1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


like HTML pages. and sends it back to the client program.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. The web tier. 5 .1 . Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. Figure 1. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.7 business components Business code. are not considered web components.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. enterprise edition Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. retail. processes it (if necessary). like the client tier. or finance. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.2 Server communication 1. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.java platform. processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and.

it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. multithreading. Business and EIS Tiers 1. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. enterprise edition Figure 1.3 Web. and other legacy information systems. In addition.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. mainframe transaction processing. resource pooling. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. enterprise bean. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. For example. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. and other complex low-level details. 1.9.java platform. or application client component can be executed. 6 .9 java EE Containers Normally. 1. database systems. Before a web.1 . you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.

transaction management. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. including services such as security. and remote connectivity. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. After an enterprise bean is created. 1. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. data persistence. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.4. For example.9. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. 7 .java platform. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. database connection resource pooling.1 .

or for document-oriented web services. For example. develop. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. extensible.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.java platform.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . 1. video. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. maps. XML data. program files. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. When XML data is exchanged between parties. 8 .1 .manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. Application clients and their container run on the client. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. enterprise edition Figure 1. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. Applet container . set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. Web container . text-based standard for representing data. test. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text.manages the execution of application client components.manages the execution of applets. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.10. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Application client container . the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.

enterprise edition 1.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. such as Universal Description.10. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. and ways to communicate with the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). 9 .10. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.java platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.10. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. 1. 1.1 . The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. the location of the service. The description includes the name of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.

1. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. or if the server shuts down. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.11. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. If the client terminates. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. 1.11. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. standard set of tags. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.11. the session bean and its data are gone. In Java EE 5.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document.11. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. you employ a single. WML. enterprise edition Figure 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. and XML) and JSP elements. 1.java platform. Commonly. or enterprise bean. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.1 . which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


1 - java platform, enterprise edition
perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


1 - java platform, enterprise edition
emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition
Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. 15 . No extra coding is needed. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. or a component. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. At runtime. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. such as better performance. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. SAAJ. the application is ready to run. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .ear extension. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. JSP page. or better customer support. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. and JNDI 1. JTA. or component accordingly.1 . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. better tools. module. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. it is ready to be deployed. servlet. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Once deployed on a local platform. a module.java platform. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.

which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. for example.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean.jar extension. native libraries. JSP files.1 . • • 16 . which contain servlet class files. enterprise edition Figure 1. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.war (Web ARchive) extension. GIF and HTML files.jar extension. and a web application deployment descriptor. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources.java platform.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. Resource adapter modules. which contain all Java interfaces. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. For example. Application client modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. supporting class files. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. such as caching directives. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. Together. and other documentation. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. classes. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Web modules.

zero or more header lines 3.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www... Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.com/easy/http. namely HTTP 1.org/rfc/rfc1945.org/Protocols . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).html). an initial line 2.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . The server answers with a response message.jmarshall. was the object of several RFCs.. POST. so far) version. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. but they also have some common structural elements.apps.HTTP 2 . check the official HTTP site – www.ietf. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.HTTP 2. The second (and last.2 . These messages may have different contents. The client sends a request message to the server. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. . The first oficial version – HTTP 1. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. as follows: 1. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .w3.. HEAD.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. we recommend www.1. 2. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. RFC 2616 (06/99). a blank line (CR/LF) 4.

Here is their list: 1. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. as well. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. OPTIONS 7.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. mailing list.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.1. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. GET 2. CONNECT 5. 18 . All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. HEAD 3.2 . HTTP/1.html HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .Posting a message to a bulletin board. in the HTTP 1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. POST 4. newsgroup. PUT 8. TRACE Three other commands are listed.1 specification. DELETE 6.0). . GET /path/to/the/file/index.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. but lack of support makes them obsolete. 2.Annotation of existing resources.

The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. after the “?” character. to a data-handling process. like storing or updating data. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. or sending E-mail 2.HTTP or similar group of articles. or ordering a product. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. such as the result of submitting a form. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. (encoded as multipart/form-data). while POST may involve anything.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. . form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . When used for form data submission. or a record is subordinate to a database. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.Providing a block of data. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. In this case. 2.2 . as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.Extending a database through an append operation. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result.0 404 Not Found 2.8 the status code A three-digit integer. separated by the character “&” or “.” On the other side. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. or in the message body. 3. . 2.6 differences between GET and POST 1. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.

out of which. while the HTTP 1.the request succeeded. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. In particular.1 version specifies 46 of them. The most common use of the message body is in a response. such as text/html or image/jpg. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.1 only) . separated a semicolon. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.0. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.the requested resource doesn't exist. Although the header names are not case sensitive. that is. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. In a request. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.1).9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 20 . The HTTP 1. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. header values are. none of them mandatory. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).g. one (Host) is mandatory.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.2 . and section 10 for HTTP 1. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. 2. 404 Not Found . file or script output) is returned in the message body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. 500 Server Error . fails.an unexpected server error. header name and header value. where the requested resource is returned to the client. or otherwise can't run correctly. If an HTTP message includes a body.0 version specifies 16 headers. and the resulting resource (e. 2.

partial. Then.ietf. with subtype basic 7. with subtypes rfc822.html HTTP/1.HTTP 2.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. with subtype mpeg 2.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.ro/path/file.0 From: someuser@yahoo. message. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtypes jpeg.uvt. with subtypes mixed.info. parallel 3.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. image. audio.2 . gif 6. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. 21 . port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). video. multipart. digest. postscript 5. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.html first open a socket to the host web.org/rfc/rfc1521. 1.info. external-body 4. application. with subtype plain 2. . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .apps.ro. text.uvt. with subtypes octet-stream. alternative.0 200 OK Date: Fri. RFC 1521 (www. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.

2 . the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response. 22 .HTTP .

0) dates from 08.apps.0.jmarshall.com/indexdot/html . HTML 3.99. check the official HTML site – www.org/Markup .w3c.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. As a practical reference site use – www. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. The first version of HTML. The XHTML 1. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. The newest version of HTML is 4.org/rfc/rfc1866.0 and was accepted in December 1997.01) can be found at this address: http://www. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.html.2 (3. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. The latest version (XHTML 2. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . Since it fits in a couple of pages. However. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.HTML 3 .0.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. 3. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.w3.blooberry. a working draft for the next major revision. It is a revision of 4. The first official version – HTML 2.01. Mosaic.com/tutors. HTML describes how text.ietf.0 .com/easy/html . Originally named Web Applications 1.html) and was widely supported. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.www. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).HTML 3. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.0 draft was released in 01.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. Version 4. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.htmlgoodies.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. A newer standard.3 . From 1999 on. namely HTML 1. www. Other helpful sites .

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .-_:" ".HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.3 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. “&quot”.the chinese character for water. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.3 . There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements. look at these examples: “&lt”.acesta este un comentariu. "&#x6C34. <><> --> 25 . Check the address http://www. You get the point. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. VSAPCE are omitted. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. like ALIGN.0 contains an SGML declaration. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. Overall. 3. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. though. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.and end at the first occurrence of -->. BORDER. the specification of HTML 4. …. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. CONTROLS." (in hexadecimal) .w3. If you wonder what a character reference is. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.0 Strict DTD. three DTDs (HTML 4. HTML 4. 3. DYNSRC. 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. An example: <!-.01 specification. HTML 4.0 Transitional DTD. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.

uvt. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3.info.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.HTML 3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.5 tables 26 .ro/webmail/src/login.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. image. NAME. etc.3 . specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.

<THEAD>. its rows. Here is their description and attributes. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . headers and cells are <TABLE>. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is a an example of a table: 3. <TH> and <TD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. columns. Usually.3 . <TR>.

3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required.

allows multiple selections from the choice list. specifies the parameter name. "reset". "GET" . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .info. "radio". after a quotation mark .sends the form values in a single transmission.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . Main attributes: • TYPE . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .?. Main attributes: 29 . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".if specified. "image".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. NAME .8.uvt.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. "hidden". Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .8. however. "checkbox". SIZE . the browser appends the values to the URL.:. "button".the default value. "file".maximum number of options visible to the user. specifies how data will be sent to the server. "submit".1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. Example: http://web.HTML • METHOD .8 form related elements 3. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. may have the values GET or POST.required. "password". "text/plain" • • 3.required. 3.required. • 3. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .3 .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .8.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

java. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.class file.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. a tool named Just In Time compiler.2 version.java 2. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.0.class.) in 08. Early versions of Java were released in 12. Java source – a file with extension .1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. but next time execution is much faster. javac -classpath . a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Example: Edit the file prog1. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. the compilation process occurs. -g : generate all debugging info.JAVA PRIMER 4.2 java the interpreter. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.95.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. 4.class 3. jit From source to execution.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.3 java applications 31 . To overcome this significant shortage.90. project started in 12.JAVA PRIMER 4 .java One example of command line compilation: 4. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The current version (as of 10. following the 1. Inc. Java bytecode – a file with extension . A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.4. In terms of execution time. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.C:\TW\mySource. The first time a class is loaded.4 .. The current version (as of 10.class file.95. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode.

