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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


7 business components Business code.java platform. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. processes it (if necessary). The web tier. or finance. enterprise edition Figure 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. processes it (if necessary). Figure 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.2 Server communication 1. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. are not considered web components. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. and sends it back to the client program.1 . might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. like HTML pages. 1. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. retail.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. like the client tier. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. 5 . JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.

thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. Business and EIS Tiers 1. 1.1 .8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). database systems. and other legacy information systems. enterprise bean. mainframe transaction processing. resource pooling.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.java platform.9. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.3 Web. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. multithreading. enterprise edition Figure 1. or application client component can be executed.9 java EE Containers Normally. Before a web. 6 . In addition. and other complex low-level details. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. For example. 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself.

2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. data persistence. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. database connection resource pooling.1 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. transaction management. For example. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.java platform. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. including services such as security.9.4. After an enterprise bean is created. 1. and remote connectivity. 7 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.

video. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .manages the execution of application client components. or any kind of binary data such as audio. For example. XML data. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. When XML data is exchanged between parties. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.java platform. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.10. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . maps. or for document-oriented web services. Application clients and their container run on the client. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. develop.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Web container .manages the execution of applets.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Application client container . Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.1 . text-based standard for representing data. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. 1. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. 1. Applet container . A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. 8 . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. enterprise edition Figure 1. program files. test. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. extensible.

Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.10.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.10. 1.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. such as Universal Description.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. 1. 9 . HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and ways to communicate with the service. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). the location of the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. enterprise edition 1.1 . and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.java platform. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.10. The description includes the name of the service. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.

java platform.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. WML. you employ a single. 1.11. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. standard set of tags. 1. 1. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. In Java EE 5.11. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. enterprise edition Figure 1. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. Commonly. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. or if the server shuts down.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. and XML) and JSP elements. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. When the client finishes executing.1 . the session bean and its data are gone. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. or enterprise bean. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. If the client terminates. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. servlet. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. and JNDI 1. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.1 . 15 . module. it is ready to be deployed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. the application is ready to run. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . or component accordingly. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. At runtime. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. No extra coding is needed. JSP page. Once deployed on a local platform. such as better performance. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.java platform. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. or a component. SAAJ. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. or better customer support. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.ear extension. a module. JTA. better tools.

the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. which contain servlet class files. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation.jar extension. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.jar extension. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. native libraries. Web modules. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Application client modules. JSP files.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. For example. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. • • 16 . Together. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor.java platform. for example. enterprise edition Figure 1. Resource adapter modules. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. classes. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces.1 . GIF and HTML files. and a web application deployment descriptor. supporting class files. and other documentation. such as caching directives. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension.

an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . HEAD. These messages may have different contents. zero or more header lines 3..0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. 2. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.2 . Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.org/Protocols .ietf. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. an initial line 2. The server answers with a response message.apps.org/rfc/rfc1945. RFC 2616 (06/99). As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2. POST.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .. .2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.HTTP 2 . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.. but they also have some common structural elements. check the official HTTP site – www. The second (and last. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.w3. as follows: 1. was the object of several RFCs. The client sends a request message to the server.jmarshall. we recommend www. so far) version.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.1. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).com/easy/http.html). namely HTTP 1. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).

If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. DELETE 6. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. 2. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .0).5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. but lack of support makes them obsolete. HTTP/1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. GET 2. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. Here is their list: 1. OPTIONS 7.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. CONNECT 5. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.1. PUT 8.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. HEAD 3.html HTTP/1. in the HTTP 1. newsgroup. POST 4. . TRACE Three other commands are listed.Annotation of existing resources. 18 .2 . as well. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. GET /path/to/the/file/index.1 specification. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. mailing list.

6 differences between GET and POST 1. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. while POST may involve anything. . or ordering a product.8 the status code A three-digit integer. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.Extending a database through an append operation. after the “?” character. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. like storing or updating data. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.” On the other side. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. or in the message body.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.0 404 Not Found 2. . (encoded as multipart/form-data). such as the result of submitting a form. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). to a data-handling process. 3.HTTP or similar group of articles. separated by the character “&” or “. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. When used for form data submission. 2.2 . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or a record is subordinate to a database. In this case.Providing a block of data. 2. or sending E-mail 2.

The HTTP 1. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.an unexpected server error. such as text/html or image/jpg. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. separated a semicolon. out of which. In a request.the request succeeded. In particular. 404 Not Found . 2.1 only) . that is. while the HTTP 1.0 version specifies 16 headers.1). 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.2 .the requested resource doesn't exist. 500 Server Error .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.0. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. none of them mandatory. and section 10 for HTTP 1.1 version specifies 46 of them. file or script output) is returned in the message body. 20 . Although the header names are not case sensitive. header name and header value. 2. fails. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . and should be automatically retrieved by the client.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). If an HTTP message includes a body.g.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. or otherwise can't run correctly.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. header values are. one (Host) is mandatory. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. and the resulting resource (e. The most common use of the message body is in a response.

port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.uvt. with subtype plain 2. video. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. . with subtype basic 7.info. partial.ro. gif 6. 1. postscript 5. parallel 3. with subtypes rfc822.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. digest. with subtype mpeg 2.0 From: someuser@yahoo.HTTP 2.2 . together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. image.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .uvt.0 200 OK Date: Fri.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtypes octet-stream. Here is the list of the seven types. 21 . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.html first open a socket to the host web. external-body 4.info.ro/path/file.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.org/rfc/rfc1521. multipart. audio.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. alternative. RFC 1521 (www. text. message. Then. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.ietf. application. with subtypes mixed.apps.html HTTP/1. with subtypes jpeg.

22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.2 .HTTP . the server closes the socket.

0 and was accepted in December 1997.ietf. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0) dates from 08. As a practical reference site use – www. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).0. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.apps.99.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. It is a revision of 4.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. A newer standard.html. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. www.HTML 3. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. Since it fits in a couple of pages. check the official HTML site – www.jmarshall. namely HTML 1. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. The first version of HTML.org/rfc/rfc1866.www.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.01. The XHTML 1. HTML describes how text. a working draft for the next major revision.2 (3. Originally named Web Applications 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.w3. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.com/easy/html .com/tutors.w3c. The first official version – HTML 2.htmlgoodies. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. HTML 3.html) and was widely supported.0.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. From 1999 on.com/indexdot/html .0 draft was released in 01. However.HTML 3 . The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.01) can be found at this address: http://www.3 .blooberry. The newest version of HTML is 4. Mosaic. 3. Version 4. The latest version (XHTML 2. Other helpful sites .org/Markup .0 . namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.

-_:" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.3 .SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.

acesta este un comentariu.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. DYNSRC.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. If you wonder what a character reference is.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. …. BORDER. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. You get the point. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. 3.w3. This section deals with some of the most common elements. “&quot”. "&#x6C34. three DTDs (HTML 4. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. VSAPCE are omitted.the chinese character for water.0 Transitional DTD. Check the address http://www." (in hexadecimal) . the specification of HTML 4. <><> --> 25 . An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.0 contains an SGML declaration. An example: <!-. HTML 4. look at these examples: “&lt”.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. 4.3 .0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. 3.01 specification. HTML 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->.0 Strict DTD. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. though. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. CONTROLS. Overall. like ALIGN. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.

php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.uvt. NAME.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.ro/webmail/src/login. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc.HTML 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.5 tables 26 . image. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3.3 .info.

headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. columns. <TH> and <TD>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. its rows. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <TR>. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Usually.3 . <THEAD>. Here is their description and attributes.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns.

HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 . allowing user input and parameter submittal. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required.7 forms A form is a basic component container.

since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.required. SIZE . however.8.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. the browser appends the values to the URL.required. "text/plain" • • 3. "button".maximum number of options visible to the user. Main attributes: 29 .required. after a quotation mark . • 3.uvt. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".8. specifies how data will be sent to the server. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .HTML • METHOD . "file".8 form related elements 3. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.3 . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "image".used with forms that contain a file-selection field. "password".the default value. specifies the parameter name. "hidden". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. 3. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .?. "radio". "submit".8. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . "checkbox". may have the values GET or POST.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.:. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Main attributes: • TYPE . "GET" . NAME .& or (sometimes) by semicolon . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.info.if specified. Example: http://web. allows multiple selections from the choice list. "reset".sends the form values in a single transmission.

