement The for..5 .4. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.

} </script> </body> </html> 5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. The try block contains the code to be run.catch statement The try..5.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").5.3 try. Example Using for.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. var mycars = new Array().. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement (available in IE5+.. mycars[0] = "Saab". Mozilla 1.. mycars[2] = "BMW". When users see errors.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. or a property of an object. so you don't lose your audience.5 . and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. an array element.. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. they often leave the Web page. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. mycars[1] = "Volvo".0.

alert(txt).1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n".5 .description + "\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). When an alert box pops up. txt+="Error description: " + err.7. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.\n\n". the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. Also.7 popup boxes 5. Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue. 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.

5 .js file). When a prompt box pops up.8 functions 5. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). Now.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function."defaultvalue") 5.7. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK". When a confirm box pops up. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel". Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .7. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. If the user clicks "Cancel". in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns null. the box returns false.8. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. in the <head> section. the box returns true.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.

We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects..1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.9.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. document. and how they are used.javaScript function functionname(var1.write(txt. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.9 javaScript objects 5. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. So. 5.5 . functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9.8. 5. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. and will be stored in the variable called product.length). var2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .var2. etc are variables or values passed into the function. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object... 5..

</script> 5.9.toUpperCase()).javaScript 5. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 . which will be specified in the next section. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document.write(str. The first class consists of browser specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.5 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

N: Netscape.11.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. every Image on the page is an Object. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. At its most basic level. check the site http://www. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Even this Document itself is an Object.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.com/jsref/default. When an event message has been triggered. or when the user interacts with a Web page. every Link on the page is an Object. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . For example.w3schools. as well). which are called Objects.asp 5.5 . This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.11.5 .

Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.5 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . depending on the browser. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.

javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to local time. to a string. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. according to Greenwich time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to universal time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .

4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number). Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 3 4 .5 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.11.5 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 . N: Netscape.

0.434) Returns PI (approx.javaScript 5.5 . 2.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 2.11.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 1.y) pow(x.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 1.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. N: Netscape. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.y) min(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0. 3.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.

firstname).3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). skin tone. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods.eyecolor="blue".methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. The persons' properties include name. etc. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.age=30.12. personObj. work(). eye color. sleep(). All persons have these properties.you can give it properties named firstname. 5. weight.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. The persons' methods could be eat(). play().eyecolor="blue". personObj.12.lastname="Doe". personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. document.lastname="Doe". personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.12. etc. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.firstname="John". lastname. Objects also have methods. 53 . personObj. and eyecolor as follows: personObj.write(personObj.5 . age. height. Properties are the values associated with the object. Assume that the personObj already exists .2 Methods An object can also contain methods. personObj. age.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.age=50.firstname="John". Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.

4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. myMother=new person("Sally".age=age.50. this. this. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). like this: myFather=new person("John".5 . } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."Doe". you can create new instances of the object.lastname=lastname. 5."blue").age=age.lastname.firstname=firstname. this.lastname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.eyecolor) { this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor. } Notice that the template is just a function. this. this.eyecolor=eyecolor.48.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.age. this."Rally". this. Once you have the template.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.12.newlastname=newlastname. Inside the function you need to assign things to this. You can also add some methods to the person object.propertyName.age.lastname=new_lastname.eat=eat. 54 .lastname=lastname."green").

We define the events in the HTML tags..5 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. So. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.newlastname("Doe"). Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.".javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. For example. 5. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . now you can write: myMother.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4..

13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.5 . you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. If the field values are not accepted.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. 5. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. If it returns true the form will be submitted. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.13. 5.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13.2 onFocus. For example. The name is then stored in a cookie. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.w3schools. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.13. the submit should be cancelled. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.

5 .javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.

6 . after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. The W3C 58 . XML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. Right now (oct. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. By October 1998. particularly those used in Web browsers. the Document Object Model activity is closed. As of January 2008. 2010). and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. HTML.Html DOM 6 .HTML DOM 6.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. However. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document..defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. In other words. and style of a document.g. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. structure.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. SVG. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. or WebAPI being among them. 6. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. CSS.

an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it.6 .4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 2. and 6. Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 2.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. As of 2005. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. To claim to support a level. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. which further enhances the DOM 6. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. 6. filtered views and events. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. 3. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Validation. HTML-specific elements are included as well. each of which contains required and optional modules. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Requirements. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 XPath. 5. Level 1. 4.

W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. can be accessed through the 60 . A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. that is. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. The Window object represents a browser window.6 . 6. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Konqueror. All HTML elements.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.x were still widely used in 2000. interoperability problems were numerous. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). In order to be cross-browser compatible. Opera.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. support multiple browsers. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). By 2005. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.x and Netscape 4. along with their containing text and attributes. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. and Safari.

and VBScript.6 . JavaScript. and new elements can be created. It can be used by any programming language like Java. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. However.6 .Html DOM 6. 6.9. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". the text of an element node is stored in a text node. The <head> node holds a <title> node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. everything in an HTML document is a node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The tree structure is called a node-tree. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. the element node <title>. <head> and <body>. 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <html> node has two child nodes. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. 62 .8.8.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6.

The node tree below shows the set of nodes. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.getElementsByTagName("p").9. By navigating the node tree. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. Parent nodes have children. and new elements can be created.9.6 .2 node parents.getElementById('main'). and the connections between them. Their contents can be modified or deleted. • • • • • In a node tree. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). using the node relationships. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.getElementsByTagName("p"). By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The terms parent. 63 .Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. except the root. children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. the top node is called the root Every node. child. By using the getElementById() method 2.

write("<br />").i++) { document. } 6. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. each node is an object.6 .write(x[i]. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i<x. document. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).Html DOM for (i=0. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.9. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .length.innerHTML). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).

get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.nodeValue. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 . 6.getElementById("intro").9.5 example . txt=x.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.firstChild. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.Html DOM 6.

For elements. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. frames. For elements. objects and images. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including window. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 .

and then bubbled up. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). 67 . DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type.3. Mozilla. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. During the event flow. When the user clicks on the inner element. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. DOMNodeInserted.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). say "click". Safari. for instance. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. through a mouse click or a keypress.6 . Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. as of version 1.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. 6. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. also supports these methods. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Fires when an element is activated. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Also. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).

Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. etc. mouse position. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. including information about target element. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. preventDefault 68 . key pressed. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Unfortunately.6 . Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow.Html DOM 6. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. mouse button pressed.

and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.7 . JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. using web services or Php scripts. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. etc. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. menus. but also to save resources. For example. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. The server does some processing — retrieving data.AJAX 7. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. before the whole page was sent within the network. For improving sharing of resources. 7. fields of forms. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. crunching numbers.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. dynamic website. It is not a technology in itself. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. choices of user. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7.AJAX 7 . 69 .

why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. but the opposite is true. what’s the user doing? That’s right. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. waiting. waiting around for the server to do something. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. Once an interface is loaded. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. at the start of the session. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. 70 . And at every step in a task. Instead of loading a web page. While the server is doing its thing.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. Obviously. the user waits some more.7 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. we wouldn’t make users wait around.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. loading additional interface code. editing data in memory.7 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. usually using XML. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 .