In general. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4.4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.java. or that it extends A). Generally.jar file.4 . This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4 object oriented concepts 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . An example: 32 . A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().

The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Float. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. 4. a Java class can extend a single base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Double. In OO jargon. providing its own implementation. Therefore.4. Therefore. Character. a class can have more than one method with the same name.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. 4. 4. Integer. with the root the class Object. 33 . but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. namely: Byte. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . called Object.1 bit char .4.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. this is called method overloading.4 . Short. Boolean. In fact. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Long.

has the same value for all class instances. which extends the class javax.one which is constant method . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. anywhere abstract .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.servlet.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. class . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. no templates.http.4 . 4.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. } declares an abstract class. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.does not have any subclasses. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. • • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable .HttpServlet implements Serializable { ..6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.no access from outside the class itself protected .servlet.http. method . rather than at class instance.one which is defined at class level. A final variable (method.access from any class anywhere private . inherited). 34 .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . automatic garbage collection..the class is visible from any class. Except for the "package" concept.

4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7. array index out of bounds.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.JAVA PRIMER 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. In Java.7. code or data errors . an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. division by 0.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. as defined in the java.4 . Exception categories: 1.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. 4. 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. not at execution time. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. standard method exceptions 3. java errors .7.ThreadDeath. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. programmer defined exceptions 4. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 2.like invalid cast.7.

4.java.bank11.io java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. the default package is used).9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. they have to be unique inside a package. followed by the import statements. The package containing the standard classes is java.awt. In the example above..by adding the key word throws. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .nio java. 4.zip . .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.security 36 .default.. An example: package com. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.util .Properties. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. finally construct. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.event . therefore.awt .support for event handling java.1 Package names The default package has no name.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .*.lang (automatically available).support for user interface java.support for java archives creation java.awt.util. import.geom . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. date and time info java. All other packages must be explicitly imported. 4.util.support for data collections. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).lang . As a general rule.sql java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.net java.this can be done by providing a try. catch.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.sql.4 . the class (the .servlets. import javax.ccards.rmi java.class file. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. don't have to import java.8. string analyzers.

37 .4 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing .accessibility javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All variables (actually.event . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). it must be declared as abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.support for event handling 4. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.text javax. static and final. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.

Subsequently. 5.javaScript 5 . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. like QtScript or ActionScript.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. The origins of this language date back to 1995.HTML authors are normally not programmers. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. This is not always what we want.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. then LiveScript and finally. and .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. However.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.JAVASCRIPT 5. other 38 . but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .depending on the browser .5 . as JavaScript. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript.A JavaScript statement like this: document.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.

.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.3. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.js file extension. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. To simplify this. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. go in the head section.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.5 ... without having to write the same script on every page. When you place a script in the head section. point to the .3. 39 .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. or when an event is triggered. </script> </head> 5.3. </script> </body> 5. Save the external JavaScript file with a . 5. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5...

5.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". The code in the body of the for . switch().1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.5.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".In statement The for..javaScript 5.1 JavaScript for... in and the try . while() it is worth mentioning the for . else.. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .4. break.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. for(). 5.. while().in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.4.4. continue.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. in loop is executed once for each element/property.5 .4. 5....5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.. catch constructs. namely – if ..

2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. an array element.. mycars[0] = "Saab".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement (available in IE5+..catch statement The try. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.5. The try block contains the code to be run.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").. they often leave the Web page. so you don't lose your audience. or a property of an object. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages..catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. mycars[2] = "BMW".5. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.. When users see errors. } </script> </body> </html> 5.. var mycars = new Array().3 try. Example Using for. Mozilla 1.. mycars[1] = "Volvo". we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".0.5 . Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .

alert(txt).6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).7 popup boxes 5.\n\n". txt+="Error description: " + err.7. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n".description + "\n\n". Also. txt+="Click OK to continue. 5. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.5 .1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. When an alert box pops up.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). Syntax: 42 . } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.

8 functions 5.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "OK".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). When a prompt box pops up.js file)."defaultvalue") 5.. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. If the user clicks "Cancel". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. in the example above had not been written within a function. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. in the <head> section. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .5 . If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns null.7. Now. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. Syntax: prompt("sometext". When a confirm box pops up.8. the box returns false.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.7. the box returns true.

An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. and how they are used. So.9. 5.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. document. 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. and will be stored in the variable called product. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.var2.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".5 . you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.javaScript function functionname(var1..8.9. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.write(txt. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language..2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. var2. etc are variables or values passed into the function. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . 5..varX) { some code } var1.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9 javaScript objects 5.length). function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.

3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.5 .toUpperCase()).10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document.javaScript 5. which will be specified in the next section. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". </script> 5. 45 . The other class are the language specific objects.9.write(str.

or when the user interacts with a Web page. When an event message has been triggered. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. as well).asp 5. which are called Objects. N: Netscape.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.5 . every Link on the page is an Object.w3schools.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. At its most basic level. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. every Image on the page is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. For example. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.11. check the site http://www.com/jsref/default. Even this Document itself is an Object. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .

searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11. N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.

as a four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. depending on the browser.5 .

according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to Greenwich time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.5 .11. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. N: Netscape. to a string. according to universal time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 .5 4 3 4 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. Properties FF: Firefox. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 .5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Syntax for creating a new Number object.11. var myNum=new Number(number).

5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.5 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 .

x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 0. 0.11.y) min(x.y) pow(x. 0.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 1. 1.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 2.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.5 .442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.javaScript 5. N: Netscape.434) Returns PI (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 3. 2.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.

Assume that the personObj already exists .write(personObj. 5.12. with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. All persons have these properties.firstname). Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. etc. Objects also have methods. skin tone. personObj. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.age=50.lastname="Doe". age. The persons' methods could be eat(). eye color. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object.firstname="John".eyecolor="blue". weight.age=30. document. work().5 . personObj.eyecolor="blue".firstname="John".you can give it properties named firstname. sleep(). personObj.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.lastname="Doe". personObj. personObj.12. play().methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.12. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. height. lastname. The persons' properties include name.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). age. 53 . etc.

4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname=lastname. you can create new instances of the object."green").lastname.age=age. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.age=age. this. this.propertyName.eyecolor) { this. like this: myFather=new person("John". Inside the function you need to assign things to this.48. You can also add some methods to the person object.5 .javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this. this.age. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj."blue"). myMother=new person("Sally". } Notice that the template is just a function. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.50. 5.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.firstname=firstname."Rally".eyecolor) { this.age. this. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).eat=eat. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. 54 .lastname=new_lastname. this.lastname.12. Once you have the template. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this."Doe".lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.newlastname=newlastname.

..13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. now you can write: myMother.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.". So. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.newlastname("Doe"). 5. For example. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. We define the events in the HTML tags.5 . F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .

For example.13.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. If it returns true the form will be submitted.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.13.13. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.5 .1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. the submit should be cancelled. 5.2 onFocus. If the field values are not accepted. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The name is then stored in a cookie. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. 5.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.w3schools.

5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

6. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. HTML. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. 2010). DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.6 . Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. and style of a document.Html DOM 6 .g. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. CSS. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . particularly those used in Web browsers. As of January 2008.. the Document Object Model activity is closed. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). In other words. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . structure. The W3C 58 .1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. However. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. By October 1998. SVG. or WebAPI being among them. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. XML.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. Right now (oct. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.HTML DOM 6.

3. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. To claim to support a level. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. 5. DOM Level 3 Core. 6. filtered views and events. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 2.6 . Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 XPath. each of which contains required and optional modules. Level 2 XML namespace support.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Level 1.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Validation. 4. DOM Level 3 Requirements.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. a new DOM Core specification. 2. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. which further enhances the DOM 6. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. and 6. As of 2005.

