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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. 1. like the client tier. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. like HTML pages.2 Server communication 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.1 . Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. or finance. The web tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. and sends it back to the client program. retail.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. Figure 1. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary).java platform. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. processes it (if necessary). which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. enterprise edition Figure 1.7 business components Business code. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. 5 .

9. or application client component can be executed. enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform.9 java EE Containers Normally. and other complex low-level details. resource pooling. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. multithreading. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). In addition. Before a web. 1. and other legacy information systems. 1.1 .1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. database systems. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. For example. mainframe transaction processing. enterprise bean. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. 6 .3 Web. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. Business and EIS Tiers 1.

Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 7 . an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. transaction management.4. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. For example. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.java platform. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. data persistence. including services such as security. and remote connectivity. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.1 . database connection resource pooling.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. 1. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. After an enterprise bean is created.9.

manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. 1. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. When XML data is exchanged between parties. Application clients and their container run on the client. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. or any kind of binary data such as audio. 8 . This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. Web container .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.java platform. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. enterprise edition Figure 1. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. Applet container . program files. XML data. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. text-based standard for representing data. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.manages the execution of applets. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. maps. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. develop. extensible. test. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. 1. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Application client container .1 XML XML is a cross-platform. For example. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.10. or for document-oriented web services. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.1 . video. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.manages the execution of application client components.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.

enterprise edition 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).java platform. and ways to communicate with the service. The description includes the name of the service. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.10. 1. such as Universal Description. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.1 .5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10. 9 . Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.10. the location of the service. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.

When the client finishes executing. 1. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. If the client terminates. or if the server shuts down. and XML) and JSP elements.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. the session bean and its data are gone.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.1 .11. enterprise edition Figure 1.11. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. WML. you employ a single.java platform.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. 1. 1. standard set of tags. or enterprise bean.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. Commonly. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.11. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. In Java EE 5. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.11. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


At runtime.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. a module.java platform. 15 . The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. servlet. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. or better customer support. or a component. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. JTA. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. SAAJ. module. or component accordingly. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. and JNDI 1. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. it is ready to be deployed. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Once deployed on a local platform. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information.ear extension. the application is ready to run. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. such as better performance. No extra coding is needed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .1 . better tools. JSP page. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean.

java platform. and a web application deployment descriptor.jar extension. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Web modules. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. enterprise edition Figure 1. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . GIF and HTML files. Application client modules.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. • • 16 . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. Together.1 . and other documentation.jar extension.war (Web ARchive) extension. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Resource adapter modules. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . for example.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. For example. which contain all Java interfaces. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. which contain servlet class files. JSP files. such as caching directives. classes. native libraries. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . supporting class files.

) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.HTTP 2 . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. was the object of several RFCs.1. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.w3.org/Protocols . The second (and last.jmarshall.2 .com/easy/http.html). The first oficial version – HTTP 1. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.. we recommend www. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . HEAD. zero or more header lines 3.HTTP 2.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). POST. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. an initial line 2.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. RFC 2616 (06/99). The server answers with a response message. 2. These messages may have different contents. so far) version. as follows: 1. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). check the official HTTP site – www. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.apps.ietf..org/rfc/rfc1945.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. The client sends a request message to the server. namely HTTP 1. but they also have some common structural elements.. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.

OPTIONS 7. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. newsgroup. GET 2. Here is their list: 1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .1.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. in the HTTP 1. DELETE 6. HTTP/1. mailing list.Posting a message to a bulletin board. PUT 8. unless that text happens to be the output of the process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. CONNECT 5. 18 . 2. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.2 .Annotation of existing resources. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. as well.html HTTP/1. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. but lack of support makes them obsolete. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.1 specification.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. TRACE Three other commands are listed. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. HEAD 3. . POST 4. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.0).5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. GET /path/to/the/file/index.

” On the other side. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. separated by the character “&” or “.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.2 . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. after the “?” character. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. such as the result of submitting a form. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.8 the status code A three-digit integer. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.HTTP or similar group of articles. while POST may involve anything. or sending E-mail 2.Extending a database through an append operation. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. or in the message body.Providing a block of data. 2. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.0 404 Not Found 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). or ordering a product. . to a data-handling process. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. 3. .6 differences between GET and POST 1. or a record is subordinate to a database. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . When used for form data submission. like storing or updating data. In this case.

20 . The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. In a request. The most common use of the message body is in a response.the request succeeded. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client.0.the requested resource doesn't exist. file or script output) is returned in the message body. and section 10 for HTTP 1. header name and header value. If an HTTP message includes a body.1). The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. one (Host) is mandatory. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. fails. separated a semicolon. 500 Server Error . The HTTP 1. 404 Not Found .HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. In particular. Although the header names are not case sensitive. that is. and the resulting resource (e.1 only) .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 2. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. while the HTTP 1. 2.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.an unexpected server error. such as text/html or image/jpg.2 . or otherwise can't run correctly. none of them mandatory. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. header values are.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.1 version specifies 46 of them.0 version specifies 16 headers. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.g. out of which.

uvt. with subtypes mixed.ro/path/file. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.html HTTP/1. audio.apps.0 200 OK Date: Fri. 21 . parallel 3.info. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. text.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. alternative.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. RFC 1521 (www. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. . external-body 4. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtype mpeg 2. partial.0 From: someuser@yahoo. Here is the list of the seven types. image. message. 1. video. with subtype plain 2.HTTP 2. with subtypes rfc822. with subtype basic 7.ro. with subtypes jpeg.html first open a socket to the host web. multipart.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. gif 6. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). digest. Then. postscript 5.info.ietf. application. with subtypes octet-stream.uvt.org/rfc/rfc1521.2 .

HTTP .2 . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket. 22 .

It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).HTML 3. HTML describes how text. www. It is a revision of 4. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.com/easy/html .w3. Since it fits in a couple of pages. 3. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.3 .2 (3.www. Originally named Web Applications 1.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.org/rfc/rfc1866.w3c. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.01. Mosaic.apps.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.0.0 and was accepted in December 1997. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.html.ietf. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. The XHTML 1. As a practical reference site use – www.01) can be found at this address: http://www. a working draft for the next major revision.0.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.blooberry.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0) dates from 08.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.com/indexdot/html . From 1999 on.99.jmarshall. check the official HTML site – www. Other helpful sites .com/tutors. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. The newest version of HTML is 4.0 .org/Markup . The first version of HTML. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.0 draft was released in 01. A newer standard. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.html) and was widely supported. However. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. namely HTML 1. The first official version – HTML 2. The latest version (XHTML 2. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.HTML 3 . An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.htmlgoodies. HTML 3. Version 4.

increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

01 specification.and end at the first occurrence of -->.0 contains an SGML declaration. Overall. You get the point." (in hexadecimal) . Check the address http://www. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. CONTROLS.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.0 Transitional DTD. VSAPCE are omitted. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. though.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. 3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. “&quot”. This section deals with some of the most common elements. An example: <!-. BORDER. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. <><> --> 25 .acesta este un comentariu.w3.the chinese character for water. like ALIGN. look at these examples: “&lt”. If you wonder what a character reference is. 3. HTML 4.3 . 4.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. …. DYNSRC. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.0 Strict DTD. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. "&#x6C34. the specification of HTML 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.

Example: <A HREF=”http://web. image. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. NAME. etc.HTML 3.uvt.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.5 tables 26 .) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.3 .3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.info.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.ro/webmail/src/login. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.

Here is their description and attributes. <THEAD>. Usually. its rows. Here is a an example of a table: 3. columns. headers and cells are <TABLE>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <TH> and <TD>. <TR>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell.3 . the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.required.7 forms A form is a basic component container.

uvt. "submit".if specified. the browser appends the values to the URL. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.sends the form values in a single transmission.info. may have the values GET or POST.8. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. Main attributes: 29 . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Main attributes: • TYPE .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. specifies the parameter name. "radio". "password". "file". "reset".2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .8.?.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.required.8.maximum number of options visible to the user. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .required.HTML • METHOD . 3. "image".8 form related elements 3. specifies how data will be sent to the server. SIZE . • 3.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .3 . after a quotation mark . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "text/plain" • • 3. NAME . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Example: http://web. "GET" . allows multiple selections from the choice list.the default value.required. "hidden".:. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "button". however.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "checkbox".