.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.holds loaded data as a string of characters. 404 if the page is not found .for a Xml file or .AJAX 7. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.send: send a request to the server. and in this purpose. It allows the interaction with the servers.responseText . 2: request received. url. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. . These events are user actions.url: the location of the file 72 . boolean) .responseXml .holds a Xml loaded file. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. To get data on the server.200 is ok.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".mode: type of request. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 3: answer in process. 4: finished. onreadystatechange .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. GET or POST . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. DOM's method allows to extract data. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .returned by the server . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. 1: connection established. thanks to its methods and attributes. . This object provides two methods: . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .for a simple text. 7.7 .open: create a connection.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.

step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. true for asynchronous. The request below reads a document on the server.readyState == 4) { // received. URL of the document. 73 .7 . 'http://www.open('GET'.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .AJAX . // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. // Firefox.send(null). http_request.XMLHTTP").open: command GET or POST..ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. for browser compatibility.null for a GET command 7.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). http_request.. the data to send to the server.xul.send: with POST only. if (window.. OK } else { // wait. . if (request.6 building a request. true).xml'.. Safari. . } else if (window. but two options must be tried.fr/somefile. request. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .

ajax. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.responseText.ajax.open("GET". else document.status.item(0).dyn=""Received:" + req. req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.ajax.responseXML. req.responseText.7 examples 7.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().dyn="Received:" + req.7 . "data.xml". if(window.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". req.dyn="Error code " + req. }.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.XMLHTTP).readyState == 4) if(req. req.getElementsByTagName('root').7.AJAX 7.send(null). true). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . by this code: var doc = req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").7. else if (window.status == 200) document.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


xml file: <?xml version="1.. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. like what pages are error. Servlet. 2. 3.class>com. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. JSPs and Java Server Faces.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. descriptions).8 . and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Others. but typical web.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Here is a small.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.bank11.servlets. entries related to session configuration. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.ccards. MIME types used by the web application. welcome pages. database connection resource pooling. 8. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. After an enterprise bean is created. For example. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Servlet. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. like: 1. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. 6.. classes. 5. Initialization of parameters for servlets.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.)> <web-app> <!-. data persistence. 4. web. servlet classes. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.

Unfortunately.class" and that it is part of the package "com.ccards. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". 1. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. In general. Behind a very benign URL.bank11.ccards.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" file. basicly. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. For example.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. However.xml file of the web application. Basicly.8 .EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . The "/ccards" part of the URL is. for flexibility. the name of the web application.ccards.xml". Then the "EnrollServlet.bank11. whose name is rather long.servlets".servlets. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".xml" 2. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".servlets".bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.

Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. but through a web container. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. modular design 9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .5 and is in final state. As of oct. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. which extend the functionality of the web server. in most cases as part of an application server.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.2. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. 2010. Technically speaking. the Java Servlet 3.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. 9.SERVLETS 9 .4.SERVLETS 9. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . platform independent programs. small footprint. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. from BEA Systems. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).9 . The current Java Servlet specification is 2. 9.2. but at this point. the HttpServlet) class.0 specification is available for public review. tjws spec 2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.0 specification. this is just a work in progress.4. more often.

from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. IOException. 82 .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from Apple Inc. from IBM 9.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. Enterprise Edition.9 .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. public void destroy() throws ServletException.servlet.servlet javax. WebSphere. These packages are: • • javax.servlet package. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. while the second one.servlet. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). the javax.servlet package are protocol independent. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.

5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. as well. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. Throwable t) 9. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). before the servlet processes any HTTP request. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. After instantiating the servlet. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. ServletConfig. 83 . ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. 9.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. in a different section. namely the HttpServlet class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface.9 . More on the servlet life cycle. respectively. The servlet API provides such a specific class. The method performs all initialization required. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. This method has two arguments.

a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.9 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. 9. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.servlet. service().servlet.Exception and can be thrown by the init().lang.ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. It also extends the java.

If the servlet does not implement the javax. Typically.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.9 . the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Also. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. respectively. DB connection opening. After instantiation.servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. 85 . But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. JSP or JSF. Typically.SingleThreadModel. etc. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. this method contains JDBC driver loading. which will service all incoming requests. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. 9.

SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 . Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 . One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.

io.java" file: package com. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.9 . 87 .html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.*.servlets. This is done in server's (container's) server.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. import java. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.xml file. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.ccards.bank11. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.

println("<br>").getWriter(). PrintWriter out = resp.println("<head>"). } } 88 . IOException { resp.*.println("<title>Servlet</title>").close(). out. out.SERVLETS import javax.init(config). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("<body>"). out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. out.9 .println("</head>"). // output your page here out.println("<html>").http. out. out.*. import javax.servlet. out.println("merge").println("</html>").println("</body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out. out.setContentType(“text/html”).

JDBC 10 .10 . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.sun. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.sql package.0. the javax.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. 1997. 10. the java. Type 1.1.odbc.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.0 while the current (4. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. After that. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.sql package 2. The JDBC 4. 89 . This solution is inefficient. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. These drivers fall into four standard categories. Starting with version 3. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.JdbcOdbcDriver .JDBC 10. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.jdbc. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. as recognized by the DB industry.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.

10 . These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.JDBC Type 2. Type 3. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Type 4. Part Java. because it eliminates one level of indirection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. 90 . This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. which in turn. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers.

sql.Clob java.sql.sql. java.sql.Statement java.Wrapper 91 .SQLOutput java.DriverManager java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.0).sql.sql.Connection java.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.ResultSet java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLInput java.ResultSetMetaData java.SQLXML java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Time java.sql.Timestamp java.Date java.JDBC 10.PreparedStatement java.SQLData java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Blob java.Types java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Driver java.SQLPermission java.sql.Array java.SQLWarning java.sql.Struct java.0 API.sql.SQLException java.3 the java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.SQLDataException java.sql.10 .sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.

establishing a database connection 3.SQLDataException java.Blob java.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLInput java.sql.Clob java.sql package.sql.SQLException java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.CommonDataSource javax.RowId java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.Statement java. java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.NClob java.sql.sql.0.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.PreparedStatement java. querying the database 4.sql.sql.10 .ClientinfoStatus java.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLXML java.StatementEvent javax.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql. loading a database driver 2.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.Types java.Wrapper javax.sql. processing the result set 92 .DatabaseMetaData java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLOutput java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Connection java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.

SybDriver com.jdbc.db2.OracleDriver sun.sybase.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.DB2Driver oracle.datastore.borland.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .JDBC 10. A database driver is specified by the driver name. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.driver.jdbc.odbc.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.net.10 .ibm.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.

the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. as specified by the driver vendor. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.forName("org. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".getConnection(connURL.sql. try { Class. by using the connection URL.util. import java. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).10 .newInstance(). the only protocol allowed in JDBC).Driver"). The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. Since we just used it.bank11.*. 94 . passwd).printStackTrace(). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.*.gjt. but let's take it for granted: import java.mm. String user = "root". as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. user.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mysql.