All HTML elements. can be accessed through the 60 .x and Netscape 4.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. interoperability problems were numerous. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. By 2005. Opera. along with their containing text and attributes.x were still widely used in 2000. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. 6. The Window object represents a browser window. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. support multiple browsers. Konqueror.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. and Safari. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. that is.6 . W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. In order to be cross-browser compatible. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).

It can be used by any programming language like Java. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .Html DOM DOM. JavaScript. and VBScript. The contents can be modified or deleted.6 . The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. and new elements can be created.

The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. everything in an HTML document is a node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. However. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <head> node holds a <title> node. The <html> node has two child nodes. the element node <title>.9. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. 6. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.Html DOM 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.6 . in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. 62 .8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. The tree structure is called a node-tree. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. 6.8. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. <head> and <body>.

the top node is called the root Every node. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. Parent nodes have children. The terms parent. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. children.getElementsByTagName("p"). has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).2 node parents. By using the getElementById() method 2. using the node relationships.getElementsByTagName("p").getElementById('main'). 63 .9. Their contents can be modified or deleted.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. • • • • • In a node tree.6 . The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. and the connections between them. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.9. except the root. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. and new elements can be created. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. By navigating the node tree. child.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree.

• • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. document.write(x[i]. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).Html DOM for (i=0. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document. each node is an object. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.6 .i<x. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.9.write("<br />").innerHTML).length.

6.9. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . txt=x.Html DOM 6.6 .firstChild.5 example .nodeValue.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.getElementById("intro"). Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.

For elements. objects and images. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . frames. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. including window.6 .

as of version 1. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. DOMNodeInserted. Mozilla.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Also. Fires when an element is activated. for instance.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. say "click". also supports these methods. through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.6 . 67 .3. During the event flow. When the user clicks on the inner element. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Safari. 6. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. and then bubbled up. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.

Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event.Html DOM 6. mouse position. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. etc. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Unfortunately. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. preventDefault 68 . Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse button pressed. including information about target element. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. key pressed.6 . Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.

But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.AJAX 7 . but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. fields of forms. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.AJAX 7. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. but also to save resources. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. etc. menus. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. The server does some processing — retrieving data. It is not a technology in itself.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. choices of user. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. using web services or Php scripts. crunching numbers. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. dynamic website. 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. 7. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. For improving sharing of resources.7 .3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. before the whole page was sent within the network. For example. 69 .

why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. but the opposite is true. 70 . And at every step in a task. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. waiting around for the server to do something. the user waits some more. what’s the user doing? That’s right. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. Once an interface is loaded. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. we wouldn’t make users wait around. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. waiting. Obviously. Instead of loading a web page.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. While the server is doing its thing. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. at the start of the session. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience.7 .

If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. usually using XML. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. editing data in memory. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.7 . 71 . loading additional interface code. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

1: connection established. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. GET or POST . These events are user actions. 404 if the page is not found . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .7 .responseXml . DOM's method allows to extract data. To get data on the server.mode: type of request. 3: answer in process.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.url: the location of the file 72 . 7. and in this purpose.for a Xml file or .responseText .open: create a connection. .holds a Xml loaded file. . 4: finished.send: send a request to the server.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.200 is ok.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.AJAX 7. It allows the interaction with the servers. 2: request received.returned by the server . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . . boolean) . url.for a simple text. onreadystatechange . thanks to its methods and attributes.holds loaded data as a string of characters. This object provides two methods: . States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".

request.fr/somefile.open('GET'.. OK } else { // wait. 73 .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. http_request.send(null).send: with POST only.AJAX .null for a GET command 7.open: command GET or POST.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().XMLHTTP").. } else if (window.7 . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. http_request.. . 'http://www. URL of the document.xml'. true). if (request.. if (window.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .readyState == 4) { // received. // Firefox. true for asynchronous.6 building a request.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. . Safari. the data to send to the server. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. but two options must be tried. The request below reads a document on the server. for browser compatibility.xul.

responseText.7.7.item(0).dyn="Error code " + req. req.dyn=""Received:" + req.readyState == 4) if(req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.AJAX 7. if(window.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. }.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). else if (window.7 examples 7.xml".responseXML.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. "data.ajax.ajax.send(null).7 .responseText.XMLHTTP). // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .open("GET".getElementsByTagName('root'). else document.status. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. true). req.dyn="Received:" + req.status == 200) document. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. by this code: var doc = req. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".ajax.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. but typical web.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Servlet. descriptions). Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. 5. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. 2. Servlet. 3.class>com. 6. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. MIME types used by the web application. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. data persistence. Others. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. 8. After an enterprise bean is created.8 . classes.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.)> <web-app> <!-. web. For example. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.xml file: <?xml version="1. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. JSPs and Java Server Faces.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. Initialization of parameters for servlets.. welcome pages. 4. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.ccards. database connection resource pooling. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.servlets. entries related to session configuration. like: 1. like what pages are error. Here is a small.. servlet classes.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.bank11.

bank11.bank11. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). Basicly.ccards. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.xml". the name of the web application.xml file of the web application.class" and that it is part of the package "com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. In general. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.servlets". More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. it is the alias of the real servlet class.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Unfortunately. whose name is rather long.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.bank11.xml" file. Then the "EnrollServlet.servlets.ccards. for flexibility. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.servlets". then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards. For example. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. Behind a very benign URL. However.8 . the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" 2. basicly. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. 1.

9 . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. tjws spec 2. this is just a work in progress.0 specification.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.SERVLETS 9. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. modular design 9.SERVLETS 9 .4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.0 specification is available for public review. the HttpServlet) class. which extend the functionality of the web server. Technically speaking. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. more often. small footprint. platform independent programs. 9. from BEA Systems. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. in most cases as part of an application server. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.4.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.5 and is in final state.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2. 2010. the Java Servlet 3. As of oct. 9. but through a web container. but at this point. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .

which are part of the Java Platform SDK. WebSphere.servlet.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.servlet package. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from IBM 9. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. These packages are: • • javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .servlet javax. Enterprise Edition. from Apple Inc. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .9 .servlet. the javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. IOException. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. public void destroy() throws ServletException. public void service(ServletRequest req.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. while the second one.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.servlet package are protocol independent. 82 .

the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. Throwable t) 9.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). the web container calls its init() method. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. The method performs all initialization required. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. 83 . 9. namely the HttpServlet class. More on the servlet life cycle. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The servlet API provides such a specific class. This method has two arguments. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. as well. in a different section. respectively. After instantiating the servlet.9 . ServletConfig.

7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.lang.ServletException javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. service(). containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.9 . a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. It also extends the java. 9.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception class.

The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. 9.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.SingleThreadModel. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. After instantiation. respectively. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. DB connection opening. Typically. this method contains JDBC driver loading. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. which will service all incoming requests. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. Typically. 85 . the container calls the init() method of the servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.servlet. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. JSP or JSF. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. etc.9 . Also.

One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.9 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.

servlets. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.ccards.xml file. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. This is done in server's (container's) server. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.io. import java.bank11. 87 .15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.java" file: package com.9 .

println("</html>").9 .println("<body>").println("</head>").setContentType(“text/html”).println("<br>").println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out. out. out. out.println("<head>"). out.servlet.println("<html>").SERVLETS import javax. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("</body>").println("merge").init(config). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.*.*. out.close(). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. // output your page here out. out. out. IOException { resp. import javax.getWriter(). PrintWriter out = resp. } } 88 .servlet.http. out.

JdbcOdbcDriver .sun. Starting with version 3.sql package 2.jdbc. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.odbc.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 while the current (4.1.10 . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. This solution is inefficient. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 89 . These drivers fall into four standard categories. After that.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10. the java. 1997. The JDBC 4. the javax.0.JDBC 10. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.sql package. as recognized by the DB industry. Type 1.JDBC 10 .0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.