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

In terms of execution time. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Example: Edit the file prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. Java bytecode – a file with extension . javac -classpath .java.C:\TW\mySource.95.class file. Inc.2 version.4. following the 1. Early versions of Java were released in 12.90.java 2. Java source – a file with extension .4 .95. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.3 java applications 31 . The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. a tool named Just In Time compiler.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.JAVA PRIMER 4 . but next time execution is much faster. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.java One example of command line compilation: 4. The first time a class is loaded.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.) in 08.2 java the interpreter. the compilation process occurs. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.class 3. 4. -g : generate all debugging info.JAVA PRIMER 4. The current version (as of 10.0. The current version (as of 10. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .class file.class. jit From source to execution. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. To overcome this significant shortage.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. project started in 12. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.

”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .jar file. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4.4 object oriented concepts 4.4. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.java. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. In general. An example: 32 .4 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. 4. or that it extends A). Generally. or is derived from A. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.

Long. Therefore. Boolean.4.4 . called Object. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 33 . In fact. 4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . a class can have more than one method with the same name. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). providing its own implementation. In OO jargon. Integer. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Float. Short. namely: Byte. with the root the class Object. a Java class can extend a single base class.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). The return type of a method is not part of this signature.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. Therefore. this is called method overloading. Character. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.1 bit char . Double.

which extends the class javax.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. inherited). More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . class . 34 .no access from outside the class itself protected . anywhere abstract . 4..one which is defined at class level. automatic garbage collection.access from any class anywhere private .the class is visible from any class. • • • • no specifier . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. has the same value for all class instances. method .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .servlet.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.http.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. rather than at class instance. } declares an abstract class.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.does not have any subclasses.. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. Except for the "package" concept.4 . A final variable (method.servlet.one which is constant method . A final: • • • variable .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. no templates.http. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.

4. as defined in the java.like invalid cast. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.JAVA PRIMER 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. In Java. 4. code or data errors . division by 0.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. programmer defined exceptions 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.4 . 4. array index out of bounds. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7. standard method exceptions 3.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.7.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 2.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. not at execution time.7. Exception categories: 1.7.ThreadDeath. java errors .2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.

lang . followed by the import statements. therefore. the class (the .. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. 4. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . 4.ccards. string analyzers. 4.rmi java.net java. catch.awt. In the example above.zip .lang (automatically available). date and time info java. they have to be unique inside a package.awt .support for event handling java.sql.this can be done by providing a try.util. import.java.bank11. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).io java.util.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.awt. import javax. .nio java.servlets.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. don't have to import java.support for java archives creation java.sql java. An example: package com.default.support for data collections. As a general rule.class file.util .security 36 .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.1 Package names The default package has no name.8. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. The package containing the standard classes is java.by adding the key word throws. the default package is used). rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.Properties. finally construct.*.support for user interface java.geom .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.event . All other packages must be explicitly imported.4 .

4 . 37 . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.event . static and final. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.support for event handling 4. it must be declared as abstract.swing. All variables (actually.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.text javax.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.accessibility javax. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.

like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . However.A JavaScript statement like this: document.javaScript 5 .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.5 .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. This is not always what we want.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. other 38 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. like QtScript or ActionScript.JAVASCRIPT 5. The origins of this language date back to 1995.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.depending on the browser .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . 5. then LiveScript and finally. and . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. Subsequently. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. as JavaScript.

Save the external JavaScript file with a .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. without having to write the same script on every page. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . </script> </body> 5... Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. 39 . When you place a script in the head section.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. point to the ..javaScript times when a user triggers an event.3. 5..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. go in the head section.5 .3..js file extension. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3. </script> </head> 5. or when an event is triggered.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. To simplify this.

1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. 5.. The code in the body of the for .5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. in and the try .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..4. 5.5 .4.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.1 JavaScript for.. in loop is executed once for each element/property.javaScript 5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. continue.... while(). else.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. namely – if ..4. switch(). break.. 5.In statement The for. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. while() it is worth mentioning the for .4. catch constructs. for(). This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .5..

. they often leave the Web page. mycars[1] = "Volvo".5. so you don't lose your audience. Example Using for. When users see errors. mycars[2] = "BMW". Mozilla 1.catch statement (available in IE5+. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. or a property of an object...3 try.catch statement The try. an array element.. mycars[0] = "Saab". The try block contains the code to be run..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.0. for (x in mycars) { document.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. var mycars = new Array(). This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.5 .5. } </script> </body> </html> 5.

5.5 . Also. txt+="Error description: " + err.description + "\n\n". the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n".\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. alert(txt). When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").7 popup boxes 5. txt+="Click OK to continue. Syntax: 42 .7.

5 . the box returns false.7. When a confirm box pops up. Now.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.7. When a prompt box pops up. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.8 functions 5. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Syntax: prompt("sometext". The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. the box returns true.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.. the box returns null.8. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. in the <head> section. If the user clicks "Cancel". If the user clicks "OK". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. in the example above had not been written within a function."defaultvalue") 5.js file).1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. If the user clicks "Cancel".

So. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".. document..2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.9.8. 5.javaScript function functionname(var1.write(txt.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. and how they are used.. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. var2.length). functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. etc are variables or values passed into the function. 5.5 . and will be stored in the variable called product.. 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.varX) { some code } var1.9 javaScript objects 5. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.var2.

The other class are the language specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.javaScript 5.9. which will be specified in the next section.write(str. The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5. 45 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. document.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".toUpperCase()).

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . which are called Objects. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.com/jsref/default. or when the user interacts with a Web page. At its most basic level.asp 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. as well). every Link on the page is an Object. N: Netscape. Even this Document itself is an Object.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.11. check the site http://www. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. Properties FF: Firefox. For example. When an event message has been triggered. every Image on the page is an Object.w3schools.5 .

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. Properties FF: Firefox. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape.11. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

5 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. depending on the browser. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .

IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Properties FF: Firefox.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. N: Netscape. according to local time. according to local time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.11. to a string.5 . to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to universal time.

5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 .11.5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number). Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.

5 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 . N: Netscape.

It includes several mathematical constants and functions.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.javaScript 5. Properties FF: Firefox.11.5 .718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. N: Netscape.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 1.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 2.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 1. 0. 3.y) pow(x.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 2.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 0.y) min(x.434) Returns PI (approx.

12.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. Assume that the personObj already exists . personObj. personObj. height.firstname). All persons have these properties. 53 . The persons' methods could be eat(). personObj. Objects also have methods. etc. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.lastname="Doe".write(personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.5 . eye color. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. age. 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.firstname="John". but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. skin tone.eyecolor="blue". sleep().eyecolor="blue".age=50. lastname. personObj. work(). etc. document.12. personObj.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.you can give it properties named firstname.12. The persons' properties include name.firstname="John". personObj. age.lastname="Doe".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. weight. Properties are the values associated with the object.age=30. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. play(). and eyecolor as follows: personObj.

eyecolor) { this.5 .eat=eat. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.propertyName.age=age. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. this. this.lastname=new_lastname.age=age.12.lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. this. this. You can also add some methods to the person object. this. like this: myFather=new person("John".age. this."Doe".50. myMother=new person("Sally". } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."blue").lastname.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname."Rally".48."green"). Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.age. 5. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. you can create new instances of the object. 54 .javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. } Notice that the template is just a function.newlastname=newlastname. Once you have the template. this.firstname=firstname.eyecolor) { this.lastname.firstname=firstname.

. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. For example. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. We define the events in the HTML tags.".0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. So. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. now you can write: myMother.. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.newlastname("Doe").5 .javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. 5.

13.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The name is then stored in a cookie. If it returns true the form will be submitted. 5. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.2 onFocus. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . If the field values are not accepted. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. the submit should be cancelled.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.13.13.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.5 . onBlur and onChange The onFocus. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. For example. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.w3schools.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').5 .

after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. 2010). XML. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). However. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.g. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.6 . HTML.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. The W3C 58 . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. particularly those used in Web browsers. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. or WebAPI being among them. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically.HTML DOM 6. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. the Document Object Model activity is closed. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released.. and style of a document. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. SVG. Right now (oct. As of January 2008. In other words. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.Html DOM 6 . 6.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. By October 1998. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . structure. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. CSS. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.

DOM Level 3 Requirements.6 . As of 2005. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. each of which contains required and optional modules. HTML-specific elements are included as well. 5. To claim to support a level. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. 4. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). filtered views and events. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. 3. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 2 XML namespace support. and 6. DOM Level 3 XPath. 2. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Load and Save.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. which further enhances the DOM 6. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 1. 6.

In order to be cross-browser compatible.6 . All HTML elements. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.x were still widely used in 2000. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Konqueror. By 2005. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. along with their containing text and attributes. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.x and Netscape 4. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. Opera. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. and Safari. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. support multiple browsers. that is. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). can be accessed through the 60 . The Window object represents a browser window. interoperability problems were numerous. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.

and VBScript. and new elements can be created. JavaScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 . The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

The <head> node holds a <title> node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. 6. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. 62 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. <head> and <body>. everything in an HTML document is a node. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8.9.Html DOM 6.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. the element node <title>. The <html> node has two child nodes.6 . In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. However.

and the connections between them.getElementsByTagName("p"). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document.getElementById('main').getElementsByTagName("p"). and new elements can be created.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. using the node relationships. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. By navigating the node tree.9. By using the getElementById() method 2.9. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. The terms parent. except the root.2 node parents.6 . • • • • • In a node tree. 63 .3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). child. Their contents can be modified or deleted. the top node is called the root Every node. children. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. Parent nodes have children.

9.i<x. each node is an object.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i++) { document. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. } 6. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.write("<br />"). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. document.Html DOM for (i=0.6 .write(x[i].length.

get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.Html DOM 6. 6.9. txt=x.nodeValue. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.5 example . Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.getElementById("intro").6 . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .firstChild.

it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". frames. including window. For elements. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. objects and images.

Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Mozilla.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. as of version 1.3. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. for instance. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). 67 .6 . say "click". Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). and then bubbled up.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. DOMNodeInserted.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. When the user clicks on the inner element. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Also. through a mouse click or a keypress. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). 6. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Safari. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. During the event flow. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Fires when an element is activated. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. also supports these methods.

Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Unfortunately. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. mouse position. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. mouse button pressed. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. key pressed. etc. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. including information about target element. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type.Html DOM 6. preventDefault 68 .6 .

Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. It is not a technology in itself. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. choices of user. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.AJAX 7 . The server does some processing — retrieving data. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. For improving sharing of resources. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. dynamic website. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server.AJAX 7. etc. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. For example. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. menus. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. 69 .2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. crunching numbers.7 . before the whole page was sent within the network. using web services or Php scripts. but also to save resources. fields of forms. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. 7. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client.

the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. at the start of the session. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. While the server is doing its thing. Instead of loading a web page. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. the user waits some more. Once an interface is loaded. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. Obviously.7 . 70 . waiting. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. what’s the user doing? That’s right. we wouldn’t make users wait around. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. waiting around for the server to do something. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. And at every step in a task. but the opposite is true.

Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. usually using XML.7 . editing data in memory. 71 . loading additional interface code.

mode: type of request. It allows the interaction with the servers. 7. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.for a simple text. GET or POST . These events are user actions.responseText . 3: answer in process. url.url: the location of the file 72 .holds a Xml loaded file.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.200 is ok. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . To get data on the server. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.AJAX 7. 2: request received. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. . onreadystatechange . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . This object provides two methods: . DOM's method allows to extract data.7 . . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". and in this purpose.responseXml . boolean) . 1: connection established.for a Xml file or . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 4: finished.open: create a connection.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.returned by the server .holds loaded data as a string of characters. 404 if the page is not found .send: send a request to the server.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. thanks to its methods and attributes.

xml'.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. } else if (window. // Firefox. http_request. URL of the document. true for asynchronous....open: command GET or POST. the data to send to the server.. but two options must be tried.send(null).ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.AJAX . Safari. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . OK } else { // wait. if (request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). for browser compatibility. true). 'http://www.xul. .open('GET'.fr/somefile.7 .XMLHTTP").null for a GET command 7.send: with POST only. . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .6 building a request. if (window. http_request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. The request below reads a document on the server.readyState == 4) { // received. 73 . request.

status == 200) document.dyn="Error code " + req.dyn="Received:" + req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.responseText.AJAX 7.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). req. req.responseXML.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".7. }. true). req.responseText. "data. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.status. by this code: var doc = req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.getElementsByTagName('root'). else if (window. req.open("GET".item(0).7 examples 7.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.dyn=""Received:" + req.ajax.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . else document.XMLHTTP).send(null).xml".ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.7.7 . "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). if(window.readyState == 4) if(req.ajax.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. like what pages are error.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. Here is a small. Others. 2. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. classes. For example. descriptions). servlet classes.8 . Servlet. but typical web.. 6. entries related to session configuration.servlets.)> <web-app> <!-.bank11. 5. like: 1.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. data persistence. 4.xml file: <?xml version="1. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. Initialization of parameters for servlets. MIME types used by the web application. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. JSPs and Java Server Faces.class>com. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .ccards. database connection resource pooling. web.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. welcome pages. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 3. 8.

servlets". In general. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.servlets. the name of the web application. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.class" and that it is part of the package "com. it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" file. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. However. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.bank11. Unfortunately. whose name is rather long.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.ccards. For example. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.xml" 2. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").bank11. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards.xml file of the web application. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. Then the "EnrollServlet. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. Behind a very benign URL. basicly. for flexibility.bank11. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Basicly. 1.ccards.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.xml".WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".8 . The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets".

modular design 9. 2010.0 specification. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . in most cases as part of an application server.SERVLETS 9. the Java Servlet 3.4. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. but at this point. Technically speaking. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.2.2.4. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. As of oct. 9. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).9 .1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. but through a web container.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. which extend the functionality of the web server.0 specification is available for public review. from BEA Systems. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. 9. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.5 and is in final state.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. small footprint. more often.SERVLETS 9 . The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. this is just a work in progress. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. tjws spec 2. the HttpServlet) class. platform independent programs. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .

IOException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. while the second one.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. WebSphere.servlet package.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet javax. 82 . from Apple Inc.9 . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . the javax. These packages are: • • javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void service(ServletRequest req. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from IBM 9. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition.servlet package are protocol independent.servlet.

arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. The servlet API provides such a specific class.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The method performs all initialization required.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. 83 . in a different section. ServletConfig. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. More on the servlet life cycle. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. namely the HttpServlet class. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. the web container calls its init() method. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. Throwable t) 9.9 . respectively. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. This method has two arguments. 9. as well. After instantiating the servlet.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo().

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.lang.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.9 . It also extends the java.ServletException javax. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.lang.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . 9.servlet.Exception class. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.servlet. service().

Typically. 85 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. Typically. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax.servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. DB connection opening. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. which will service all incoming requests. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. respectively. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. Also. 9. etc.SingleThreadModel. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. JSP or JSF. After instantiation.9 .

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.9 . Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

servlets. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.9 .ccards.xml file. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.*. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. This is done in server's (container's) server.java" file: package com.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.io.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. import java. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. 87 . Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.

servlet.println("<br>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out.println("</head>"). out.getWriter().http. } } 88 .9 .println("merge").println("<body>"). out. out. out.servlet. out.println("</body>"). import javax. out.init(config).setContentType(“text/html”). // output your page here out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.*.println("</html>").SERVLETS import javax. IOException { resp.println("<head>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("<title>Servlet</title>").close().*.println("<html>"). PrintWriter out = resp. out. out.

10. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0 while the current (4.JDBC 10 . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. 89 .sun.0.odbc. After that. The JDBC 4. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. as recognized by the DB industry. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. These drivers fall into four standard categories. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. the java. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE).2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. Starting with version 3.jdbc. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. the javax. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 1997.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.JdbcOdbcDriver .JDBC 10.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.10 . Type 1.sql package. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .sql package 2.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.1. This solution is inefficient.

The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Part Java. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Type 4. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 3. because it eliminates one level of indirection. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). which in turn.JDBC Type 2.10 . 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API.

sql.Driver java.0 API.Clob java.3 the java.0).sql.SQLException java.sql. java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLOutput java.sql.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.Statement java.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Types java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.sql.Date java.sql.Struct java.sql.SQLPermission java.sql.sql.DriverManager java.sql.SQLDataException java.Wrapper 91 .sql.SQLInput java.Connection java.Time java.Timestamp java.PreparedStatement java.sql.10 .SQLXML java.Blob java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.SQLData java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. defined in the JDBC 3.JDBC 10.sql.CallableStatement java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Array java.

sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.SQLWarning java.10 .sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.Statement java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java. loading a database driver 2.sql.0.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql package.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.Blob java.Clob java.sql.RowId java.NClob java.sql.Connection java.PreparedStatement java.SQLException java.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java. java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLOutput java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.Types java.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.StatementEvent javax.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.SQLInput java.ClientinfoStatus java. querying the database 4.sql.sql.ResultSet java.SQLNonTransientException java. processing the result set 92 .SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.

net.driver.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle. A database driver is specified by the driver name.OracleDriver sun.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.odbc. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.jdbc.ibm.10 .DataStoreDriver com.db2.jdbc. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.borland.sybase.datastore.JDBC 10.

String user = "root". as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).newInstance(). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.mm. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.Driver"). user. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. import java. but let's take it for granted: import java.sql. Since we just used it.mysql.forName("org. try { Class. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. passwd).printStackTrace(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".gjt. by using the connection URL.10 .com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.util.*.getConnection(connURL. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).bank11. as specified by the driver vendor.*.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. 94 . subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.

put("create".Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.util.sql package. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("autocommit".JDBC 10. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.10 . but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. "true"). prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. int resultSetConcurrency. Connection conn = DriverManager. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. java. "true"). prp). we can use it for various purposes.getConnection(connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Properties prp = new Properties(). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. 10. prp. String user.

other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . Statement. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. namely. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.JDBC 10.10 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. prepared statements and stored procedures. respectively.

10.".10 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.sql. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.executeUpdate(sqlString).. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .. stmt.createStatement().

One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. not at 0) or the column name. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument. PreparedStatement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. 98 .10 . An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. Connection pooling implementation -. time. a factory for creating DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal Object float 10. Basic implementation -. mins.produces a Connection object that will 103 . There are three types of implementations: 1. This interface is.math.0 optional package. basicly.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.sql.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. secs date. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql package.math.DataSource object.produces a standard Connection object 2. It is part of the javax.sql. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.Time java. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.10 . The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.

javax.*. 104 .bank11.servlet.*.sql.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.servlet.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. java. import import import import import import java. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.class.naming.*. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.sql. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. javax. private DataSource theDataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlets.10 . 3. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.http.ccards.*.*. javax.getLogger(TestDataSource. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.getName()). } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().io.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. Distributed transaction implementation -.

HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException..10 . ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.. } } 105 .

2 the java. 11.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. the servlet code is regenerated. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.JSP 11. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp and javax. 11. The javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.tagext.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.1 and is related to the 2.5 Java Servlet specification. namely javax.jsp. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. The package javax.jsp.servlet.jsp.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet. The package javax.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet. If the JSP is modified.JSP 11 .servlet.servlet.11 . classes and exceptions are part of two packages.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


11 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page..JSP • if the URL does not start with / . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. 111 . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.. include and taglib.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .

11 . 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. this code goes to inside the service() method. 11.7 scripting elements 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . Assigns it to available name or id. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. In Tomcat.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.JSP 11.7. 11.

9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. you must specify param.11 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . and if so.

same format as the <%@include> directive.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. 11.11 . <jsp:plugin> actions.the URL of the page. flush .name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .13 the forward standard action 114 .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.only the "true" value is supported. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.

. 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . archive="URIToArchive. . code="classFileName" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.11 ..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). It is used mainly.the type of object the plugin will execute.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. If you do not supply a value. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.a name for the Bean or applet instance.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code." . as well.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. servlet or to a static resource. name . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.class extension in the name following code.the name of a bean instance. name="instanceName" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag.. You must include the . when we want to separate the application into different views.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . depending on request.. You must specify either bean or applet. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .. as this attribute has no default value.

config . writes to the output stream to the client. objects which are automaticly available. it has java. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. based on the servlet API. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. application .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . session .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. page . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .it represents the buffered version of java.lang. pageContext .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.JspWriter type and scope page 7. 1.io. in pixels.11 .jsp. optional port number. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.1" . and domain name.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. it has javax. with a protocol name. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.represents the servlet context.Object type and scope page 11. of the image the applet or Bean displays. request . request . response .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .represents server's response to the request.16 scopes 1.PrintWriter. out . The value is a full URL.the amount of space.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .servlet. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.1. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. in pixels. Must be a small nonzero number.the initial height and width.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. The default value is 1.

if (enrollBean. Object value) method 2. application . Object value) method 4. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. page .EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. Object value) method 3.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.jsp file.init().ccards.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.11 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.bank11.JSP request object. Object value) method 11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.beans.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. session . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.

// Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. an int. private String colors[].18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.18. 11.java: package com. SimpleBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.examples.devsphere. %> <jsp:forward page="response.11 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private int integer.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.simple.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. a boolean and another String). private float number.mapping. private SimpleSubBean subBean. a float.string. The public constructor could have been omitted. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). The SimpleBean class is declared public.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private boolean flag. private String optional.Serializable { private String string.io. private int list[]. a software development and consulting company. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.register().

flag = value.colors = values. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.flag.11 . } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } 119 . } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer = value.JSP this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number.string = value.integer.colors[index]. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.number = value.

colors[index] = value. int value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.optional = value.list.optional. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. String value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.subBean = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.subBean. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list[index] = value.list[index]. } } 120 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.11 .

// Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.11 . private float number.number.simple.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.Serializable { private String string. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.mapping.examples. SimpleSubBean. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.string = value.18.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .number = value.devsphere.java: package com.io.string. } } 11. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.

JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .string subBean.

public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. new int[] { 2.11 . "One or more items must be selected" }.simple. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. There are three error messages. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. a boolean and an int[]. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. "One or more colors must be selected" }.util. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. "abc" }. the processing order.devsphere. error messages. The default values are defined for a String. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".list]".integer]". new Boolean(true) }.number]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.list]".18. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new String[] { 123 . The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the form's name and the processor's name.123) }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.flag]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new Float(0. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. "An option must be selected" }. a float. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The list of optional properties has a single element.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.mapping.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.colors]".examples. 3 } }. the list of optional properties. SimpleBeanResources.java: package com.

devsphere. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.jsp" } }. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.examples.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.html" }. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. "subBean" } }.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. { "[PROC_NAME]".mapping. new String[] { "string". The beanToForm() method of com. "list".devsphere. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "optional". "number".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. "SimpleProc. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.devsphere.devsphere.18. SimpleHndl. string values are converted to numbers. "SimpleForm.mapping.simple.*. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). } } 11. "colors".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . { "[FORM_NAME]".logging. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. com. For a better understanding of this example. If necessary.mapping.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. "integer".11 .FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).mapping. "flag".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.JSP "optional" } }.devsphere.util. The formToBean() method of com.

} else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.formToBean(formData.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.lastIndexOf('/').getString("[FORM_NAME]").JSP = HandlerUtils. // Process the valid data bean instance application. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. simpleBean.File(formPath)).getBeanResources(simpleBean.forward(request.substring(0.io.getRealPath(formPath).trim(). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.equals("POST"). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getTemplate(new java.util.getRequestDispatcher(procPath). response). errorTable = HandlerUtils. int slashIndex = basePath. slashIndex+1) : "".11 . // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). logger).getDocument(). // Construct the base path String basePath = request.trim(). 125 . basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getServletPath().removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. formPath = application.getClass()).getMethod().

SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. i++) 126 .jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. if (list.mapping.examples. for (int i = 0.getSubBean(). // Send the form document document.getSubBean().simple.devsphere.string = <%= simpleBean.length. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getString() %> <P> subBean.beanToForm(simpleBean.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.11 .send(out).length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].length == 0) return "".getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. errorTable. i < list. } %> 11.JSP elements logger).number = <%= simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). document.18. strbuf.append("{ ").getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. SimpleProc.

append("{ "). making the testing and the debugging easier.toString().JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.toString(list[0]). ComplexForm. } strbuf. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.length == 0) return "". StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("}"). i++) { strbuf.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. The localization of the Complex*.append(list[i]).11 .jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. A single call to FormUtils.length == 1) return Integer.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. i < list.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(" ").beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.length.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. Using the framework. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . for (int i = 0. return strbuf. strbuf.simple. } strbuf.examples.append("}").toString(). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. return strbuf.18.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.append(" "). strbuf.util.append(list[i]). In addition.mapping. In addition.formToBean() call. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. ComplexHndl. if (list. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.jsp files. } %> 11. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. strbuf.devsphere.

boolean checked = simpleBean. "green". String colorLabels[] = { "Red".JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.11 . for (int i = 0. i < integerLabels. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. j < colors.length. i++) { boolean checked = false. 128 .length. "Option 2".length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "Green". "Option 3" }. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Blue" }.getInteger() == value.getColors().getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. i < colorValues. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "blue" }. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1.

} %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. "subBean.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.length.simple. for (int i = 0.getSubBean(). "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.length. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. i < listItems.getList().mapping.SimpleSubBean()). break. boolean selected = false.setSubBean( new com.examples.11 . "Item 2". j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. "Item 3" }.JSP break.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .devsphere. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i++) { int value = i+1.

getSubBean().length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.devsphere.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.util. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.mapping. if (message == null) message = "".simple. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. "subBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.mapping.11 .examples.util.setString("abc").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.simple.equals("POST").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.devsphere.getMethod(). } %> ComplexHndl.getString() == null || simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.get(property). boolean isPostMethod = request.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.getString().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.examples. 130 .Hashtable errorTable.

setNumber(0. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. else { simpleBean.floatValue()). "string".setFlag(flagValue != null). "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setNumber(0. } simpleBean. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number"). "number". "number".123f).getColors(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "integer". if (flagValue. "An option must be selected").11 .getParameter("flag").trim().123f).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getColors() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . "Must be filled"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.length() == 0 || flagValue.getParameter("number").

11 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "colors".setString(""). "subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.getString().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable.number".getList().string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "list". "One or more items must be selected"). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* subBean. 132 .string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.number"). 3 }).getString() == null || simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getList() == null || simpleBean.floatValue()). "One or more colors must be selected").number : text try { String numberValue = request. "subBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.string".length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getParameter("subBean. "Must be filled").setOptional("").

The com.helpers.simple.Hashtable errorTable.mapping. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.xml: SimpleHndl.devsphere. "subBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.SimpleBean.18.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. "Must be a number"). } } else { simpleBean.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.setOptional("").jsp. simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.code=com.setNumber(0.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. simpleBean. simpleBean.setFlag(true).123f).setString("").devsphere. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. 3 }).\ 133 .devsphere.util.properties or web. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. message).helpers. errorTable. simpleSubBean.setList(new int[] { 2.setString("abc"). } %> 11.number".put(property.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".11 . simpleBean.mapping.JSP filled"). } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. String property. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.examples.

simple.examples. 11.properties: AnotherHndl.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.another.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.devsphere.company.mapping.code=com.helpers.mapping.AnotherBean.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.properties (or web.host. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.devsphere. you could add a few other lines to servlets. In many cases.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. a servlet is identified with its class.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.mapping.18.host. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.11 .ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A servlet can be made bean-independent. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. If you have another bean-form pair.examples.xml) file: ServletName.host.devsphere.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.helpers.devsphere. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.code=com.

11 .JSP 135 .

There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0 supersedes version 1.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Version 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. processes events. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.12 . buttons. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. which loads the appropriate view template. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. builds a component tree. like input fields. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. Version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. 2. This technology includes: 1.javaserver faces 12 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. 12.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.

here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.12 . The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.4. As of version 1.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.2 of the JFS specification.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.javaserver faces 12.

respectively.4. see the column tag documentation. footers. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. such as alternating row colors.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. Common formatting techniques.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.12 . For more information about columns. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. columns and rows. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. 12.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. your options include using plain HTML forms. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.12 .total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkout}" /> 139 .javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.

" /> 12. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.5.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). red for error. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .4.user.user. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.12 .</span> 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.5.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.12 . 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

12. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Without this JavaScript event.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.5.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The body content of this tag must be empty. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. validateLength. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. but only if the new input is validated successfully.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.javaserver faces 12. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.mycompany.12 .customer. can publish value change events.5. Any component that receives user input. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.

for each locale you wish to support. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. Example: welcome_en. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If you have not specified a default locale.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.mycompany.mycompany.javaserver faces 12. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. myJSFapp 143 . The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.5. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. including images and styles. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.12 . JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.

com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. static resources. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar jsf-api.xml – the JSF configuration file. jsf-api. It has a deployment descriptor.jar. Create properties files 144 . Create managed beans 4.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.html. mandatory for any JSF application web. Create JSP pages 2. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. and so on. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.12 . included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.exadel.javaserver faces /ant build.jar faces-config.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. JSP pages. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml web.jar – files included in the /lib directory.contains libraries required by the application. Define navigation rules 3. custom tag libraries.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.

Compile the application 8. The directory structure already exists. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.12 .jsp. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.7. You just need to create its contents.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.7. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp to greeting. Deploy and run the application 12. Create an index.javaserver faces 5. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp is greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp and greeting. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.xml file. In our application. Now that we have the two JSP pages. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. 12. we can create a navigation rule. And that's all there is to this.jsp.jsp file 7. As a diagram. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. we just want to go from inputname.

To read more about navigation rules.3 faces-config. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.xml file should look like this: 146 . } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. the second part of faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. of course. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.1 PersonBean. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml Now.12 . It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. a very simple navigation rule. we will create a PersonBean. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.7. public class PersonBean { String personName. 12. myJFSapp. 12. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.javaserver faces This is. This class is straight-forward.3.PersonBean.7.) 12.xml Your final faces-config.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.java file.7. The next line is the full class name. Inside this myJFSapp folder. request sets the bean scope in the application.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.7.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.3.

javaserver faces <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .12 .//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.properties file in the bundle folder. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5.4.1 messages.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12. 12.7.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.1//EN" "http://java.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1 inputname.sun. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.7. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.sun. 12.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. Inc.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.

prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.sun. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.12 .personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .bundle. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements. Then. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.

Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. The first three lines are identical to our first page.</h3> tags.2 greeting.jsp page.sun. 12. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.5.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .7. The second line will access a Java bean.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.greeting_text}" />.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files..jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.javaserver faces Line 1. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.12 . you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Having an index.xml file. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.6 creating the index. Creates an HTML input text box. Line 6. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. and also print its contents on the page. Line 2.7.sun.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.. name! 12.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. specifically the bean attribute personName. Create the index. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Lines 3-5. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.bundle. That's how JSF knows where to go next.

jsf and not . 12. When Tomcat is done loading.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.javaserver faces Now. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. we need to deploy it. 150 .jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. you'll notice the file suffix is . 12.7.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.sourceforge. which asks an user for an ID and password. To build the application run the build. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. We are almost done with this example. verifies the information. This is used here. 12. To do this.7.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.7.xml file for the application *. might possibly be different). and forwards the user to a success or error page.9 Running Next. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. Your setup.xml file.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. Of course. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.html . though.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. This is a "login" application. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. 12.jsp. because in the web. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).8.12 .

and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click Next. Enter project name. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. and set up folders for a web application.. your mileage may vary.. click Next. 3. say. 1. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. and to add JSF libraries to the project. Select Java Project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. 12. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. name the folder pages.src | +-. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.webroot | +-. make sure all checkboxes are checked. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. from the menubar select File/New/Other.WEB-INF 151 . Select the Amateras node.8. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.12 . and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. in the Add JSF Support page.. select the Source tab. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. see Installing & Uninstalling. 10..xml Editor (see faces-config. jsf-login. click Next d. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. c.. click Add Folder. a. 6. in the wizard that appears. 9.. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Yes through messages that appear. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. The New Project wizard appears. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.. 7. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. 2. click Finish 4. name the folder webroot 5.

c. click Add. The faces-config. } 4. input widgets appear d. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.xml. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.javaserver faces | | | +-. private String _pwd = "". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.12 . public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. a.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".lib | +-. for class enter login. 3. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. 2. for name enter mgr. else action = "loginFail". enter login. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. click Managed Bean.xml editor opens. from its context menu select New/Class. The New Java Class wizard appears.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } return action.LoginManager. b. for scope select 152 . Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.8.pages 12. if ( _uid. 1. In Package Explorer select the src folder. We then configure it to be a managed bean. Click Finish. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. In the Package field. The Java code editor opens.xml Editor. in the Name field enter LoginManager. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".java package login.

1. the JSP Editor opens. c. save the file and close the editor.webroot/pages/error. then close the editor 12. e.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. but in webroot/pages.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. for File name enter index.webroot/pages/success. from the menubar select File/Save.javaserver faces session. click Finish. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Enter the following code: <!-. and 3 content pages (login. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-. All pages except login. enter the following code. again. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. Create error.jsp). Create index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index. <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. index. Then we create login. the New File wizard appears. b.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. Create success. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp and error.8.12 .jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp.jsp).jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp: create this file similarly to index. success. </body> Please try 153 . from its context menu select New/File. so we create them first.jsp.jsp: a.webroot/index.

charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.jsp. click Next c. click Finish.sun. for File name enter login. enter jsf-login e.. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and the JSP Editor can help with code. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. place your cursor in one of these lines. <%@ page contentType="text/html. and uses them for code completion as well. now we want to add attributes to this element. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.jsp: a. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.12 . with the following template code. d. Open the JSF palette. Create login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. etc.. from its context menu select New/Other. (See Show View Dialog) f. a code-completion window pops up. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.sun.. as shown below. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. 154 . and choose default for Template. and dock it along the right. the New wizard appears. To see this in action.javaserver faces </html> 4.completion. b.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. g. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.

a code-completion window pops up. with the barest presentational formatting. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.sun. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. complete the expression with the closing { k. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.sun. and hit Enter.12 . place the cursor between the quotes in value="". insert another <h:inputText> element. insert a <h:commandButton> element. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. enter #{mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.) j. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. with bean properties available in mgr.javaserver faces h.loginAction} The final code. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.password}" l.. i. set its value to Login. this inserts value="" at the cursor. select userID from the code-completion window.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.

this inserts a page icon into the editor.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. using a FacesIDE editor. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. 1.xml.xml Editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. 2. This is shown below.8.12 . Select the Navigation tab 3. click on Page.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. then click inside the editor window. it should open in the faces-config. Open faces-config. 156 .password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.

jsp 4.jsp. change the value of path to /index. Its properties appear in the Properties view. 5. /pages/success. add 3 more pages.jsp.12 .jsp and then on the icon for success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. This is shown below: 157 . This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp and /pages/error.jsp. from the palette at left. notice that the warning triangle disappears. and set them to /pages/login. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. 6. then click first on the icon for login. in the Properties view. select Navigation Case.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.

in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. The application is now complete. open web.xml Here we edit web.12 . and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. As it turns out. We want virtual path-based mapping. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. so uncomment it.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Similarly add a forward-action from login. since we have such a trivial application. all we need do in web.jsp. 12. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.jsp. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.6 Editing web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. Once deployed browse to index. We'll set some properties in web.xml for the specifics of our application. 1.xml.javaserver faces 7. and you should be sent to the success page. or leave it as-is. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.jsp to error. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp.8.

faces.0 1.. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. the Manager application should reload.faces. click Deploy 3.html javax.render javax.webapp 12.context javax.component javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. scroll down to Deploy. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.model javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 . a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces. as file:///.8.event javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. For a given factory class name.faces.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces.faces. start Tomcat. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. 12..lifecycle javax.10 the javax.faces.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.validator javax.javaserver faces 12.component.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.el javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.faces javax.. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces.faces.faces.application javax.12 .convert javax. that factory is used. Click on its link to launch the application.

and supporting internationalization and accessibility. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. with the last one taking precedence. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.represents a single validation (or other) message.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . those factories are used. ViewHandler . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. FacesMessage .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.application package Contains the following classes: • Application .11 the javax. ApplicationFactory . 12. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.12 .Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. FacesMessage. StateManager . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). handling events and input validation. StateManagerWrapper . defining page navigation. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. ViewHandlerWrapper . with the last one taking precedence.faces. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.Severity . If none of the above steps yield a match. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.

including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.12 .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. String) results in failure on postback.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. StateHolder . UIComponentBase . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. 12. String. • • 161 . NamingContainer . ValueHolder .context.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.FacesContext. UICommand . • ViewExpiredException . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.faces.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.12 the javax. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. ContextCallBack . ActionSource2 . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. UIComponent .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.faces. or a hyperlink. a menu item.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. when activated by the user. Here they are: • • UIColumn .restoreView(javax. EditableValueHolder .

a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UISelectOne . UISelectMany . UISelectBoolean .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIPanel .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. The user cannot manipulate this component.faces. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UISelectItem . This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that has a value. Optionally.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. that is displayed to the user. UIForm . identified by a clientId. The user can modify the selected values.html package 162 . UINamingContainer .a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.component. UIGraphic . UIInput . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIMessages . it just serves as the root of the component tree. UIMessage . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIOutput . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. it is for display purposes only.12 . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. Optionally. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIParameter . it is for display purposes only. by storing it as the value property of the component.javaserver faces • UIData . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.13 the java. The user can modify the selected value. UIViewRoot . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.

HtmlDataTable . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlOutputFormat .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.faces. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlMessages .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlMessage . HtmlCommandLink .by default. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlForm . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.by default. and renders the result.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML label element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlOutputText . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.renders child components in a table.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlColumn . HtmlInputSecret . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents an HTML input element of type password.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. or not. This component must be placed inside a form. On a redisplay.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML input element of type text. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlOutputLink . HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlPanelGrid .represents an HTML img element. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlInputText .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. but the application wishes to render more than one.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML form element. HtmlInputTextarea .12 . HtmlOutputLabel .causes all child components of this component to be rendered.Message". HtmlInputHidden .faces. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.

ResponseStream .12 . HtmlSelectOneRadio . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. showing a single available option at a time.convert package 164 . initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyListbox .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.14 the java. FacesContextFactory .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. • • • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. and the rendering of the corresponding response. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyMenu . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.faces. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.15 the java. showing a single available option at a time.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. • • • • 12.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. and potentially modified by.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.javaserver faces property. ResponseWriter . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. In particular. FacesContext . It is passed to. HtmlSelectOneListbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. ResponseWriterWrapper .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.

ValueBinding . Classes: MethodBinding .javaserver faces 12.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. PropertyResolver .12 . VariableResolver .faces. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. • • • • 165 .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.15.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.

an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 .17 the java. ValueChangeEvent . ReferenceSyntaxException .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. FacesListener . PhaseId .faces. MethodNotFoundException . PhaseEvent .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. and event implementation classes. PhaseListener . • • • • 12.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.12 . Interfaces: ActionListener .AbortProcessingException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. • • • • • One exception . ValueChangeListener . FacesEvent .

12.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. Renderer . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. ResultSetDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.18 the java. SelectItem . ScalarDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. • • • • • • • • • 12.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. Classes: ArrayDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.faces.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .faces. SelectItemGroup .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. DataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. DataModelEvent .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.12 .19 the java.javaserver faces 12.20 the java.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.faces. ResultDataModel .

faces. including a standard servlet.faces. • • 12.22 the java. ResponseStateManager . which perform the actual rendering process for each component. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . The package contains an exception. and/or user Locale. base classes for JSP custom component tags. and concrete validator implementation classes.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. RenderKitFactory .12 . Typically. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. • RenderKit . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. as well. ConverterTag . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.21 the java.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . LongRangeValidator .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. together.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. AttributeTag . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).validator package Interface defining the validator model.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. markup language.

To ensure that the business state is never invalid. related to a UIComponent. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. servlets. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. In JSF. 12. UIComponentTag .12 .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the life cycle is more complicated. FacetTag . In MVC. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response.a base class for all JSP custom actions.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. ValidatorTag . the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. When using JSF.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF life cycle does not apply. • • • • • FacesServlet . The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. that need to process their tag bodies.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. or when an exception occurs. but basically. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When a web server receives a request. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. telling the model to update its data. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. or some other web technology. the controller sends a message to the model.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. When the model is updated. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. which passes the request to the page class. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). telling the view to update its presentation. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. Likewise. the controller sends a message to the view. the controller is the 169 . UIComponentBodyTag . which has several implications. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. that request is passed to the container.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the process includes a few more components or pages. Also. Because this does not involve JSF in any way.

the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. These objects update their state with the data values. and what happens during the processing and response. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. If this is a subsequent request. from cookies sent as part of the request. it creates UI objects for each view component.javaserver faces JSF implementation. The components are stored in a component tree. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. Data can come from input fields in a web form. Data for some components. and a piece of data failed validation. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. 170 .12 . the conversion occurs in this phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. For a JSF-enabled application. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. and the UI components are the view. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. In addition. and the response is sent to the client. In addition. As with the previous phase. the JSF implementation must create the view. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. depending on the request. However. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. is validated at this time. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). converting a String to a Date object). such as components that create HTML input fields. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. or from request headers. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. • Invoke Application: During this phase.

For example. if errors occur during any of the phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. 171 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. Also. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.12 .javaserver faces In the above figure. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

COM. when you use an electronic mail system. The DNS entry Wiz. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. DNS. 13. for example. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.48. names a file hello in the file directory usr. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. 172 .sun. For example.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. which is located in the root of the file system. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. It enables applications to access different. In addition. The UNIX pathname. such as addresses. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry."). such as LDAP. NDS. possibly multiple. and NIS(YP).13 . as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.JNDI 13. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. you supply it the name of the object. A file system maps a filename (for example. in turn. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example.2. identifiers. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. or objects typically used by computer programs. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.5).COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.9. c:\bin\autoexec.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").JNDI 13 . the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.COM. For example. When using almost any computer program or system. Using JNDI. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. /usr/hello. 13. you must supply its name. naming and directory services using a common API.Wiz. To access a file in the computer. Thus the DNS name sales. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. you are always naming one object or another.

might contain the state of the printer. For example.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. such as its print server name and printing protocol. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. a file directory. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. 173 . A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. is a context. a DNS domain. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. some objects cannot be stored directly. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. Typically. such as c=us. that is. A file object. In another example. Finally. unbinding names. an LDAP entry. while the object itself might contain more state information.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. that is. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). they must be stored by reference. 13. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. o=Sun. which in turn. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. Every context has an associated naming convention. in a file directory /usr/bin. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. That is. For example. in the DNS domain Sun. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. also called a file handle. is accessed using a file reference. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. By contrast. for example. on the other hand.13 . Instead. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.2. its flight plan. and listing bound names. relative to the entry o=Sun. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee.2. such as COM. 13. in the UNIX file system is a context. A printer object reference. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. and its flight number and departure time. For example. A printer object. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For simplicity. Using the reference. For example.2. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. and fuel and instrument status. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. 13. is a context.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. such as /usr. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). delimited by the comma character (". an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. is relative to c=us."). A reference is information about how to access an object.COM. a file name is bound to a file. For example.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left.c=us. for example. in the an LDAP entry o=sun.

and even the computer itself and other computers. to represent a printer. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. resolution. 13. For example. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. to some extent.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. programs. a computer.13 . A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. And it kind of makes sense. a person. A directory object can be used. For example. because we can. for example. or a network. two different computer 174 .1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. 13. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.3. postal mail address. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. Thus. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. For example. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. and computer account information. An example is the telephone company's directory service. and color. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. For example. various telephone numbers. one context can be viewed.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. however. a name is unique 13.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment.2. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.

1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. the ability to access directory services will become essential. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The service is accessed through its own interface. and users. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. For example.4. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. such as those based on the LDAP.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. can use the directory in the traditional way.smith@somewhere.com". Within the DIT. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.113.3.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. networks. 175 . Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.3. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. 13. Many examples of directory services are possible. an organization object. The email address.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. removing. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. When you search. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. By using a directory service. such as that relating to machines. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. that is.50". For example. The query is called a search filter. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. support the notion of searches. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. many directories. 13. like any other program running on the network. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. Similarly. 13. "mail" is the attribute identifier. 13. for example. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. called a directory information tree (DIT). Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. printers. Alternatively. When directory objects are arranged in this way. 13.13 . A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. adding. A Java mail client program. for example. such as the file and print services. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.3. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. for example.

v1. To use the JNDI. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.event javax.13 . and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. 13. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. v1. more coherent and manageable.naming javax.ldap 176 .JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. v1.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming. For example.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.3 and later releases. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.2.1 and the Java 2 SDK. v1. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. For example. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. Thus a variety of directories--new. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. It extends the v1.naming.4.5. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.2. 13.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. 13. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. and even the network.5.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.naming.directory javax. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. emerging.1 and Java 2 SDK.1 and v1.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. The Java 2 SDK.

the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. 13.6. 13. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6 the naming package The javax. Furthermore. comparing components.naming package defines a Context interface. For example.JNDI • javax.lang. printer.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.lookup("treekiller"). The most commonly used operation is lookup() . for some objects in the directory. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. 13. However. and so on.naming. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.6. composing them. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .1 context The javax.print(report). In this case. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. that is.String name argument represents a composite name. For the methods in the Context interface. A java. The overloads that accept java.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. and it returns the object bound to that name.6.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.lang.spi 13.6.13 .) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. 13. list() is similar to listBindings(). binding/unbinding.String name. which is the core interface for looking up. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. and the object itself. a 177 . the name of the object's class. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.

13. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.13 . 13.7. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. 178 . You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Once you have an initial context. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.7 directory package The javax. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. Otherwise.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13. InitialContext. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. There are no absolute roots.directory package extends the javax. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.naming. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.7. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. 13. they should catch NamingException. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).6. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. In the simplest and most common form of usage.6.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. For example. 13. replace. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. You can add. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.

directory package. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.ldap package at all.naming. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .13 .event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. and vice versa.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. For example. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. such as "object changed." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change." and those that do not. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. called controls . A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.9 LDAP package The javax. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13. For example. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .naming. such as information about the object before and after the change. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.9. controls.naming. Once registered.naming. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. To receive event notifications. 13.9. such as "object added.naming. In fact.8 event package The javax. 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.JNDI 13. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. or unsolicited notifications.9. 13. that is.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.

naming. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming.naming.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13.naming package. create a file named Lookup. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. This support is provided in the form of object factories.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. For example.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.Context. import javax. implementors of Context.10.1 plug-In architecture The javax. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.10 service provider package The javax.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. and receiving response controls.2 java object support The javax.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. if you look up a printer name from the directory.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. This support is provided in the form of state factories. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.11.9. In the process of completing an operation. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.java. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. It uses a service provider for the file system.spi package supports implementors of Context. 13. sending request controls. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 180 .10.10. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. That is. 13.13 . one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13.naming.

using the capitalization shown.11.java). Hashtable env = new Hashtable().NamingException. "com.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. To compile to program. } catch (NamingException e) { System. For this reason. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.3 looking up an Object Next. use Context.jar as an installed extension. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. as follows. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. 13.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.naming.5 compiling the program Next.fscontext.lookup(name).INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.err.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. Otherwise. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. 181 .3. 13. If you are still having problems. 13. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. If the compilation succeeds. env. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. then the JNDI classes are already included. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.RefFSContextFactory").naming. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.jndi.sun. If the compilation fails. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).11.lookup() to look up an object.put(Context.11. } 13. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. import javax.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. v1. create an initial context.13 .lookup(name). // Print it System.JNDI import javax. you must have access to the JNDI classes.out.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). Object obj = ctx.InitialContext.11.

as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.Attributes. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. create a file named Getattr.jndi.java. you need access to the JNDI classes.naming and javax.put(Context.directory. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. the file system service provider. then you will see something like the following. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.12.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. env.3.ldap. javax.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.sun.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. supply the name of a file in your file system. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().6 running the program To run the program. "com. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.directory. To run the program. v1.InitialDirContext.NamingException. javax.PROVIDER_URL. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. javax. create an initial directory context. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.class). env.jar and providerutil.directory.11.LdapCtxFactory").naming.sun.bat If you supply a file directory. javax. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.naming.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. 182 . "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jar).fscontext. 13. include the directory that contains your Lookup. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.naming.naming.directory packages.put(Context.13 . 13. Finally.jndi.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. import import import import import javax.12.Context.DirContext.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.naming.JNDI 13. and your example class (Lookup.naming.

then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. 183 .4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). For now. Similar to the naming example.java).get().println("sn: " + attrs. } catch (NamingException e) { System. As with the naming example. If the compilation succeeds. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.out. Attributes.get("sn"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. ou=People"). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. If the compilation fails.get() and then from that attribute get its value. 13.err.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn").get() on it to get its value: attrs.12. 13. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.12.13 . // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. For this reason.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). using the capitalization shown. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get()). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } 13. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). compile the source file using the Java compiler.12. ou=People"). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. If you are still having problems. 13. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.6 compiling the program Next.12.

13 . 184 .12. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").jar and providerutil.class.3. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. then see the Common Problems lesson. With this configuration. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.JNDI 13. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People".PROVIDER_URL. Getattr.put(Context. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. v1. then these classes are already included.7 running the program As with the naming example. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Once it has the attributes. env.jar). If you have any trouble running this example. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").

It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. Enterprise Edition.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. unless it has established a durable 185 . • 14.a JMS client that receives messages. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. In this model. JMS producer . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. the messages are delivered in the order sent. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.14 . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS consumer . JMS queue . As the name queue suggests. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . Here. JMS topic . JMS message . JMS client . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.

3 the JMS API programming model 14. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 14. In that case. 186 . Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.4.jms. Depending on the type of message. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 14. On the receiving side. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Using Java.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.14 .

When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Before an application completes.4. In a J2EE application. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). you must call the connection's start() method. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. It receives messages sent to a destination. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. Connections implement the Connection interface. For example. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.14 . For example.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . a connection to a JMS provider can be created.close(). Depending on the connection type. It is either a queue or a topic. Before your application can consume messages.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. The JMS administrator creates these objects. 14.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.4. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. 14.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. you must close any connections that you have created. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().createConnection(). the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. you call the stop() method. Like the connection factory. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. connection. and users discover them using JNDI.

188 . you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. You use the Session. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.start(). Message m = consumer. (Remember always to call the start() method. Moreover. After you have created a message consumer. which contains one method.4. In the onMessage() method. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. it becomes active. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.14 . a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.start(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.receive(1000). Message m = consumer. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. This object implements the MessageListener interface. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. usually expect a specific message type and format. A message listener does.createConsumer(myTopic). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. you are likely to miss messages. For example.receive(). onMessage(). a message listener object may be used.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. connection. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. After you register the message listener. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. 14. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. and you can use it to receive messages. if it needs to reply to messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. For example. consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. MessageConsumer consumer = session. This method is valid only if you are using a topic.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.) When message delivery begins.setMessageListener(myListener). however. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.createConsumer(myQueue). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.

4. // msg_text is a String producer.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. A message has three main parts: 1.4. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. anon_prod.receive().createTextMessage(). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. and object message).send(message). You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.14 . message. bytes message. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. At the consuming end. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. stream message. from one application to another. 189 . For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.setText(msg_text).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.createProducer(null). to create and send a TextMessage. With an unidentified producer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. MessageProducer producer = session. For example. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). After you have created a message producer.createProducer(myQueue). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.send(myQueue. You must first create the messages. that is. 3.send(message).createProducer(myTopic). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. if you created an unidentified producer. Here. map message. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. message). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 14. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.

190 .createSession(false. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.14 . Here.4. and message consumers to receive messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. Sessions implement the Session interface. } else { // Handle error } 14. Before committing the transaction. To create a transacted session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(true. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. 0). Session.out.getText()). If the user selects transaction support. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.println("Reading message: " + message. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. then delivers the messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. After you create a Connection object.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the first argument means that the session is transacted.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. use the following code: Session session = connection. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.

Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. The component lives inside a container. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .no developer coding.object oriented representation of data in a DB. improved performance security .0.consistent error handling framework . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. bundled into a single unit.jar file into the application server.0. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . container which offers services to the component.transaction management can be complex. component recovery scalability portability 191 . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. Version 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . On the other side.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. the container lives (in general) in an application server. server which provides an execution environment for containers.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.DB interaction transactions . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.logging.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . 15. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.15 . message-driven beans The 2.

the remote interface of the bean 4. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .xml 15. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. the home interface of the bean 3. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. as follows: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. called ejb-jar. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.15 .

RemoteException.ejb. } 193 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.RemoteException.ejb. import.*.rmi. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. import java.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.rmi. import. String lastName.15 . int custId) throws RemoteException.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. RemoteException. } 15. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.javax. The developer does not implement this interface. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.javax. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import java.*. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.

how to create or find the bean 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.PROVIDER_URL. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. In the case of an web application.jnp. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).put(Context. this can be done (for example) through SSL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. "localhost:1099").NamingContextFactory". getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. creating them for the client application.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. we need to know: 1. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. prop. if the client executes outside the container.put(Context. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. } 194 . getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. prop.15 . "org.interfaces. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.

15 .rmi. the client has a stub). the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. and this means that there are some limitations. to the appropriate type. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. but for generic languages. • if the client executes outside the container. using the narrow() method.class). It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. 195 . in fact. Why? For EJB. in fact. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. that is part of CORBA standards. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.PortableRemoteObject class and. more specifically.e. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do not have the concept of casting. Problem is.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.rmi. MyBeanHome. Some languages. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.Remote interface).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. do implements the java.narrow(homeRef. IIOP has not been designed for Java.lookup("MyBean").rmi.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. This is done through the javax. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.

we concentrate now on the bean class itself. call business methods on the bean myObject. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . String lastName. import javax. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).create()..ejbeans. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.remove(). 1102).SessionContext..ejb.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ejb.processEntry("Dumitrascu".. as well). public class MyBean implements javax.ccards. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. int custId) { // method implementation .. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.15 .bank11. remove the bean instance myObject. 15. "Vasile".

8 session beans There are two types of session beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 197 . it can evict stateful session beans from memory.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. that is. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15. A stateless bean does not. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. the object is activated. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. 15.15 . namely stateful and stateless beans.

you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. (Typically. 15. the client invokes the remove method.15 . the EJB container may decide to deactivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. and then moves it to the ready stage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. for example. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. All other methods in Figure 15. For example. 198 . At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container activates the bean. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. The ejbCreate method. is inside the bean class.1 are invoked by the EJB container. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. or passivate. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.

2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. support for concurrent access 3.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. equals() 199 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().15 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.

an instance of that bean is created.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.ccards. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). These methods are mandatory for entity beans. methods which have the same parameters. 15. On the other side. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). CreateException. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.lang. 200 .1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.15 . an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. in the same order. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. all throwing RemoteException. We can have more create() methods.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. state data is stored into data store (usually.bank11. Update and Delete.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. Read.14. as the parameters in the original create() method.

ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. 201 . it is empty. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the programmer will create actual SQL code. left empty most of the time in CMP. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. All instances in the pool are identical. not null. for BMPs. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. actual SQL update code. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. but in general. for BMP.14. First.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. the client invokes the create method. Second. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. a client can invoke the remove method. On the first path.15 . the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. but the developer returns null for CMP. After instantiation. 15. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it's business methods can be invoked. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. in BMP.14. While in the pooled stage.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). 15. On the second path.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).14.

15. If the primary key is incorrect. 202 .an application client.getPrimaryKey(). In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. In the pooled state. the values of the instance variables are not needed.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.15 . With bean-managed persistence. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. another enterprise bean. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. it does not automatically set the primary key. Therefore. or a Web component .3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.

but not asynchronously. 15. In several respects. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. a JMS API connection. When a message arrives. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. 203 . by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.16.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. an open database connection.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. Unlike a session or entity bean. 15.16.for example. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. 15.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. To ensure concurrency. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. max-beans-infree-pool. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. Previously. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. message-driven bean can be used. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. the message will be redelivered. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. If this element is set to more than one. The onMessage method may call helper methods.15 . For more information on this element see. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . a message-driven bean has only a bean class. To avoid tying up server resources. If message processing is rolled back. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.16.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. methods.. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.Message. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. and it must not // accept parameters. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. finalize{}. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior..jms.jms. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. Note: These instances can be pooled. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.} // onMessage() is required.15 .}. Classes. // An EJB constructor is required.0 specification. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.ejb. or create a new one. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. As with other EJB types. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.16..7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.16. public void ejbRemove() {.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). 15.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. public void onMessage(javax. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.Message MessageName) {. 2. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. Obtain a new bean instance.. 15. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. 3. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .

MessageListener.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. However. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.This is not a client context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.15 . WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. If any method throws such an exception.16. See javax. 15.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.16. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. 15. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. For example. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). from the client perspective the EJB still exists.jms.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. getRollbackOnly() . Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.onMessage() for more information. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. getUserTransaction(). even in onMessage(). so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.

Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). In either case.0 specification.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.15 .13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. 15. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. as described in the EJB 2.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.16. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.0 specification.xml. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. as required by the EJB 2.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.

. </message-driven> .message.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . the weblogic-ejb-jar. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 15.15 . subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. 2.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. For each instance. as described in the EJB 2. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.0 specification.xml elements.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.jms. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.xml deployment file. 207 . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.ejb20.

15. isolation level.15 . the container calls the ejbRemove method. attributes . the home interface name 7.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.security issues.like transaction. access control entries . bean home name .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. environment properties 6. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. EJB class name 5.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. control descriptors . a message-driven bean is never passivated. At the end of the life cycle. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. session specific elements 9. the remote interface name 8. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. security 208 . entity specific elements 10. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.

bank11.ccards.ejb.ejb.bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ccards.ejb. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.bank11.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.ejb.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .lang.15 .bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..lang.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 ..


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