Properties prp = new Properties().6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. prp. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.put("create". int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.sql package.put("autocommit".getConnection(connURL. String user. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. java. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Connection conn = DriverManager.10 .sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. 10. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. "true").util. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . prp). prp. we can use it for various purposes. "true"). Once we get the hold of a Connection object. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.JDBC 10. int resultSetConcurrency.

Statement. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .JDBC 10.10 . PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. namely. respectively. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section.

Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.".sql. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . stmt.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.10 .createStatement()..executeUpdate(sqlString).JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. 10.

all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. PreparedStatement.10 . not at 0) or the column name. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. 98 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


produces a Connection object that will 103 .math. There are three types of implementations: 1. Basic implementation -.sql. Connection pooling implementation -.DataSource object. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.produces a standard Connection object 2.Big Decimal Object float 10.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. secs date.sql. mins.0 optional package.sql. basicly. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. It is part of the javax.Time java. time. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.sql package.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. a factory for creating DB connections. This interface is.10 .Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.math.

Distributed transaction implementation -.*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.*.10 . This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. javax. private DataSource theDataSource. javax.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).http.*. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. javax. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.ccards.servlet.naming.getLogger(TestDataSource.getName()). 3. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.bank11.servlet. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. java.*.servlets. 104 . private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".sql. import import import import import import java.class.lookup("java:comp/env").sql. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*. javax.io. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").. ServletException { . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).10 . } } 105 .. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

The javax.2 the java.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .servlet. If the JSP is modified. The package javax.jsp.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. namely javax.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JSP 11 .servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.jsp.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).tagext.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. 11. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The package javax.5 Java Servlet specification. The JSP specific interfaces. 11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.11 . IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp and javax.JSP 11.1 and is related to the 2.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


JSP • if the URL does not start with / . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). 111 .. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. include and taglib.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.11 .

7.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11.7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. In Tomcat. 11.11 . 11.7 scripting elements 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11. this code goes to inside the service() method. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. Assigns it to available name or id.JSP 11.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.

property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . Attributes description: • • • name .the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. and if so.11 .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. you must specify param. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.

While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. <jsp:forward>. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:plugin> actions.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .13 the forward standard action 114 .name of the property to be retrieved 11.the URL of the page.only the "true" value is supported.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. same format as the <%@include> directive. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.

servlet or to a static resource. If you do not supply a value.11 .the name of a bean instance..the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. You must include the . name="instanceName" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. as well.. . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. when we want to separate the application into different views. name . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. archive="URIToArchive. as this attribute has no default value.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. depending on request.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute." .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).a name for the Bean or applet instance..the type of object the plugin will execute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. code="classFileName" . It is used mainly. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.. 11. You must specify either bean or applet.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .class extension in the name following code.

in pixels. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . request . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. optional port number. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.jsp. and domain name.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.represents the servlet context. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. session . application . pageContext .1.the initial height and width. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.PrintWriter.1" . writes to the output stream to the client. page .lang. it has java. Must be a small nonzero number. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. objects which are automaticly available. The default value is 1. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. 1.the amount of space.it represents the buffered version of java. of the image the applet or Bean displays. based on the servlet API.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. request . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. with a protocol name.JspWriter type and scope page 7.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. it has javax.11 .io.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.16 scopes 1. response . config .Object type and scope page 11. out .servlet. in pixels. The value is a full URL.represents server's response to the request. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .

an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. Object value) method 3. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.11 .init(). Object value) method 11.ccards.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.jsp file.beans.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . Object value) method 2.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. page .bank11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. session .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.JSP request object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. Object value) method 4.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. if (enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.

mapping.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. a float. a software development and consulting company. %> <jsp:forward page="response. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.devsphere. private SimpleSubBean subBean. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .java: package com. 11. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.string. The SimpleBean class is declared public.11 . private boolean flag. private String optional. private String colors[]. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.simple.io.Serializable { private String string. SimpleBean.register(). private float number.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. a boolean and another String). private int integer.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.18. The public constructor could have been omitted. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. an int. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). private int list[].examples.

} // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors.colors[index].string = value.11 .number.flag = value.integer. } 119 . } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.integer = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.flag. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.JSP this.colors = values. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.number = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.

int value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list[index] = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.11 . } } 120 . String value) { this.subBean = value. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list[index].optional = value.list. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.list = values.subBean.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.colors[index] = value.optional.

private float number. } } 11. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.string = value.devsphere.11 .examples. SimpleSubBean.string.mapping.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .io. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.java: package com.number = value.simple.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).number.18.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.Serializable { private String string. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.

JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .number SimpleForm.11 .

{ "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". "An option must be selected" }. new String[] { 123 .integer]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The list of optional properties has a single element.18.simple.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.util. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.number]". There are three error messages.list]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the processing order.examples.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.devsphere.colors]". new Boolean(true) }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.mapping. The default values are defined for a String.flag]". "abc" }. a boolean and an int[].java: package com. new Float(0. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.123) }. the form's name and the processor's name. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. "One or more colors must be selected" }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. 3 } }.string]". The processing order isn't necessary to this example. a float.11 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. the list of optional properties. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.list]". new int[] { 2. "One or more items must be selected" }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. SimpleBeanResources. error messages. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.

If necessary.html" }. } } 11. "flag".mapping.logging.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. com. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. "integer". "list".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. { "[PROC_NAME]".mapping.util.mapping. string values are converted to numbers.18.devsphere.devsphere. "colors".devsphere. The formToBean() method of com. new String[] { "string". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). { "[FORM_NAME]".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.JSP "optional" } }.devsphere. "SimpleProc.devsphere. The beanToForm() method of com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.11 .simple.jsp" } }. "number".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "optional".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. For a better understanding of this example.*. "subBean" } }.examples. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. SimpleHndl.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. "SimpleForm.mapping.

} else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).trim().getClass()).getDocument().forward(request. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. formPath = application. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.formToBean(formData.equals("POST"). // Process the valid data bean instance application.11 . // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.util.getBeanResources(simpleBean.substring(0. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.JSP = HandlerUtils.removeUserErrors(errorTable). errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). slashIndex+1) : "".getRealPath(formPath).File(formPath)).io.getString("[PROC_NAME]").getMethod().Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. simpleBean. 125 .getString("[FORM_NAME]"). int slashIndex = basePath.getServletPath().trim(). response).getTemplate(new java. logger).lastIndexOf('/'). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.

jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. SimpleProc. i++) 126 .examples. } %> 11.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.18. // Send the form document document.getSubBean(). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().simple.11 .getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.mapping. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.number = <%= simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean.append("{ ").jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".getString() %> <P> subBean. i < list. if (list. strbuf.beanToForm(simpleBean. errorTable.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].length. document.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.JSP elements logger). for (int i = 0.devsphere.getSubBean().send(out).

Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. return strbuf.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. return strbuf.toString().mapping. making the testing and the debugging easier. } strbuf. In addition.examples.toString(). ComplexHndl. for (int i = 0.append(" "). The localization of the Complex*.toString(list[0]).11 . beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.formToBean() call. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. } %> 11.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.length.length == 0) return "".SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. strbuf.append("}"). strbuf.simple. if (list.append("{ ").jsp files. A single call to FormUtils. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.devsphere.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. i < list. ComplexForm. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.length == 1) return Integer. Using the framework. i++) { strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.18. In addition.append(" "). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. } strbuf. strbuf.util. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append("}").append(list[i]). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.append(list[i]).

String colorValues[] = { "red". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }.getInteger() == value.length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < colorValues.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "green".length. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0. 128 . "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }.11 . "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "blue" }. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false. for (int i = 0. i < integerLabels. boolean checked = simpleBean.length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. j < colors. "Green". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors(). "Option 2". j++) if (colors[j]. i++) { int value = i+1. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.

getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .getSubBean().JSP break. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "subBean. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. i++) { int value = i+1.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. i < listItems.getList(). for (int i = 0. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.11 .mapping.length. "Item 3" }. "Item 2". } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. boolean selected = false.setSubBean( new com.length.examples.SimpleSubBean()).string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". break.simple.

jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.11 .getSubBean().mapping.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. "subBean.setString("abc").getString() == null || simpleBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".get(property).getString().getMethod().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. boolean isPostMethod = request.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.simple.equals("POST").mapping.length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.devsphere.simple.util.Hashtable errorTable.examples. 130 .devsphere.examples.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).util.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. } %> ComplexHndl. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.

if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getColors() == null || simpleBean.123f). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null.getColors(). "Must be filled"). "number". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).floatValue()). if (flagValue.trim().11 .length == 0) { 131 .getParameter("number").getParameter("flag").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setFlag(flagValue != null). else { simpleBean. "number".123f).setNumber(0.setNumber(0. "string". } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "An option must be selected").length() == 0 || flagValue. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleBean. "Must be filled"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "integer".

setString(""). 3 }). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getList().setNumber(new Float(numberValue). //* subBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.floatValue()). "One or more colors must be selected").number". "One or more items must be selected").number : text try { String numberValue = request. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. 132 . setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be } //* subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean. "subBean.number"). "list". "Must be filled"). "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.11 .getOptional() == null) simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "colors".string".setOptional("").length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2.getString().getString() == null || simpleSubBean.

simpleBean.Hashtable errorTable.setString(""). errorTable.setFlag(true).devsphere.JSP filled").setString("abc"). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.code=com.xml: SimpleHndl.123f).simple. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.helpers.jsp.util.helpers. The com.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. message).initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.put(property. } } else { simpleBean.setNumber(0. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } %> 11. 3 }).jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.setOptional(""). simpleBean.mapping. "Must be a number").11 . simpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".SimpleBean. simpleSubBean.number". simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.examples. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. "subBean.devsphere.18. String property.mapping.setList(new int[] { 2.\ 133 .BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.properties or web.

examples. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.xml) file: ServletName.helpers.properties: AnotherHndl.host.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. a servlet is identified with its class.mapping. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.host. In many cases.properties (or web.examples. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.18.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. 11.devsphere.devsphere.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. you could add a few other lines to servlets.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.mapping.host.another.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.helpers.11 .JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.AnotherBean.devsphere.company. A servlet can be made bean-independent. If you have another bean-form pair. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.mapping.simple.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.mapping.code=com.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.

JSP 135 .11 .

2. which loads the appropriate view template.0. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.JAVASERVER FACES 12.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. builds a component tree. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 12. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. processes events.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.0 supersedes version 1. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. This technology includes: 1. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.javaserver faces 12 .12 . using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. Version 2. like input fields. Version 2. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.

javaserver faces 12. As of version 1.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.4.12 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .2 of the JFS specification.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.

javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.12 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. see the column tag documentation.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.4. such as alternating row colors. 12. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. Common formatting techniques. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. columns and rows. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . respectively. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. footers. For more information about columns.

price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.12 . The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkout}" /> 139 . The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. your options include using plain HTML forms. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.4.

5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.</span> 12.user.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12." /> 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. red for error.user.4.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5.12 .5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.

you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example.5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 .

selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Any component that receives user input. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. 12. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.5. can publish value change events. The body content of this tag must be empty. Without this JavaScript event.mycompany. but only if the new input is validated successfully. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. validateLength. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.javaserver faces 12. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.customer. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5.

javaserver faces 12. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.mycompany.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. for each locale you wish to support.mycompany. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. including images and styles. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.12 . The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. Example: welcome_en.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. myJSFapp 143 . JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If you have not specified a default locale.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.

It has a deployment descriptor. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. and so on.jar – files included in the /lib directory. like third party jar files jsf-impl. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.exadel.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. jsf-api. Create JSP pages 2.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar. Define navigation rules 3.jar jsf-api. static resources.jar faces-config. Create properties files 144 . included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml – the JSF configuration file.html. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.contains libraries required by the application.12 . What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.javaserver faces /ant build. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml web. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. Create managed beans 4.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. custom tag libraries.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application. JSP pages.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .

jsp and greeting. Create an index. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. we just want to go from inputname. Now that we have the two JSP pages. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. And that's all there is to this.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp to greeting.jsp.javaserver faces 5.jsp file 7. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp.jsp is greeting.12 . we can create a navigation rule. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.7.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. You just need to create its contents.7. As a diagram. These files will act as place holders for now. Compile the application 8. Deploy and run the application 12. In our application.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.xml file. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. The directory structure already exists.

xml Now. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.3.3. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.xml file should look like this: 146 . 12. To read more about navigation rules.xml Your final faces-config. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.7.3 faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.javaserver faces This is. The next line is the full class name.java file.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.7. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. public class PersonBean { String personName.7. the second part of faces-config. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. Inside this myJFSapp folder.3. You can easily create more complex ones. 12. we will create a PersonBean. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.PersonBean.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. of course. This class is straight-forward.) 12.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.7.12 . <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. a very simple navigation rule.1 PersonBean. myJFSapp.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.

dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.sun.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.4. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.5.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.7.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.12 . Inc. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .javaserver faces <?xml version="1.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.7.7.1 inputname. 12.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.sun.7.sun.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 messages. 12.properties file in the bundle folder.1//EN" "http://java.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.

let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.12 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. <h:inputText value="#{msg. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. Then. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.

name! 12.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. and also print its contents on the page. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. Create the index.6 creating the index.. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.xml file. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp page. specifically the bean attribute personName. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Having an index.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun.</h3> tags.12 .sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .7. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Line 6.2 greeting. The first three lines are identical to our first page. The second line will access a Java bean.javaserver faces Line 1. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.5.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.7. Lines 3-5. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. That's how JSF knows where to go next.bundle. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sun. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. 12. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.greeting_text}" />. Creates an HTML input text box. Line 2.

This is used here. 12.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. you'll notice the file suffix is .sourceforge. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.12 . we need to deploy it. To build the application run the build. verifies the information. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. though. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. Your setup. 12.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.8.7. because in the web.jsf and not . 12. This is a "login" application. When Tomcat is done loading.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.html . start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.7.jsp.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. We are almost done with this example. Of course. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. might possibly be different).bat in Tomcat's bin directory).jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7.xml file for the application *. To do this. and forwards the user to a success or error page. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 150 .javaserver faces Now.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.9 Running Next. which asks an user for an ID and password. 12.xml file.

and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. click Yes through messages that appear. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Next. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 12. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. select the Source tab..javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. The New Project wizard appears. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.src | +-. 10. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).. 6. see Installing & Uninstalling. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Next d. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. 2. from the menubar select File/New/Other. jsf-login. in the wizard that appears. name the folder webroot 5. a.. and set up folders for a web application.. in the Add JSF Support page. Select Java Project. Enter project name. 7.xml Editor (see faces-config..WEB-INF 151 . We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. name the folder pages. say. 9. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.webroot | +-.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click Add Folder. and to add JSF libraries to the project.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. c... Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. click Finish 4.12 . your mileage may vary. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Next. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. 3. Select the Amateras node.8. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. 1.

java package login. click Managed Bean.LoginManager. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. for class enter login. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. from its context menu select New/Class. in the Name field enter LoginManager. for name enter mgr.xml Editor. b. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. private String _pwd = "". Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. for scope select 152 . click Add. } return action. input widgets appear d.12 . } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".lib | +-. 2. In Package Explorer select the src folder. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.javaserver faces | | | +-.xml. The faces-config. enter login.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. In the Package field. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. Click Finish.xml editor opens. The Java code editor opens. 3. a. We then configure it to be a managed bean. if ( _uid. The New Java Class wizard appears. 1.8. } 4. else action = "loginFail".pages 12. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". c.

jsp.jsp. index. e.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp. <!-. enter the following code.jsp. save the file and close the editor.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp). b.jsp: create this file similarly to index. and 3 content pages (login. success.webroot/index. click Finish.webroot/pages/success.jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/error. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages. c. the New File wizard appears.jsp is placed directly in webroot.8.12 . All pages except login. 1.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. from the menubar select File/Save. Create index. so we create them first. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. the JSP Editor opens. then close the editor 12. Enter the following code: <!-. again.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp: a. but in webroot/pages. in Package Explorer select webroot. from its context menu select New/File. Enter the following code: <!-. Create success. for File name enter index.javaserver faces session.jsp and error. Create error. Then we create login.jsp). and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. </body> Please try 153 .jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.

javaserver faces </html> 4. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. <%@ page contentType="text/html. and choose default for Template.. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.. from its context menu select New/Other.12 . create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and dock it along the right.sun. Create login. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. the New wizard appears. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. etc. click Next c. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. d. and the JSP Editor can help with code. (See Show View Dialog) f. Open the JSF palette.completion. with the following template code. place your cursor in one of these lines. click Finish. as shown below.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. enter jsf-login e. To see this in action. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. g. for File name enter login.jsp: a.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. and uses them for code completion as well. a code-completion window pops up. 154 . and hit CTRL + Spacebar.jsp. now we want to add attributes to this element. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. b. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.

com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. select userID from the code-completion window.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. a code-completion window pops up.sun. with bean properties available in mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. and hit Enter. this inserts value="" at the cursor. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. set its value to Login. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 . This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element. enter #{mgr.loginAction} The final code. with the barest presentational formatting.javaserver faces h.. i. complete the expression with the closing { k. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.password}" l. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.) j. insert another <h:inputText> element.

12 .userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. click on Page.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.xml. 1. 156 . from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Select the Navigation tab 3. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Open faces-config. This is shown below. 2.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.8.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. it should open in the faces-config. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. then click inside the editor window. using a FacesIDE editor.xml Editor.

and is represented by an arrow. add 3 more pages. This is shown below: 157 .jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp and /pages/error. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp. in the Properties view.12 .jsp 4. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. select Navigation Case. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. notice that the warning triangle disappears. 6. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). and set them to /pages/login.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp. from the palette at left. then click first on the icon for login. change the value of path to /index. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. /pages/success. 5.jsp.

change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. open web.6 Editing web. 1. and extension-based mapping is turned on. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.xml Here we edit web.xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . so uncomment it.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). or leave it as-is.jsp. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.javaserver faces 7.xml.12 . Once deployed browse to index.jsp. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. since we have such a trivial application.8.jsp. Similarly add a forward-action from login. and you should be sent to the success page.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. all we need do in web.xml. 12. We want virtual path-based mapping. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. We'll set some properties in web. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. any other id/password should send you to the error page.jsp to error. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. As it turns out.

faces javax.el javax.8.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces. click Deploy 3.. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.render javax. the Manager application should reload.faces.html javax.10 the javax. that factory is used.application javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 .event javax.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.convert javax.faces.lifecycle javax.faces. Click on its link to launch the application.component.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.0 1.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.faces.component javax. start Tomcat..faces.faces.. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.context javax.faces.model javax. For a given factory class name. as file:///. scroll down to Deploy.12 . 12. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.webapp 12. open its Manager application in a browser.validator javax.javaserver faces 12. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.

the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.faces. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.Severity .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. ViewHandlerWrapper . with the last one taking precedence.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. ViewHandler . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. with the last one taking precedence.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . StateManager . ApplicationFactory . handling events and input validation. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.represents a single validation (or other) message. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.12 . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. FacesMessage.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.11 the javax. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. StateManagerWrapper . If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). defining page navigation. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. those factories are used. If none of the above steps yield a match. 12. FacesMessage . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.

restoreView(javax.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . String) results in failure on postback. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.context. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.12 the javax.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. StateHolder . ContextCallBack . UICommand . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. • • 161 .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.12 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. or a hyperlink. Here they are: • • UIColumn . 12. • ViewExpiredException . String.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. UIComponentBase . NamingContainer .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. a menu item. EditableValueHolder . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.faces.FacesContext.faces. ActionSource2 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. when activated by the user. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. UIComponent .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. ValueHolder .

the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.html package 162 . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIMessage .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. identified by a clientId. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UISelectItem . Optionally.faces. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that has a value. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIOutput . UIMessages . UISelectMany . The user can modify the selected value. that is displayed to the user. by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces • UIData . This component has no rendering. UINamingContainer .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. it is for display purposes only.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIGraphic . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIViewRoot . The user can modify the selected values.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UIPanel . UIForm . UIInput . it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. Optionally.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).component. UISelectBoolean . UIParameter .12 .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.13 the java.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. it is for display purposes only. UISelectOne .

This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlMessages .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlForm . HtmlColumn .Message".by default. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.12 . but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML textarea element. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.renders child components in a table.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents an HTML img element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.by default.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputText .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlCommandButton . HtmlPanelGroup . This component must be placed inside a form. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlCommandLink . HtmlOutputLink . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlOutputFormat .renders the component value as text.faces. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlDataTable .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type text. On a redisplay. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.faces.represents an HTML label element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlInputText . and renders the result. HtmlOutputLabel . or not. HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML form element.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlInputSecret .

initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.14 the java.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneMenu .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectManyListbox . HtmlSelectOneRadio . ResponseWriterWrapper .faces.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. ResponseStream .15 the java.javaserver faces property. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. FacesContextFactory .12 . ResponseWriter .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . It is passed to.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. • • • • 12.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. • • • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneListbox . showing a single available option at a time. In particular. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. and potentially modified by.convert package 164 .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.faces.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectManyMenu .

15.javaserver faces 12.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.faces.12 .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver . ValueBinding . PropertyResolver . • • • • 165 .16 the java.

event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. and event implementation classes.faces.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. Interfaces: ActionListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. ValueChangeListener . FacesListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • 12.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. PropertyNotFoundException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseId . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. PhaseEvent . • • • • • One exception . ReferenceSyntaxException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .17 the java.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseListener . MethodNotFoundException . ValueChangeEvent .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . FacesEvent .12 .AbortProcessingException .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. DataModel . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.faces. ResultSetDataModel . 12. Classes: ArrayDataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. ResultDataModel .faces. SelectItem .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces.20 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModelEvent .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ScalarDataModel .18 the java. ListDataModel . SelectItemGroup .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.javaserver faces 12.19 the java. • • • • • • • • • 12. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. Renderer .12 .

Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. The package contains an exception. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. RenderKitFactory . together.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. markup language.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.12 . which perform the actual rendering process for each component.faces. LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . • • 12. and concrete validator implementation classes. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. • RenderKit . including a standard servlet. as well.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. ConverterTag .faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. and/or user Locale.validator package Interface defining the validator model. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. 12. AttributeTag . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.21 the java. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. Typically. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. base classes for JSP custom component tags. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. ResponseStateManager .22 the java.

A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the JSF life cycle does not apply.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. When using JSF. UIComponentTag . the controller sends a message to the view. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. that request is passed to the container. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. the controller is the 169 . In JSF. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When the user takes some action with the presentation. UIComponentBodyTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way. that need to process their tag bodies. which passes the request to the page class. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. Also. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. When the model is updated.a base class for all JSP custom actions. In MVC. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the process includes a few more components or pages. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. telling the model to update its data. ValidatorTag . which has several implications. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. Likewise. but basically. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. servlets.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. 12. or when an exception occurs.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.12 . the controller sends a message to the model. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. telling the view to update its presentation. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request).the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. or some other web technology. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. • • • • • FacesServlet . When a web server receives a request. FacetTag . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the life cycle is more complicated. related to a UIComponent.

converting a String to a Date object). or from request headers. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. These objects update their state with the data values. it creates UI objects for each view component. In addition. For a JSF-enabled application. not every request will flow through all six phases. In addition. Data can come from input fields in a web form. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. is validated at this time. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. 170 . the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. However. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. If this is a subsequent request. The components are stored in a component tree. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. depending on the request. the conversion occurs in this phase. from cookies sent as part of the request. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. Data for some components. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. As with the previous phase. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and what happens during the processing and response.12 .javaserver faces JSF implementation. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and a piece of data failed validation. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. such as components that create HTML input fields. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the JSF implementation must create the view. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. and the response is sent to the client. • Invoke Application: During this phase. and the UI components are the view.

if errors occur during any of the phases. skipping any remaining phases.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.javaserver faces In the above figure. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. Also. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. For example. 171 . If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. 13.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.JNDI 13 . These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. For example. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. you are always naming one object or another. When using almost any computer program or system. and NIS(YP). identifiers.com) to IP addresses (such as 192.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. c:\bin\autoexec. which is located in the root of the file system. or objects typically used by computer programs. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.JNDI 13. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". such as LDAP. 172 . The DNS entry Wiz.sun.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. The UNIX pathname.9. in turn. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. NDS. Thus the DNS name sales. when you use an electronic mail system. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.Wiz. To access a file in the computer. you supply it the name of the object. names a file hello in the file directory usr. possibly multiple.COM. for example. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.COM. DNS. /usr/hello. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. In addition.13 .48. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. you must supply its name. For example."). A file system maps a filename (for example.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.5). Using JNDI. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. such as addresses. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. 13. For example. naming and directory services using a common API. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").2. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. It enables applications to access different.

an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. For example. is a context. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. A printer object reference. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.c=us. 13. 13. such as COM. In another example. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. such as c=us. For example. that is. which in turn. delimited by the comma character (". Instead. in the DNS domain Sun. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. a file directory. in a file directory /usr/bin. 173 . such as its print server name and printing protocol. and listing bound names.2. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. For simplicity. and fuel and instrument status. a DNS domain. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. for example. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For example. an LDAP entry.13 . that is. For example.2. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. they must be stored by reference. Using the reference. A printer object. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. Every context has an associated naming convention. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. a file name is bound to a file. is accessed using a file reference. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. A file object. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("=").3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. for example. some objects cannot be stored directly. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. might contain only information on how to reach the printer.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. is relative to c=us.COM. while the object itself might contain more state information. relative to the entry o=Sun. 13. its flight plan. unbinding names. such as /usr. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. and its flight number and departure time. By contrast. is a context. might contain the state of the printer. on the other hand. For example. also called a file handle."). Typically.2. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. A reference is information about how to access an object.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. in the UNIX file system is a context. That is. o=Sun. Finally.

Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. and color. however. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. postal mail address. a name is unique 13. various telephone numbers. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. 13. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. For example. And it kind of makes sense. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. programs. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees.3. For example. For example.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. For example. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. to represent a printer. resolution. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. and even the computer itself and other computers. to some extent. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. 13. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. and computer account information.13 . for example. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). because we can. one context can be viewed. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. An example is the telephone company's directory service. two different computer 174 .JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. Thus. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. a computer. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. A directory object can be used. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.2.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. a person. or a network. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.

like any other program running on the network. A Java mail client program. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. that is. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. networks. 13. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. the ability to access directory services will become essential. "mail" is the attribute identifier.4.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.3. an organization object. For example. removing. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. printers. 13.13 . such as that relating to machines. adding. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. The query is called a search filter.3. such as those based on the LDAP. The service is accessed through its own interface.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. For example. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. many directories. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. can use the directory in the traditional way. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.com". A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating.3. When directory objects are arranged in this way. such as the file and print services. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. support the notion of searches. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. 175 . The email address. 13. for example. When you search. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. Alternatively. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. for example. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. Similarly. 13.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.smith@somewhere. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. and users. Many examples of directory services are possible. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. called a directory information tree (DIT).113. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.50". 13. for example. Within the DIT.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. By using a directory service. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.

Thus a variety of directories--new.naming javax. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.1 and Java 2 SDK. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. 13.1 and v1.4. To use the JNDI. The Java 2 SDK.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming.13 .1 and the Java 2 SDK. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. For example. 13.2. 13. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. 13.5.2. It extends the v1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.directory javax. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. emerging. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. v1. v1. more coherent and manageable.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.ldap 176 .naming.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). v1. For example. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.3 and later releases. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. and even the network.naming.event javax. v1.

naming. comparing components. for some objects in the directory.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.lookup("treekiller"). that is. and so on. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.6. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .6. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.6 the naming package The javax. 13. the name of the object's class. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. printer. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. 13.6. binding/unbinding. 13. composing them. and it returns the object bound to that name.lang. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.String name. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.spi 13. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.lang.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.print(report).JNDI • javax. For the methods in the Context interface. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. In this case.lang. However. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.String name argument represents a composite name. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. The overloads that accept java. A java. which is the core interface for looking up.13 . and the object itself. Furthermore. list() is similar to listBindings(). For example. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.naming package defines a Context interface. 13.1 context The javax. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. a 177 .

178 . Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. InitialContext. There are no absolute roots.naming. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). Once you have an initial context. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.7. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.7.directory package extends the javax. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.6. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. For example. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. 13. 13. You can add. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. replace. 13. 13. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.7 directory package The javax. they should catch NamingException. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. 13. In the simplest and most common form of usage. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.6.13 .naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. Otherwise.

JNDI 13. called controls . most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. and vice versa.9 LDAP package The javax.naming. For example. For example. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.naming.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. 13. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. 13. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.9. or unsolicited notifications.9.naming.ldap package at all. such as "object added. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. 13. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.8 event package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent." and those that do not. These operations are called "extended" operations.9.naming. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. such as "object changed. To receive event notifications.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. controls. 13. that is. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.directory package.13 . A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. Once registered. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .naming. such as information about the object before and after the change. In fact.

one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. That is.13 .2 java object support The javax.11. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.10. 13. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.naming.10 service provider package The javax. 13. sending request controls. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.10. For example.9. 13. create a file named Lookup.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.spi package supports implementors of Context. 180 . You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. This support is provided in the form of object factories. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. implementors of Context.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.1 plug-In architecture The javax. In the process of completing an operation.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.Context. 13. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. import javax.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 13.naming. It uses a service provider for the file system.naming package.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.java. This support is provided in the form of state factories.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.10.naming. and receiving response controls. if you look up a printer name from the directory.

INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. 13. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Otherwise. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().13 .naming. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.3.fscontext. If you are still having problems.put(Context. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. "com.5 compiling the program Next.11.3 looking up an Object Next.lookup(name). To compile to program. use Context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). For this reason. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. 13. Object obj = ctx. then the JNDI classes are already included.out. as follows. // Print it System.err.jndi.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). If the compilation succeeds. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. 181 .11. If the compilation fails.lookup(name). } catch (NamingException e) { System.InitialContext.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). using the capitalization shown. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. create an initial context. } 13.sun. import javax. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.java).JNDI import javax. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.lookup() to look up an object. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.11.RefFSContextFactory").jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. 13.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.NamingException.jar as an installed extension. you must have access to the JNDI classes. v1. env. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.naming. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.11.

bat If you supply a file directory. env.put(Context.JNDI 13. env.jndi. create a file named Getattr.naming.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file. include the directory that contains your Lookup. javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.13 . This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. javax. 182 . import import import import import javax.java. 13.LdapCtxFactory"). javax. then you will see something like the following. the file system service provider. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.jndi. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.ldap.NamingException.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.DirContext. and your example class (Lookup.11.3. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. javax.12.naming. v1.directory. Finally.naming.6 running the program To run the program.sun.Attributes.PROVIDER_URL. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").naming.fscontext.directory packages. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. 13.class).put(Context.Context.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.sun.directory. supply the name of a file in your file system. To run the program.jar).naming and javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. create an initial directory context.InitialDirContext.directory. you need access to the JNDI classes. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().naming. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.12. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.jar and providerutil. "com.naming.

then see the Common Problems lesson for help.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12. } 13.get() and then from that attribute get its value.get() on it to get its value: attrs. } catch (NamingException e) { System. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.get()). Similar to the naming example.get("sn").class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.6 compiling the program Next. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get("sn").12. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. If you are still having problems. 13. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. For this reason. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. 183 . ou=People"). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.java).3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs. For now.get().out. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. compile the source file using the Java compiler. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.13 . The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. 13. As with the naming example. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. If the compilation fails. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.err. using the capitalization shown. If the compilation succeeds. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. ou=People").12. 13. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. Attributes.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.

184 . If you have any trouble running this example. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. then these classes are already included. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.PROVIDER_URL. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. v1. env. Once it has the attributes.7 running the program As with the naming example. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.12.JNDI 13. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.put(Context. Getattr. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").3. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.jar and providerutil. then see the Common Problems lesson.class. With this configuration. ou=People". you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.13 . it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.jar).

a JMS client that creates and sends messages. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS topic .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. In this model. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS message .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS queue . JMS producer . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.a JMS client that receives messages. JMS client .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . JMS consumer .14 . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. the messages are delivered in the order sent. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. As the name queue suggests. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. unless it has established a durable 185 . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. • 14. Enterprise Edition. Here. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.

4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 14. 14. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Using Java. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. In that case. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. On the receiving side.4. 186 . and then use populate and send or publish the messages.14 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.jms.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Depending on the type of message.3 the JMS API programming model 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory").4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. It receives messages sent to a destination. For example. 14. 14. you call the stop() method. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.createConnection(). you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object.4. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. Before your application can consume messages. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Before an application completes. and users discover them using JNDI. you must call the connection's start() method. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().close(). A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. It is either a queue or a topic. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.4. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. For example. In a J2EE application. you must close any connections that you have created. Like the connection factory. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. Connections implement the Connection interface.lookup("jms/MyTopic").14 . then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. 14. The JMS administrator creates these objects.4. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Depending on the connection type.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. connection.

This object implements the MessageListener interface. MessageConsumer consumer = session.start(). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. and you can use it to receive messages. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. 188 . For example. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). A message listener does. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. which contains one method. (Remember always to call the start() method. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. you are likely to miss messages. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.createConsumer(myQueue). Moreover. After you have created a message consumer. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. it becomes active.start(). After you register the message listener. however.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. a message listener object may be used. if it needs to reply to messages. For example.receive().5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.14 .4. Message m = consumer. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.receive(1000). In the onMessage() method. consumer.) When message delivery begins. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. Message m = consumer. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. onMessage().setMessageListener(myListener). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. 14. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. usually expect a specific message type and format. connection. You use the Session.createConsumer(myTopic). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.

The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. You must first create the messages. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). At the consuming end. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. stream message. bytes message.createTextMessage(). from one application to another.send(message). 3.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. After you have created a message producer.4. message. With an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer. if you created an unidentified producer. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. MessageProducer producer = session.send(myQueue. 14.send(message). and object message). message).createProducer(myQueue).createProducer(null). you do not specify a destination until you send a message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. anon_prod. A message has three main parts: 1. For example. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. 189 .4. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. that is. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. to create and send a TextMessage. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. Here.createProducer(myTopic).14 .setText(msg_text). map message. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.receive(). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.

8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.println("Reading message: " + message.out. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. Before committing the transaction. If the user selects transaction support. then delivers the messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. Sessions implement the Session interface. } else { // Handle error } 14. 0). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. 190 .createSession(false. and message consumers to receive messages.4. To create a transacted session. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. After you create a Connection object.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).14 .createSession(true. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Here. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Session.getText()). use the following code: Session session = connection. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.

jar file into the application server. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. improved performance security .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .object oriented representation of data in a DB.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . Version 1. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. container which offers services to the component. The component lives inside a container. message-driven beans The 2.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . 15. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.15 . bundled into a single unit. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.0.no developer coding. server which provides an execution environment for containers. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .consistent error handling framework .DB interaction transactions .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.transaction management can be complex. component recovery scalability portability 191 .2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.logging. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . On the other side. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.0. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . the container lives (in general) in an application server. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.15 . the remote interface of the bean 4. as follows: 1. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. which is an xml file.xml 15. the deployment descriptor. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. called ejb-jar. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.

int custId) throws RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.RemoteException.*.15 .ejb.*. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. } 15.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. While the Remote interface declares no methods.ejb. import java. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. } 193 . String lastName. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException.RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.javax. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.rmi. import.javax. import.rmi. import java.

implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. "localhost:1099").put(Context. creating them for the client application. "org. } 194 . the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().15 .interfaces.put(Context. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. this can be done (for example) through SSL.jnp.PROVIDER_URL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. prop. how to create or find the bean 2. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. we need to know: 1.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.NamingContextFactory". if the client executes outside the container. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). prop. In the case of an web application. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.

It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. • if the client executes outside the container. but for generic languages. more specifically. Some languages. Why? For EJB. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. do not have the concept of casting. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.rmi.rmi.narrow(homeRef. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. to the appropriate type. in fact.Remote interface). This is done through the javax.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.e. using the narrow() method. that is part of CORBA standards. do implements the java.rmi. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. and this means that there are some limitations. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.class).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.. IIOP has not been designed for Java. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. in fact.PortableRemoteObject class and.lookup("MyBean"). It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. 195 . this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. MyBeanHome. Problem is. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.15 . the client has a stub).

"Vasile".. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.. import javax. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ejb. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ejbeans.ejb. remove the bean instance myObject. 1102). int custId) { // method implementation . Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com..ccards.SessionContext. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . String lastName. 15. call business methods on the bean myObject.remove().create().bank11.processEntry("Dumitrascu".15 . public class MyBean implements javax.. as well).

the object is activated. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.15 . the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. 15. 197 . A stateless bean does not. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. that is. namely stateful and stateless beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.

you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 . its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. for example. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. 198 . and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. The ejbCreate method.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. Figure 15. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. (Typically. All other methods in Figure 15. For example.1 are invoked by the EJB container. 15. is inside the bean class. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. the EJB container activates the bean. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. At the end of the life cycle. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. or passivate. the client invokes the remove method.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.

The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 . container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.15 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. support for concurrent access 3. stored in a Database).

all throwing RemoteException. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. On the other side.15 . These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Read. an instance of that bean is created. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. in the same order.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.14.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. methods which have the same parameters.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. state data is stored into data store (usually. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. 200 . Update and Delete. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ccards. CreateException.lang.bank11. We can have more create() methods. as the parameters in the original create() method. 15. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).

left empty most of the time in CMP.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the client invokes the create method. 201 . it's business methods can be invoked. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. the programmer will create actual SQL code.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. in BMP. All instances in the pool are identical.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. but in general. it is empty. 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method.14. On the second path.14. a client can invoke the remove method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. for BMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. First. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. not null. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.15 .14. On the first path. but the developer returns null for CMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). for BMPs. After instantiation. actual SQL update code. Second. While in the pooled stage. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.

getPrimaryKey(). the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. 202 . In the pooled state. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. it does not automatically set the primary key. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.15 . It acts as a JMS message listener. Therefore.an application client.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. If the primary key is incorrect.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. or a Web component . With bean-managed persistence. another enterprise bean. In the pooled state. 15. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. the values of the instance variables are not needed. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component .

For more information on this element see. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. 15. To ensure concurrency.15 . Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. When a message arrives.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. max-beans-infree-pool. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. the message will be redelivered. an open database connection. In several respects. To avoid tying up server resources. Previously.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. a JMS API connection. but not asynchronously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.for example.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. The onMessage method may call helper methods. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. 203 . or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .16. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. 15. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. Unlike a session or entity bean.16. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. If message processing is rolled back. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. If this element is set to more than one.16. message-driven bean can be used. 15.

} // onMessage() is required. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. public void ejbRemove() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. 2.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16.ejb... Note: These instances can be pooled.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().15 . 15. // An EJB constructor is required.16.Message.. Obtain a new bean instance.. 15. and it must not // accept parameters. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.jms.0 specification.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. 3. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.}.jms.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.Message MessageName) {. finalize{}. Classes. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. methods. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. As with other EJB types. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.. or create a new one.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. public void onMessage(javax. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.16.

so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.This is not a client context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. 15. 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. For example. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. getRollbackOnly() . If any method throws such an exception.onMessage() for more information.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. even in onMessage().9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. getUserTransaction(). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .16. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.15 . However. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.MessageListener. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. 15.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().jms. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. 15. See javax. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.16.

WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.16. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification.16.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .14 deployment elements The EJB 2.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).0 specification.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.16. In either case. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. as required by the EJB 2. as described in the EJB 2. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.xml. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. 15. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.

4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. </message-driven> . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml elements. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml deployment file. 15.ejb20. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.message. as described in the EJB 2. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE... The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.15 .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.jms.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. 2. 207 .0 specification.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. the weblogic-ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. For each instance.

name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.15 . attributes .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. the home interface name 7. session specific elements 9. security 208 . EJB class name 5. At the end of the life cycle. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. bean home name .like transaction. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. control descriptors .security issues. environment properties 6. access control entries .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. 15. the container calls the ejbRemove method. isolation level. the remote interface name 8. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. a message-driven bean is never passivated. entity specific elements 10.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.

here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.15 .bank11.bank11.bank11.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.bank11.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.ccards.bank11.lang.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.

. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.15 .lang.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.


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