The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Part Java. Type 3.JDBC Type 2. because it eliminates one level of indirection.10 . 90 . This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. which in turn. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Type 4. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. forwards them to the JDBC driver. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).

sql.10 .Driver java.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLData java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.0 API.Clob java.sql.DriverManager java.JDBC 10.SQLWarning java.Timestamp java.sql.sql.Date java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.Connection java.ResultSet java.sql.sql.0).Struct java. defined in the JDBC 3.Blob java.Time java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.SQLXML java.sql.CallableStatement java.SQLPermission java.sql.SQLInput java.SQLOutput java.PreparedStatement java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.SQLDataException java. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.Array java.sql.sql.sql.3 the java.Types java.Statement java.sql.sql.

sql.SQLInput java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.NClob java.SQLException java.Connection java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLNonTransientException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.Types java. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.CallableStatement java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.RowId java.SQLTransientException java. loading a database driver 2.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.SQLXML java. java.10 .sql.sql.sql package.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.ResultSet java. establishing a database connection 3.sql.StatementEventListener 10.Wrapper javax.SQLTimeoutException java.Statement java.Blob java.Clob java.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLOutput java.sql.sql.sql.sql.0.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java. querying the database 4.sql.

odbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. A database driver is specified by the driver name.driver.jdbc.JDBC 10. The first one is loading a database driver.10 .DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.net.ibm.sybase.db2.datastore.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .borland.SybDriver com.

user.getConnection(connURL.printStackTrace(). try { Class. but let's take it for granted: import java.forName("org. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.*.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.gjt. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.sql. Since we just used it.bank11.10 . String user = "root".JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).*. import java. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.mm. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. passwd).newInstance().mysql.util. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. by using the connection URL.Driver"). } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. as specified by the driver vendor. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). 94 .

String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . prp. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Properties prp = new Properties().7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.10 .JDBC 10. java.put("create". but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. "true").6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.util. String user. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.getConnection(connURL. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. prp). Connection conn = DriverManager.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers.put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency. we can use it for various purposes. "true"). 10.sql package.

8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.JDBC 10. Statement. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .10 . respectively. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. prepared statements and stored procedures.

The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. 10. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java..ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.10 .".createStatement(). stmt.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects..sql.executeUpdate(sqlString). Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .

PreparedStatement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. as the argument. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. 98 . all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. and CallableStatement objects. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately.10 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


Big Decimal Object float 10.produces a Connection object that will 103 .14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. There are three types of implementations: 1. a factory for creating DB connections. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.0 optional package. time.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.produces a standard Connection object 2. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. basicly.10 .sql.DataSource object. Basic implementation -. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.sql package.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Time java. secs date. This interface is. Connection pooling implementation -. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql. mins.math.sql.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. It is part of the javax.

io. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. 104 .servlet. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. javax. javax.getLogger(TestDataSource. import import import import import import java.*.ccards. javax.servlet. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.class.http.*.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".*. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().servlets.*.sql.getName()).sql. java. Distributed transaction implementation -.naming.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. private DataSource theDataSource.10 .JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.bank11.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). 3.

} } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). ServletException { .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").10 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request...

tagext.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. 11.5 Java Servlet specification. The package javax.jsp. The JSP specific interfaces.1 and is related to the 2.servlet. The package javax.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. namely javax. 11.JSP 11 . classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The javax.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.11 . The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. If the JSP is modified.servlet.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.2 the java.servlet.servlet.jsp.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.jsp and javax.JSP 11.jsp. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions)... attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . 111 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". include and taglib. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope..11 .

JSP 11. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.11 .7.7. 11.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . In Tomcat.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7 scripting elements 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. Assigns it to available name or id. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. this code goes to inside the service() method.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. 11. 11.

you must specify param. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .11 .

name of the property to be retrieved 11. flush .only the "true" value is supported.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.11 . <jsp:plugin> actions. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.13 the forward standard action 114 .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. 11. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.the URL of the page. same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .

. archive="URIToArchive.11 ... code="classFileName" . as this attribute has no default value.the type of object the plugin will execute.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.class extension in the name following code... If you do not supply a value.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.the name of a bean instance. You must specify either bean or applet.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. 11.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required)." . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. name="instanceName" .a name for the Bean or applet instance. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. You must include the . as well. when we want to separate the application into different views. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . It is used mainly. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name . depending on request. servlet or to a static resource.

it represents the buffered version of java.io.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. application .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. writes to the output stream to the client.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. of the image the applet or Bean displays. Must be a small nonzero number.represents the servlet context. it has java. The default value is 1.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.16 scopes 1. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the amount of space. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. based on the servlet API.represents server's response to the request. it has javax. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.the initial height and width. in pixels. config . and domain name.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . page . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . with a protocol name.11 .1" .1. response .jsp.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. 1. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" .servlet. objects which are automaticly available. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.lang. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. optional port number. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . The value is a full URL. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. session . pageContext .PrintWriter.JspWriter type and scope page 7. out . in pixels. request . it has type PageContext with scope page 4.Object type and scope page 11. request .

jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.bank11. Object value) method 2. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . Object value) method 11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.JSP request object.init(). if (enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. page .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.11 . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 4. session . <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp file. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.beans.ccards. application .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 3.

// Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). SimpleBean.mapping.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. 11. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.simple. private boolean flag.register(). a software development and consulting company. a boolean and another String). private int list[].18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.11 .examples.java: package com. The SimpleBean class is declared public. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . a float. private int integer.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.Serializable { private String string. private float number. private String optional.string. The public constructor could have been omitted.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. %> <jsp:forward page="response.io. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private String colors[].devsphere.18. an int.

colors = values.flag.JSP this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.flag = value.integer. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.colors[index]. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.string = value.number.11 .number = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors. } 119 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.

JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index.colors[index] = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list[index].optional.optional = value.subBean = value.subBean. String value) { this.11 .list = values. int value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } } 120 .list[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list.

number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.simple.11 .18.string.number = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.examples.java: package com.string = value.devsphere. private float number. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.Serializable { private String string.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).io. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.mapping. SimpleSubBean. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. } } 11.

11 .number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.

18. SimpleBeanResources. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.list]".integer]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the list of optional properties. a boolean and an int[]. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new Float(0. error messages. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.simple. "One or more colors must be selected" }. 3 } }.string]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.util. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.java: package com. the form's name and the processor's name.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. a float. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.number]". It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.11 .number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. new Boolean(true) }.examples. new int[] { 2. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.flag]". the processing order. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. The default values are defined for a String.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. "An option must be selected" }. "One or more items must be selected" }.colors]". The list of optional properties has a single element.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.mapping. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. new String[] { 123 .123) }.devsphere. There are three error messages.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. "abc" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".list]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.

"integer". "optional". { "[FORM_NAME]".jsp" } }.examples.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. The beanToForm() method of com. new String[] { "string". "subBean" } }. If necessary. The formToBean() method of com. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "SimpleForm. { "[PROC_NAME]". For a better understanding of this example.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.util.html" }.JSP "optional" } }. "flag". "list". a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. com. string values are converted to numbers. SimpleHndl.devsphere.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). "number". It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere.11 . A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. } } 11.devsphere.logging.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.18.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.devsphere.*. "colors".mapping.simple.devsphere.mapping. "SimpleProc. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping.mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.

// Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. slashIndex+1) : "".getServletPath().getMethod().getString("[FORM_NAME]").io. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.util. formPath = application.File(formPath)).getRequestDispatcher(procPath).formToBean(formData.getClass()). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. int slashIndex = basePath.trim(). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.lastIndexOf('/').getBeanResources(simpleBean. simpleBean.getRealPath(formPath).equals("POST"). logger). errorTable = HandlerUtils. response).11 .removeUserErrors(errorTable).forward(request. 125 .trim().Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getDocument().JSP = HandlerUtils.getTemplate(new java. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. // Process the valid data bean instance application.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).substring(0.

simple.number = <%= simpleBean. SimpleProc.string = <%= simpleBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".getSubBean(). i++) 126 . errorTable.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. } %> 11.getSubBean().examples. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().beanToForm(simpleBean.18.getString() %> <P> subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. // Send the form document document.append("{ ").5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. strbuf. for (int i = 0.length.11 .getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. document.mapping. if (list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.JSP elements logger).devsphere. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. i < list.send(out).

This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.toString(list[0]). ComplexHndl.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. } strbuf. Using the framework.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. A single call to FormUtils.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . ComplexForm. i++) { strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.append(" ").length == 1) return Integer. if (list. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.append("}").append("}").length == 0) return "".length.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.examples. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. return strbuf. } strbuf.jsp files.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.toString().append(" ").append("{ "). return strbuf. strbuf. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.simple.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.toString().formToBean() call. strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.11 .util. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. } %> 11. i < list. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.devsphere.append(list[i]). In addition. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append(list[i]). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. strbuf. In addition. for (int i = 0.18.mapping.

"flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "Blue" }. "Green". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. 128 . "Option 2". String colorLabels[] = { "Red".length. "green". if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. for (int i = 0. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".length.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. boolean checked = simpleBean. i < colorValues. i < integerLabels. j++) if (colors[j].getInteger() == value. String colorValues[] = { "red".getColors().JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. i++) { boolean checked = false. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < colors. "Option 3" }. for (int i = 0.11 .

string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.SimpleSubBean()).setSubBean( new com. "Item 3" }.11 .getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.devsphere. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. i++) { int value = i+1. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getList(). break.getSubBean().mapping. boolean selected = false. if (list == null) list = new int[0].length.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . if (list != null) for (int j = 0. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.length. i < listItems. "Item 2". for (int i = 0.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.simple.JSP break. "subBean.examples. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". j < list. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("POST").getMethod().getString().devsphere. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.mapping.util.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.devsphere. 130 .simple. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. "subBean.get(property).11 .examples.setString("abc").Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.util.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.examples.simple. if (message == null) message = "".length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.getString() == null || simpleBean. } %> ComplexHndl. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable errorTable.getSubBean().

if (flagValue. "number". setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors() == null || simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.11 . "number". "integer". else { simpleBean.setNumber(0. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "string". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "An option must be selected").setFlag(flagValue != null).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be a number"). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.getColors().123f). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.123f).getParameter("number"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue. } simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null.trim().getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 .getParameter("flag"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.floatValue()).length() != 0) simpleBean. "Must be filled"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue).

string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.setOptional(""). "One or more items must be selected").length == 0) { simpleBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. //* subBean. 132 .string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "subBean.getList().setString("").floatValue()).number"). 3 }). setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.getString().getList() == null || simpleBean. "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be } //* subBean.string". "colors".number".getOptional() == null) simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.11 . "list". "One or more colors must be selected").getString() == null || simpleSubBean.getParameter("subBean.

devsphere.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. 3 }).18.helpers.put(property. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.helpers.Hashtable errorTable.code=com.\ 133 . errorTable.SimpleBean.setNumber(0.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.setList(new int[] { 2. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.xml: SimpleHndl. The com. message).simple. simpleBean. } %> 11. simpleBean. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.number".devsphere.setOptional(""). String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". "subBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setFlag(true). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.setString("").123f). That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. "Must be a number").util. simpleBean. simpleSubBean.properties or web.jsp.setString("abc").devsphere. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.mapping. String property. simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.11 .jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. } } else { simpleBean.mapping.JSP filled").jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.examples.

\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.simple.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.code=com.code=com. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. you could add a few other lines to servlets.mapping. In many cases.properties: AnotherHndl. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. 11. If you have another bean-form pair. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.18. A servlet can be made bean-independent.mapping.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.AnotherBean. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.examples.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.mapping.company. a servlet is identified with its class.host.xml) file: ServletName. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.host.helpers.11 .properties (or web.devsphere.devsphere.helpers.another.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.examples.devsphere.mapping.devsphere.

JSP 135 .11 .

A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. Version 2. processes events. 2.12 . buttons. 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . which loads the appropriate view template. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.0 supersedes version 1. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. This technology includes: 1. builds a component tree.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.0. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.javaserver faces 12 . Version 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. like input fields.

Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.javaserver faces 12.12 .4. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . 12.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.2 of the JFS specification. As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.

The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. see the column tag documentation.12 . columns and rows. footers.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. For more information about columns.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . such as alternating row colors.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. respectively.4. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. 12. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. Common formatting techniques. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.

12 .total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.4.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. binding request parameters to backing bean properties. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkout}" /> 139 . Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.4. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. your options include using plain HTML forms.

12 .4.user.4. red for error.</span> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component." /> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user.5.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.

2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.5.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. For example. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.12 . 12. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .

the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Without this JavaScript event.12 .selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. Any component that receives user input.javaserver faces 12.mycompany. 12. validateLength. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. but only if the new input is validated successfully. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . The body content of this tag must be empty.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.5. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.5. can publish value change events.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.customer.

JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.5.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. Example: welcome_en. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.javaserver faces 12.mycompany. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. If you have not specified a default locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. myJSFapp 143 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. for each locale you wish to support.12 . including images and styles. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.mycompany.

javaserver faces /ant build. JSP pages.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. and so on. custom tag libraries. jsf-api.jar jsf-api.html.xml – the JSF configuration file. Create JSP pages 2.xml web.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . static resources.jar faces-config.12 . like third party jar files jsf-impl.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.exadel. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. Define navigation rules 3. Create properties files 144 .contains libraries required by the application. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.jar. It has a deployment descriptor. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. mandatory for any JSF application web.jar – files included in the /lib directory. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Create managed beans 4.

if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp to greeting.12 .2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. You just need to create its contents.7. we just want to go from inputname.jsp and greeting.javaserver faces 5.jsp file 7. In our application.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. Deploy and run the application 12. Now that we have the two JSP pages. And that's all there is to this.xml file. Edit JSP pages 6. As a diagram. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. Compile the application 8. 12.jsp is greeting. These files will act as place holders for now.7. we can create a navigation rule. Create an index.jsp. The directory structure already exists. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.

3. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.java file.7. the second part of faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.javaserver faces This is.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. a very simple navigation rule.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. You can easily create more complex ones.7.xml file should look like this: 146 . we will create a PersonBean.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.1 PersonBean.7. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. request sets the bean scope in the application. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.PersonBean. 12. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3.7. public class PersonBean { String personName. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.3. This class is straight-forward.12 . of course.3 faces-config.xml Your final faces-config. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. Inside this myJFSapp folder. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. myJFSapp. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.xml Now. 12. The next line is the full class name. To read more about navigation rules.) 12.

1 messages.7.12 .7.7.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1 inputname.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.4.sun. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. 12.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .javaserver faces <?xml version="1.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. 12. Inc. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.properties file in the bundle folder. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.sun. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5.sun. 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.1//EN" "http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.bundle.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle. <h:inputText value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.sun.sun. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.12 .

Line 6.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp page. Create the index. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.6 creating the index. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. 12.sun. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.2 greeting. <h:outputText value="#{personBean..7. Creates an HTML input text box. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. Line 2.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.12 ..greeting_text}" />.bundle. name! 12. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and also print its contents on the page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.</h3> tags. That's how JSF knows where to go next.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Lines 3-5.7. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . specifically the bean attribute personName.javaserver faces Line 1.5. The first three lines are identical to our first page. The second line will access a Java bean. Having an index.xml file.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.

html . 12.jsp. because in the web. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. 12.12 .7.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsf and not .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.sourceforge. When Tomcat is done loading. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. 150 . (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. though. and forwards the user to a success or error page.javaserver faces Now. might possibly be different).8. We are almost done with this example.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. Of course.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). you'll notice the file suffix is . we need to deploy it. verifies the information. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. Your setup. which asks an user for an ID and password. This is used here.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. 12. This is a "login" application.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. To do this.7.xml file for the application *.xml file. 12. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.9 Running Next.7. To build the application run the build.

This folder will contain all "functional" pages.. and set up folders for a web application.WEB-INF 151 . click Yes through messages that appear. 3. 12. and to add JSF libraries to the project. Select the Amateras node. in the wizard that appears. see Installing & Uninstalling. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. Select Java Project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click Next. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. 2.12 . make sure all checkboxes are checked.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. c. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. click Next.8. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.webroot | +-.. 7.. jsf-login. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. say. select the Source tab.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. click Finish 4. The New Project wizard appears. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).xml Editor (see faces-config.. click Next d. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. Enter project name. in the Add JSF Support page. your mileage may vary. 10. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 9. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.src | +-. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed.. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. name the folder pages.. 6.. click Add Folder.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. 1. name the folder webroot 5. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. a. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.

Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. input widgets appear d.xml Editor.javaserver faces | | | +-. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. c. In the Package field. The Java code editor opens. private String _pwd = "". else action = "loginFail".pages 12. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". for name enter mgr. The New Java Class wizard appears.LoginManager.12 . from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. The faces-config. enter login. click Managed Bean. a. for class enter login.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. for scope select 152 . click Add. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } 4.java package login.xml. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. 1. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. b. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } return action. 3. 2. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. We then configure it to be a managed bean. In Package Explorer select the src folder.lib | +-. in the Name field enter LoginManager. if ( _uid. from its context menu select New/Class.xml editor opens.8. Click Finish.

for File name enter index.jsp and error.jsp. All pages except login.12 . click Finish.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. c. the New File wizard appears. Then we create login. enter the following code. index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp). Create error.jsp.jsp is placed directly in webroot. e.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File.webroot/pages/error. save the file and close the editor. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. success.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. Create index.jsp are simple pages with static content. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. the JSP Editor opens.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. 1. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp. b.jsp. from the menubar select File/Save. but in webroot/pages. again.jsp: a. </body> Please try 153 .jsp: create this file similarly to index. so we create them first. <!-. Enter the following code: <!-.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.8. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. then close the editor 12. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp).javaserver faces session. and 3 content pages (login. Create success.webroot/pages/success.webroot/index. but in webroot/pages. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.

