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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


or finance. like the client tier. like HTML pages. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. are not considered web components.1 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. retail. processes it (if necessary). is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Figure 1. enterprise edition Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.java platform.2 Server communication 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. The web tier. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. processes it (if necessary).7 business components Business code. 5 .

thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. multithreading. In addition. and other complex low-level details. enterprise bean. Business and EIS Tiers 1. and other legacy information systems. mainframe transaction processing. 1.java platform.9. For example.3 Web.9 java EE Containers Normally. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. or application client component can be executed. 6 .1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. resource pooling. enterprise edition Figure 1.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). Before a web. database systems. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 1. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.1 .

java platform. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. transaction management. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and remote connectivity.4. 7 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.9. For example.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. data persistence. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. database connection resource pooling. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.1 . an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 1. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. After an enterprise bean is created. including services such as security.

These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.10. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. XML data. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.manages the execution of applets. Web container .the runtime portion of a Java EE product. extensible. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. develop. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . test. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.1 .manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. enterprise edition Figure 1.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. or for document-oriented web services. Application client container . The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. text-based standard for representing data. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Applet container .1 XML XML is a cross-platform. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. maps.manages the execution of application client components. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. video. or any kind of binary data such as audio. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. 1. program files. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Application clients and their container run on the client.java platform. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. When XML data is exchanged between parties. For example. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. 8 . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. 1. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.

where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. 1. and ways to communicate with the service. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. 9 . The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. the location of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The description includes the name of the service. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. enterprise edition 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10.10. such as Universal Description. 1.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.1 .11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.10.java platform.

standard set of tags.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. you employ a single. or if the server shuts down. WML. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.1 .java platform. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. 1. the session bean and its data are gone. If the client terminates. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11. 1. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.11. and XML) and JSP elements. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. enterprise edition Figure 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. In Java EE 5. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. Commonly.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. or enterprise bean. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. JTA. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. module. SAAJ. a module. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it is ready to be deployed.java platform. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.ear extension. At runtime. the application is ready to run. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.1 . An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. 15 . Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. or better customer support. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . better tools. or component accordingly. servlet. No extra coding is needed. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JNDI 1. such as better performance. Once deployed on a local platform. or a component. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . JSP page. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.

A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor.1 . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. JSP files. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. Application client modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.java platform.jar extension. Resource adapter modules. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. • • 16 .rar (resource adapter archive) extension. for example. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. native libraries.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. For example. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . supporting class files. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. GIF and HTML files. Together. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. enterprise edition Figure 1. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces.war (Web ARchive) extension. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. classes. such as caching directives.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. Web modules. and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. and other documentation.

It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. HEAD.apps. The server answers with a response message. zero or more header lines 3.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.w3. These messages may have different contents.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.1.html).com/easy/http. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97)..jmarshall. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2 .3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. an initial line 2. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.HTTP 2.ietf. 2. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . so far) version.. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. The second (and last. namely HTTP 1. we recommend www. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. . The client sends a request message to the server. as follows: 1. was the object of several RFCs.2 . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).. RFC 2616 (06/99). check the official HTTP site – www..org/Protocols . but they also have some common structural elements. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. POST.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .org/rfc/rfc1945.

0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. POST 4. DELETE 6. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. Here is their list: 1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.Posting a message to a bulletin board. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.html HTTP/1. but lack of support makes them obsolete.1 specification. TRACE Three other commands are listed. in the HTTP 1. OPTIONS 7. newsgroup. 2. 18 .2 .4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. CONNECT 5. GET 2. HTTP/1. mailing list. HEAD 3. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. GET /path/to/the/file/index. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. as well. PUT 8. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.1. .Annotation of existing resources.0).

GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.6 differences between GET and POST 1. or ordering a product. When used for form data submission. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. after the “?” character. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. such as the result of submitting a form. . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or a record is subordinate to a database. In this case.Providing a block of data.2 . while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).8 the status code A three-digit integer. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. or in the message body. 3. (encoded as multipart/form-data).HTTP or similar group of articles. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. like storing or updating data.0 404 Not Found 2.Extending a database through an append operation. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. . separated by the character “&” or “. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .” On the other side. to a data-handling process. 2. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. while POST may involve anything. 2. or sending E-mail 2.

or otherwise can't run correctly.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. none of them mandatory. 2.0 version specifies 16 headers. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. file or script output) is returned in the message body. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. fails. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. 500 Server Error . 2. out of which. In particular. and the resulting resource (e. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.the requested resource doesn't exist.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). header name and header value.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . and section 10 for HTTP 1.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. one (Host) is mandatory.1).1 only) . 404 Not Found . The most common use of the message body is in a response.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. Although the header names are not case sensitive. separated a semicolon. In a request.1 version specifies 46 of them.the request succeeded. If an HTTP message includes a body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. where the requested resource is returned to the client. such as text/html or image/jpg. 20 . 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. The HTTP 1. header values are.g.an unexpected server error.0. that is. while the HTTP 1.2 .

0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. digest. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype plain 2. partial.html first open a socket to the host web. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtypes mixed. postscript 5.HTTP 2. audio.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. Here is the list of the seven types. . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . application.uvt. video. with subtypes jpeg. 1. Then. RFC 1521 (www. multipart.apps.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. alternative. parallel 3. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). image. with subtypes octet-stream. with subtypes rfc822.uvt. gif 6. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.ietf.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtype mpeg 2. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.info. external-body 4. message.0 From: someuser@yahoo. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtype basic 7.info.html HTTP/1.2 . 21 .org/rfc/rfc1521.ro.0 200 OK Date: Fri. text.ro/path/file.

22 . the server closes the socket.HTTP .2 . </body> </html> After sending the response.

It is a revision of 4. The latest version (XHTML 2.www. The first official version – HTML 2. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. www.html) and was widely supported. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0. check the official HTML site – www.01) can be found at this address: http://www.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.HTML 3.0 draft was released in 01. HTML 3. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. Since it fits in a couple of pages.htmlgoodies.com/indexdot/html . -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .blooberry.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0) dates from 08. HTML describes how text.3 .org/rfc/rfc1866.html. From 1999 on. Version 4. a working draft for the next major revision. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. Other helpful sites . The XHTML 1. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. 3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.jmarshall.HTML 3 .0 and was accepted in December 1997.2 (3. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. namely HTML 1. However. A newer standard.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.99.w3.w3c.0.org/Markup .com/easy/html . Mosaic. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. Originally named Web Applications 1.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. The newest version of HTML is 4. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).01.com/tutors.apps.0 .ietf. As a practical reference site use – www. The first version of HTML.

These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.3 .implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".

look at these examples: “&lt”. An example: <!-. ….3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.and end at the first occurrence of -->. 3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.3 .01 specification. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. 3. Check the address http://www. like ALIGN. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. DYNSRC. <><> --> 25 . 4. VSAPCE are omitted. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. "&#x6C34." (in hexadecimal) . This section deals with some of the most common elements.0 Transitional DTD. three DTDs (HTML 4.0 Strict DTD.acesta este un comentariu. Overall. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. HTML 4. BORDER. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. the specification of HTML 4.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. though. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.w3.the chinese character for water. If you wonder what a character reference is. “&quot”. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. CONTROLS.0 contains an SGML declaration. You get the point. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. HTML 4.

1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. etc.3. image.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.uvt.3 .2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. NAME.5 tables 26 .HTML 3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.ro/webmail/src/login. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3.info. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.

<TR>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. columns. <THEAD>. <TH> and <TD>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .3 .6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. Here is a an example of a table: 3. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is their description and attributes. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Usually. its rows.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 .

"submit". "checkbox". specifies the parameter name. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .:. Main attributes: 29 . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". Example: http://web. allows multiple selections from the choice list.?. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.3 . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "hidden". "image".maximum number of options visible to the user.required. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.8. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. NAME .8 form related elements 3. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "button".the default value. "GET" . "radio".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "text/plain" • • 3. the browser appends the values to the URL.sends the form values in a single transmission.required. • 3. Main attributes: • TYPE .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. after a quotation mark .uvt. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. SIZE . however.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.8.HTML • METHOD . specifies how data will be sent to the server. may have the values GET or POST. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .if specified.8. 3.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "password".required. "reset".info.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "file".