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

90.2 version. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class.class 3. 4.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. the compilation process occurs. following the 1. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. javac -classpath .0. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The current version (as of 10. jit From source to execution.4. Early versions of Java were released in 12. Inc. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.java. -g : generate all debugging info.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.C:\TW\mySource. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.java 2. The first time a class is loaded. Java source – a file with extension .95. project started in 12.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.class file.2 java the interpreter.95.class file.JAVA PRIMER 4. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.3 java applications 31 .4 .java One example of command line compilation: 4. Example: Edit the file prog1. Java bytecode – a file with extension .JAVA PRIMER 4 . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. In terms of execution time. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.. To overcome this significant shortage. but next time execution is much faster. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The current version (as of 10. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.) in 08. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.

namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.jar file. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .4 .4 object oriented concepts 4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . or is derived from A. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). or that it extends A). An example: 32 .java. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. In general. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.4. Generally. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). 4.

The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Character. with the root the class Object.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. namely: Byte. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4. 4. In OO jargon.4 . a class can have more than one method with the same name.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. In fact.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). The return type of a method is not part of this signature. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Boolean.1 bit char . 4. Float.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Long. Integer. 4. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. a Java class can extend a single base class. Short.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 33 .4. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Therefore. called Object. Therefore. this is called method overloading. providing its own implementation. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Double.

which is visible only to the classes in the same package. anywhere abstract .servlet.. method .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A final variable (method. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.access from any class anywhere private .servlet. • • • • no specifier . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . A final: • • • variable .. inherited).does not have any subclasses.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. Except for the "package" concept. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .one which is defined at class level. 34 .http.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . has the same value for all class instances. rather than at class instance. 4. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.no access from outside the class itself protected . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.4 . no templates.one which is constant method .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. } declares an abstract class. which extends the class javax.http. automatic garbage collection. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. class .the class is visible from any class.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.

due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7. Exception categories: 1. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.JAVA PRIMER 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. namely class Error and the class Exception.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. division by 0.like invalid cast. 2. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. In Java. 4. programmer defined exceptions 4.7. standard method exceptions 3. array index out of bounds. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.7.7. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. as defined in the java.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . java errors . 4. code or data errors .ThreadDeath.4 . not at execution time. 4.

the default package is used). followed by the import statements.support for java archives creation java.security 36 . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.support for data collections.support for event handling java.lang (automatically available).rmi java. .support for user interface java.*. In the example above. An example: package com. therefore.io java. 4.awt . the package statement is the first one in a java source file.by adding the key word throws. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .default. finally construct. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.. string analyzers. import javax.java. the class (the . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. The package containing the standard classes is java. All other packages must be explicitly imported.event . is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).util .bank11.sql java.sql.servlets. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.Properties.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.util. date and time info java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.this can be done by providing a try.net java. 4.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.8.ccards.lang .zip .JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .nio java.awt. As a general rule.awt. 4.1 Package names The default package has no name.. don't have to import java. catch.geom . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. they have to be unique inside a package.util.4 . import.class file.

static and final. 37 . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.swing.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing .accessibility javax. it must be declared as abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.support for event handling 4. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.4 .swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All variables (actually. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.event . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.text javax.

like QtScript or ActionScript.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.depending on the browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.5 .JAVASCRIPT 5. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. Subsequently.A JavaScript statement like this: document. as JavaScript. then LiveScript and finally. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . This is not always what we want. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . 5. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . The origins of this language date back to 1995.HTML authors are normally not programmers. other 38 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. However.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . and .javaScript 5 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.

point to the . 39 . Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.5 . or when an event is triggered.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. When you place a script in the head section.3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> ..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. To simplify this.3..3.. 5. you can write a JavaScript in an external file...js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. </script> </head> 5. go in the head section.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </body> 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js file extension..

. while() it is worth mentioning the for ..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. while().4.5 . in and the try ... 5. switch(). The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. for().4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. The code in the body of the for .. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".In statement The for...4.javaScript 5. else.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. break.1 JavaScript for..4.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.5.. 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.4. 5. in loop is executed once for each element/property..3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. continue. catch constructs. namely – if ..

3 try.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.5. so you don't lose your audience. Mozilla 1.5 .in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.0.. mycars[0] = "Saab". for (x in mycars) { document.5. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.catch statement The try. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . they often leave the Web page.catch statement (available in IE5+.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. The try block contains the code to be run.... and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. var mycars = new Array().. or a property of an object. an array element. } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. When users see errors. mycars[1] = "Volvo". Example Using for. mycars[2] = "BMW"...

\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err.\n\n".7. Also. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. Syntax: 42 .7 popup boxes 5. txt+="Click OK to continue. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").5 . When an alert box pops up.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. alert(txt). 5.description + "\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the box returns true. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the box returns null.8. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. When a confirm box pops up.7.js file). Syntax: prompt("sometext". it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.javaScript alert("sometext") 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .5 . in the <head> section. When a prompt box pops up. in the example above had not been written within a function. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the box returns false.7."defaultvalue") 5. If the user clicks "OK". Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the script is not executed before the user hits the button.8 functions 5.. If the user clicks "Cancel".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.

you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. and will be stored in the variable called product. var2.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. 5.. 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. and how they are used.. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.8.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.write(txt. etc are variables or values passed into the function.5 . The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. 5.length).var2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.9. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.javaScript function functionname(var1.9. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .varX) { some code } var1.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. So. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!"..9 javaScript objects 5. document.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.

The first class consists of browser specific objects.write(str. 45 .10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()).javaScript 5. The other class are the language specific objects. which will be specified in the next section.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. document.9.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". </script> 5.

11 javaScript language built in objects 5.com/jsref/default. or when the user interacts with a Web page.5 .w3schools. every Link on the page is an Object. which are called Objects. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. as well).asp 5. every Image on the page is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. check the site http://www. For example. When an event message has been triggered. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. N: Netscape. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.11. At its most basic level. Even this Document itself is an Object. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Properties FF: Firefox.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . N: Netscape.11.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

depending on the browser. as a four-digit number.5 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.

N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Properties FF: Firefox. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time. according to universal time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string. according to local time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to Greenwich time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).11. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.5 . 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.

var myNum=new Number(number). Syntax for creating a new Number object.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 3 4 .5 .11.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 .5 4 .

Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . N: Netscape.

11. Properties FF: Firefox.y) pow(x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 0.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.434) Returns PI (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. N: Netscape.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.5 .718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 1. 0.javaScript 5.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 2. 3. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.y) min(x. 0.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 2.

personObj.firstname="John".eyecolor="blue". etc. personObj. document. The persons' methods could be eat().12. weight.you can give it properties named firstname. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. sleep(). eye color. The persons' properties include name. play(). Properties are the values associated with the object.12.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. work(). height.12.age=50. with a collection of properties and methods. age.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.firstname).5 . Assume that the personObj already exists .2 Methods An object can also contain methods.firstname="John".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). age.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. 5.lastname="Doe".lastname="Doe". Objects also have methods. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj. etc. lastname. 53 . personObj. personObj. skin tone. All persons have these properties. personObj.age=30.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.eyecolor="blue". Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.write(personObj.

48. this. You can also add some methods to the person object. this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. this.newlastname=newlastname.eyecolor=eyecolor. you can create new instances of the object.age=age. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.lastname=lastname.firstname=firstname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this. 5.age.lastname=new_lastname. this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.eat=eat. myMother=new person("Sally".12.eyecolor) { this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.eyecolor) { this.eyecolor=eyecolor. this. 54 .5 .firstname=firstname. } Notice that the template is just a function. this.lastname.50."Doe".propertyName. Once you have the template.age=age.age."Rally"."blue").4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. like this: myFather=new person("John". The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear)."green").lastname.lastname=lastname.

13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. So. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. We define the events in the HTML tags. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. 5. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 ..".0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.newlastname("Doe").5 . and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. now you can write: myMother.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. For example.

Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. 5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.w3schools.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.2 onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5.13. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted. For example. The name is then stored in a cookie. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. If the field values are not accepted. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. the submit should be cancelled.5 . The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). 2010). parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. By October 1998. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. or WebAPI being among them. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. SVG. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.6 . However.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .HTML DOM 6. the Document Object Model activity is closed. As of January 2008. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. The W3C 58 . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. 6.Html DOM 6 . structure. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. particularly those used in Web browsers. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. In other words. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.. XML. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.g. CSS. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Right now (oct.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . HTML.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. and style of a document.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.