Open the JSF palette.. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. g. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. click Next c. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. the New wizard appears. (See Show View Dialog) f. for File name enter login. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and dock it along the right.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. click Finish. as shown below.sun. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens.completion. and uses them for code completion as well. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. a code-completion window pops up. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. 154 .. and choose default for Template. and the JSP Editor can help with code. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces </html> 4. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. Create login. enter jsf-login e. <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. etc.sun. from its context menu select New/Other. b. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.jsp: a. To see this in action..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. d.jsp. place your cursor in one of these lines. with the following template code. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.12 . now we want to add attributes to this element.

loginAction} The final code.javaserver faces h. a code-completion window pops up. enter #{mgr.sun.. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. i. insert another <h:inputText> element.) j. set its value to Login.12 . This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. with bean properties available in mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and hit Enter. insert a <h:commandButton> element. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. with the barest presentational formatting. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.password}" l. complete the expression with the closing { k.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .sun. this inserts value="" at the cursor. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. select userID from the code-completion window. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Open faces-config.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.xml Editor. 2. 1. 156 .12 . This is shown below.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.8. using a FacesIDE editor. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Select the Navigation tab 3. then click inside the editor window.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. click on Page. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.

and set them to /pages/login. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). change the value of path to /index.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. and is represented by an arrow.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears.12 . "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.jsp. add 3 more pages. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. /pages/success. This is shown below: 157 .jsp 4.jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. then click first on the icon for login. select Navigation Case. in the Properties view. 5. from the palette at left. Its properties appear in the Properties view.jsp. 6.

in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. We'll set some properties in web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.jsp.xml for the specifics of our application.jsp.jsp to error. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.6 Editing web. We want virtual path-based mapping. As it turns out. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Once deployed browse to index.xml. 1.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.javaserver faces 7. and you should be sent to the success page. since we have such a trivial application. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. The application is now complete.12 . or leave it as-is. open web. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. 12.jsp. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. Similarly add a forward-action from login. any other id/password should send you to the error page.8. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml Here we edit web.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. all we need do in web. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. and extension-based mapping is turned on. so uncomment it.xml.

faces. 12. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. For a given factory class name.faces.faces.faces javax.faces.faces.lifecycle javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.html javax. start Tomcat.10 the javax.render javax. as file:///. the Manager application should reload. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. click Deploy 3. Click on its link to launch the application.webapp 12.faces. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces.component. scroll down to Deploy.javaserver faces 12. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.context javax.model javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. that factory is used.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.8.component javax.12 ...CONFIG_FILES 159 . for Context path enter /jsf-login.application javax.event javax.faces.faces.faces.faces.faces. open its Manager application in a browser.validator javax.0 1.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.convert javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.el javax.

the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. with the last one taking precedence. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.11 the javax. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. ViewHandler . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. FacesMessage.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies.12 .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. ViewHandlerWrapper . those factories are used.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. FacesMessage .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. StateManagerWrapper . handling events and input validation. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.faces. 12. StateManager . ApplicationFactory .represents a single validation (or other) message. defining page navigation. If none of the above steps yield a match.Severity . with the last one taking precedence. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.

UICommand . a menu item.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. ValueHolder . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . NamingContainer .12 . or a hyperlink. 12. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. • ViewExpiredException .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. StateHolder . when activated by the user.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. • • 161 . UIComponent . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.12 the javax. EditableValueHolder . String.FacesContext.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".context.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. String) results in failure on postback. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.restoreView(javax.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. ContextCallBack . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. Here they are: • • UIColumn .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.faces. ActionSource2 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.faces. UIComponentBase .

This component has no rendering. UIInput . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. The user can modify the selected value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.12 .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.faces. UISelectItem .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIMessage . The user cannot manipulate this component. UIViewRoot . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UISelectMany .13 the java.html package 162 .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UIMessages . UIOutput . it is for display purposes only. identified by a clientId.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UISelectBoolean .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UIParameter .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. Optionally. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIPanel . UISelectOne . it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. it just serves as the root of the component tree. Optionally.component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. by storing it as the value property of the component. that is displayed to the user. The user can modify the selected values. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. UIForm .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIGraphic .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. UINamingContainer .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.javaserver faces • UIData .

HtmlMessages .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlDataTable .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlPanelGrid . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlForm .faces.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML input element of type text. but the application wishes to render more than one. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlMessage . HtmlColumn .by default. HtmlInputText . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.renders child components in a table. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlOutputFormat . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlCommandButton . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.Message".by default. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlPanelGroup . or not. HtmlCommandLink . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlOutputText . HtmlOutputLabel .12 .faces.represents an HTML input element of type password. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML img element.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML label element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. On a redisplay.renders the component value as text.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlInputSecret . and renders the result. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. This component must be placed inside a form.

HtmlSelectOneListbox .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. FacesContextFactory . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. • • • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectOneRadio . In particular. HtmlSelectManyMenu .12 . ResponseWriter . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.convert package 164 . and potentially modified by.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . ResponseWriterWrapper .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectManyListbox .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. HtmlSelectOneMenu .faces. FacesContext . • • • • 12. showing a single available option at a time.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. ResponseStream .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing a single available option at a time. It is passed to. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.14 the java.faces.javaserver faces property.15 the java. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.

javaserver faces 12.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.15.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. • • • • 165 . Classes: MethodBinding . VariableResolver . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .16 the java.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.12 . PropertyResolver .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.faces. 12.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. ValueBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.

AbortProcessingException .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. FacesListener .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. and event implementation classes. Interfaces: ActionListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.faces. PhaseListener .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. • • • • 12.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. ReferenceSyntaxException . PhaseEvent . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesEvent .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. • • • • • One exception .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.17 the java. PhaseId .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PropertyNotFoundException . ValueChangeEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. MethodNotFoundException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). 166 .12 .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ValueChangeListener .

lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. ResultDataModel . Classes: ArrayDataModel . DataModelEvent . SelectItemGroup .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.12 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.faces.19 the java. Renderer .faces. • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.18 the java. 12. ScalarDataModel .20 the java. ResultSetDataModel .faces. DataModel . ListDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. SelectItem .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.javaserver faces 12.

base classes for JSP custom component tags.21 the java.faces.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. together. and concrete validator implementation classes.validator package Interface defining the validator model. The package contains an exception. and/or user Locale.22 the java.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. including a standard servlet. RenderKitFactory .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. markup language. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. ConverterTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . LongRangeValidator . Typically. ResponseStateManager . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. AttributeTag . • • 12. • RenderKit . 12. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . as well.12 . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.faces. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client.

• • • • • FacesServlet . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. When using JSF. the controller sends a message to the model. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. UIComponentBodyTag . a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. When the model is updated. In JSF. Likewise. or when an exception occurs. 12. UIComponentTag . Also.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. or some other web technology.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. FacetTag . related to a UIComponent. When a web server receives a request. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. the controller is the 169 . the JSF life cycle does not apply. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. the controller sends a message to the view. ValidatorTag . When the user takes some action with the presentation. telling the view to update its presentation. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.12 .a base class for all JSP custom actions. which has several implications. the life cycle is more complicated. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. telling the model to update its data. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. which passes the request to the page class. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the process includes a few more components or pages. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. that need to process their tag bodies. that request is passed to the container. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. but basically. servlets. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. In MVC.

in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. In addition. Data can come from input fields in a web form. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the conversion occurs in this phase. converting a String to a Date object). depending on the request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.12 . The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. not every request will flow through all six phases. 170 . it creates UI objects for each view component. These objects update their state with the data values. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. and what happens during the processing and response. As with the previous phase. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. The components are stored in a component tree. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the JSF implementation must create the view. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. However. Data for some components. If this is a subsequent request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. such as components that create HTML input fields.javaserver faces JSF implementation. and the response is sent to the client. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. and a piece of data failed validation. In addition. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and the UI components are the view. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. For a JSF-enabled application. is validated at this time. or from request headers. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase.