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. the compilation process occurs.4 . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. following the 1. project started in 12.class.95.class 3. Java bytecode – a file with extension .90. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. jit From source to execution. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. javac -classpath .class file.java 2. The current version (as of 10.java.2 java the interpreter.) in 08.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.java One example of command line compilation: 4. -g : generate all debugging info.C:\TW\mySource.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. Early versions of Java were released in 12. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . 4. The first time a class is loaded.class file. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.2 version. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.JAVA PRIMER 4 . To overcome this significant shortage. but next time execution is much faster. In terms of execution time.0. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.3 java applications 31 . a tool named Just In Time compiler.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. Java source – a file with extension ..4. Inc. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.JAVA PRIMER 4. The current version (as of 10.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Example: Edit the file prog1.95.

or that it extends A). use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. or is derived from A. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. 4.jar file.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.java. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.4 object oriented concepts 4. Generally.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. An example: 32 .4 . In general.4.

Long. 4.4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. namely: Byte. 4. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Therefore. Double.4. Short.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). 4.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Character. Boolean. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. a Java class can extend a single base class. with the root the class Object. 33 . all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. called Object. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. this is called method overloading. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. a class can have more than one method with the same name. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. Integer.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. In fact.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Therefore. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Float.4 . In OO jargon.1 bit char . providing its own implementation.

.one which is constant method .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. has the same value for all class instances..the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.http.one which is defined at class level. no templates. • • • • no specifier . A final variable (method.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. rather than at class instance. anywhere abstract . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. 4. method . Except for the "package" concept. inherited). The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .http.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. automatic garbage collection.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). A final: • • • variable .access from any class anywhere private . class . 34 .4 . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. } declares an abstract class. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.servlet.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . which extends the class javax. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.the class is visible from any class. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.servlet. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.no access from outside the class itself protected .does not have any subclasses. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .

3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. 2.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.7.JAVA PRIMER 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.4 . these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. namely class Error and the class Exception. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. Exception categories: 1.7. 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.ThreadDeath. java errors . not at execution time.like invalid cast. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . standard method exceptions 3. as defined in the java. 4. In Java. division by 0. 4. array index out of bounds. programmer defined exceptions 4. code or data errors .7.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).

.util. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.util . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.this can be done by providing a try. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.support for user interface java.rmi java.Properties.awt.security 36 . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).java.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. therefore. An example: package com.util. followed by the import statements. import. string analyzers.lang (automatically available).by adding the key word throws. 4. As a general rule. The package containing the standard classes is java.geom .io java. 4.awt.support for data collections.default.support for java archives creation java.awt .ccards.bank11. catch. they have to be unique inside a package.sql.4 .support for event handling java.net java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. import javax.servlets. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.nio java.event . . don't have to import java. date and time info java. the default package is used).*. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. finally construct.sql java.8. 4.class file. All other packages must be explicitly imported.1 Package names The default package has no name. the class (the .. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.zip .JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .lang . In the example above.

swing . If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. it must be declared as abstract. All variables (actually. 37 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.4 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.accessibility javax.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.text javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.support for event handling 4. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. static and final.event . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing.

depending on the browser .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . as JavaScript. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. other 38 . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . 5. and . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. like QtScript or ActionScript.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.JAVASCRIPT 5. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . The origins of this language date back to 1995. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.5 .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . Subsequently. This is not always what we want.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .HTML authors are normally not programmers.javaScript 5 . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . then LiveScript and finally.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. However.A JavaScript statement like this: document.

Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. When you place a script in the head section.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3. or when an event is triggered. point to the .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </head> 5. 5.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.5 . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .... </script> </body> 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. go in the head section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.js file extension. To simplify this..3. 39 . Save the external JavaScript file with a .

4.. 5.. while() it is worth mentioning the for .. switch().4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. continue.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.javaScript 5. The code in the body of the for . 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". for(). 5.In statement The for... else..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs..5 .1 JavaScript for. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.4. in and the try . namely – if . in loop is executed once for each element/property... while().4.5..4.. catch constructs. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. break.

an array element.catch statement (available in IE5+. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. mycars[0] = "Saab". mycars[2] = "BMW". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. var mycars = new Array().3 try..catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet..catch statement The try. The try block contains the code to be run.5.. Example Using for. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.. or a property of an object. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .0. for (x in mycars) { document.5 .. so you don't lose your audience.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.. } </script> </body> </html> 5..in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. they often leave the Web page.5.. Mozilla 1. When users see errors. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. mycars[1] = "Volvo".

Also.5 . alert(txt).1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.7 popup boxes 5. Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).\n\n". 5.description + "\n\n". When an alert box pops up.7. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. txt+="Error description: " + err.

Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns true.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.7. the box returns null. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. in the example above had not been written within a function. If the user clicks "OK".. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 ."defaultvalue") 5.7.8 functions 5. in the <head> section. When a prompt box pops up.js file). When a confirm box pops up. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the box returns false. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.javaScript alert("sometext") 5.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.8. If the user clicks "Cancel". Now.5 . Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").

var2.5 .9 javaScript objects 5.javaScript function functionname(var1. and how they are used. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. 5.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. var2.varX) { some code } var1. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". document.9. etc are variables or values passed into the function.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6...write(txt. 5. So.length).b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.8. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects...9.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. and will be stored in the variable called product.

10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. 45 .9. document. which will be specified in the next section.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.javaScript 5.toUpperCase()). In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The first class consists of browser specific objects. The other class are the language specific objects.write(str.5 . </script> 5.

Even this Document itself is an Object. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. For example. check the site http://www.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. N: Netscape. At its most basic level. which are called Objects. or when the user interacts with a Web page.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. every Image on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser.w3schools. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.5 .asp 5.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.11. as well). every Link on the page is an Object.com/jsref/default. Properties FF: Firefox.

from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. N: Netscape. Properties FF: Firefox.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.5 .

as a four-digit number. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.5 . depending on the browser. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .

to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.11.5 . 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to Greenwich time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time. Properties FF: Firefox. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to universal time. according to local time.

Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 . var myNum=new Number(number). IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .11.5 4 3 4 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 3 4 .

5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.11. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. N: Netscape. 2. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. 0. Properties FF: Firefox. 0.y) min(x. 1. 2.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.11.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.javaScript 5.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 3.y) pow(x.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.5 . 1.434) Returns PI (approx. 0.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.

1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. height. play().lastname="Doe". The persons' properties include name.firstname="John". personObj. personObj.age=50. skin tone. personObj. The persons' methods could be eat(). All persons have these properties.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Properties are the values associated with the object. 5.12. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. etc.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.lastname="Doe". and eyecolor as follows: personObj.12. 53 .2 Methods An object can also contain methods.12.age=30. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. Objects also have methods. personObj.firstname). document.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. age.5 . eye color. personObj.firstname="John". sleep().eyecolor="blue".write(personObj. Assume that the personObj already exists .3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). weight. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.eyecolor="blue". personObj. personObj. work(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. age. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. lastname.you can give it properties named firstname. with a collection of properties and methods. etc.

age.eyecolor) { this.age=age.lastname=lastname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.lastname=new_lastname. You can also add some methods to the person object. this. 5. like this: myFather=new person("John". you can create new instances of the object.eyecolor) { this. this.12. myMother=new person("Sally".50.lastname. this. this.age.lastname.eat=eat. this.firstname=firstname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."Doe".5 .firstname=firstname."green"). } Notice that the template is just a function.age=age. 54 .48. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.propertyName."blue"). this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor. Once you have the template.lastname=lastname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.eyecolor=eyecolor. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.newlastname=newlastname. this."Rally".

Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.". For example. now you can write: myMother. So. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.newlastname("Doe"). Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.5 . Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. We define the events in the HTML tags. 5.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person.. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.

and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.13. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.13.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.13. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". If the field values are not accepted. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. If it returns true the form will be submitted.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.2 onFocus. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.5 .4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The function checkForm() returns either true or false. For example. the submit should be cancelled.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. The name is then stored in a cookie. 5. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. 5. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.w3schools.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').

As of January 2008. SVG. HTML. and style of a document. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. or WebAPI being among them.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. CSS.. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. However. By October 1998.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . In other words. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. XML. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. particularly those used in Web browsers. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). 2010). W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. 6. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.HTML DOM 6. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The W3C 58 . DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. structure. Right now (oct. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.Html DOM 6 .g. the Document Object Model activity is closed.6 . DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.

a new DOM Core specification. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). which further enhances the DOM 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. 2. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . DOM Level 3 Load and Save. To claim to support a level. 5. and 6. 6. DOM Level 3 XPath.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. filtered views and events. each of which contains required and optional modules. 3. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications.6 . including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 1. DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 Validation. As of 2005.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 2. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. 4. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well.

Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). can be accessed through the 60 . A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). 6.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. The Window object represents a browser window. All HTML elements. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. support multiple browsers. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. that is. and Safari. Konqueror. By 2005.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. In order to be cross-browser compatible. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. along with their containing text and attributes. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Opera. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. interoperability problems were numerous.x and Netscape 4.x were still widely used in 2000. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.6 .Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1.

It can be used by any programming language like Java.Html DOM DOM. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 . and VBScript. JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. and new elements can be created. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

The <head> node holds a <title> node. The tree structure is called a node-tree.8. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. the element node <title>. everything in an HTML document is a node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. The <html> node has two child nodes.9.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. <head> and <body>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. 62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.Html DOM 6.6 . 6.8. 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. However.

• • • • • In a node tree.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. By using the getElementById() method 2.6 . By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and new elements can be created. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. children. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.9. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. and the connections between them.getElementsByTagName("p"). Parent nodes have children. By navigating the node tree. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The node tree below shows the set of nodes.2 node parents.getElementsByTagName("p"). using the node relationships.9. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. except the root. Their contents can be modified or deleted. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. the top node is called the root Every node. The terms parent.getElementById('main'). child. 63 .

i++) { document.6 . The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .length. document.i<x. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.write("<br />").innerHTML). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). } 6.Html DOM for (i=0. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).9.write(x[i]. each node is an object. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.

get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.getElementById("intro"). The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.Html DOM 6.6 .9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. txt=x.nodeValue. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.firstChild.5 example .

it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. frames. objects and images. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 .

6. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). and then bubbled up. through a mouse click or a keypress. When the user clicks on the inner element. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Also.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. for instance. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported.3. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. During the event flow. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. say "click". Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. DOMNodeInserted.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Fires when an element is activated. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. as of version 1. also supports these methods. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event.6 . an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Safari. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. 67 . Mozilla.

DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. preventDefault 68 .6 . Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. key pressed. Unfortunately. mouse position. including information about target element.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. etc. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented.

but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. 69 . The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. choices of user. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. crunching numbers. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. fields of forms. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.7 . It is not a technology in itself. dynamic website. etc. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but also to save resources. using web services or Php scripts.AJAX 7.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. For improving sharing of resources. means that the response of the server will be processed when available.AJAX 7 . 7.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. 7. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. The server does some processing — retrieving data. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. menus. For example. before the whole page was sent within the network.

And at every step in a task. at the start of the session. but the opposite is true. Obviously. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. Instead of loading a web page. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. what’s the user doing? That’s right. 70 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. waiting around for the server to do something. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. While the server is doing its thing. waiting. we wouldn’t make users wait around. Once an interface is loaded. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. the user waits some more.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.7 .

and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. loading additional interface code. editing data in memory. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.

holds a Xml loaded file. This object provides two methods: .send: send a request to the server. onreadystatechange . 7. 3: answer in process.open: create a connection. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . To get data on the server. These events are user actions.for a simple text. boolean) . DOM's method allows to extract data. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". they call functions associated to elements of the web page.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.200 is ok.url: the location of the file 72 . 1: connection established. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. 4: finished.7 .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. It allows the interaction with the servers. . url. GET or POST .AJAX 7. 2: request received.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. . . and in this purpose. thanks to its methods and attributes.returned by the server .holds loaded data as a string of characters. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.mode: type of request. 404 if the page is not found .responseXml . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.responseText .for a Xml file or .

Safari. http_request.xul. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. true). URL of the document.open('GET'. // Firefox. for browser compatibility..XMLHTTP"). OK } else { // wait.fr/somefile.... request. . but two options must be tried. if (window. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .xml'.AJAX . http_request.7 . The request below reads a document on the server.6 building a request.open: command GET or POST. .readyState == 4) { // received. true for asynchronous. if (request. 'http://www.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. the data to send to the server.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . } else if (window.send: with POST only.send(null). 73 .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.null for a GET command 7.

xml".status == 200) document.7 .ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.XMLHTTP). req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.responseXML. req.responseText. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .7. req.ajax. by this code: var doc = req.dyn="Received:" + req. if(window.7.dyn="Error code " + req. true).open("GET".setRequestHeader("Content-Type". "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").ajax. }.getElementsByTagName('root').responseText.ajax.readyState == 4) if(req.status.7 examples 7.item(0).dyn=""Received:" + req. else if (window.AJAX 7. "data.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. req.send(null).XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. else document.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


bank11. Servlet. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. data persistence.ccards. classes. Here is a small.. For example. MIME types used by the web application. Servlet. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.8 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. like: 1..xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.xml file: <?xml version="1.class>com. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. entries related to session configuration.)> <web-app> <!-. 2.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . After an enterprise bean is created. 3. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. 6. but typical web. 5. 8. web. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. database connection resource pooling. Initialization of parameters for servlets. descriptions). JSPs and Java Server Faces. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 4. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.servlets.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. like what pages are error. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. servlet classes. Others.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.

xml" 2. Unfortunately. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. it is the alias of the real servlet class. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.bank11. the name of the web application. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.xml file of the web application. basicly. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). Then the "EnrollServlet. However. For example. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml".ccards. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.servlets.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.servlets".EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .bank11. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. whose name is rather long. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".servlets". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. for flexibility. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.8 . In general.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. Basicly.xml" file.ccards. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.class" and that it is part of the package "com.bank11. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. 1. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Behind a very benign URL.

maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .2.SERVLETS 9 . Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.SERVLETS 9. tjws spec 2. 9. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. Technically speaking.5 and is in final state. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.0 specification is available for public review. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).2.9 . which extend the functionality of the web server. the HttpServlet) class. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. 9.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. from BEA Systems. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.0 specification.4. more often. this is just a work in progress. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. modular design 9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. in most cases as part of an application server. the Java Servlet 3. but at this point. platform independent programs. 2010. As of oct.4. but through a web container. small footprint.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.

servlet javax. public void service(ServletRequest req. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). public void destroy() throws ServletException. while the second one. the javax. WebSphere.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet package are protocol independent.servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. These packages are: • • javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. 82 . IOException. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.9 . from Apple Inc.servlet package. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from IBM 9. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .

Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. The servlet API provides such a specific class. as well. After instantiating the servlet. The method performs all initialization required. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. the web container calls its init() method. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. 9. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.9 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. This method has two arguments. More on the servlet life cycle. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. Throwable t) 9. in a different section.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. ServletConfig. respectively. 83 . arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. namely the HttpServlet class.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.lang.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.ServletException javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.lang.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.servlet.servlet.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). 9. It also extends the java. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.9 .UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.

The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. 9. DB connection opening. which will service all incoming requests. 85 . Also. JSP or JSF. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. etc. Typically. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. If the servlet does not implement the javax. After instantiation. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.SingleThreadModel. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. Typically. this method contains JDBC driver loading.servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.9 . respectively. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.

9 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

This is done in server's (container's) server.servlets. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.ccards. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.io. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.bank11. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.*.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.9 .java" file: package com. 87 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. import java.xml file.

println("</head>").SERVLETS import javax.http. out. PrintWriter out = resp. // output your page here out. out. import javax.servlet. out.servlet. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").*. out.setContentType(“text/html”).close(). out.println("merge"). IOException { resp.println("</html>"). out.println("<body>").println("<br>").println("<head>").9 . out.init(config).*. out.println("</body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. } } 88 . HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.getWriter().println("<html>").

0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.10 . 10.JdbcOdbcDriver .1.sql package.JDBC 10 .odbc. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. the java. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. After that.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). This solution is inefficient. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.JDBC 10. Type 1.jdbc. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 89 . Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. Starting with version 3.sun.0 while the current (4.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. as recognized by the DB industry. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. the javax. The JDBC 4. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.0.sql package 2. 1997.

which in turn.JDBC Type 2. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Part Java. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. 90 . Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 4. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection.10 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers.

sql.Clob java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.ResultSet java.sql.Statement java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.Connection java.Array java.sql.0 API.sql.sql.sql.JDBC 10.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Driver java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.Timestamp java.Struct java.sql.Blob java.SQLInput java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.Time java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.10 .0).Wrapper 91 .SQLPermission java.DriverManager java.SQLDataException java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.3 the java.Types java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql. java.SQLData java.Date java.SQLException java.

SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.Clob java.sql.0.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLOutput java.RowId java.sql.SQLInput java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10. loading a database driver 2. querying the database 4.sql.SQLXML java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.StatementEvent javax.Statement java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.Wrapper javax.Blob java.sql.sql.Connection java.SQLDataException java.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.NClob java.ResultSet java.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.sql.sql.10 .SQLTransientException java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.Types java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql package.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLException java.sql. java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.sql.

odbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. A database driver is specified by the driver name.10 .sybase.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.ibm.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .borland.datastore.jdbc.JDBC 10.driver.db2. The first one is loading a database driver.net.SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.

} catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.*. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. Since we just used it. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). but let's take it for granted: import java. import java.gjt.10 .mm. passwd).sql.getConnection(connURL. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. 94 .*.Driver"). as specified by the driver vendor. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). String user = "root".printStackTrace(). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. by using the connection URL. user.bank11. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mysql.newInstance(). try { Class.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.forName("org.util.

String user. prp.10 . Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. "true").sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. java. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. "true"). Connection conn = DriverManager. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("create".JDBC 10.sql package. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. 10. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Properties prp = new Properties(). There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. we can use it for various purposes.util. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.getConnection(connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp).

method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. respectively. namely.JDBC 10.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section.10 . other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. prepared statements and stored procedures.

". 10.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .10 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.sql.executeUpdate(sqlString). stmt.createStatement()..JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .

The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. PreparedStatement. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. 98 .10 . and CallableStatement objects. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. a concurrency of read only. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. not at 0) or the column name. as the argument. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.0 optional package. a factory for creating DB connections. Basic implementation -.math. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. There are three types of implementations: 1. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.DataSource object. It is part of the javax. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. secs date.sql package.sql. time. basicly. This interface is.sql.Big Decimal Object float 10. Connection pooling implementation -.sql.Time java.produces a standard Connection object 2. mins.10 .produces a Connection object that will 103 .14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math.

sql.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).servlets.*.10 . 3.servlet.*. java. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.io. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.getLogger(TestDataSource.*. 104 .getName()).ccards.*. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. javax.class. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). import import import import import import java. Distributed transaction implementation -. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax.lookup("java:comp/env").http.naming. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.sql. javax. private DataSource theDataSource.servlet.*.bank11.*. javax. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.

} } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request..10 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). } } 105 ..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. ServletException { .

servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet.JSP 11 .1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet. namely javax. the servlet code is regenerated.11 .JSP 11.servlet.5 Java Servlet specification.jsp and javax.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. 11.servlet.2 the java.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.jsp. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.jsp.jsp. 11.1 and is related to the 2.tagext. The javax. The package javax.servlet. If the JSP is modified. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The package javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file..11 . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11..JSP • if the URL does not start with / . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . include and taglib.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.. 111 .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).

8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. 11.7 scripting elements 11.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.JSP 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7. 11. 11. Assigns it to available name or id. this code goes to inside the service() method.7.11 . A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. In Tomcat.

Sets one Bean property to a specific value. and if so. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . Attributes description: • • • name .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .

flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 . 11.only the "true" value is supported. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . <jsp:forward>.name of the property to be retrieved 11.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . same format as the <%@include> directive.the URL of the page. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.13 the forward standard action 114 .

" .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. . archive="URIToArchive.class extension in the name following code.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.. name . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. as this attribute has no default value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. servlet or to a static resource.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .. It is used mainly. You must include the . If you do not supply a value.11 . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. when we want to separate the application into different views. code="classFileName" ...the type of object the plugin will execute.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.the name of a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . You must specify either bean or applet.a name for the Bean or applet instance. name="instanceName" . as well.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. 11.. depending on request.

it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. optional port number. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.io. config . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .servlet. The default value is 1. response . it has java.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.11 . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . with a protocol name. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . objects which are automaticly available. page .Object type and scope page 11.lang.the amount of space.1" . Must be a small nonzero number.16 scopes 1.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. in pixels.the initial height and width. session . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.represents the servlet context. out . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.1.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.jsp. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. in pixels. based on the servlet API.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. it has javax. The value is a full URL. of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents server's response to the request.it represents the buffered version of java.PrintWriter. request .JspWriter type and scope page 7. application . pageContext . request . height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . 1. writes to the output stream to the client. and domain name.

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. session . Object value) method 2. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. Object value) method 3.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.init().bank11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.JSP request object. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.11 . page .jsp file.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. application . if (enrollBean.ccards.beans.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . Object value) method 11.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 4.

Serializable { private String string. private String optional.examples. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. The SimpleBean class is declared public. an int.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. a boolean and another String). a float. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private int list[].devsphere.11 . a software development and consulting company. private float number. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private String colors[]. 11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. %> <jsp:forward page="response. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private boolean flag.mapping.java: package com.io.register().simple. private SimpleSubBean subBean. The public constructor could have been omitted.18. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). private int integer. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. SimpleBean.string.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.

number. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors[index].JSP this.integer.string = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.integer = value.colors = values. } 119 .colors.11 .flag = value.flag. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.

optional = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } } 120 . } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list. String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.optional.colors[index] = value.subBean.11 .list = values.list[index]. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.subBean = value.list[index] = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. int value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.

private float number.number. SimpleSubBean. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.number = value.simple.devsphere.java: package com.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.mapping.18. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.string.examples.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).11 .io.string = value.Serializable { private String string. } } 11.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.11 .number SimpleForm.string subBean.

java: package com. "One or more items must be selected" }. a float. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.integer]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. a boolean and an int[]. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". "abc" }.examples. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. new Boolean(true) }.123) }. the list of optional properties. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. "One or more colors must be selected" }. "An option must be selected" }.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.list]".JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. new Float(0. new String[] { 123 . the form's name and the processor's name.18. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.devsphere. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.simple. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.number]". Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. The default values are defined for a String. There are three error messages.mapping.util.list]". SimpleBeanResources. new int[] { 2. 3 } }. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.11 . the processing order. The list of optional properties has a single element.string]".colors]". error messages.flag]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

examples.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".devsphere.devsphere.util. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. If necessary.devsphere. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.mapping. SimpleHndl.devsphere.*.mapping. { "[PROC_NAME]".mapping. "colors". "number". "SimpleForm.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. "flag". "list".11 . A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").mapping.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.simple. new String[] { "string". The beanToForm() method of com.html" }. { "[FORM_NAME]". For a better understanding of this example. "optional". } } 11. "subBean" } }. "integer".jsp" } }.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). string values are converted to numbers. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.18.JSP "optional" } }.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. The formToBean() method of com. com. "SimpleProc.devsphere.logging.

// Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. logger).formToBean(formData. errorTable = HandlerUtils.io.getBeanResources(simpleBean.getString("[FORM_NAME]").JSP = HandlerUtils.substring(0.getTemplate(new java.getClass()).getServletPath().equals("POST"). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.util. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.11 .File(formPath)). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. simpleBean.forward(request. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. int slashIndex = basePath. 125 .removeUserErrors(errorTable). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getDocument().getRequestDispatcher(procPath). response). formPath = application. slashIndex+1) : "".trim().getRealPath(formPath).getMethod(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Process the valid data bean instance application.lastIndexOf('/').Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).trim().

} %> 11.number = <%= simpleBean.examples.getSubBean().length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().JSP elements logger).send(out).11 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.simple. // Send the form document document.getSubBean().mapping.append("{ ").length == 0) return "".string = <%= simpleBean. i++) 126 . i < list.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getString() %> <P> subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.length. if (list. strbuf.devsphere.beanToForm(simpleBean. errorTable.18.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. for (int i = 0.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. SimpleProc. document.

length.11 .append("}").append(list[i]).6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. for (int i = 0. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.length == 0) return "". In addition.examples.formToBean() call. The localization of the Complex*.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. ComplexHndl. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.devsphere. strbuf. ComplexForm. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append(" ").mapping. i < list.jsp files. return strbuf. if (list.toString(). return strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. strbuf. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. } strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. making the testing and the debugging easier.simple.toString(list[0]).append(" ").length == 1) return Integer. Using the framework.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.18.toString(). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. A single call to FormUtils.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. i++) { strbuf.append("}").beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.append(list[i]). strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.util.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. In addition.append("{ "). } %> 11. } strbuf. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().

length. 128 . "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i < integerLabels. boolean checked = simpleBean. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Option 3" }.getColors().JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". String colorLabels[] = { "Red".length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. for (int i = 0.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. for (int i = 0. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. i++) { int value = i+1.getInteger() == value. "Option 2". i++) { boolean checked = false. "blue" }. i < colorValues.length. "green". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j].11 . j < colors. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Green".