3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. each of which contains required and optional modules. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. a new DOM Core specification. Level 2. 4. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. 3. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. and 6. DOM Level 3 Core. As of 2005. DOM Level 3 Requirements.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . HTML-specific elements are included as well. filtered views and events. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM.6 . DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Validation.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. 2. 5. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 1. 6. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. Level 2 XML namespace support. which further enhances the DOM 6. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 XPath. To claim to support a level.

since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Konqueror. Opera. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. along with their containing text and attributes. By 2005.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. In order to be cross-browser compatible. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. interoperability problems were numerous.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.6 . All HTML elements.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. 6. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. The Window object represents a browser window. and Safari. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6.x were still widely used in 2000. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents.x and Netscape 4. support multiple browsers. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. can be accessed through the 60 . Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. that is. Besides the generic objects listed bellow.

and new elements can be created. and VBScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. JavaScript.Html DOM DOM.6 . HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . It can be used by any programming language like Java.

<head> and <body>. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8.6 . in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. the element node <title>. 62 . The tree structure is called a node-tree. The <head> node holds a <title> node. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6.Html DOM 6. However.8. The <html> node has two child nodes.9. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". everything in an HTML document is a node.

9. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. Parent nodes have children. 63 . The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). the top node is called the root Every node. By using the getElementById() method 2. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and the connections between them. and new elements can be created.2 node parents. child. using the node relationships. children. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The terms parent.getElementsByTagName("p").Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.getElementsByTagName("p").6 . and sibling are used to describe the relationships.getElementById('main').9.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. • • • • • In a node tree. Their contents can be modified or deleted. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. except the root. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. By navigating the node tree.

each node is an object.write("<br />"). } 6.i<x. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .Html DOM for (i=0.innerHTML).9. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.write(x[i].length. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i++) { document. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.6 . document.

A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.9.getElementById("intro").get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.6 .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. txt=x. 6.nodeValue. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .firstChild.Html DOM 6.5 example .

including window. For elements. frames. objects and images. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . For elements.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked".

Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. 67 . and then bubbled up.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. also supports these methods. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. DOMNodeInserted. Mozilla. for instance.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event.6 . Fires when an element is activated. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). say "click". through a mouse click or a keypress. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Also. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari.3. as of version 1. 6.

mouse button pressed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. including information about target element.6 . meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Unfortunately. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. key pressed. etc.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. preventDefault 68 . Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. mouse position. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented.

AJAX 7 . fields of forms. but also to save resources. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. 7. For improving sharing of resources. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. It is not a technology in itself.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. crunching numbers. 69 . it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. using web services or Php scripts. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. etc. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.7 . For example.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. 7.AJAX 7. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. choices of user. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. dynamic website. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. before the whole page was sent within the network. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. The server does some processing — retrieving data. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. menus.

why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.7 . Obviously. waiting around for the server to do something. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. 70 . The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. Instead of loading a web page. at the start of the session. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. but the opposite is true.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. waiting. we wouldn’t make users wait around. While the server is doing its thing. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. And at every step in a task. the user waits some more. Once an interface is loaded.

editing data in memory. loading additional interface code. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. 71 . usually using XML. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.7 .

Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . This object provides two methods: .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. GET or POST . To get data on the server.for a simple text.url: the location of the file 72 . 404 if the page is not found . 2: request received. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. .responseText .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. onreadystatechange .AJAX 7.holds a Xml loaded file.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 4: finished. url.returned by the server .responseXml . boolean) . thanks to its methods and attributes.7 . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. 1: connection established.200 is ok. .holds loaded data as a string of characters. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.mode: type of request.open: create a connection. 3: answer in process. 7. It allows the interaction with the servers.send: send a request to the server. and in this purpose. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.for a Xml file or . These events are user actions. DOM's method allows to extract data. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.

// Firefox. http_request.XMLHTTP"). true). } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . ...fr/somefile.xul. 73 .AJAX . but two options must be tried. 'http://www. Safari. URL of the document.xml'. OK } else { // wait. if (window.readyState == 4) { // received.send: with POST only.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. request. true for asynchronous. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.open('GET'. The request below reads a document on the server. http_request. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. for browser compatibility.7 .null for a GET command 7.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.open: command GET or POST.6 building a request.send(null). } else if (window. . the data to send to the server.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. if (request.

7 .7 examples 7.dyn="Received:" + req.getElementsByTagName('root').ajax. by this code: var doc = req.responseXML.dyn="Error code " + req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.7. req.dyn=""Received:" + req.ajax.7.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.responseText. true). req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.readyState == 4) if(req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.responseText.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). "data.open("GET". }.item(0). else if (window. else document.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. if(window.XMLHTTP).AJAX 7.xml".ajax. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.status == 200) document. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .send(null). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").status. req.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


descriptions). JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.xml file: <?xml version="1. database connection resource pooling. 3. like: 1.. Initialization of parameters for servlets. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed..servlets. Others.bank11. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . After an enterprise bean is created. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. data persistence. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. classes. Servlet. Here is a small. 2. 5. For example. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.)> <web-app> <!-. Servlet. MIME types used by the web application. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. welcome pages. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.ccards. entries related to session configuration. but typical web.class>com. 4.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 8.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. like what pages are error.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.8 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 6. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. servlet classes. JSPs and Java Server Faces. web.

servlets".servlets". the name of the web application.8 .xml file of the web application. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.xml". then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Behind a very benign URL. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. for flexibility. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. basicly. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.bank11.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .bank11. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".xml" 2. In general.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.ccards. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. 1. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. However. For example. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.bank11. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". The "/ccards" part of the URL is. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.class" and that it is part of the package "com. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").ccards. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.ccards. Basicly.servlets. it is the alias of the real servlet class.xml" file. Unfortunately. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. whose name is rather long. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Then the "EnrollServlet.

The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class.2.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. platform independent programs. modular design 9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.2. this is just a work in progress. from BEA Systems.SERVLETS 9.4. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. in most cases as part of an application server. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.0 specification is available for public review. more often. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . 9.4. tjws spec 2. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.SERVLETS 9 .9 . Technically speaking.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.5 and is in final state.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). the Java Servlet 3.0 specification. small footprint. 9. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. but through a web container. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. 2010. As of oct. which extend the functionality of the web server. but at this point. the HttpServlet) class. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.

servlet package.servlet. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet.servlet package are protocol independent. These packages are: • • javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.9 . public void destroy() throws ServletException. while the second one. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from Apple Inc. IOException. WebSphere. the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. Enterprise Edition. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from IBM 9. public void service(ServletRequest req. 82 .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.

namely the HttpServlet class. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. 9. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.9 . before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Throwable t) 9. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. After instantiating the servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. The servlet API provides such a specific class. respectively. ServletConfig. More on the servlet life cycle.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. the web container calls its init() method. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. 83 . This method has two arguments. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. The method performs all initialization required. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. in a different section. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). as well.

lang. service(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. It also extends the java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.servlet.lang. 9. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.ServletException javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.9 . The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class.servlet.

If the servlet does not implement the javax. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. etc.servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. JSP or JSF. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. which will service all incoming requests.SingleThreadModel. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. respectively. After instantiation. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. Typically.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. 85 . 9. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. Also. Typically. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. the container calls the init() method of the servlet.9 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. DB connection opening.

SERVLETS 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.

String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.servlets.java" file: package com. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. This is done in server's (container's) server.bank11.*.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.io.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.xml file. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. import java.ccards. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.9 . A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. 87 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.

public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.*.println("<head>").9 . out.http. // output your page here out.setContentType(“text/html”). import javax. PrintWriter out = resp.println("merge").println("<br>"). out.println("<html>").getWriter(). out.println("</html>").println("</head>"). out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.servlet. out.servlet. out. } } 88 .SERVLETS import javax.close().init(config).println("<body>").*.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). IOException { resp.println("</body>"). out. out.

jdbc. the javax. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.sql package 2.sql package. as recognized by the DB industry. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.JDBC 10. Type 1. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).sun. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.JdbcOdbcDriver . 89 . the java. These drivers fall into four standard categories. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. This solution is inefficient. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.0 while the current (4.JDBC 10 .1.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.10 .0.odbc. After that. 1997. The JDBC 4. Starting with version 3.

Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. which in turn. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 4. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Part Java.10 . 90 .JDBC Type 2. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Type 3. forwards them to the JDBC driver.

sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Date java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.Driver java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLData java.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql. java.10 .sql.sql.Connection java.Statement java.Wrapper 91 .Types java.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.Time java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.sql.Timestamp java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.SQLInput java.SQLXML java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.SQLException java.0 API.Clob java.sql.sql.Struct java.Blob java.sql.ResultSet java.sql.3 the java.SQLPermission java.Array java.sql.JDBC 10.sql.DriverManager java.SQLDataException java.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.0).

sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.Blob java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.10 . querying the database 4.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.Clob java.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax.SQLClientInfoException java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLXML java.Statement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.4 interaction schema in the java.StatementEvent javax.SQLTransientException java.SQLNonTransientException java.SQLInput java.SQLException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql package.CallableStatement java.Wrapper javax.Connection java.sql.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.NClob java.sql.Types java.sql.sql.RowId java.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.0.PreparedStatement java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java. java.SQLOutput java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.RowIdLifeTime java.

Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.db2.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .jdbc.jdbc.SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.net. A database driver is specified by the driver name.driver.datastore.odbc.ibm.sybase.JDBC 10.borland. The first one is loading a database driver.10 .DataStoreDriver com.

user. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".bank11. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).gjt. import java.sql.10 . subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. passwd). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. try { Class. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. by using the connection URL. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.getConnection(connURL.mm.forName("org.*. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.printStackTrace(). 94 . } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). as specified by the driver vendor.Driver").*. String user = "root".util.newInstance(). but let's take it for granted: import java.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. Since we just used it.mysql.

"true"). Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.JDBC 10.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Connection conn = DriverManager.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. java. "true"). int resultSetConcurrency. Properties prp = new Properties().util. we can use it for various purposes. prp. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.put("autocommit".put("create".10 .Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. String user. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . prp. 10.getConnection(connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.sql package. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.

The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.JDBC 10.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. Statement. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. respectively. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. namely.10 . prepared statements and stored procedures. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .

10 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.executeUpdate(sqlString).. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.".JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.createStatement().sql. 10.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. stmt. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.

These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and CallableStatement objects. a concurrency of read only. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.10 . all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. PreparedStatement. as the argument. 98 .10 ResultSet characteristics By default. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


time. It is part of the javax.produces a standard Connection object 2. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. a factory for creating DB connections. Basic implementation -.produces a Connection object that will 103 . mins. secs date. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.10 .sql. There are three types of implementations: 1.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. basicly.sql package.0 optional package. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math.Big Decimal Object float 10.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.DataSource object. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. This interface is.Time java.math. Connection pooling implementation -.

public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".getLogger(TestDataSource.*.io. javax.naming.10 . throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.lookup("java:comp/env").sql. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().*. import import import import import import java. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*.servlet.http. java.ccards. Distributed transaction implementation -.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.class.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). javax. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. javax. 3.getName()). 104 .servlets. private DataSource theDataSource. javax.*.sql.*.bank11.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.servlet. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.*.

ServletException { . } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.10 ..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).

The JSP specific interfaces.11 . The package javax. If the JSP is modified.jsp and javax.JSP 11.servlet. namely javax.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.tagext.servlet. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.1 and is related to the 2. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.jsp.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. the servlet code is regenerated.5 Java Servlet specification.servlet.JSP 11 . 11.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.servlet.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.jsp.servlet.jsp. The package javax.2 the java. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code). 11.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.... These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.11 . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). 111 . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. include and taglib.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.

JSP 11.7. Assigns it to available name or id. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11.7 scripting elements 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.11 . 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11. In Tomcat. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .11 . you must specify param. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .the name of a bean instance.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the URL of the page. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. same format as the <%@include> directive.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .13 the forward standard action 114 . <jsp:forward>.name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:plugin> actions. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .only the "true" value is supported. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. 11.11 . flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.

the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute." .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).the name of a bean instance. name="instanceName" ..the type of object the plugin will execute. as well. If you do not supply a value.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. . as this attribute has no default value.. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . code="classFileName" .. 11. depending on request. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . servlet or to a static resource.a name for the Bean or applet instance. name . archive="URIToArchive. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. It is used mainly. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .. You must specify either bean or applet.class extension in the name following code.. You must include the . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. when we want to separate the application into different views.

it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . with a protocol name.io.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. of the image the applet or Bean displays.16 scopes 1. it has javax. pageContext . request .Object type and scope page 11. The default value is 1.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.JspWriter type and scope page 7. objects which are automaticly available. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. The value is a full URL. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.PrintWriter.servlet.it represents the buffered version of java.represents server's response to the request. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. 1. and domain name.lang.jsp. page . in pixels. optional port number. application . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . in pixels. writes to the output stream to the client.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. response . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. Must be a small nonzero number. based on the servlet API.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.the amount of space. out .the initial height and width. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.1. it has java.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.11 . request . config .represents the servlet context. session . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.1" .it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.

an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.bank11.JSP request object.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.init().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .11 .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.beans.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. session .ccards. Object value) method 4. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp file. if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 3. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. application . Object value) method 11. Object value) method 2.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. page .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.

examples. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean).11 . a float.register(). private int integer.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.java: package com.mapping. a software development and consulting company.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private String optional. private SimpleSubBean subBean. %> <jsp:forward page="response. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. 11. The SimpleBean class is declared public. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .simple.devsphere. a boolean and another String). private String colors[]. an int. private boolean flag.io.string. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private int list[]. SimpleBean. The public constructor could have been omitted.18. private float number. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.Serializable { private String string.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.

string = value.JSP this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors = values.number.integer = value. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.flag = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.colors.11 .colors[index]. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.integer.number = value. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } 119 .flag. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.

subBean.optional = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } } 120 . } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list.list = values. String value) { this. int value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.list[index].optional.11 .subBean = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.colors[index] = value.list[index] = value. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.

// Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.Serializable { private String string.simple.18.examples.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.number = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private float number.io.string = value.mapping.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } } 11.string.number. SimpleSubBean.java: package com.11 .

11 .number SimpleForm.JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.

number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. "An option must be selected" }.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.list]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The list of optional properties has a single element. error messages. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.flag]".util. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. SimpleBeanResources. a boolean and an int[].number]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.string]". a float. the form's name and the processor's name.18.colors]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.123) }. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.examples.integer]".java: package com. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new Boolean(true) }.list]".devsphere. new Float(0. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "abc" }. "One or more colors must be selected" }. There are three error messages. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".simple. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. the list of optional properties.11 . Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The default values are defined for a String. new String[] { 123 . 3 } }.mapping.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. the processing order. "One or more items must be selected" }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. new int[] { 2.

"subBean" } }.mapping. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "SimpleProc. "SimpleForm. new String[] { "string".jsp" } }. The beanToForm() method of com. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The formToBean() method of com.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. { "[PROC_NAME]". If necessary.html" }.mapping.devsphere. } } 11.mapping.11 .SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. SimpleHndl. "optional". "colors".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "list".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.util. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.devsphere. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. "number".*.devsphere.mapping. com. "integer".devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).18.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.logging.devsphere. { "[FORM_NAME]". "flag".JSP "optional" } }. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. For a better understanding of this example. string values are converted to numbers.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .examples.simple.

removeUserErrors(errorTable).getString("[FORM_NAME]").Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.forward(request.getTemplate(new java.getClass()). errorTable = HandlerUtils.io. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.JSP = HandlerUtils.getBeanResources(simpleBean. logger). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. response).equals("POST"). 125 .trim(). int slashIndex = basePath. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. slashIndex+1) : "".getMethod().formToBean(formData. simpleBean.getServletPath().getDocument().util. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getString("[PROC_NAME]").11 . formPath = application.File(formPath)). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.trim(). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getRealPath(formPath).substring(0. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Process the valid data bean instance application.lastIndexOf('/'). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.

i < list.JSP elements logger).getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.11 .string = <%= simpleBean.beanToForm(simpleBean.length. i++) 126 .mapping.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().simple. document.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean().length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. // Send the form document document.devsphere.length == 0) return "".send(out).jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.append("{ "). } %> 11.number = <%= simpleBean.getSubBean(). errorTable. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. for (int i = 0.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. SimpleProc.18. if (list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getString() %> <P> subBean.examples. strbuf.

length == 0) return "". beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.append(" ").mapping. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("}"). strbuf.examples. if (list.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. Using the framework. strbuf.toString(). strbuf. i++) { strbuf. In addition. for (int i = 0. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.formToBean() call. ComplexHndl.18. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. return strbuf. } %> 11. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.jsp files. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().append("{ "). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. A single call to FormUtils. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.11 .toString(list[0]).Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . The localization of the Complex*.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append(list[i]). return strbuf. i < list.simple. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. ComplexForm.length.length == 1) return Integer.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. In addition. making the testing and the debugging easier. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. } strbuf.append(list[i]).devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.util. } strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.append(" ").append("}").toString().

"string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (colors[j]. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". i++) { int value = i+1.length.length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Green".getColors(). "blue" }. "Blue" }. i++) { boolean checked = false.length. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 .getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i < colorValues. "green".11 .getInteger() == value. "Option 3" }. boolean checked = simpleBean. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i < integerLabels.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". j < colors. for (int i = 0. for (int i = 0.

string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.examples. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getList().devsphere.simple.JSP break.mapping. i < listItems.length. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "Item 3" }.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. boolean selected = false.11 . "subBean. i++) { int value = i+1. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. "Item 2".setSubBean( new com.getSubBean(). } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. break. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".SimpleSubBean()). j < list.

util. return message.get(property). "subBean.Hashtable errorTable. 130 .11 .length() == 0) { simpleBean.getSubBean().devsphere.examples.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples.mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. } %> ComplexHndl.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.setString("abc").simple.equals("POST"). boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.devsphere.mapping.getMethod().number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.util.getString() == null || simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".getString().SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.

123f). else { simpleBean.getParameter("flag").setFlag(flagValue != null). "Must be filled").equals("false")) flagValue = null. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.setNumber(0.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). if (flagValue. "An option must be selected"). "number".floatValue()). "string".length() != 0) simpleBean. "Must be a number").setNumber(0. "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("number"). "number". } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.length() == 0 || flagValue.trim().123f). "integer".getColors() == null || simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. } simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.getColors().getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.11 .

number").setString(""). "Must be filled").getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getString(). "subBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 .getParameter("subBean. "list". if (numberValue != null && numberValue.number : text try { String numberValue = request.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. 3 }).getList().setOptional("").floatValue()).11 .length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "One or more items must be selected"). "One or more colors must be selected").string".setNumber(new Float(numberValue).number". } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "Must be } //* subBean. "colors".getList() == null || simpleBean.

\ 133 . } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. } %> 11. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.util. simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.code=com.put(property.setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.number".JSP filled").helpers.mapping. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".setNumber(0. "Must be a number"). simpleSubBean. The com.devsphere. String property. simpleBean. } } else { simpleBean. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. errorTable.examples.11 .18.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.jsp.simple.123f). simpleBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. message).properties or web.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.xml: SimpleHndl.SimpleBean.devsphere.helpers.setString("abc").isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.setOptional("").devsphere. "subBean.Hashtable errorTable.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setFlag(true).mapping.setString(""). simpleBean.

helpers.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .company.another.helpers.mapping.mapping.examples.AnotherBean.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.devsphere.devsphere.devsphere. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. A servlet can be made bean-independent. 11.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.devsphere.host.18.code=com.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.simple.11 .\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.xml) file: ServletName.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. In many cases.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.examples.code=com.mapping.host.properties (or web.properties: AnotherHndl. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.mapping. you could add a few other lines to servlets. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.host. a servlet is identified with its class.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. If you have another bean-form pair.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.

11 .JSP 135 .

using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 12.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.JAVASERVER FACES 12. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. buttons. Version 2. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. Version 2. 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0.javaserver faces 12 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. which loads the appropriate view template. This technology includes: 1. processes events.0 supersedes version 1. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.12 . builds a component tree.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. like input fields. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.

As of version 1.12 .2 of the JFS specification. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12.4.javaserver faces 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.

12. columns and rows.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Common formatting techniques. respectively.12 . we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. footers. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.4.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. such as alternating row colors. see the column tag documentation. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. For more information about columns.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. your options include using plain HTML forms.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.4.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.12 .4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkout}" /> 139 . JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.

5.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. 12. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. red for error.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit." /> 12.4. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.</span> 12.user. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.

Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.5. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. For example.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 . you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

Any component that receives user input.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.5.customer.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. but only if the new input is validated successfully.mycompany. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. can publish value change events. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. 12. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.5. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. validateLength.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.12 . Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. The body content of this tag must be empty. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.javaserver faces 12. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Without this JavaScript event.

12 .5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.5. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. Example: welcome_en.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.javaserver faces 12.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. myJSFapp 143 . If you have not specified a default locale. for each locale you wish to support. including images and styles.mycompany.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.

xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib .jar – files included in the /lib directory. Create JSP pages 2. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.javaserver faces /ant build. JSP pages. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.jar jsf-api. Create properties files 144 . The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.12 .xml web. like third party jar files jsf-impl. Create managed beans 4.jar.exadel.html.jar faces-config. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. Define navigation rules 3.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. static resources.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.xml – the JSF configuration file.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. custom tag libraries. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. and so on. It has a deployment descriptor. jsf-api.contains libraries required by the application. mandatory for any JSF application web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.

Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp.javaserver faces 5.jsp to greeting. As a diagram. Create an index. In our application.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.7. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp file 7. we just want to go from inputname. we can create a navigation rule.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.12 . The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp is greeting. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. 12. Edit JSP pages 6. You just need to create its contents. These files will act as place holders for now. The directory structure already exists.xml file. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Compile the application 8. And that's all there is to this.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Deploy and run the application 12. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp.7.jsp and greeting. You only need to create the JSP files.

12. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. public class PersonBean { String personName. of course. To read more about navigation rules. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.12 .xml Now.PersonBean. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. we will create a PersonBean.7. the second part of faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.java file. Inside this myJFSapp folder. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. myJFSapp. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. You can easily create more complex ones. This class is straight-forward.3 faces-config.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.3.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml file should look like this: 146 .javaserver faces This is.1 PersonBean.3. The next line is the full class name. a very simple navigation rule.xml Your final faces-config.7.) 12.7. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3. 12.7.

4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.1 messages. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.1 inputname.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun. 12.sun.5.4. 12.7.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.1//EN" "http://java.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.sun.12 .jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. Inc. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.properties file in the bundle folder. 12.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.

<h:inputText value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun. Then.12 .button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.sun.bundle.

name! 12. Creates an HTML input text box. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Line 2. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Lines 3-5.12 . and also print its contents on the page.sun. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. 12. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.xml file. The second line will access a Java bean..greeting_text}" />.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.7.sun.7.6 creating the index.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.jsp page.2 greeting.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .bundle. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. Having an index. That's how JSF knows where to go next.5.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.</h3> tags. The first three lines are identical to our first page.javaserver faces Line 1. Line 6. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. specifically the bean attribute personName.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.. Create the index.

C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).jsp.xml file for the application *. though. you'll notice the file suffix is .9 Running Next. To do this. 12. This is used here. which asks an user for an ID and password. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. Of course.jsf and not . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.sourceforge. This is a "login" application.7. verifies the information. We are almost done with this example.8.html .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7. we need to deploy it.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. might possibly be different). When Tomcat is done loading.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.12 .7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.javaserver faces Now. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. Your setup. 150 . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.7. To build the application run the build.xml file. because in the web. 12. 12.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.

note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Next. click Finish 4. and set up folders for a web application. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. Select Java Project. say. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. 9. from the menubar select File/New/Other. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. Enter project name.. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. c. name the folder webroot 5. your mileage may vary. 3. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 6. 7. and to add JSF libraries to the project. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. 2..12 . Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. click Next.xml Editor (see faces-config. select the Source tab. The New Project wizard appears.8.src | +-. a. 12. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog... Select the Amateras node.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. jsf-login. see Installing & Uninstalling. 1. click Add Folder.webroot | +-. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. make sure all checkboxes are checked. click Yes through messages that appear. name the folder pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. in the Add JSF Support page. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. in the wizard that appears.WEB-INF 151 ... click Next d. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. 10.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial.

for class enter login. 1. } return action.xml Editor. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". c. click Managed Bean. We then configure it to be a managed bean. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Add.lib | +-. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. for scope select 152 . 3.pages 12. private String _pwd = "". b. In the Package field. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. a. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login. else action = "loginFail". } 4. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd.LoginManager. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. In Package Explorer select the src folder. The faces-config.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. 2. if ( _uid. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".xml. The New Java Class wizard appears.8. input widgets appear d.xml editor opens. enter login. Click Finish.javaserver faces | | | +-. The Java code editor opens. in the Name field enter LoginManager. from its context menu select New/Class. for name enter mgr. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.12 .

jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp: a.jsp and error.webroot/index. from the menubar select File/Save. c. 1.12 . Create index. b. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp. for File name enter index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. again.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. Then we create login. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.javaserver faces session.jsp.webroot/pages/error. enter the following code.8. Enter the following code: <!-. All pages except login. Create success.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. in Package Explorer select webroot. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Create error. then close the editor 12.jsp is placed directly in webroot. <!-.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp). Enter the following code: <!-. the New File wizard appears.jsp: create this file similarly to index. but in webroot/pages. from its context menu select New/File. success. and 3 content pages (login. click Finish. index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.jsp. </body> Please try 153 .jsp). the JSP Editor opens. so we create them first.webroot/pages/success.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. e. save the file and close the editor.

. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. as shown below. with the following template code. etc. g. b. a code-completion window pops up. 154 . place your cursor in one of these lines. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and the JSP Editor can help with code. enter jsf-login e. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. Open the JSF palette. <%@ page contentType="text/html. the New wizard appears. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.jsp: a. Create login. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and dock it along the right. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. now we want to add attributes to this element. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.12 .jsp.javaserver faces </html> 4. click Finish. and choose default for Template. (See Show View Dialog) f. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.completion.sun. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.. from its context menu select New/Other. for File name enter login. To see this in action.. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. click Next c. and uses them for code completion as well. d.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.

password}" l. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. set its value to Login. this inserts value="" at the cursor.javaserver faces h.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . with the barest presentational formatting. insert another <h:inputText> element. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.. select userID from the code-completion window. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. insert a <h:commandButton> element.) j.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.loginAction} The final code. i. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. a code-completion window pops up. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. complete the expression with the closing { k. and hit Enter. with bean properties available in mgr. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.12 .sun. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. enter #{mgr.

using a FacesIDE editor. This is shown below. 156 . Select the Navigation tab 3. Open faces-config.12 . it should open in the faces-config. click on Page. 1. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. this inserts a page icon into the editor. then click inside the editor window. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.8. 2.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.xml.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml Editor. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.

You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp and then on the icon for success. and set them to /pages/login. in the Properties view.jsp and /pages/error.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears. add 3 more pages. /pages/success. then click first on the icon for login. 6. from the palette at left.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. select Navigation Case. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp.jsp 4. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. and is represented by an arrow. change the value of path to /index.12 . 5.

Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. 1. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . open web. 12.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.jsp.jsp. Similarly add a forward-action from login. or leave it as-is. As it turns out. and you should be sent to the success page.12 . We want virtual path-based mapping.6 Editing web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. We'll set some properties in web. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.8.javaserver faces 7. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. and extension-based mapping is turned on. The application is now complete.jsp to error. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.xml.xml for the specifics of our application. Once deployed browse to index. all we need do in web. any other id/password should send you to the error page. so uncomment it. since we have such a trivial application.xml.jsp.xml Here we edit web. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.

CONFIG_FILES 159 .12 . for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot..faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. Click on its link to launch the application.context javax.. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.el javax.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.faces. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces.html javax.validator javax.faces.faces.faces javax.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. For a given factory class name.model javax.. as file:///.faces.application javax. 12. start Tomcat.8.convert javax.faces.event javax.10 the javax.0 1. that factory is used. open its Manager application in a browser. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces. scroll down to Deploy.render javax.webapp 12. the Manager application should reload.lifecycle javax.component.faces.component javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.javaserver faces 12. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2. click Deploy 3. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.

which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. with the last one taking precedence. defining page navigation.faces.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If none of the above steps yield a match. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. those factories are used.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . 12.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . ViewHandlerWrapper .Severity . as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. ApplicationFactory .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. StateManager . StateManagerWrapper . the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. FacesMessage. with the last one taking precedence.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.represents a single validation (or other) message.12 . handling events and input validation.11 the javax. FacesMessage . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. ViewHandler .

A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. NamingContainer .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. ActionSource2 .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. String) results in failure on postback. • • 161 . UIComponentBase .faces. ValueHolder . • ViewExpiredException . when activated by the user. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.12 . and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. ContextCallBack . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.12 the javax. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. or a hyperlink.faces.restoreView(javax. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. String.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. UICommand . EditableValueHolder .interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. StateHolder .FacesContext. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. a menu item.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. Here they are: • • UIColumn . triggers an application specific "command" or "action". UIComponent . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. 12. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.context.

UINamingContainer . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIPanel . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. This component has no rendering. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UIViewRoot . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UISelectBoolean .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UISelectItem . UIParameter .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. it is for display purposes only. UIOutput . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.html package 162 .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UISelectOne . identified by a clientId.faces. it is for display purposes only.12 .component. UIInput . UIForm . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. by storing it as the value property of the component. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIMessage .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIMessages . it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. Optionally. The user can modify the selected values. Optionally. UISelectMany . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). that is displayed to the user.13 the java. UIGraphic . The user cannot manipulate this component.

HtmlGraphicImage .represents an HTML input element of type password. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML label element.represents an HTML form element.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element.faces.renders child components in a table. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML textarea element. or not. The label text is specified by the component value. and renders the result. HtmlInputSecret . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlColumn . HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlMessage . HtmlPanelGrid . HtmlForm . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlOutputLabel . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.12 . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. but the application wishes to render more than one. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlInputText .by default. HtmlOutputFormat .faces. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlMessages . HtmlOutputText . This component must be placed inside a form.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. On a redisplay.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlCommandLink . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.Message". HtmlCommandButton . HtmlDataTable . HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlInputHidden . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.by default.represents an HTML img element.

HtmlSelectManyListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. showing a single available option at a time. In particular. • • • • 12. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.convert package 164 .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .12 . ResponseStream . and potentially modified by. ResponseWriter .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.faces. ResponseWriterWrapper .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectOneListbox . showing a single available option at a time.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.faces. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. • • • • • • 12. and the rendering of the corresponding response. FacesContext . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.15 the java. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . It is passed to.14 the java.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. FacesContextFactory .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.javaserver faces property.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. HtmlSelectOneRadio .

an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. PropertyResolver . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12.javaserver faces 12.faces.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. • • • • 165 .16 the java. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. Classes: MethodBinding .12 . VariableResolver . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.15. ValueBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.

an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. PhaseId . • • • • 12.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.12 .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . ReferenceSyntaxException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . MethodNotFoundException .faces.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. 166 . ValueChangeEvent . FacesListener .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. PhaseListener . ValueChangeListener . • • • • • One exception . Interfaces: ActionListener .AbortProcessingException .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. and event implementation classes. FacesEvent . PhaseEvent .17 the java.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.

lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. ScalarDataModel . ListDataModel .faces.19 the java. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . 12. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. Renderer . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. DataModel .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).18 the java.20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. DataModelEvent . • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. SelectItemGroup .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.12 . ResultDataModel .faces. Classes: ArrayDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. SelectItem . ResultSetDataModel .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.

RenderKitFactory .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . and/or user Locale. together. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. AttributeTag . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. LongRangeValidator .Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. including a standard servlet. and concrete validator implementation classes.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. ConverterTag . as well.faces.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. • RenderKit . markup language. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.validator package Interface defining the validator model.21 the java.12 . Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . ResponseStateManager .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.faces. • • 12. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). The package contains an exception. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.22 the java. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags. Typically. 12.

The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.12 . the process includes a few more components or pages. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. which has several implications. Likewise.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. or some other web technology.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. When the model is updated.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. but basically. When the user takes some action with the presentation. telling the view to update its presentation. In MVC. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. which passes the request to the page class. the controller is the 169 . the controller sends a message to the model. the life cycle is more complicated. telling the model to update its data. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. ValidatorTag . Because this does not involve JSF in any way. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. that request is passed to the container.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When a web server receives a request. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). 12. servlets. • • • • • FacesServlet . JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. UIComponentTag . the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. In JSF. that need to process their tag bodies. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. When using JSF.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. or when an exception occurs. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the JSF life cycle does not apply. related to a UIComponent. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. Also. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the controller sends a message to the view. UIComponentBodyTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. FacetTag .

As with the previous phase. or from request headers. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. These objects update their state with the data values. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase.javaserver faces JSF implementation. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. and the response is sent to the client. Data can come from input fields in a web form. not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is a subsequent request. the conversion occurs in this phase. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. However. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. it creates UI objects for each view component. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. For a JSF-enabled application. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and a piece of data failed validation. depending on the request. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. 170 . the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the JSF implementation must create the view. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model.12 . • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. and the UI components are the view. is validated at this time. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Invoke Application: During this phase. The components are stored in a component tree. from cookies sent as part of the request. In addition. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Data for some components. In addition. It updates only the UI components with the new data. converting a String to a Date object). the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and what happens during the processing and response. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below.

javaserver faces In the above figure. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. skipping any remaining phases.12 . if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. 171 . Also. For example. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.

The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".JNDI 13. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. To access a file in the computer. you are always naming one object or another. you supply it the name of the object. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). naming and directory services using a common API. A file system maps a filename (for example. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. Using JNDI. identifiers. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.13 . This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.COM.JNDI 13 . It enables applications to access different. When using almost any computer program or system. 13.COM.sun.Wiz. when you use an electronic mail system. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. NDS. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. possibly multiple. In addition. 172 . such as addresses. and NIS(YP). The UNIX pathname.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.2.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. DNS.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file.48. /usr/hello. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.5)."). The DNS entry Wiz. For example. For example. you must supply its name.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. 13. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. c:\bin\autoexec.9. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. such as LDAP. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. or objects typically used by computer programs. For example. Thus the DNS name sales. for example. which is located in the root of the file system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. in turn. names a file hello in the file directory usr. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.

also called a file handle. delimited by the comma character (". such as c=us. A reference is information about how to access an object. By contrast. for example.COM. A printer object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. that is. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is a context.2. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. unbinding names. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). for example. a DNS domain.2. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. on the other hand. 173 . in a file directory /usr/bin. might contain the state of the printer. o=Sun. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. In another example. Using the reference. some objects cannot be stored directly. in the UNIX file system is a context. and listing bound names.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. its flight plan. 13. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. Finally. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. is relative to c=us. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. that is. That is. an LDAP entry. they must be stored by reference.2. 13. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. 13. such as /usr. A file object. relative to the entry o=Sun. such as COM. Every context has an associated naming convention. while the object itself might contain more state information. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. For example.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. a file name is bound to a file. a file directory.13 . is a context. such as its print server name and printing protocol. in the DNS domain Sun. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. A printer object reference. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses."). For example. For example. and fuel and instrument status. For example. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. which in turn. For example. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. For simplicity. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. and its flight number and departure time. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. Typically. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. is accessed using a file reference. might contain only information on how to reach the printer.c=us. Instead. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention.

various telephone numbers. to represent a printer. and color. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. one context can be viewed. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. and even the computer itself and other computers. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. however. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. resolution. 13. postal mail address. For example. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. two different computer 174 . A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. to some extent. for example. And it kind of makes sense. For example. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. programs.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. A directory object can be used. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. because we can. For example. and computer account information. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. a person. For example. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations.2. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.3. a computer. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. Thus. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. a name is unique 13. or a network. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). An example is the telephone company's directory service. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. For example.13 . the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. 13.

JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. When directory objects are arranged in this way.3. "mail" is the attribute identifier. adding. and users. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.50". And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. 13. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. 13. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. When you search. Within the DIT. For example. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. The email address.3. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. for example. Similarly. for example.4. printers. 13. such as that relating to machines. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. For example. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. many directories. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. such as the file and print services. By using a directory service. 175 . 13.smith@somewhere. removing. The service is accessed through its own interface.com". Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. can use the directory in the traditional way. that is.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.113. Many examples of directory services are possible. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.3. 13. The query is called a search filter. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. support the notion of searches. such as those based on the LDAP. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. Alternatively.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. like any other program running on the network. an organization object.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service.13 . A Java mail client program. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. networks. called a directory information tree (DIT). the ability to access directory services will become essential. for example.

emerging.1 and the Java 2 SDK. The Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. It extends the v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.naming.naming. v1. Thus a variety of directories--new.2.5.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.event javax. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.1 and v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. For example. For example. 13.5. 13.4. and even the network.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.directory javax. 13. v1. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.naming javax. v1. To use the JNDI. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. v1. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.3 and later releases. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.1 and Java 2 SDK. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. more coherent and manageable. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).ldap 176 .JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.13 . When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.2.naming.

a 177 . which is the core interface for looking up. 13. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. and it returns the object bound to that name.6.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The overloads that accept java. 13. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.6. printer. and so on. For the methods in the Context interface.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.6. Furthermore. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.print(report). comparing components.6. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. list() is similar to listBindings().String name. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. However. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. binding/unbinding. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.lang.String name argument represents a composite name. and the object itself. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. For example. 13.lang.naming. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. for some objects in the directory. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.JNDI • javax. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. the name of the object's class.1 context The javax.lookup("treekiller"). 13. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.6 the naming package The javax.spi 13.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. In this case. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. A java.naming package defines a Context interface.13 . composing them. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.lang. that is. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.

There are no absolute roots.7. For example.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.directory package extends the javax. Once you have an initial context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. 13. You can add.7 directory package The javax.6. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Otherwise. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. In the simplest and most common form of usage. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. they should catch NamingException.13 . 13.7.naming. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. 178 . DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. 13. InitialContext.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13. replace. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. 13.6.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().

These operations are called "extended" operations.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.naming. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. such as information about the object before and after the change. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. For example.9. To receive event notifications." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.JNDI 13. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. controls. In fact. such as "object changed. 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. For example. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax." and those that do not. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.ldap package at all. and vice versa. or unsolicited notifications.9. 13. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.8 event package The javax. Once registered.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.naming. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. 13. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.naming.9 LDAP package The javax. 13.13 .directory package. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. such as "object added.naming. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.9. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. called controls . This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. that is.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.

It uses a service provider for the file system. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. implementors of Context. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.9.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.10. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.naming. and receiving response controls. sending request controls. import javax.naming.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.2 java object support The javax.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming package. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. 180 . You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13.Context.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. 13. For example.11.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.java. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.1 plug-In architecture The javax. if you look up a printer name from the directory.10. create a file named Lookup.10. This support is provided in the form of state factories.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. 13. This support is provided in the form of object factories. In the process of completing an operation. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 13.13 .10 service provider package The javax. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.naming. That is.

you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.13 . 181 . Object obj = ctx. } 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.java). using the capitalization shown. 13.lookup() to look up an object.11. you must have access to the JNDI classes. then the JNDI classes are already included.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. as follows. If you are still having problems.jndi. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. To compile to program.5 compiling the program Next.naming. } catch (NamingException e) { System.11. v1.lookup(name). use Context. "com. Otherwise.lookup(name).INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.fscontext.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).InitialContext. // Print it System. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.3. 13.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.put(Context. If the compilation succeeds.NamingException. If the compilation fails.11. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. import javax.JNDI import javax.RefFSContextFactory").println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.err. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. 13.out.3 looking up an Object Next.naming. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. env. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. For this reason.sun.11.jar as an installed extension.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. create an initial context. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.

supply the name of a file in your file system.java. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. To run the program. import import import import import javax. v1. create a file named Getattr.ldap. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.directory.PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.sun. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.Context. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.jar and providerutil. 13. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. include the directory that contains your Lookup.put(Context.13 . To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.NamingException.bat If you supply a file directory.put(Context.InitialDirContext.naming.directory packages. "com.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.naming.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.directory.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.3.Attributes.naming. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().12.naming.12. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. the file system service provider. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming.JNDI 13. Finally. and your example class (Lookup.directory.class). env.6 running the program To run the program. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. env.LdapCtxFactory"). 13. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. create an initial directory context. you need access to the JNDI classes. javax. then you will see something like the following.11.fscontext.naming and javax.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.DirContext. javax.jndi.jndi.sun. 182 .jar). The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming. javax. javax.

// Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Similar to the naming example. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. 13.6 compiling the program Next.get("sn"). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.12. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. 13.12.out. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. } catch (NamingException e) { System.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Attributes. If you are still having problems.get()).JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).println("sn: " + attrs. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).get() on it to get its value: attrs. For this reason. ou=People"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. If the compilation fails.12. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. 183 .get() and then from that attribute get its value. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. using the capitalization shown.err.get("sn"). to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. 13. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.12.13 . ou=People"). For now. compile the source file using the Java compiler. If the compilation succeeds. As with the naming example.get().java). } 13. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.

Getattr. ou=People".class.7 running the program As with the naming example. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. With this configuration. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. If you have any trouble running this example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.put(Context.jar and providerutil. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").3. v1. env.PROVIDER_URL.jar). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.13 . # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then see the Common Problems lesson. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. 184 . serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").12.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Once it has the attributes. then these classes are already included.JNDI 13.

It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.a JMS client that receives messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.14 . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. JMS message .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. • 14.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS client . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. the messages are delivered in the order sent. In this model.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. Here. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. unless it has established a durable 185 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS consumer . Enterprise Edition. As the name queue suggests.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS queue . JMS producer .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS topic .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.

14 . Depending on the type of message. 14.3 the JMS API programming model 14. Using Java. 14.jms. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. In that case. 186 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. On the receiving side.4. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.

4. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Before your application can consume messages. Like the connection factory.4. Depending on the connection type. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). 14. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.14 . For example.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. you must close any connections that you have created. 14.close(). The JMS administrator creates these objects. Connections implement the Connection interface. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. you call the stop() method.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. 14.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. It receives messages sent to a destination. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.createConnection(). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. It is either a queue or a topic. Before an application completes. connection.4. For example. and users discover them using JNDI.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you must call the connection's start() method. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. In a J2EE application. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . When you have a ConnectionFactory object.lookup("jms/MyTopic").lookup("jms/MyQueue").

A message listener does. you are likely to miss messages. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.setMessageListener(myListener).5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. which contains one method. You use the Session.start().) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. if it needs to reply to messages. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. usually expect a specific message type and format.receive().createConsumer(myTopic). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. a message listener object may be used. and you can use it to receive messages. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.start(). 188 . MessageConsumer consumer = session. connection.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. After you have created a message consumer. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.receive(1000). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.) When message delivery begins. After you register the message listener.createConsumer(myQueue).14 . depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. consumer. In the onMessage() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. For example. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. however. onMessage(). Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. For example. Message m = consumer. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. 14. Message m = consumer. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. it becomes active. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. (Remember always to call the start() method. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.4. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. This object implements the MessageListener interface. Moreover. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive.

7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.4. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. and object message). 14. At the consuming end.createTextMessage(). You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. anon_prod. 3. to create and send a TextMessage.createProducer(myQueue).receive(). from one application to another. You must first create the messages.send(message). With an unidentified producer. After you have created a message producer.send(myQueue.createProducer(myTopic). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.4. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. message.send(message). // msg_text is a String producer. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. 189 . Here.14 . stream message.setText(msg_text). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. For example. map message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. MessageProducer producer = session. that is. bytes message.createProducer(null). A message has three main parts: 1. if you created an unidentified producer. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. message). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.

The first argument means that the session is not transacted. 0). the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. To create a transacted session. Sessions implement the Session interface. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. } else { // Handle error } 14. and message consumers to receive messages. 190 .4. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.createSession(true.14 . use the following code: Session session = connection. If the user selects transaction support. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.println("Reading message: " + message. Session. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. Here.createSession(false.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.out. the first argument means that the session is transacted.getText()). After you create a Connection object. Before committing the transaction. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. then delivers the messages.

message-driven beans The 2.consistent error handling framework . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. container which offers services to the component.no developer coding. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.DB interaction transactions . On the other side.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .transaction management can be complex. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.object oriented representation of data in a DB.0.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.0. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.jar file into the application server.15 .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . server which provides an execution environment for containers. Version 1. improved performance security . the container lives (in general) in an application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. bundled into a single unit. The component lives inside a container.logging.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. component recovery scalability portability 191 .

the remote interface of the bean 4. the deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.15 .4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the home interface of the bean 3.xml 15. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). called ejb-jar. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. as follows: 1. which is an xml file. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.

import java. } 193 . RemoteException.*. While the Remote interface declares no methods.15 .ejb. The developer does not implement this interface.javax.RemoteException.rmi. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.ejb. String lastName.javax. int custId) throws RemoteException.RemoteException. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. import. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. import. } 15. import java.rmi.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.*.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.

if the client executes outside the container. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context.interfaces. In the case of an web application. "org. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.put(Context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). what methods to use (know its interface) 3.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.PROVIDER_URL. prop. how to create or find the bean 2. } 194 . Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). we need to know: 1.NamingContextFactory". the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.15 .jnp. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. prop.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. this can be done (for example) through SSL. creating them for the client application. "localhost:1099").

. IIOP has not been designed for Java. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.e. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. in fact.PortableRemoteObject class and. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. 195 . do implements the java. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. Problem is. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. MyBeanHome. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. This is done through the javax. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.rmi. • if the client executes outside the container.narrow(homeRef. the client has a stub). the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. in fact. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. do not have the concept of casting.rmi.lookup("MyBean"). The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). more specifically. Why? For EJB.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. but for generic languages.class). that is part of CORBA standards. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. Some languages.Remote interface). using the narrow() method.rmi. and this means that there are some limitations. to the appropriate type.

public class MyBean implements javax. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ejb.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.processEntry("Dumitrascu".ccards.. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. as well). the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.SessionContext..15 .ejb.create(). } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. "Vasile". import javax. int custId) { // method implementation .bank11.. call business methods on the bean myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.remove().. 1102). set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejbeans. String lastName. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. remove the bean instance myObject.

because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. A stateless bean does not. 15.15 . A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 197 . that is. namely stateful and stateless beans. the object is activated. 15. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.

15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.15 . The ejbCreate method. for example. For example. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. All other methods in Figure 15. the client invokes the remove method. or passivate. (Typically. the EJB container activates the bean.1 are invoked by the EJB container. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. Figure 15. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. 198 . allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. is inside the bean class. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.

13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. support for concurrent access 3. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). equals() 199 .15 . stored in a Database).12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.

the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. in the same order.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. Update and Delete. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. 200 . methods which have the same parameters.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.bank11. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. 15.14. CreateException. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). On the other side.lang. We can have more create() methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. all throwing RemoteException. as the parameters in the original create() method. state data is stored into data store (usually. Read. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). an instance of that bean is created.ccards.15 .

but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. it is empty.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). First. 15. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. for BMPs. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. actual SQL update code. After instantiation. On the first path. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.14.2 read • • • ejbLoad().15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. a client can invoke the remove method. 201 .15 . the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. On the second path.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. the client invokes the create method. in BMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. Second. While in the pooled stage. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. left empty most of the time in CMP. it's business methods can be invoked.14. for BMP. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. All instances in the pool are identical. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. the programmer will create actual SQL code.14. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but the developer returns null for CMP. 15. not null. but in general.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.

getPrimaryKey(). it does not automatically set the primary key. If the primary key is incorrect. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. Therefore. another enterprise bean. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. 202 . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. or a Web component . but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. With bean-managed persistence.15 . the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . In the pooled state. In the pooled state. the values of the instance variables are not needed. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. It acts as a JMS message listener.an application client.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle.

The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages .3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. If this element is set to more than one. The onMessage method may call helper methods. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. Unlike a session or entity bean. message-driven bean can be used. an open database connection. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. For more information on this element see. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. 15. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously.16. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.16. but not asynchronously. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.15 . 15.for example.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. To ensure concurrency. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. When a message arrives. a JMS API connection. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.16. To avoid tying up server resources. Previously. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. 15. max-beans-infree-pool. 203 . rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. If message processing is rolled back. the message will be redelivered. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. In several respects.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.16. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.

The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.16.0 specification.15 .. 15.16.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. or create a new one. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. // An EJB constructor is required. methods. Note: These instances can be pooled. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context...} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. Classes.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. and it must not // accept parameters. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.Message MessageName) {. public void onMessage(javax.. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. public void ejbRemove() {..ejb.}. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . Obtain a new bean instance.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. As with other EJB types. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. 3.jms. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.. finalize{}. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.jms.} // onMessage() is required.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.Message. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. 15. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.

See javax.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.jms.15 . 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().16.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. getUserTransaction(). it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). getRollbackOnly() . Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.onMessage() for more information. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.16. For example. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . 15. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.This is not a client context. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). 15. from the client perspective the EJB still exists.16. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. even in onMessage(). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. 15. If any method throws such an exception.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.MessageListener. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. However.

Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. 15. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. as required by the EJB 2. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. In either case.16.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.15 . both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.xml. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).16.0 specification. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.

xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.xml deployment file. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. </message-driven> .0 specification. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 2. 207 . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. 15. as described in the EJB 2.jms. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean...Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.xml elements.15 . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. For each instance.message.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.ejb20. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. the weblogic-ejb-jar. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method...

the remote interface name 8. isolation level. the home interface name 7.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. control descriptors . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. environment properties 6. attributes . At the end of the life cycle. session specific elements 9. entity specific elements 10.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.15 .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. a message-driven bean is never passivated. bean home name . EJB class name 5.like transaction. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.security issues. access control entries . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. the container calls the ejbRemove method. security 208 . 15.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ejb.15 .CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.lang.ccards.ccards.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.bank11.bank11.ccards.ejb.ejb.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.

Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .lang.15 .. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.


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