171 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.12 . One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. skipping any remaining phases. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. Also.javaserver faces In the above figure. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. For example.

as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. which is located in the root of the file system.13 . the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. for example. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").48. when you use an electronic mail system. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.9. such as addresses. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. For example. Using JNDI.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. /usr/hello. names a file hello in the file directory usr. NDS. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. It enables applications to access different.COM. 172 . For example. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.JNDI 13. In addition.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. A file system maps a filename (for example. c:\bin\autoexec. 13. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. you must supply its name.COM. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.JNDI 13 . These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.5). The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". DNS. To access a file in the computer. or objects typically used by computer programs. in turn. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. The UNIX pathname. For example. and NIS(YP). 13. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.sun. identifiers. relative to the DNS entry Wiz."). possibly multiple. you are always naming one object or another.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. naming and directory services using a common API. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. The DNS entry Wiz. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. you supply it the name of the object. Thus the DNS name sales. When using almost any computer program or system.2. such as LDAP.Wiz.

Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. 13. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). for example. For example. in the UNIX file system is a context.2. such as COM. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. and its flight number and departure time. some objects cannot be stored directly. is accessed using a file reference. delimited by the comma character (". also called a file handle. Finally. in a file directory /usr/bin. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. 13. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. such as /usr. a file directory. a DNS domain. For simplicity. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. A file object. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. For example. its flight plan. Instead. unbinding names. Every context has an associated naming convention. such as its print server name and printing protocol. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. A printer object. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. which in turn. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. By contrast. is a context. such as c=us. in the DNS domain Sun. while the object itself might contain more state information. Typically. For example. and fuel and instrument status. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information."). A reference is information about how to access an object. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. they must be stored by reference. for example.13 . A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. In another example. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. o=Sun. relative to the entry o=Sun. on the other hand. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). an LDAP entry. A printer object reference.COM.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information.c=us.2.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. and listing bound names. That is.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. that is. 173 . is relative to c=us. 13. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. that is. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. For example.2. For example. Using the reference. is a context. might contain the state of the printer. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. a file name is bound to a file.

or a network. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. Thus. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. 13. a person. a computer. a name is unique 13. For example. two different computer 174 .1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. 13.2. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. and color. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. For example.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values.13 . various telephone numbers. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. because we can. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory object can be used.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. to represent a printer. for example. And it kind of makes sense. however. and computer account information. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values.3. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. For example. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. one context can be viewed.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. postal mail address. programs. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. resolution. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. For example. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. to some extent.

com". called a directory information tree (DIT). Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The service is accessed through its own interface. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. for example. The query is called a search filter. For example. Within the DIT.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. such as those based on the LDAP. and users. support the notion of searches. for example. many directories.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. can use the directory in the traditional way. For example. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. The email address.3. When directory objects are arranged in this way. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. Alternatively. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. the ability to access directory services will become essential. such as that relating to machines. 13. 13. "mail" is the attribute identifier. like any other program running on the network. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. A Java mail client program. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. adding. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. such as the file and print services. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.50".2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. 13. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. printers. 13. for example.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. removing. networks. 175 . The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. By using a directory service. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. When you search. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.113.4. Similarly.3. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. 13. that is. an organization object. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.13 . Many examples of directory services are possible.3.smith@somewhere.

1 and the Java 2 SDK. The Java 2 SDK. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. 13. 13. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. v1. It extends the v1.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.2. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.5.naming javax.4. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming.1 and v1. v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.naming.3 and later releases.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. For example. For example. To use the JNDI. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. more coherent and manageable.naming. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. and even the network. 13.event javax.2. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.13 .1 and Java 2 SDK. emerging.5. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. 13. v1. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.ldap 176 . Thus a variety of directories--new.directory javax. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. v1.

13. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. list() is similar to listBindings(). For the methods in the Context interface.6. and it returns the object bound to that name.13 .6 the naming package The javax.naming package defines a Context interface.String name argument represents a composite name. A java. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. for some objects in the directory.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. a 177 . and so on. binding/unbinding.lang. comparing components. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.lookup("treekiller"). the name of the object's class. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. However. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. The overloads that accept java. 13. 13. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. composing them. 13. For example. which is the core interface for looking up. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.lang.print(report).String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. that is.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. printer.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.6.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.JNDI • javax.1 context The javax.naming. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.spi 13.String name.6. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6. and the object itself. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. In this case. Furthermore.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.

A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. Once you have an initial context. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.7. There are no absolute roots.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.7. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.6. 13. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.7 directory package The javax. they should catch NamingException. replace. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.naming. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.6. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. You can add. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.directory package extends the javax. InitialContext.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.13 .naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. 13. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Otherwise. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. 178 .JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. For example. 13. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.

the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. In fact.naming. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. 13. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. To receive event notifications. 13. 13. 13.9. For example. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. For example. These operations are called "extended" operations. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.9 LDAP package The javax.directory package. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.9. and vice versa.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. such as information about the object before and after the change.JNDI 13. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. controls. called controls . the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.naming.naming.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. such as "object changed. such as "object added. that is.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.naming. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.9.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. or unsolicited notifications. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.8 event package The javax. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax." and those that do not.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.naming.13 .ldap package at all. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. Once registered.

The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.10 service provider package The javax. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.naming.java. This support is provided in the form of state factories. create a file named Lookup. That is.naming.spi package supports implementors of Context.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10. implementors of Context. 13.naming package. 180 .9. 13.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13. In the process of completing an operation. import javax. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.2 java object support The javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. For example.10. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. It uses a service provider for the file system. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.11.13 .Context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. and receiving response controls.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13.10.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming. sending request controls.

How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.java).naming.sun. create an initial context.lookup(name).err.13 . If you are using the Java 2 SDK.11.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.11.out. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. 13. 13. then the JNDI classes are already included. v1. "com.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.JNDI import javax.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. using the capitalization shown.RefFSContextFactory").jar as an installed extension.fscontext. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.5 compiling the program Next. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). 13. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. // Print it System. For this reason. import javax. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. To compile to program. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. use Context. Otherwise. 181 . as follows.naming. } catch (NamingException e) { System.3 looking up an Object Next.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.InitialContext. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). If you are still having problems.11. If the compilation succeeds.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.lookup(name). try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). } 13.NamingException. env. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).11.3.lookup() to look up an object. If the compilation fails. Object obj = ctx. you must have access to the JNDI classes.put(Context.jndi.

naming. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.11.fscontext.directory packages. v1. To run the program.jndi.NamingException.12.class).LdapCtxFactory").3.naming.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.java.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.naming.Attributes. create a file named Getattr. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 182 .1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.ldap. you need access to the JNDI classes.jar and providerutil.6 running the program To run the program. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().put(Context.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.put(Context.jar). then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. 13.JNDI 13. then you will see something like the following.directory. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. include the directory that contains your Lookup.directory.bat If you supply a file directory.12.sun.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming. env. and your example class (Lookup.directory. create an initial directory context.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.sun. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").naming and javax. 13. javax.naming.13 . javax. import import import import import javax. env. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. javax. javax.DirContext.PROVIDER_URL. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.InitialDirContext. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. the file system service provider. "com.jndi. Finally. supply the name of a file in your file system.Context.

try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If the compilation succeeds. Similar to the naming example. compile the source file using the Java compiler.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. ou=People").get(). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. 13.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If you are still having problems. using the capitalization shown. If the compilation fails. For now. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. } catch (NamingException e) { System. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.6 compiling the program Next. For this reason.get() and then from that attribute get its value. Attributes. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get() on it to get its value: attrs. As with the naming example. 13. } 13. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. ou=People").class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.println("sn: " + attrs. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.err. 13.get("sn").12. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.java).12. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.get()).out.12.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn").4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. 183 . ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.13 . If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.12.

If you have any trouble running this example. Getattr.class. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.7 running the program As with the naming example. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.13 . 184 . this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. then see the Common Problems lesson.JNDI 13. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. v1. Once it has the attributes. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. ou=People". "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").PROVIDER_URL. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.put(Context. then these classes are already included. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). env.3. With this configuration.12.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.jar and providerutil.jar). you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.