SimpleSubBean()).setSubBean( new com. boolean selected = false.JSP break. "Item 3" }. break.examples.mapping. "Item 2".length.11 . "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. j < list.simple.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i++) { int value = i+1. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getList(). i < listItems. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.devsphere. "subBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getSubBean().string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.length. for (int i = 0.

Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. return message.getSubBean().examples.util.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.devsphere.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.getString().mapping.get(property).getString() == null || simpleBean.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere. boolean isPostMethod = request.getMethod().JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).Hashtable errorTable.simple.setString("abc").simple.equals("POST").11 .util. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".examples. } %> ComplexHndl.mapping. 130 .

123f). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "Must be filled").getColors().getParameter("number").floatValue()).getParameter("flag"). "Must be a number").setNumber(0.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 .length() != 0) simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null. if (flagValue. "integer".setFlag(flagValue != null).11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue).length() == 0 || flagValue. "An option must be selected").trim(). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number".getColors() == null || simpleBean.setNumber(0. } simpleBean. "Must be filled"). "number". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. else { simpleBean.123f). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.

number"). setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()). "list". "colors". 132 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. //* subBean. 3 }).string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setList(new int[] { 2.length == 0) { simpleBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.setString(""). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.number".number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be } //* subBean. "Must be filled").getParameter("subBean.11 .string".getList(). "One or more colors must be selected"). "subBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean. "subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "One or more items must be selected").length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.getString().

"subBean.jsp.setString("abc").mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.devsphere.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.mapping. "Must be a number"). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.11 . The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. 3 }).BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.18. } %> 11.devsphere.mapping.helpers.properties or web.helpers.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.setOptional("").\ 133 .setNumber(0. The com. simpleBean.simple. simpleBean.setString(""). message). simpleSubBean. errorTable. String property. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.util.setFlag(true).code=com.Hashtable errorTable. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.number".devsphere. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } else { simpleBean. simpleBean.SimpleBean.123f).JSP filled"). String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.put(property. simpleBean.xml: SimpleHndl.examples.setList(new int[] { 2.

All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.18.host. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.mapping.devsphere. If you have another bean-form pair.AnotherBean. a servlet is identified with its class.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. A servlet can be made bean-independent.mapping. In many cases.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.company. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.devsphere. you could add a few other lines to servlets.helpers.devsphere.host.xml) file: ServletName.mapping. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.host.mapping.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. 11.properties: AnotherHndl.simple.helpers.code=com.11 .examples.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.another.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.properties (or web.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.examples.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.

JSP 135 .11 .

A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. which loads the appropriate view template. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. 2. Version 2. This technology includes: 1.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.javaserver faces 12 . processes events. 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.12 .0.0 supersedes version 1. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. like input fields. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. builds a component tree.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.JAVASERVER FACES 12.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.

1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . As of version 1. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.2 of the JFS specification.javaserver faces 12. 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4.12 .

javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.12 . Common formatting techniques. see the column tag documentation.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. 12. such as alternating row colors.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. respectively. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. footers.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. For more information about columns. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.4. columns and rows.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.

JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. your options include using plain HTML forms. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.12 .

username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.user." /> 12.user. red for error. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().5.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.12 .1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .</span> 12.

you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . 12. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.5. For example.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

A component fires a value change event when its input changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. The body content of this tag must be empty. but only if the new input is validated successfully. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.5. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .12 . can publish value change events. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Any component that receives user input. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. validateLength. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.5. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.javaserver faces 12.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Without this JavaScript event.mycompany.customer.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. 12.

This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.mycompany. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. myJSFapp 143 .MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.mycompany. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.javaserver faces 12. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. Example: welcome_en. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.5.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.12 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If you have not specified a default locale.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. for each locale you wish to support.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. including images and styles. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.

html.12 . and so on. JSP pages.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.javaserver faces /ant build. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Define navigation rules 3. jsf-api. custom tag libraries.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create JSP pages 2.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml web.jar.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Create managed beans 4.contains libraries required by the application. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. mandatory for any JSF application web. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.jar jsf-api. static resources.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.jar faces-config.exadel.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.xml – the JSF configuration file. It has a deployment descriptor. Create properties files 144 . included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.

jsp file 7. Edit JSP pages 6.javaserver faces 5. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. And that's all there is to this.jsp. These files will act as place holders for now. As a diagram.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp. Deploy and run the application 12. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You just need to create its contents. In our application. Compile the application 8. 12.12 .jsp to greeting. Create an index.jsp is greeting. The directory structure already exists.7. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. we just want to go from inputname.7.jsp and greeting.xml file. we can create a navigation rule.

7. request sets the bean scope in the application. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.PersonBean. 12.xml Now.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7. The next line is the full class name. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. the second part of faces-config.12 . public class PersonBean { String personName.7. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. To read more about navigation rules.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. 12. You can easily create more complex ones.3.) 12. Inside this myJFSapp folder.3.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. a very simple navigation rule. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.java file. of course. we will create a PersonBean. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.javaserver faces This is.3 faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. myJFSapp.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. This class is straight-forward.1 PersonBean. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.xml Your final faces-config.xml file should look like this: 146 . This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.

We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.1 messages.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.12 . 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.7.properties file in the bundle folder.1 inputname.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.4.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.sun. 12. Inc.5.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.sun.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.7.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.1//EN" "http://java. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.

prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun. Then.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.12 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.bundle. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.

com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Lines 3-5. Having an index. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. name! 12.2 greeting.7. Line 6. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.12 . Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.jsp page.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. That's how JSF knows where to go next. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.sun.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. specifically the bean attribute personName. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. Line 2. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.xml file. The second line will access a Java bean. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Create the index.6 creating the index.5. Creates an HTML input text box.greeting_text}" />. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .javaserver faces Line 1.bundle. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. 12. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.7.</h3> tags..sun.

and forwards the user to a success or error page.html .xml file.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). This is used here. which asks an user for an ID and password. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. because in the web.xml file for the application *. 150 .javaserver faces Now. Of course.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.jsf and not . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.9 Running Next.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. we need to deploy it. 12.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. We are almost done with this example. though.7. might possibly be different).jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. verifies the information. 12.7. To build the application run the build.12 . you'll notice the file suffix is .8. 12.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.jsp.sourceforge. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. When Tomcat is done loading. To do this.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. This is a "login" application. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.7. Your setup.

note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.webroot | +-. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).. 1. The New Project wizard appears.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Enter project name.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 10. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. a.xml Editor (see faces-config. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. 3. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. see Installing & Uninstalling. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.. from the menubar select File/New/Other..8.WEB-INF 151 .xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. click Add Folder. and set up folders for a web application. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. jsf-login. name the folder pages.src | +-. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. in the Add JSF Support page. in the wizard that appears.12 . click Next.. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. 2. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.. name the folder webroot 5. and to add JSF libraries to the project.. click Next. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 7. make sure all checkboxes are checked. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions.. Select Java Project.. 12. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. click Finish 4. your mileage may vary. say. 9. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. click Next d. select the Source tab. c. click Yes through messages that appear. Select the Amateras node. 6. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.

} 4. 3. Click Finish. 2.xml editor opens. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".lib | +-. if ( _uid. } return action.pages 12.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. input widgets appear d. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". The Java code editor opens. c. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. We then configure it to be a managed bean. The New Java Class wizard appears. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.java package login. for scope select 152 . a. in the Name field enter LoginManager. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.xml Editor. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. for class enter login. else action = "loginFail". from its context menu select New/Class. 1. enter login.8. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. The faces-config. click Managed Bean.12 . from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.LoginManager. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. In Package Explorer select the src folder. b.xml. private String _pwd = "". click Add.javaserver faces | | | +-. In the Package field. for name enter mgr.

for File name enter index. and 3 content pages (login.12 . using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. but in webroot/pages. All pages except login.webroot/pages/success.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp: a.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. but in webroot/pages.webroot/index.jsp. from the menubar select File/Save. then close the editor 12. again. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp are simple pages with static content. the New File wizard appears.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. index. enter the following code. <!-. success. so we create them first.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.javaserver faces session.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. click Finish. save the file and close the editor.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Create success.jsp). from its context menu select New/File.webroot/pages/error. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. c. e. Then we create login. b. the JSP Editor opens. Enter the following code: <!-. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Create index.8.jsp.jsp and error. Create error. in Package Explorer select webroot. </body> Please try 153 . 1.

make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and uses them for code completion as well. the New wizard appears. 154 . and dock it along the right. and the JSP Editor can help with code. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. for File name enter login. etc. Open the JSF palette. as shown below. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. To see this in action. g. now we want to add attributes to this element. Create login. from its context menu select New/Other. (See Show View Dialog) f. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. a code-completion window pops up. click Next c.jsp.jsp: a. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. d. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.javaserver faces </html> 4. enter jsf-login e. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. click Finish.completion.12 .. and choose default for Template. with the following template code.sun. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. <%@ page contentType="text/html.. b. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. place your cursor in one of these lines.sun. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements..

FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. with bean properties available in mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. set its value to Login.password}" l. complete the expression with the closing { k. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.sun. this inserts value="" at the cursor. i. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.sun.12 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.) j. a code-completion window pops up. enter #{mgr.. insert a <h:commandButton> element. and hit Enter.loginAction} The final code. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. with the barest presentational formatting. select userID from the code-completion window. insert another <h:inputText> element. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.javaserver faces h.

it should open in the faces-config. 2. then click inside the editor window. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml Editor.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. using a FacesIDE editor. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Select the Navigation tab 3.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. This is shown below.12 .loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Open faces-config.8. 156 . click on Page. 1.xml.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.

jsp and then on the icon for success. This is shown below: 157 . from the palette at left. notice that the warning triangle disappears. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. in the Properties view. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp. 5. select Navigation Case.jsp and /pages/error.jsp. 6.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. Its properties appear in the Properties view. then click first on the icon for login.12 . /pages/success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. change the value of path to /index. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp 4. add 3 more pages.jsp. and set them to /pages/login.

javaserver faces 7. so uncomment it. since we have such a trivial application. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Similarly add a forward-action from login. all we need do in web. Once deployed browse to index. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.8. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. 12. We'll set some properties in web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. As it turns out. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.jsp. open web.6 Editing web.jsp to error. or leave it as-is.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).xml. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml Here we edit web. We want virtual path-based mapping. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.12 .jsp. The application is now complete.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.xml for the specifics of our application. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml.jsp. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. and you should be sent to the success page. 1. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .

Click on its link to launch the application...el javax.12 .0 1. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.lifecycle javax.javaserver faces 12.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login. that factory is used. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.component.faces.html javax.faces. the Manager application should reload. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces.8..faces.event javax.faces. start Tomcat.model javax.validator javax.webapp 12. scroll down to Deploy. as file:///.component javax.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. open its Manager application in a browser.CONFIG_FILES 159 .application javax.faces.faces.faces. click Deploy 3.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. 12. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.convert javax.faces. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces.render javax.10 the javax.faces javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.context javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. For a given factory class name.

a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. If none of the above steps yield a match. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. handling events and input validation. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. FacesMessage. with the last one taking precedence.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . ViewHandlerWrapper .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. those factories are used. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.Severity .represents a single validation (or other) message. StateManagerWrapper .12 .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. StateManager . and supporting internationalization and accessibility.11 the javax. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. FacesMessage . defining page navigation.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. with the last one taking precedence.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.faces.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . ApplicationFactory . ViewHandler . 12.

javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. or a hyperlink. NamingContainer . ContextCallBack .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.12 the javax. UICommand . when activated by the user.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. a menu item. • ViewExpiredException . ActionSource2 . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.faces. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. String. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. StateHolder .12 .faces. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. EditableValueHolder .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.restoreView(javax. ValueHolder . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.context.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. Here they are: • • UIColumn . UIComponent . 12. UIComponentBase . • • 161 . String) results in failure on postback. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.FacesContext.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.

it is for display purposes only.13 the java. UIGraphic . it just serves as the root of the component tree.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.faces. that is displayed to the user. identified by a clientId. UISelectItem .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. it is for display purposes only. Optionally. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UIForm .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIMessages . by storing it as the value property of the component. Optionally.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.html package 162 . The user can modify the selected values. UISelectOne . UISelectMany . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. The user cannot manipulate this component. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIOutput .component. UINamingContainer . UIInput . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIPanel . This component has no rendering.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UIMessage . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIParameter . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. The user can modify the selected value.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.12 .

This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML img element. HtmlCommandLink . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. and renders the result. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlColumn . HtmlForm .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlMessage .by default.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. On a redisplay. or not. HtmlGraphicImage .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputText . HtmlCommandButton . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML textarea element. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlOutputText .represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML input element of type password. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.faces. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.faces. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlInputHidden .by default. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlInputTextarea .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlMessages .Message".renders child components in a table. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlDataTable . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. The label text is specified by the component value.12 . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.renders the component value as text. HtmlPanelGroup .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. but the application wishes to render more than one.represents an HTML label element.

represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectManyListbox .15 the java. ResponseWriter . showing a single available option at a time. ResponseWriterWrapper . ResponseStream .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.12 . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . HtmlSelectManyMenu .convert package 164 .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.javaserver faces property. HtmlSelectOneListbox .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.14 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. It is passed to.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. and potentially modified by. and the rendering of the corresponding response.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. HtmlSelectOneRadio . • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. FacesContext .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. In particular. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. FacesContextFactory . showing a single available option at a time.faces.

15.16 the java. 12. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . PropertyResolver .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.faces.javaserver faces 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. Classes: MethodBinding . VariableResolver . • • • • 165 .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.12 . ValueBinding . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.

javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.17 the java. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . FacesListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. • • • • • One exception . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. • • • • 12.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 . ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent . PhaseListener .faces.AbortProcessingException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. PropertyNotFoundException . Interfaces: ActionListener .12 . PhaseId . ValueChangeListener . MethodNotFoundException . PhaseEvent . and event implementation classes.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. FacesEvent .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. SelectItemGroup . ResultSetDataModel . 12.19 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.18 the java.faces.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). Renderer .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces. • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces 12. SelectItem . Classes: ArrayDataModel .20 the java. DataModelEvent . ListDataModel .12 . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. ScalarDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . ResultDataModel . DataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.

Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . LongRangeValidator . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. ResponseStateManager .validator package Interface defining the validator model. as well.faces. • RenderKit . The package contains an exception.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. including a standard servlet.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.12 .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. ConverterTag . and concrete validator implementation classes.faces. • • 12. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. RenderKitFactory .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . AttributeTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. Typically.22 the java. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. and/or user Locale. base classes for JSP custom component tags. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. together. markup language.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. 12.

When using JSF. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. Likewise.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. UIComponentBodyTag . the life cycle is more complicated. related to a UIComponent. or some other web technology. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. ValidatorTag . In JSF.a base class for all JSP custom actions. servlets. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. Also. that need to process their tag bodies. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the controller sends a message to the model. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. In MVC. telling the model to update its data. FacetTag . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the controller is the 169 . the process includes a few more components or pages. UIComponentTag . the controller sends a message to the view. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. When a web server receives a request. or when an exception occurs. • • • • • FacesServlet .12 . 12.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. telling the view to update its presentation. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. which has several implications. When the model is updated.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. that request is passed to the container. which passes the request to the page class. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. but basically. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. When the user takes some action with the presentation. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.

The components are stored in a component tree. In addition. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. or from request headers. and the UI components are the view. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. is validated at this time. Data for some components. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). Data can come from input fields in a web form. the JSF implementation must create the view. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below.12 . As with the previous phase. and what happens during the processing and response. converting a String to a Date object). • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. If this is a subsequent request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. For a JSF-enabled application.javaserver faces JSF implementation. depending on the request. However. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. 170 . In addition. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. not every request will flow through all six phases. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. These objects update their state with the data values. • Invoke Application: During this phase. it creates UI objects for each view component. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. the conversion occurs in this phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the response is sent to the client. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. from cookies sent as part of the request. and a piece of data failed validation. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example.

skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. For example. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. Also. if errors occur during any of the phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.12 .javaserver faces In the above figure. 171 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.

JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. When using almost any computer program or system. such as addresses. c:\bin\autoexec. A file system maps a filename (for example. For example. when you use an electronic mail system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". The UNIX pathname. To access a file in the computer. For example. you supply it the name of the object.COM. you must supply its name.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. which is located in the root of the file system. in turn. or objects typically used by computer programs.48.sun.5).2. 13. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.13 . and NIS(YP). the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. you are always naming one object or another.9. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. /usr/hello. The DNS entry Wiz. NDS. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. naming and directory services using a common API.COM. DNS."). Thus the DNS name sales. 172 . Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. identifiers. possibly multiple. It enables applications to access different.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. 13. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.JNDI 13 . The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.Wiz. such as LDAP. In addition. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. For example.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. for example. Using JNDI. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.

For example. also called a file handle. 13. some objects cannot be stored directly. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. such as /usr. in a file directory /usr/bin. Every context has an associated naming convention. and fuel and instrument status. that is. relative to the entry o=Sun. A reference is information about how to access an object. in the DNS domain Sun. For simplicity. By contrast. which in turn. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. and its flight number and departure time. A printer object. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object."). c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. is relative to c=us. a file directory. 173 . on the other hand. For example. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. A file object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. such as COM. Instead. Using the reference. unbinding names. such as c=us. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. an LDAP entry. Finally. for example.2. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. is a context. is a context. For example. such as its print server name and printing protocol. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. 13. a file name is bound to a file. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. That is. that is. 13. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).COM.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. for example. o=Sun. in the UNIX file system is a context. In another example.2. a DNS domain. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. while the object itself might contain more state information. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). and listing bound names. For example. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. A printer object reference. they must be stored by reference. For example. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. its flight plan. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. delimited by the comma character (".c=us. might contain the state of the printer. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. is accessed using a file reference. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr.2. Typically.13 .

For example. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. 13. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. a name is unique 13. And it kind of makes sense. a computer. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). and computer account information. A directory object can be used.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. For example. for example.3. one context can be viewed. For example. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. 13. and color. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. For example. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. programs. and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. however. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. to some extent. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. two different computer 174 . This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. Thus.13 . An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. postal mail address. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. a person. resolution.2. or a network. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. because we can. various telephone numbers. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). to represent a printer. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.

an organization object.3.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. called a directory information tree (DIT). Within the DIT. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. "mail" is the attribute identifier. adding. such as the file and print services.smith@somewhere. 13. The query is called a search filter. for example.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. 13. many directories. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.50". 175 . to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. When you search. like any other program running on the network. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. Alternatively. 13.3. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. Similarly. A Java mail client program.com". networks. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.4.3. support the notion of searches. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. For example.113. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. The email address. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Many examples of directory services are possible. The service is accessed through its own interface. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. and users. removing. For example. can use the directory in the traditional way. the ability to access directory services will become essential. such as those based on the LDAP. that is. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. 13. 13. printers. such as that relating to machines.13 . for example. By using a directory service. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. for example.

13. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. emerging. 13. v1.event javax. more coherent and manageable.4.naming.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.directory javax.1 and v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.ldap 176 . Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.naming. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).5.2. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. v1. The Java 2 SDK. 13. and even the network.1 and the Java 2 SDK.3 and later releases.2. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. For example.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.naming javax. To use the JNDI. It extends the v1.5.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. For example. 13.13 . Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.1 and Java 2 SDK. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.naming.

some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. The overloads that accept java.lang.6.1 context The javax.String name.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.String name argument represents a composite name.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. for some objects in the directory. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. a 177 . In this case.naming package defines a Context interface. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. 13. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. However. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. For example. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. comparing components. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.JNDI • javax. Furthermore. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. list() is similar to listBindings().4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. the name of the object's class.spi 13. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. 13. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. composing them. and the object itself. that is. A java. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. 13.naming. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. For the methods in the Context interface.lookup("treekiller").6 the naming package The javax.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. 13.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .6. and so on.print(report).6. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.6. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . and it returns the object bound to that name. binding/unbinding.lang. which is the core interface for looking up.13 . printer.

13. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.7.naming. Once you have an initial context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.13 .6.7. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. 13. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. Otherwise. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. replace. In the simplest and most common form of usage. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. For example. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 178 . whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.directory package extends the javax. InitialContext. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.6. You can add. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. There are no absolute roots.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. they should catch NamingException. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.7 directory package The javax.

directory package. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.JNDI 13. such as "object added. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. such as "object changed.9. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. 13. 13. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. such as information about the object before and after the change.9. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.naming. called controls . A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . For example. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. For example.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.naming. Once registered.9 LDAP package The javax. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.naming. These operations are called "extended" operations. and vice versa.9. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . In fact.8 event package The javax. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. controls. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13. 13.naming.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.ldap package at all." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. To receive event notifications. or unsolicited notifications. that is.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.naming." and those that do not. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.13 .

naming.spi package supports implementors of Context.10.naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.11. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. In the process of completing an operation. That is.10. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 13. implementors of Context. 180 .java. create a file named Lookup.naming package. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 13.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. This support is provided in the form of state factories. if you look up a printer name from the directory. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.9. 13.10. and receiving response controls. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. sending request controls. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. It uses a service provider for the file system.13 . one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. 13.10 service provider package The javax.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. For example.naming. import javax.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.2 java object support The javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.1 plug-In architecture The javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 13.naming.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13. 13.Context.

For this reason. v1. 181 . If the compilation succeeds.jndi. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Object obj = ctx.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.err.NamingException. // Print it System.RefFSContextFactory"). Otherwise. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. create an initial context. use Context.out. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.sun. } 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. import javax. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. 13. using the capitalization shown. 13.3 looking up an Object Next.java).3.put(Context. } catch (NamingException e) { System.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). 13.InitialContext. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. "com. as follows.lookup(name).JNDI import javax.fscontext. you must have access to the JNDI classes.11. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().naming. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). env.jar as an installed extension. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.11.11.5 compiling the program Next.lookup(name).naming.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. If the compilation fails. To compile to program.11. If you are still having problems.13 . Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.lookup() to look up an object. then the JNDI classes are already included.

NamingException. Finally. env. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. import import import import import javax.naming. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.jndi.put(Context.13 .put(Context. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.12.directory. the file system service provider.naming.directory packages.jar and providerutil. "com.directory.ldap. javax. create a file named Getattr.LdapCtxFactory"). create an initial directory context. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").naming.12.bat If you supply a file directory.naming and javax.InitialDirContext.naming.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. you need access to the JNDI classes. include the directory that contains your Lookup. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.jndi. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.class). Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). env.JNDI 13.3. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. and your example class (Lookup. 182 .Attributes.6 running the program To run the program.java.directory.11.DirContext.fscontext. 13.Context.naming. javax.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.sun.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.sun. To run the program.jar). v1. javax. supply the name of a file in your file system. javax. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. then you will see something like the following.naming. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.

183 .class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs. 13. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.get("sn"). As with the naming example. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.12.get() and then from that attribute get its value. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. ou=People"). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get() on it to get its value: attrs. For this reason.6 compiling the program Next.get(). use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.get()). If the compilation succeeds.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.13 . // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. Similar to the naming example.12. 13.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. For now.get("sn"). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). } 13. If you are still having problems. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.12. using the capitalization shown.err. } catch (NamingException e) { System.java). then see the Common Problems lesson for help.out. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. ou=People"). If the compilation fails. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. compile the source file using the Java compiler. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. Attributes.12.

If you are using the Java 2 SDK. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. If you have any trouble running this example.JNDI 13. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). v1. ou=People".put(Context.13 .7 running the program As with the naming example.12. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. With this configuration. Once it has the attributes.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. then these classes are already included. Getattr.class. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").PROVIDER_URL.jar). Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. 184 .jar and providerutil.3. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. then see the Common Problems lesson. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. env.

An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). JMS message .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. As the name queue suggests. JMS consumer .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. unless it has established a durable 185 . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. Here. In this model.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS client .14 . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. • 14. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS producer . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. Enterprise Edition. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. the messages are delivered in the order sent.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS queue . JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS topic .a JMS client that receives messages. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.

4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.3 the JMS API programming model 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.14 . 186 . Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.jms. Depending on the type of message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. On the receiving side. 14. 14. Using Java. In that case. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.4. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.

14. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Before an application completes. you must call the connection's start() method. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.close(). you must close any connections that you have created. It receives messages sent to a destination.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.createConnection(). For example. connection. Like the connection factory. It is either a queue or a topic. 14.lookup("jms/MyQueue").lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. 14.4. Connections implement the Connection interface.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). When you have a ConnectionFactory object.4. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. Depending on the connection type. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. The JMS administrator creates these objects. Before your application can consume messages. For example. and users discover them using JNDI. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. you call the stop() method. In a J2EE application.4. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.14 . If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.

A message listener does. In the onMessage() method.receive(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. it becomes active. After you have created a message consumer. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. 188 . The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. Moreover. however. a message listener object may be used. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. which contains one method. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. For example. you are likely to miss messages.setMessageListener(myListener). if it needs to reply to messages.createConsumer(myTopic). After you register the message listener. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.createConsumer(myQueue). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). This object implements the MessageListener interface.4. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. 14. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. Message m = consumer. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.receive(1000). you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.start().start(). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. You use the Session. onMessage(). Message m = consumer. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. MessageConsumer consumer = session.14 . (Remember always to call the start() method. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. and you can use it to receive messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. usually expect a specific message type and format. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. For example. connection.) When message delivery begins.

It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). // msg_text is a String producer.createProducer(myQueue). At the consuming end. to create and send a TextMessage. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. After you have created a message producer. You must first create the messages. 14. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. With an unidentified producer. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.createProducer(myTopic). message). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. For example. Here. MessageProducer producer = session. bytes message.createTextMessage(). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.setText(msg_text). You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.4.createProducer(null).send(message). A message has three main parts: 1. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers.4.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. map message. stream message. and object message). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. 3.send(message). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. from one application to another. that is. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(myQueue. anon_prod.14 . The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.receive(). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. 189 . message. if you created an unidentified producer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.

then delivers the messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. To create a transacted session. } else { // Handle error } 14. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.println("Reading message: " + message. Before committing the transaction. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.out. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.4.createSession(true. 190 . The first argument means that the session is not transacted. use the following code: Session session = connection.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.getText()). Here. Session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. If the user selects transaction support. After you create a Connection object. and message consumers to receive messages. the first argument means that the session is transacted.createSession(false. Sessions implement the Session interface. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. 0).14 .

no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 .0. container which offers services to the component.object oriented representation of data in a DB. 15. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. message-driven beans The 2.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.15 .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Version 1.transaction management can be complex. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.jar file into the application server.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).0. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .consistent error handling framework . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . server which provides an execution environment for containers. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . The component lives inside a container. the container lives (in general) in an application server. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. improved performance security . bundled into a single unit.DB interaction transactions .logging. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. On the other side.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. called ejb-jar.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.xml 15. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. which is an xml file. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. as follows: 1. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the remote interface of the bean 4. the home interface of the bean 3.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).

String lastName. import.ejb.rmi. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.javax.RemoteException.javax.*.*. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. } 193 . the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. import. RemoteException.rmi. import java. int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. } 15. While the Remote interface declares no methods. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.15 . The developer does not implement this interface.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.RemoteException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.

prop.put(Context. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.jnp. } 194 . how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.NamingContextFactory". In the case of an web application. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.PROVIDER_URL.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. "org. creating them for the client application. how to create or find the bean 2.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. this can be done (for example) through SSL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. we need to know: 1. "localhost:1099"). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.put(Context. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().15 .interfaces. prop. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. if the client executes outside the container.

lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Problem is. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). more specifically. MyBeanHome. to the appropriate type. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.e. do not have the concept of casting. Why? For EJB. IIOP has not been designed for Java. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. • if the client executes outside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.. but for generic languages. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. Some languages. in fact. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. 195 . do implements the java. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. This is done through the javax.lookup("MyBean"). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.rmi.rmi. the client has a stub). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.narrow(homeRef. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.PortableRemoteObject class and. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. and this means that there are some limitations. that is part of CORBA standards. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. in fact.Remote interface).class). the client should use the narrow() method of javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. using the narrow() method.

public class MyBean implements javax. 15. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).bank11.remove().processEntry("Dumitrascu". remove the bean instance myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ccards. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . String lastName.. as well)...ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.15 .SessionContext. 1102). call business methods on the bean myObject. import javax. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.create(). we concentrate now on the bean class itself. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ejb.ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. "Vasile".ejbeans.

1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. the object is activated. 15.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.15 . When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. that is. A stateless bean does not. namely stateful and stateless beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 197 . This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.

and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. or passivate. At the end of the life cycle. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. The ejbCreate method. for example.15 . Figure 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the client invokes the remove method. and then moves it to the ready stage. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. For example. All other methods in Figure 15.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. 198 . (Typically.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean.1 are invoked by the EJB container. 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. is inside the bean class.

• • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. stored in a Database). support for concurrent access 3. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.15 . The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1.

state data is stored into data store (usually.15 . These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Read. in the same order.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. methods which have the same parameters. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. We can have more create() methods.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. as the parameters in the original create() method. an instance of that bean is created.14. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. 200 .ccards. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. Update and Delete.lang.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). CreateException.bank11. 15. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. On the other side. all throwing RemoteException.

There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. for BMP. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. On the second path. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. but the developer returns null for CMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it's business methods can be invoked. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. Second.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. After the EJB container creates the instance. a client can invoke the remove method. While in the pooled stage. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.14.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. left empty most of the time in CMP. but in general. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. in BMP. the client invokes the create method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). the programmer will create actual SQL code.14. On the first path. 15. First. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. actual SQL update code. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.15 . for BMPs. it is empty. 201 . All instances in the pool are identical. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.14. After instantiation. not null. 15.

15 . It acts as a JMS message listener. If the primary key is incorrect. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. another enterprise bean. With bean-managed persistence. it does not automatically set the primary key.an application client. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. or a Web component .3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. 202 . Therefore.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. In the pooled state. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. 15. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. the values of the instance variables are not needed. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.getPrimaryKey(). In the pooled state. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.

for example. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. In several respects. message-driven bean can be used. Previously. When a message arrives. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. 15. The onMessage method may call helper methods.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. an open database connection. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. To ensure concurrency. If this element is set to more than one. 15. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.15 . or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. If message processing is rolled back. the message will be redelivered. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. 15.16.16. max-beans-infree-pool.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.16. For more information on this element see.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.16. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. but not asynchronously. 203 . by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. a JMS API connection. To avoid tying up server resources. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. Unlike a session or entity bean.

The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.15 .16.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. 15. Classes.. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.Message MessageName) {. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.16. public void ejbRemove() {.. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 2.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.16.Message. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.jms. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . // An EJB constructor is required. or create a new one..ejb.jms...0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.0 specification. public void onMessage(javax. methods. finalize{}. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. 15. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. Note: These instances can be pooled.. and it must not // accept parameters.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. 3. As with other EJB types. Obtain a new bean instance. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.} // onMessage() is required.}.

or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .jms. getRollbackOnly() .16.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. even in onMessage().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. However. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.15 . whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().16.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.MessageListener. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). getUserTransaction(). Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. If any method throws such an exception.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. 15.16.This is not a client context. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. 15. 15. See javax. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.onMessage() for more information. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. For example.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.

Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.15 . but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.0 specification.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. In either case. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.16. 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. as required by the EJB 2. as described in the EJB 2. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification.xml. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.16.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.16.

This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 2. 15.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.jms.xml elements.xml deployment file. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. 207 . </message-driven> .xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar....MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.15 .ejb20. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.message.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.0 specification.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.. For each instance. the weblogic-ejb-jar. as described in the EJB 2. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.

security 208 .like transaction. a message-driven bean is never passivated. the home interface name 7. access control entries . the container calls the ejbRemove method. the remote interface name 8. isolation level. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. entity specific elements 10.15 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. EJB class name 5. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. attributes . bean home name .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. environment properties 6. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. control descriptors .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. session specific elements 9. 15.security issues.

Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.ccards.bank11.ccards.ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.ejb.lang.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ejb.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.15 .

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.lang..


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