JMS message .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS topic . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS consumer .a JMS client that receives messages.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. • 14. JMS client . unless it has established a durable 185 .14 . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. Here. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. JMS queue . As the name queue suggests.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. the messages are delivered in the order sent. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. Enterprise Edition. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. In this model. JMS producer .

The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 186 . 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. Using Java. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.3 the JMS API programming model 14. On the receiving side.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. In that case. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.14 . the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. Depending on the type of message.jms.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.4. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.

the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().lookup("jms/MyTopic"). The JMS administrator creates these objects. you must call the connection's start() method. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Before your application can consume messages.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. Like the connection factory. It is either a queue or a topic. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). 14.createConnection(). connection. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. It receives messages sent to a destination. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. 14. 14. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.14 . Connections implement the Connection interface. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you must close any connections that you have created.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.4.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you call the stop() method. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. and users discover them using JNDI. Before an application completes.close(). For example.4. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. For example. In a J2EE application. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Depending on the connection type.

After you have created a message consumer. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. consumer. connection. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. onMessage(). and you can use it to receive messages. which contains one method. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.4. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. if it needs to reply to messages. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.setMessageListener(myListener). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.start().receive(). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. however. MessageConsumer consumer = session. you are likely to miss messages. This object implements the MessageListener interface. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. 188 . you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. a message listener object may be used.start(). In the onMessage() method.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. After you register the message listener. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. A message listener does. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. Moreover. (Remember always to call the start() method. 14.14 .5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. usually expect a specific message type and format.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.receive(1000).createConsumer(myQueue). Message m = consumer.createConsumer(myTopic).) When message delivery begins. You use the Session. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. it becomes active. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example. For example. Message m = consumer. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.

You must first create the messages. to create and send a TextMessage. Here. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.4.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. A message has three main parts: 1. message. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.createProducer(myQueue).setText(msg_text). 3. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination.14 . you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. 14. // msg_text is a String producer. message).send(message). that is. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.createProducer(null). and object message).send(myQueue. At the consuming end. 189 .createProducer(myTopic). For example. stream message. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.4. bytes message. MessageProducer producer = session.receive().send(message). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session.createTextMessage(). map message. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. from one application to another. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. if you created an unidentified producer. With an unidentified producer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. After you have created a message producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. anon_prod.

0). A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. then delivers the messages.createSession(true. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.createSession(false.4.println("Reading message: " + message.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.14 .getText()). After you create a Connection object.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. } else { // Handle error } 14. the first argument means that the session is transacted. Sessions implement the Session interface. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. 190 . and message consumers to receive messages. Session. If the user selects transaction support. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. Before committing the transaction. use the following code: Session session = connection. To create a transacted session.out.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The component lives inside a container. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.no developer coding. the container lives (in general) in an application server.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.logging. improved performance security . component recovery scalability portability 191 .transaction management can be complex. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. On the other side.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .DB interaction transactions . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. bundled into a single unit. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . server which provides an execution environment for containers.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.0.0.jar file into the application server. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. message-driven beans The 2.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . container which offers services to the component. Version 1. 15.consistent error handling framework . The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.object oriented representation of data in a DB.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.

4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. the home interface of the bean 3. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.xml 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the remote interface of the bean 4. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. the deployment descriptor. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. called ejb-jar. which is an xml file. as follows: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.15 .

public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi. int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.javax. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. String lastName. import.RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods.javax.rmi. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. } 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. The developer does not implement this interface.*. import java.RemoteException. RemoteException. import.ejb. import java.ejb. } 193 .*.15 .

jnp. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. } 194 . This object acts like a factory for EJBs.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). this can be done (for example) through SSL.put(Context. prop. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. creating them for the client application. "org.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. how to create or find the bean 2. In the case of an web application. "localhost:1099"). prop.PROVIDER_URL.interfaces.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.15 . what methods to use (know its interface) 3. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().NamingContextFactory". if the client executes outside the container. we need to know: 1. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.put(Context.

rmi.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").narrow(homeRef. do not have the concept of casting. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. do implements the java. Some languages. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. and this means that there are some limitations.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol.e. to the appropriate type.15 . the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. more specifically. MyBeanHome. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. IIOP has not been designed for Java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. that is part of CORBA standards. using the narrow() method. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. This is done through the javax.class).Remote interface). but for generic languages. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.PortableRemoteObject class and.rmi.. in fact. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. in fact. 195 . Problem is. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the client has a stub).lookup("MyBean"). • if the client executes outside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server.rmi. Why? For EJB. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.

SessionContext. remove the bean instance myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ejb. "Vasile".15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.ejbeans.processEntry("Dumitrascu".bank11.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.. call business methods on the bean myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. as well). String lastName..remove().ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . 1102). public class MyBean implements javax.create().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity)..ccards. import javax. 15.

public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. A stateless bean does not.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. the object is activated. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 197 . that is.15 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. namely stateful and stateless beans. 15. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.

the EJB container activates the bean. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. (Typically. For example.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. for example. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.1 are invoked by the EJB container.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. and then moves it to the ready stage. or passivate. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. At the end of the life cycle. the client invokes the remove method. The ejbCreate method. All other methods in Figure 15. Figure 15. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. is inside the bean class.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. 198 . the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.15 . • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.

ccards. an instance of that bean is created. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). in the same order.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.bank11. Update and Delete. methods which have the same parameters. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. as the parameters in the original create() method. all throwing RemoteException. We can have more create() methods. 200 .14.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. Read.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. 15. state data is stored into data store (usually. On the other side. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.lang.15 . CreateException. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.

15 . 201 . but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the client invokes the create method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. After the EJB container creates the instance.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. left empty most of the time in CMP. All instances in the pool are identical. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). but in general. While in the pooled stage. it is empty. it's business methods can be invoked. the programmer will create actual SQL code. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.14. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. a client can invoke the remove method. in BMP. On the first path.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. Second.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. for BMPs. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. for BMP. 15. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. but the developer returns null for CMP. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. not null. actual SQL update code. First. After instantiation. On the second path. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored.2 read • • • ejbLoad().14. 15. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.

getPrimaryKey(). another enterprise bean. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. 202 . In the pooled state. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. In the pooled state.15 .an application client. 15. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. it does not automatically set the primary key. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . Therefore.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. If the primary key is incorrect. or a Web component . The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. With bean-managed persistence.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. It acts as a JMS message listener.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.

rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. 15.16. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. but not asynchronously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. When a message arrives. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.16. 203 . A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.15 . To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. a JMS API connection.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The onMessage method may call helper methods. max-beans-infree-pool.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. the message will be redelivered. message-driven bean can be used. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. To ensure concurrency.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.16. If this element is set to more than one. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. In several respects.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. Unlike a session or entity bean. To avoid tying up server resources. If message processing is rolled back.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. 15. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.for example. an open database connection. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. Previously. For more information on this element see.

.jms.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. finalize{}. 3. or create a new one. Note: These instances can be pooled.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. public void ejbRemove() {. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. // An EJB constructor is required. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class... 15. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.16. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. and it must not // accept parameters. Classes. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. As with other EJB types. 15.ejb.}.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.16. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.jms. 2.Message MessageName) {.. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.0 specification. methods. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.} // onMessage() is required. Obtain a new bean instance.Message.15 . public void onMessage(javax.

8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.16.MessageListener.onMessage() for more information. For example. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.16. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. 15. 15. even in onMessage(). See javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.15 . However. 15. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. getUserTransaction(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. getRollbackOnly() . WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.jms. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). if the EJB throws a runtime exception). Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. If any method throws such an exception. 15. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16.This is not a client context. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.

For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. as required by the EJB 2. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.15 . 15. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.0 specification. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.xml. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. In either case. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. as described in the EJB 2.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.0 specification. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.

For each instance.xml deployment file. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. 207 . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. as described in the EJB 2.. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.0 specification.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.jms.15 . </message-driven> .. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.message. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 15. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. the weblogic-ejb-jar. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.ejb20.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.xml elements. 2. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. isolation level.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.15 . session specific elements 9. security 208 . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. bean home name . 15. the container calls the ejbRemove method. control descriptors . environment properties 6. the home interface name 7. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. a message-driven bean is never passivated. the remote interface name 8.like transaction.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. entity specific elements 10. access control entries .name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. At the end of the life cycle. EJB class name 5. attributes . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.security issues.

AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ejb.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11.bank11.lang.bank11.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.bank11.15 .ccards.bank11.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ejb.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.bank11.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.ejb.

. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .lang.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2..15 .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful