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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. retail. processes it (if necessary). Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Figure 1. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. processes it (if necessary).7 business components Business code. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. like the client tier. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. 1. or finance.java platform. are not considered web components. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. The web tier. 5 . like HTML pages.2 Server communication 1. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. enterprise edition Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program.1 .6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.

3 Web. enterprise bean. and other complex low-level details.9.9 java EE Containers Normally. 1. multithreading. or application client component can be executed.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. 1. and other legacy information systems. mainframe transaction processing. 6 . The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Before a web. resource pooling. In addition. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.java platform. Business and EIS Tiers 1. database systems.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. For example. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.

The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. data persistence. transaction management. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. For example. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.4. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and remote connectivity. After an enterprise bean is created.1 . The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 7 .java platform. 1.9. database connection resource pooling. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. including services such as security.

8 . Applet container . Application client container .10. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . video.java platform. When XML data is exchanged between parties. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. or for document-oriented web services.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. test. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. extensible. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. XML data. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. program files. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.manages the execution of applets. or any kind of binary data such as audio. develop. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. maps. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. 1. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.1 . and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. text-based standard for representing data. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.manages the execution of application client components. 1. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. Application clients and their container run on the client. For example. enterprise edition Figure 1. Web container . The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.

10. 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. such as Universal Description. 1. enterprise edition 1.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.1 . make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 9 . The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.10. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and ways to communicate with the service.java platform. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. the location of the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The description includes the name of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.

Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. Commonly. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. In Java EE 5. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. the session bean and its data are gone. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.11.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. or enterprise bean. standard set of tags.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. 1.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .11. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.11.11. or if the server shuts down.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. 1. 1. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. and XML) and JSP elements. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.java platform. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single. WML. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. When the client finishes executing. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. If the client terminates. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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15 . and JNDI 1. JSP page. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. Once deployed on a local platform. better tools.1 . A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. or a component. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . it can be changed without the need to modify the source code.ear extension. a module. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. SAAJ. or better customer support. JTA.java platform.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. the application is ready to run. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. such as better performance. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. it is ready to be deployed. or component accordingly. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. At runtime. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. module. servlet.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. No extra coding is needed.

Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor. for example. Application client modules. supporting class files. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor.war (Web ARchive) extension. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Resource adapter modules. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. GIF and HTML files. Together. such as caching directives. and other documentation.rar (resource adapter archive) extension.java platform. Web modules. For example. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. • • 16 . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. classes. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. enterprise edition Figure 1. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . which contain all Java interfaces.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.jar extension.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor.1 . which contain servlet class files. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. native libraries.jar extension. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an .

The second (and last.1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .HTTP 2. an initial line 2. 2. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET... As a site for understanding how HTTP works.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.org/rfc/rfc1945. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. was the object of several RFCs.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.2 . POST. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). The server answers with a response message.ietf. zero or more header lines 3.apps.jmarshall. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).w3. The client sends a request message to the server. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. These messages may have different contents.html). but they also have some common structural elements. so far) version. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.org/Protocols . .3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.HTTP 2 . as follows: 1. RFC 2616 (06/99). Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.com/easy/http... we recommend www. HEAD.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . check the official HTTP site – www. namely HTTP 1.

HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. TRACE Three other commands are listed. newsgroup. Here is their list: 1. as well. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.html HTTP/1. OPTIONS 7. CONNECT 5. HTTP/1. HEAD 3. 18 . GET /path/to/the/file/index.1 specification. in the HTTP 1. POST 4. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: .0). All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.2 . it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. PUT 8. GET 2.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. but lack of support makes them obsolete. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.1. mailing list. DELETE 6.Annotation of existing resources.Posting a message to a bulletin board. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. 2.

or a record is subordinate to a database. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. or in the message body. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. separated by the character “&” or “. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.” On the other side. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .Providing a block of data. . 3. or ordering a product.HTTP or similar group of articles. 2. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. to a data-handling process. (encoded as multipart/form-data). .2 .0 404 Not Found 2. 2. after the “?” character. In this case. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. while POST may involve anything.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.6 differences between GET and POST 1. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. like storing or updating data. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or sending E-mail 2.Extending a database through an append operation. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). such as the result of submitting a form. When used for form data submission. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.8 the status code A three-digit integer.

the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). none of them mandatory. file or script output) is returned in the message body. In particular. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. header values are.an unexpected server error. that is.1 only) .1 version specifies 46 of them. The most common use of the message body is in a response. 2. In a request. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.1). or otherwise can't run correctly.the request succeeded.g. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. 20 . and the resulting resource (e. and section 10 for HTTP 1. separated a semicolon. 2. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. where the requested resource is returned to the client.2 . such as text/html or image/jpg. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The HTTP 1. out of which. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server.the requested resource doesn't exist. Although the header names are not case sensitive.0 version specifies 16 headers.0. fails.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 404 Not Found . If an HTTP message includes a body. while the HTTP 1. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. one (Host) is mandatory.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . 500 Server Error . header name and header value. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.

video. external-body 4.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.ietf. digest. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). multipart.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. audio. with subtype plain 2. postscript 5. gif 6. parallel 3. with subtypes mixed.info. with subtype mpeg 2. with subtype basic 7. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .html first open a socket to the host web. 21 .2 .uvt. Here is the list of the seven types.apps.info. alternative. with subtypes rfc822. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. partial. with subtypes jpeg.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.html HTTP/1.org/rfc/rfc1521.0 200 OK Date: Fri. image.ro. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. 1.HTTP 2. with subtypes octet-stream. . application.ro/path/file. Then.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. RFC 1521 (www.uvt.0 From: someuser@yahoo. message. text. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.

the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP .2 . 22 .

Mosaic. The latest version (XHTML 2. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.0.com/indexdot/html . The newest version of HTML is 4.jmarshall. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. From 1999 on. www. check the official HTML site – www.html.com/tutors. Version 4. It is a revision of 4. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.blooberry. HTML describes how text. Originally named Web Applications 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.99. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The XHTML 1. The first official version – HTML 2.www. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).0. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.3 . HTML 3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.com/easy/html .HTML 3 . However. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.apps.2 (3.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. a working draft for the next major revision.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.0) dates from 08.01. A newer standard.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. 3.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. The first version of HTML. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.0 .HTML 3.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc. Since it fits in a couple of pages. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.org/rfc/rfc1866. Other helpful sites .0 and was accepted in December 1997. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.w3. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.0 draft was released in 01.w3c.html) and was widely supported.org/Markup .htmlgoodies. namely HTML 1.ietf. As a practical reference site use – www. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.01) can be found at this address: http://www.

-_:" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .

4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. This section deals with some of the most common elements.and end at the first occurrence of -->. An example: <!-. the specification of HTML 4. like ALIGN. <><> --> 25 . 3. CONTROLS. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.w3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. three DTDs (HTML 4.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.3 . DYNSRC. though. "&#x6C34. BORDER. “&quot”. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. Check the address http://www." (in hexadecimal) .html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 Strict DTD. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.the chinese character for water. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs.01 specification. …. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.acesta este un comentariu. You get the point. If you wonder what a character reference is.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 contains an SGML declaration. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. VSAPCE are omitted. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. look at these examples: “&lt”. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. HTML 4. 3.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. HTML 4. Overall.0 Transitional DTD.

indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.uvt.3.3.HTML 3. NAME. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3 .1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. etc.ro/webmail/src/login.5 tables 26 .2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.info. image.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.

the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Usually. <TH> and <TD>. its rows.3 . Here is a an example of a table: 3.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is their description and attributes. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. columns. <THEAD>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .

3 .7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.

3. Main attributes: • TYPE .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.maximum number of options visible to the user. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . SIZE . "button". specifies how data will be sent to the server. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. NAME .HTML • METHOD . "submit". specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".required. after a quotation mark . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .if specified.8. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. specifies the parameter name.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .required. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. Main attributes: 29 . however. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".uvt.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. "password". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "hidden".sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.?.8.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . "reset".info. the browser appends the values to the URL.8. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "file".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.8 form related elements 3.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.the default value.3 . "GET" .sends the form values in a single transmission.required. "text/plain" • • 3. "radio". may have the values GET or POST. allows multiple selections from the choice list. "checkbox". • 3. "image".:. Example: http://web.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

The current version (as of 10.2 java the interpreter. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. jit From source to execution. a tool named Just In Time compiler. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Java bytecode – a file with extension . project started in 12. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. The first time a class is loaded.class 3. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. In terms of execution time.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.0. The current version (as of 10.C:\TW\mySource. Inc. Java source – a file with extension . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. the compilation process occurs. To overcome this significant shortage. 4.95.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. Early versions of Java were released in 12.class. javac -classpath .JAVA PRIMER 4. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.class file.JAVA PRIMER 4 ..java.95.4 .90. -g : generate all debugging info.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. following the 1. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.) in 08.class file. but next time execution is much faster.2 version.java 2.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. Example: Edit the file prog1.java One example of command line compilation: 4.3 java applications 31 .4.

The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. An example: 32 . each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . or is derived from A.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . or that it extends A). This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4. 4.4 object oriented concepts 4.4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. Generally. In general.4 .jar file. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.java.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.

4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. In OO jargon. Long. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4. with the root the class Object. Character. Double. Therefore. a class can have more than one method with the same name. this is called method overloading. Therefore. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. namely: Byte. called Object. 4. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. 33 . providing its own implementation. Short. a Java class can extend a single base class. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Boolean. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. 4. Float.1 bit char . all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . 4.4 .4. Integer. In fact.

. class . inherited).4 .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . method . A final variable (method.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. has the same value for all class instances.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. } declares an abstract class. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.one which is defined at class level. 4.servlet. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. anywhere abstract .access from any class anywhere private . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the class is visible from any class.http. • • • • no specifier .HttpServlet implements Serializable { . rather than at class instance.no access from outside the class itself protected .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). 34 . automatic garbage collection. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. Except for the "package" concept. which extends the class javax.http. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.servlet.does not have any subclasses.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is constant method . A final: • • • variable .. no templates.

Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .7. array index out of bounds.ThreadDeath. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 2. Exception categories: 1. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. division by 0. java errors .7.4 . Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. as defined in the java.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. code or data errors .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7.JAVA PRIMER 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. In Java. programmer defined exceptions 4. namely class Error and the class Exception. not at execution time. standard method exceptions 3. 4.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 4.7.like invalid cast.

9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.awt. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.class file.support for java archives creation java. catch. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .zip .security 36 .bank11.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .support for data collections. In the example above. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.geom .4 . 4.awt . followed by the import statements.support for event handling java.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.ccards. the class (the . don't have to import java.nio java.Properties. The package containing the standard classes is java. 4.util .default. finally construct.by adding the key word throws. As a general rule. string analyzers. they have to be unique inside a package. date and time info java. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.servlets. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. therefore.sql.io java.util. All other packages must be explicitly imported. import. . The names in a package are qualified by the package name.support for user interface java.lang . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.rmi java.event . the default package is used).this can be done by providing a try..java.sql java. An example: package com.8.net java.awt. import javax.lang (automatically available).util. 4..*. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).1 Package names The default package has no name.

support for event handling 4.4 .swing. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All variables (actually. it must be declared as abstract.text javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.accessibility javax.event .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. 37 .swing . static and final.

3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. then LiveScript and finally. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . like QtScript or ActionScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.HTML authors are normally not programmers. However.5 . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.JAVASCRIPT 5. This is not always what we want. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . as JavaScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.A JavaScript statement like this: document. 5. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. Subsequently. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . and . other 38 .depending on the browser .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.javaScript 5 .

.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. To simplify this.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.. </script> </body> 5. 5. When you place a script in the head section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.js file extension...3. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. go in the head section. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. point to the .5 . </script> </head> 5.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. 39 . or when an event is triggered. Save the external JavaScript file with a . Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> ..3. without having to write the same script on every page.

The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable... switch().javaScript 5.4.. break.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.In statement The for..5 .4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. The code in the body of the for .5..4.. while()...1 JavaScript for.. else. continue. catch constructs.4. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .. in loop is executed once for each element/property. namely – if .in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.. 5. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. for().2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". 5. in and the try .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.4.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5.

in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.catch statement (available in IE5+.3 try..0. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. mycars[0] = "Saab". they often leave the Web page. When users see errors. an array element.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. Example Using for. mycars[2] = "BMW".write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Mozilla 1. or a property of an object.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.. mycars[1] = "Volvo".5 . for (x in mycars) { document. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .5. var mycars = new Array()... The try block contains the code to be run. } </script> </body> </html> 5. so you don't lose your audience.. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.5.catch statement The try.

alert(txt). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7. Also. txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up.5 . } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n".description + "\n\n". 5.\n\n".javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue.7 popup boxes 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. When a confirm box pops up.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the box returns true. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. Syntax: prompt("sometext".7."defaultvalue") 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .. in the example above had not been written within a function.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. If the user clicks "Cancel".5 .8. the box returns false. the box returns null. Now. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.js file). Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.8 functions 5. If the user clicks "OK". When a prompt box pops up. in the <head> section. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. If the user clicks "Cancel".7. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .

.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. and how they are used.8.javaScript function functionname(var1.. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . document. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. etc are variables or values passed into the function.write(txt.9 javaScript objects 5. var2. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.5 . 5.. 5.. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.9.length). The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. 5.var2. and will be stored in the variable called product. So.9.varX) { some code } var1. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.

The other class are the language specific objects.javaScript 5.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.5 .toUpperCase()). 45 .9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. </script> 5.write(str. which will be specified in the next section. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". The first class consists of browser specific objects. document.

as well).1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. every Link on the page is an Object.11.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Even this Document itself is an Object.w3schools. every Image on the page is an Object. N: Netscape. check the site http://www. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. Properties FF: Firefox. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.5 . At its most basic level. For example. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. When an event message has been triggered. which are called Objects.asp 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.com/jsref/default. or when the user interacts with a Web page.

Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .5 . searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.

to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to local time.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to universal time.5 . according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . N: Netscape. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.11. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string. according to Greenwich time.

4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object. var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.11.5 3 4 .5 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.

11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. N: Netscape.

1.javaScript 5. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 1. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . N: Netscape. 2.y) min(x.5 . 0.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 2.11. 0.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 3.y) pow(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. Properties FF: Firefox.

personObj. Assume that the personObj already exists .write(personObj.eyecolor="blue". document. Properties are the values associated with the object.age=30. All persons have these properties. age. personObj. The persons' methods could be eat().propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.12. age. height. eye color. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. 53 .1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.5 . weight. with a collection of properties and methods. etc.firstname="John".eyecolor="blue".you can give it properties named firstname. Objects also have methods. personObj.12. play(). personObj. skin tone. etc. work(). and eyecolor as follows: personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5.firstname). but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object().lastname="Doe".firstname="John". lastname.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.12. The persons' properties include name. 5.age=50. personObj.lastname="Doe". sleep(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj.

age=age.eyecolor) { this. this. } Notice that the template is just a function.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname."green"). this."Rally". this. this.lastname=new_lastname.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.lastname.propertyName. like this: myFather=new person("John"."blue").age=age. this.lastname=lastname.50. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.eat=eat. this. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). You can also add some methods to the person object.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. you can create new instances of the object.lastname=lastname.age. 54 .eyecolor=eyecolor.age. 5. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. myMother=new person("Sally".5 . Inside the function you need to assign things to this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand."Doe".firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.48.12. Once you have the template.newlastname=newlastname. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.

.5 .javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.". JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. 5. For example. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.newlastname("Doe"). So. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. now you can write: myMother. We define the events in the HTML tags.

13.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.w3schools. The name is then stored in a cookie. 5. 5.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. If the field values are not accepted.2 onFocus.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.5 .13. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . For example. the submit should be cancelled. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.13.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .

SVG. 2010). or WebAPI being among them.g. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). In other words. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.HTML DOM 6. 6. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.Html DOM 6 . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The W3C 58 . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. Right now (oct. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.6 . the Document Object Model activity is closed. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. As of January 2008. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. However. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. particularly those used in Web browsers..defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. CSS. HTML. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. and style of a document. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. structure. By October 1998. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. XML.

including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. As of 2005. 5. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 1. a new DOM Core specification. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form.6 . which further enhances the DOM 6. and 6. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. each of which contains required and optional modules. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. 3. HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Core. To claim to support a level. 2.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. DOM Level 3 Requirements.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. 6. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 XPath. Level 2. Level 2 XML namespace support. 4. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. filtered views and events.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Validation.

A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. By 2005. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. All HTML elements. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. 6. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.x were still widely used in 2000. Konqueror. The Window object represents a browser window. and Safari.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. that is. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.6 . large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. support multiple browsers. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.x and Netscape 4. along with their containing text and attributes. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. can be accessed through the 60 . Opera. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. In order to be cross-browser compatible. interoperability problems were numerous. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).

The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. JavaScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. It can be used by any programming language like Java.6 .Html DOM DOM. and new elements can be created. and VBScript. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .

in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. 62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. everything in an HTML document is a node.Html DOM 6.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. <head> and <body>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. 6.9. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. the element node <title>. The tree structure is called a node-tree. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8. The <html> node has two child nodes. 6.6 . In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. However.

and new elements can be created.getElementsByTagName("p"). By navigating the node tree. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. • • • • • In a node tree. using the node relationships. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. child. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. The terms parent.6 . children. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. 63 .2 node parents. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.9. except the root. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).getElementById('main').Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).getElementsByTagName("p").3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. By using the getElementById() method 2. Their contents can be modified or deleted. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. Parent nodes have children. the top node is called the root Every node. and the connections between them.9.

6 .i++) { document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). document. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.innerHTML).write("<br />").length. each node is an object. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.i<x. } 6.9.Html DOM for (i=0.write(x[i].

The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 . 6.Html DOM 6.nodeValue.firstChild.9. txt=x.getElementById("intro").5 example . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.

frames. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.6 . A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including window. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. objects and images.

and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. say "click". During the event flow. Mozilla.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. 67 . Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. for instance. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. 6.6 . but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Safari. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Fires when an element is activated. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. as of version 1. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. DOMNodeInserted. also supports these methods. When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.3. Also. and then bubbled up.

there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. etc. including information about target element. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Unfortunately. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. mouse position. preventDefault 68 . Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. key pressed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.Html DOM 6.6 .12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). mouse button pressed. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event.

2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. The server does some processing — retrieving data. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.AJAX 7 . It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. 69 . talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. etc. crunching numbers.AJAX 7. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. 7. 7. dynamic website. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. menus. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.7 . but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. but also to save resources. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. choices of user. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. It is not a technology in itself. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. For example. fields of forms. before the whole page was sent within the network. For improving sharing of resources. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. using web services or Php scripts.

waiting around for the server to do something. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Once an interface is loaded. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. we wouldn’t make users wait around. 70 . This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. waiting.7 . Obviously. While the server is doing its thing. at the start of the session. And at every step in a task. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. the user waits some more. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. Instead of loading a web page. but the opposite is true.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. 71 .7 . loading additional interface code. editing data in memory. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.

.holds a Xml loaded file.200 is ok.AJAX 7. 1: connection established.mode: type of request. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. 404 if the page is not found .for a Xml file or .url: the location of the file 72 .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.send: send a request to the server.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. These events are user actions. 7.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. 4: finished. DOM's method allows to extract data. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.for a simple text. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.open: create a connection. and in this purpose. 2: request received. url. . onreadystatechange .holds loaded data as a string of characters. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. GET or POST . This object provides two methods: . To get data on the server.returned by the server .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".responseText . It allows the interaction with the servers. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . boolean) . . thanks to its methods and attributes. 3: answer in process. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.responseXml .7 . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.

// IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. request.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . } else if (window. 73 .send(null).XMLHTTP").6 building a request. for browser compatibility. but two options must be tried. http_request...open('GET'.readyState == 4) { // received.open: command GET or POST. Safari. .null for a GET command 7.7 . if (window.xml'.send: with POST only. 'http://www. OK } else { // wait.xul.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. The request below reads a document on the server.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.. http_request.AJAX . the data to send to the server. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. true for asynchronous. // Firefox. . true). URL of the document.fr/somefile.. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . if (request.

2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.ajax.status.status == 200) document.dyn="Received:" + req.7. else if (window. by this code: var doc = req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. req. req. if(window.dyn="Error code " + req. req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.getElementsByTagName('root'). "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").xml". req. true). "data.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.XMLHTTP).onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.responseText.responseXML.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.ajax.AJAX 7.responseText. else document. }.readyState == 4) if(req.7 .item(0).send(null).dyn=""Received:" + req.7. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .open("GET".XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().7 examples 7.ajax.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.)> <web-app> <!-.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. 3. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Initialization of parameters for servlets. database connection resource pooling. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.xml file: <?xml version="1. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services..xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. like what pages are error.bank11. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. 5. web.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 6. servlet classes. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. entries related to session configuration. Servlet. Others. data persistence.class>com.ccards.. JSPs and Java Server Faces. descriptions). After an enterprise bean is created. 4.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. For example. 2. but typical web.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Servlet. like: 1. 8. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. classes.8 . welcome pages.servlets. Here is a small. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. MIME types used by the web application.

ccards. whose name is rather long. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".bank11. 1.xml" file. In general. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.bank11. Behind a very benign URL.class" and that it is part of the package "com.xml" 2. Unfortunately. the name of the web application. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.servlets". For example. However.ccards.xml". This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.servlets".bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.xml file of the web application.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".ccards. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). basicly. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". Then the "EnrollServlet. Basicly.8 . for flexibility. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.

9. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. in most cases as part of an application server.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 2010. 9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.9 .2. the Java Servlet 3.0 specification is available for public review. As of oct. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.SERVLETS 9 . The current Java Servlet specification is 2. the HttpServlet) class. Technically speaking. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. which extend the functionality of the web server. modular design 9.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. more often.SERVLETS 9. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. small footprint. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .5 and is in final state. but at this point.4. tjws spec 2.4. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).0 specification. platform independent programs.2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . from BEA Systems. this is just a work in progress. but through a web container.

from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. public void service(ServletRequest req. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. IOException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . Enterprise Edition. 82 . the javax. from Apple Inc. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet javax. These packages are: • • javax.servlet. while the second one. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.9 .servlet package are protocol independent.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. WebSphere. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from IBM 9.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet package. public void destroy() throws ServletException.

Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. namely the HttpServlet class. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. Throwable t) 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. before the servlet processes any HTTP request.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet API provides such a specific class. the web container calls its init() method. ServletConfig. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. 9. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. in a different section.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. 83 . After instantiating the servlet. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. as well. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. This method has two arguments. The method performs all initialization required.9 . respectively.

9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. 9.servlet.lang. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.Exception class. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.lang. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.ServletException javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). service(). It also extends the java.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 . HttpServletResponse resp) 9.

The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. 9. Typically. etc. DB connection opening. After instantiation. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. Typically. this method contains JDBC driver loading. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects.servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. respectively. JSP or JSF. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. 85 . which will service all incoming requests. Also.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.SingleThreadModel. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. If the servlet does not implement the javax. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs.9 .

One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.9 .SERVLETS 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.

9 .15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.ccards.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.*. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.java" file: package com.xml file. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. This is done in server's (container's) server. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. import java.io. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. 87 .servlets.bank11.

setContentType(“text/html”).http.println("merge"). } } 88 .getWriter().println("<body>"). out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</head>"). PrintWriter out = resp. out. import javax.servlet. out.println("</html>").println("<br>"). // output your page here out. out. IOException { resp.*.9 .*. out. out.println("</body>").println("<head>"). out.SERVLETS import javax.close(). out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out.servlet.init(config). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<html>").

odbc.JDBC 10. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.sun. These drivers fall into four standard categories.1.10 . After that. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). 10.jdbc. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. the java. as recognized by the DB industry.JdbcOdbcDriver . Type 1. the javax.sql package. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. 1997. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. The JDBC 4. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.0.sql package 2. 89 . This solution is inefficient. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.JDBC 10 . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. Starting with version 3. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.0 while the current (4.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).

JDBC Type 2. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.10 . The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. because it eliminates one level of indirection. which in turn. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Type 4. 90 . Part Java. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. Type 3.

Time java.SQLPermission java.sql.Statement java.Date java.0).Connection java.sql.0 API.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.SQLInput java.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Clob java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.3 the java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Timestamp java.Struct java.sql. java.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.Types java.sql.JDBC 10.SQLData java.SQLWarning java.10 .sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java.Blob java.sql.DriverManager java.CallableStatement java.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.Array java.Wrapper 91 .sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.SQLOutput java.SQLXML java.sql.SQLException java.Driver java.sql.

sql.sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.Clob java.DatabaseMetaData java.Connection java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.StatementEvent javax.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.SQLInput java.10 .sql.sql.sql.sql package.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java. loading a database driver 2.SQLClientInfoException java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLXML java.PreparedStatement java.Types java.sql.CallableStatement java.ClientinfoStatus java.sql. processing the result set 92 .RowId java. querying the database 4.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLDataException java.0.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.NClob java.Wrapper javax.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Blob java.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java. java.sql.StatementEventListener 10.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.4 interaction schema in the java.ResultSet java.SQLTransientException java.Statement java.sql.sql.

net.jdbc.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.sybase.SybDriver com. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.10 .jdbc.borland.jdbc.db2.DB2Driver oracle.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .JDBC 10.DataStoreDriver com.driver.ibm. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.odbc.datastore. A database driver is specified by the driver name.

String user = "root". user.newInstance().com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. as specified by the driver vendor.mm.printStackTrace(). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. but let's take it for granted: import java.getConnection(connURL.util. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).forName("org. try { Class.Driver").JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. passwd).mysql. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). by using the connection URL. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. import java.sql. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. 94 . Since we just used it.gjt.*.bank11. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.10 .*.

Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.put("create".JDBC 10. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. int resultSetConcurrency. we can use it for various purposes.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. Properties prp = new Properties(). "true"). 10. String user. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax.getConnection(connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.put("autocommit".10 . The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.util. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. java. prp). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . prp. "true").sql package. prp. Connection conn = DriverManager.

method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. Statement.JDBC 10. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. namely. respectively. prepared statements and stored procedures. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 .

executeUpdate(sqlString). stmt. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution...9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.createStatement(). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .sql. 10.10 . The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.".

The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.10 . What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. not at 0) or the column name. and CallableStatement objects. as the argument. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. 98 . One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. PreparedStatement.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

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10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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There are three types of implementations: 1. secs date.0 optional package.DataSource object. Connection pooling implementation -.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. time. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. It is part of the javax. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.sql. This interface is.produces a standard Connection object 2. Basic implementation -.sql.Time java.10 . a factory for creating DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.Big Decimal Object float 10.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. basicly. mins.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math.sql package. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.math.sql.produces a Connection object that will 103 .

produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.naming.getName()).http. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().servlet. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.*.servlet. java.bank11. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. 104 .lookup("java:comp/env").*.*. private DataSource theDataSource.sql.io. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. import import import import import import java.*. javax.ccards.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. javax. javax.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*.servlets.sql. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.getLogger(TestDataSource. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".class. Distributed transaction implementation -. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.10 . 3.*.

10 .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.. ServletException { . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).

servlet. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.1 and is related to the 2.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. The javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .2 the java.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The package javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet. The package javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.tagext.JSP 11. the servlet code is regenerated.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.jsp and javax.5 Java Servlet specification. namely javax. The JSP specific interfaces.servlet. If the JSP is modified.servlet.11 .jsp.JSP 11 . 11. 11.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". 111 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". include and taglib.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" ... the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.JSP • if the URL does not start with / ..11 .

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . Assigns it to available name or id.11 . a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7. 11.JSP 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7 scripting elements 11.7. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. In Tomcat.7. 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.

JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.11 . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.the name of a bean instance. Attributes description: • • • name . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . you must specify param. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . and if so. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.

11 . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . flush . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.name of the property to be retrieved 11.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.only the "true" value is supported. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . converts them to string and displays the output to the client. <jsp:forward>. 11.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean.the URL of the page.13 the forward standard action 114 . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . <jsp:plugin> actions. same format as the <%@include> directive.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . name="instanceName" . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.." .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). 11.11 . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name .. servlet or to a static resource.a name for the Bean or applet instance..JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. If you do not supply a value.the type of object the plugin will execute. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. archive="URIToArchive. It is used mainly. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . depending on request. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . You must specify either bean or applet.. when we want to separate the application into different views.the name of a bean instance.class extension in the name following code.. You must include the . as this attribute has no default value. as well.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. code="classFileName" . .

to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents the servlet context.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . in pixels. optional port number. of the image the applet or Bean displays.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.Object type and scope page 11. in pixels.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . pageContext . request .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.the initial height and width. based on the servlet API.1. Must be a small nonzero number.servlet. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.io.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. 1. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. with a protocol name. request . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. out .11 .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. config .it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.lang. session .16 scopes 1. page . response . writes to the output stream to the client. and domain name.jsp.it represents the buffered version of java.JspWriter type and scope page 7. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.represents server's response to the request.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.PrintWriter. it has java. objects which are automaticly available. it has javax. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. The default value is 1.the amount of space.1" . The value is a full URL. application .

<%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp file.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .beans.11 . page . session .JSP request object.bank11. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.init().an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.ccards. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. Object value) method 3. if (enrollBean.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 2. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. Object value) method 11. Object value) method 4.

a software development and consulting company.11 .register(). 11. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private boolean flag.Serializable { private String string. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private String optional. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.java: package com. SimpleBean. a float.18. a boolean and another String). The SimpleBean class is declared public. The public constructor could have been omitted. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.simple. %> <jsp:forward page="response.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private float number. private int integer.mapping. private int list[].devsphere.io. an int. private String colors[].examples.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.string.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.

} // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.flag. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.number.integer. } 119 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.string = value.colors. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer = value.11 . } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.flag = value.number = value.colors[index]. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.JSP this.colors = values.

int value) { this.list. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list[index].11 .optional.list = values.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.subBean = value.optional = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.colors[index] = value. } } 120 . String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.subBean.

io. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.18.number = value.string = value. private float number.examples. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.Serializable { private String string. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.number. SimpleSubBean. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.mapping.devsphere.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.java: package com.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } } 11. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.11 .simple.string.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).

11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.number SimpleForm.

colors]". It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]". new String[] { 123 .flag]". "One or more colors must be selected" }. There are three error messages. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "One or more items must be selected" }. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new int[] { 2. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.list]".JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. new Boolean(true) }.simple.number]".123) }.18.mapping. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".list]". the list of optional properties. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.devsphere. the form's name and the processor's name. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. 3 } }. error messages.util. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. new Float(0. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.examples. SimpleBeanResources. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. a boolean and an int[]. The list of optional properties has a single element.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "An option must be selected" }.11 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.java: package com. the processing order. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string]". a float. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. The default values are defined for a String. "abc" }.

devsphere. "integer". "number".html" }.devsphere.mapping.devsphere. "SimpleForm. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").simple. "colors". { "[PROC_NAME]".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. For a better understanding of this example. "list". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. string values are converted to numbers. } } 11. "subBean" } }.mapping. { "[FORM_NAME]". "SimpleProc.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. If necessary. "optional".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. The beanToForm() method of com. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp" } }. "flag".JSP "optional" } }. com.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere.util.logging. SimpleHndl. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping. new String[] { "string".mapping.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.18. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.examples.11 .*.

errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Process the valid data bean instance application. int slashIndex = basePath. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getClass()).getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getTemplate(new java.getMethod().formToBean(formData.equals("POST"). slashIndex+1) : "". } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getDocument().io.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getString("[PROC_NAME]").substring(0. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getRealPath(formPath). logger).JSP = HandlerUtils. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.util. formPath = application. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.File(formPath)).removeUserErrors(errorTable).11 .trim(). response).getString("[FORM_NAME]"). 125 .getServletPath().lastIndexOf('/'). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.forward(request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). simpleBean.trim().getBeanResources(simpleBean.

JSP elements logger). SimpleProc. i++) 126 .getSubBean().SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.11 . StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().beanToForm(simpleBean. document.getString() %> <P> subBean.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].mapping. i < list.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getSubBean().5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. for (int i = 0.string = <%= simpleBean.18.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. } %> 11.append("{ ").examples.number = <%= simpleBean.length == 0) return "".simple. if (list. strbuf.send(out). // Send the form document document.devsphere. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils. errorTable.length.

jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } %> 11.11 . return strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.length. return strbuf.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. ComplexHndl. if (list. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. ComplexForm.devsphere.append(" "). making the testing and the debugging easier.toString(). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.length == 0) return "".SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. } strbuf.util.18. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.length == 1) return Integer. In addition. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append("{ "). i < list.append(list[i]). StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). } strbuf.append("}").append(list[i]). strbuf.formToBean() call.examples. i++) { strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. A single call to FormUtils. for (int i = 0.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.append(" ").jsp files.append("}").6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. strbuf. In addition.simple. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.toString(list[0]). A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.toString().mapping. Using the framework.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. The localization of the Complex*. strbuf.

%> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "Option 2".length.11 . for (int i = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false. i < integerLabels. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". j++) if (colors[j]. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "blue" }. "Option 3" }.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors().length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. i < colorValues. for (int i = 0. 128 . "Blue" }. j < colors. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.length.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "Green". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. String colorValues[] = { "red". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { int value = i+1. "green".

length.11 .getSubBean().setSubBean( new com.simple.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.examples. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. i++) { int value = i+1. break.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "Item 2". String listItems[] = { "Item 1". "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. "Item 3" }.JSP break. i < listItems. j < list.SimpleSubBean()).length. "subBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.mapping.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. boolean selected = false.getList().

util. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.equals("POST").get(property).getSubBean().examples.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.getString() == null || simpleBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".setSubBean(simpleSubBean).SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. boolean isPostMethod = request.mapping.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere.getMethod(). return message. "subBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. } %> ComplexHndl.11 .Hashtable errorTable. 130 .number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.examples.mapping.util.length() == 0) { simpleBean.setString("abc").simple.getString().number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.simple.

getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(0.setFlag(flagValue != null).123f). else { simpleBean. if (flagValue. "string".getColors() == null || simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be filled").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 .length() != 0) simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null.trim(). "An option must be selected"). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.floatValue()). "integer". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("number").getParameter("flag").11 . "Must be a number"). "number". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getColors(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } simpleBean.123f). "Must be filled").setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue.

} //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected"). "subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2.string".number"). "list". //* subBean.getList() == null || simpleBean. "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.getString().length == 0) { simpleBean.getParameter("subBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "Must be filled").number : text try { String numberValue = request. 3 }). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.setString(""). 132 . "One or more colors must be selected").11 .number". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "colors".length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.floatValue()). "Must be } //* subBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getList().getString() == null || simpleSubBean.

examples. simpleBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".123f).helpers.setFlag(true). message). 3 }). } %> 11.Hashtable errorTable. The com.SimpleBean.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.\ 133 .isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.number".18. simpleBean.util. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.jsp.devsphere.setNumber(0.JSP filled").setString(""). simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.mapping.devsphere. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setList(new int[] { 2. "Must be a number"). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.simple.11 . simpleSubBean. String property.devsphere. simpleBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setOptional("").xml: SimpleHndl.setString("abc").code=com.helpers. "subBean. } } else { simpleBean. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. errorTable.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.mapping.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.properties or web.put(property.

devsphere.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.host.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www. In many cases.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .another.11 .helpers.code=com.company.helpers. you could add a few other lines to servlets. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.mapping.devsphere. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.xml) file: ServletName. a servlet is identified with its class.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. A servlet can be made bean-independent.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.host.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.mapping.devsphere.properties: AnotherHndl.AnotherBean.properties (or web.18.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.examples.host.mapping.simple.code=com.mapping. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.examples.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. If you have another bean-form pair.devsphere. 11.

11 .JSP 135 .

0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. Version 2.0.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. 12. This technology includes: 1. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. 2. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . like input fields.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.javaserver faces 12 . Version 2. buttons. processes events. which loads the appropriate view template. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.12 . A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.JAVASERVER FACES 12. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0 supersedes version 1. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. builds a component tree.

JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.javaserver faces 12.2 of the JFS specification. As of version 1.12 . The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .4.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

see the column tag documentation.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. 12. respectively.12 . A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns.4.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. columns and rows.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Common formatting techniques. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. footers.

Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.checkout}" /> 139 .total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.4.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.12 . your options include using plain HTML forms. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.4.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.

username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required." /> 12. red for error.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.</span> 12.user.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.4.user.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.12 .5. 12.

12.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. For example.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.5.

The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.mycompany. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.customer. Without this JavaScript event.12 . This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. validateLength.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. 12. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. The body content of this tag must be empty.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.5. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.javaserver faces 12. but only if the new input is validated successfully.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. can publish value change events. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.5.

jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. myJSFapp 143 . The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.javaserver faces 12.12 .5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. including images and styles. If you have not specified a default locale. for each locale you wish to support. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. Example: welcome_en.5. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.mycompany. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.

like third party jar files jsf-impl. Define navigation rules 3.xml web. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. Create properties files 144 .javaserver faces /ant build. Create JSP pages 2.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar jsf-api. static resources. jsf-api.contains libraries required by the application. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml – the JSF configuration file. JSP pages. Create managed beans 4. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.exadel.jar – files included in the /lib directory.html. It has a deployment descriptor. and so on. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.12 .com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. mandatory for any JSF application web.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . custom tag libraries.jar.jar faces-config.

We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. And that's all there is to this.xml file.12 . Create an index.jsp is greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . These files will act as place holders for now.jsp file 7. Compile the application 8.7. The directory structure already exists. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.javaserver faces 5.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. In our application. we can create a navigation rule.jsp to greeting. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. As a diagram. You only need to create the JSP files. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. Edit JSP pages 6. Deploy and run the application 12. 12.jsp and greeting.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp.jsp. You just need to create its contents.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.7. we just want to go from inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.

visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. 12. request sets the bean scope in the application. of course.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.) 12. we will create a PersonBean. public class PersonBean { String personName. myJFSapp. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.3.xml Your final faces-config.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. This class is straight-forward.javaserver faces This is.xml Now. the second part of faces-config. 12. a very simple navigation rule.3.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.3 faces-config.7.7. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.xml file should look like this: 146 .7.12 . Inside this myJFSapp folder.3. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.1 PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones.PersonBean. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.java file.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. To read more about navigation rules. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. The next line is the full class name.

this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.sun. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. Inc.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.12 .5.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.7.properties file in the bundle folder. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.7. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. 12.1//EN" "http://java.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .sun.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.4.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.7. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.1 messages. 12.1 inputname.sun.

One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle. <h:inputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .bundle. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . Then.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.

The first three lines are identical to our first page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. The second line will access a Java bean..com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.javaserver faces Line 1.2 greeting.bundle. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. Create the index. 12. Line 6.sun.xml file. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. That's how JSF knows where to go next.greeting_text}" />.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Lines 3-5. and also print its contents on the page. specifically the bean attribute personName. Line 2..jsp page.6 creating the index. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Creates an HTML input text box.7.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Having an index. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.5.7. name! 12. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.</h3> tags. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.12 .jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .

Your setup.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. because in the web. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. verifies the information. When Tomcat is done loading.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.8. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.7. though. To do this.12 .jsf and not .7. which asks an user for an ID and password.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.9 Running Next. 12. We are almost done with this example.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. you'll notice the file suffix is .bat in Tomcat's bin directory).sourceforge. and forwards the user to a success or error page. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. we need to deploy it. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).javaserver faces Now.html .7. This is used here. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. To build the application run the build. Of course.jsp. might possibly be different). 150 .xml file. 12. This is a "login" application.xml file for the application *.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. 12. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. 12. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.

in the Add JSF Support page. Select Java Project. click Add Folder. 3. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. 9.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.src | +-. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). name the folder pages. click Next.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Next d. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. Select the Amateras node.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click Next. see Installing & Uninstalling. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Yes through messages that appear.12 . from the menubar select File/New/Other. name the folder webroot 5. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. 7. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. say. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.. click Finish 4.. 6.webroot | +-. and set up folders for a web application. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. c. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. your mileage may vary. Enter project name. jsf-login. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. and to add JSF libraries to the project. 10.WEB-INF 151 .Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 2.8. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 12.xml Editor (see faces-config. The New Project wizard appears. 1.. select the Source tab.. in the wizard that appears. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.. a... Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. make sure all checkboxes are checked. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.

Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. Click Finish. b. } 4. The Java code editor opens. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. click Add.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. In the Package field. click Managed Bean.12 . if ( _uid. else action = "loginFail".8. The New Java Class wizard appears. for class enter login.LoginManager. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. 3.lib | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". c. a. The faces-config. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.xml Editor. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. private String _pwd = "". Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } return action. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. for name enter mgr.javaserver faces | | | +-.xml. in the Name field enter LoginManager.xml editor opens.pages 12. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.java package login.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. input widgets appear d. 1. from its context menu select New/Class. for scope select 152 . from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. enter login. We then configure it to be a managed bean. 2. In Package Explorer select the src folder.

Create success.jsp and error.webroot/pages/error.jsp: a. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. and 3 content pages (login. the JSP Editor opens.jsp). All pages except login. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.webroot/index.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. but in webroot/pages.jsp: create this file similarly to index. the New File wizard appears.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. 1.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. Create error. e.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. save the file and close the editor. Enter the following code: <!-. c. </body> Please try 153 . We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp. click Finish. success.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp.8. for File name enter index. <!-. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp: create this file similarly to index. in Package Explorer select webroot. Enter the following code: <!-. from its context menu select New/File. then close the editor 12.jsp is placed directly in webroot. so we create them first. Create index.jsp.jsp). Then we create login.jsp. again. but in webroot/pages.jsp are simple pages with static content.javaserver faces session. enter the following code. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. b.webroot/pages/success.12 . index.

Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. now we want to add attributes to this element.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.. and the JSP Editor can help with code. g. etc. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. 154 . and choose default for Template. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. enter jsf-login e. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.jsp: a. a code-completion window pops up.. Create login. as shown below. from its context menu select New/Other. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. b. click Next c. d. (See Show View Dialog) f. To see this in action. with the following template code. click Finish. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.sun.12 . in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.sun. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Open the JSF palette.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html..jsp.javaserver faces </html> 4. place your cursor in one of these lines. the New wizard appears.completion. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. for File name enter login. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and dock it along the right. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and uses them for code completion as well.

sun. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. and hit Enter. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. complete the expression with the closing { k.javaserver faces h.loginAction} The final code. set its value to Login. this inserts value="" at the cursor. enter #{mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. insert another <h:inputText> element. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.) j. with bean properties available in mgr. insert a <h:commandButton> element.12 . i.sun. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. with the barest presentational formatting.password}" l. a code-completion window pops up. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .

and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. this inserts a page icon into the editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. 156 .userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Select the Navigation tab 3. 2. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. using a FacesIDE editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. This is shown below. Open faces-config.xml.8. click on Page.12 . it should open in the faces-config. 1. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. then click inside the editor window.xml Editor.

jsp. This is shown below: 157 . in the Properties view.jsp.jsp and then on the icon for success.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). from the palette at left. select Navigation Case. Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 .jsp. change the value of path to /index.jsp 4. and set them to /pages/login.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. notice that the warning triangle disappears. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. add 3 more pages. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. 5. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. 6. then click first on the icon for login. /pages/success.jsp and /pages/error.

or leave it as-is.xml for the specifics of our application. any other id/password should send you to the error page. 12. We'll set some properties in web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.6 Editing web. and you should be sent to the success page. We want virtual path-based mapping. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. all we need do in web.jsp.xml. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. open web. The application is now complete.javaserver faces 7.8. since we have such a trivial application.jsp. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. so uncomment it. Once deployed browse to index. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. As it turns out.xml.jsp to error. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.12 . by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. Similarly add a forward-action from login.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).xml Here we edit web. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. 1.

CONFIG_FILES 159 .webapp 12.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.10 the javax.faces.html javax.8. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. for Context path enter /jsf-login..faces.model javax.faces javax.faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.lifecycle javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm..event javax..el javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. the Manager application should reload. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.javaserver faces 12.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.0 1. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.validator javax.faces.faces.context javax. that factory is used.12 .faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. click Deploy 3.component javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. scroll down to Deploy.faces. open its Manager application in a browser. Click on its link to launch the application.application javax.faces.convert javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.faces. 12. For a given factory class name.component. start Tomcat.render javax.faces.faces. as file:///.

application package Contains the following classes: • Application .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. with the last one taking precedence.12 . FacesMessage .represents a single validation (or other) message. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. StateManager . FacesMessage.11 the javax. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. 12.Severity . its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. StateManagerWrapper . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.faces. If none of the above steps yield a match. those factories are used. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). with the last one taking precedence. handling events and input validation. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. defining page navigation.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. ViewHandlerWrapper . ViewHandler . ApplicationFactory .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .

faces.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". Here they are: • • UIColumn . ValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.faces. when activated by the user.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. NamingContainer .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .12 . ContextCallBack . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. • ViewExpiredException . UICommand . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. • • 161 . EditableValueHolder .context. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. String.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. UIComponentBase . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. a menu item. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. String) results in failure on postback.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. or a hyperlink.FacesContext. 12. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. ActionSource2 . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. StateHolder .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. UIComponent .restoreView(javax.12 the javax.

UIMessages . UINamingContainer . UISelectBoolean . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.12 . UIInput . UIForm . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.html package 162 . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. identified by a clientId. UISelectItem .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.13 the java.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. UISelectOne . UIGraphic . Optionally. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.faces. UIMessage . the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. This component has no rendering. it is for display purposes only. it just serves as the root of the component tree. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). that is displayed to the user. Optionally. The user can modify the selected values. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.component.javaserver faces • UIData .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UIParameter .a UIComponent that has a value. The user can modify the selected value. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIViewRoot . it is for display purposes only. UIPanel . The user cannot manipulate this component. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.

represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element of type text.represents an HTML img element. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlForm .represents an HTML input element of type password.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents an HTML form element.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.faces. HtmlInputTextarea .represents an HTML label element. or not. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .faces. HtmlPanelGrid . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML textarea element. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlOutputText . and renders the result.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. This component must be placed inside a form. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlGraphicImage .12 .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.renders child components in a table.by default. On a redisplay. HtmlCommandLink . HtmlColumn .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. but the application wishes to render more than one. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlMessages . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlOutputLink . HtmlMessage .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. used to retrieve and render a graphical image. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.Message". HtmlCommandButton . The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlInputText . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlInputHidden . HtmlInputSecret . HtmlOutputFormat . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlDataTable . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents an HTML input element of type hidden.by default. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.renders the component value as text.

context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . HtmlSelectManyMenu . showing a single available option at a time.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. FacesContext .15 the java. showing a single available option at a time. FacesContextFactory . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. ResponseStream .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • • • • • 12. and potentially modified by.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. It is passed to.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.convert package 164 . ResponseWriterWrapper . HtmlSelectOneListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. In particular.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . and the rendering of the corresponding response.javaserver faces property. • • • • 12. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.14 the java. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. ResponseWriter . HtmlSelectManyListbox .12 . HtmlSelectOneRadio .faces.

an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .javaserver faces 12.15. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. ValueBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. VariableResolver .16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. Classes: MethodBinding . 12.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. PropertyResolver .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.faces.12 .

listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.12 .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. FacesEvent .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseListener .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent . PropertyNotFoundException . ValueChangeListener .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . 166 .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.AbortProcessingException . PhaseEvent . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. • • • • 12.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). PhaseId . and event implementation classes.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding.faces.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. FacesListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. • • • • • One exception .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.17 the java. MethodNotFoundException . Interfaces: ActionListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.

SelectItemGroup .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".19 the java.18 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Classes: ArrayDataModel .faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. ResultSetDataModel .12 . 12.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.faces.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ResultDataModel . ScalarDataModel . DataModelEvent . Renderer .20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects. ListDataModel .faces. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. DataModel . SelectItem . • • • • • • • • • 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.javaserver faces 12.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.

RenderKitFactory . and/or user Locale. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. LongRangeValidator . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . which perform the actual rendering process for each component. 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .21 the java.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. as well. • RenderKit .22 the java. including a standard servlet.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. AttributeTag .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. and concrete validator implementation classes.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.12 . together.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. The package contains an exception. • • 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. ResponseStateManager . Typically. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.faces. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.faces. ConverterTag .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . markup language.validator package Interface defining the validator model. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. base classes for JSP custom component tags.

User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. 12.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the life cycle is more complicated. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. servlets. FacetTag . When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. When using JSF. the controller sends a message to the model. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. telling the view to update its presentation. In MVC. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. UIComponentTag . • • • • • FacesServlet . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. ValidatorTag . or when an exception occurs. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. Also. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). When a web server receives a request. In JSF. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation.12 . which has several implications.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. telling the model to update its data. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. but basically. related to a UIComponent. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing.a base class for all JSP custom actions. the controller sends a message to the view. When the model is updated. the process includes a few more components or pages. UIComponentBodyTag .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. the controller is the 169 . that need to process their tag bodies. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. that request is passed to the container. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. the JSF life cycle does not apply. or some other web technology. which passes the request to the page class. When the user takes some action with the presentation. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Likewise. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.

Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. Data can come from input fields in a web form. 170 . When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page.javaserver faces JSF implementation. If this is a subsequent request. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the conversion occurs in this phase. converting a String to a Date object). any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. or from request headers. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). In addition. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. However. and a piece of data failed validation. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. and the UI components are the view. and the response is sent to the client. For a JSF-enabled application. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. These objects update their state with the data values. • Invoke Application: During this phase.12 . the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. the JSF implementation must create the view. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. In addition. depending on the request. from cookies sent as part of the request. The components are stored in a component tree. is validated at this time. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. it creates UI objects for each view component. As with the previous phase. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. Data for some components. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. and what happens during the processing and response. such as components that create HTML input fields.

the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.12 . 171 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. skipping any remaining phases. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. if errors occur during any of the phases. Also. For example. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.javaserver faces In the above figure.

Thus the DNS name sales. in turn.JNDI 13. names a file hello in the file directory usr. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. Using JNDI. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. /usr/hello. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. when you use an electronic mail system. which is located in the root of the file system.COM. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. and NIS(YP).JNDI 13 . 13. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.13 . names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry."). you must supply its name. identifiers. For example. for example. possibly multiple. The UNIX pathname. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. It enables applications to access different.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. you supply it the name of the object.Wiz. To access a file in the computer. When using almost any computer program or system.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. you are always naming one object or another. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. A file system maps a filename (for example. such as addresses.9. naming and directory services using a common API.2. 13. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems.COM.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. such as LDAP. DNS. c:\bin\autoexec. The DNS entry Wiz. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. or objects typically used by computer programs.5). For example. In addition. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. NDS. For example. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API.sun. 172 .48.

By contrast.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. is accessed using a file reference."). The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). and listing bound names. A printer object. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. Finally. a DNS domain.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.2. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. is relative to c=us. which in turn. 13. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. an LDAP entry. 13. might contain the state of the printer. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. in the UNIX file system is a context.2. that is. unbinding names. A reference is information about how to access an object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. delimited by the comma character (". is a context. For example. and fuel and instrument status.13 . For example.2. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. For example. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. For simplicity. That is. such as COM. such as /usr. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. is a context. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. such as c=us. For example. o=Sun. for example. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.c=us. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. its flight plan. also called a file handle. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. For example. 173 . Typically. In another example. Every context has an associated naming convention. such as its print server name and printing protocol. a file name is bound to a file. on the other hand. a file directory. they must be stored by reference. that is. while the object itself might contain more state information. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee.COM. and its flight number and departure time. Using the reference. A printer object reference. in the DNS domain Sun. Instead. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. for example. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. 13. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. in a file directory /usr/bin. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. A file object. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. some objects cannot be stored directly. relative to the entry o=Sun.

you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. various telephone numbers. resolution.2.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. postal mail address. For example. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. two different computer 174 . A naming service is accessed through its own interface. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. for example. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. Thus. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a person. programs. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a name is unique 13. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. For example. And it kind of makes sense. 13. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. and even the computer itself and other computers. An example is the telephone company's directory service.13 .3. A directory object can be used. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. however. and color. because we can. For example. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. For example. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. one context can be viewed. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. to represent a printer. and computer account information. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. a computer.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. to some extent. or a network. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. 13.

13 . When directory objects are arranged in this way.50".113. 13. When you search. Alternatively. support the notion of searches.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. Similarly.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. Within the DIT. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. printers. 13. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. for example. Many examples of directory services are possible. many directories. adding. 175 . the ability to access directory services will become essential. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The query is called a search filter.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. such as those based on the LDAP. for example. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. for example. such as the file and print services. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. The email address. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. For example. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192.com". an organization object. and users. that is.4. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. like any other program running on the network. 13.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. For example. By using a directory service. such as that relating to machines.3. 13. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.smith@somewhere. 13. A Java mail client program.3. networks. The service is accessed through its own interface. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.3. can use the directory in the traditional way. "mail" is the attribute identifier. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. removing. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. called a directory information tree (DIT).

It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.naming javax. For example.2. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. Thus a variety of directories--new. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. v1.4. 13. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.13 . To use the JNDI. 13.naming. emerging.3 and later releases.1 and the Java 2 SDK. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.naming.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. For example.event javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. v1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. The Java 2 SDK.2.5.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.ldap 176 .2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.1 and Java 2 SDK. more coherent and manageable. and even the network. 13.directory javax.naming.1 and v1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.5. It extends the v1.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. v1. 13.

Furthermore. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. 13. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.lookup("treekiller"). You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. comparing components. list() is similar to listBindings().String name argument represents a composite name.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications.13 . such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. that is. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. The overloads that accept java. 13. which is the core interface for looking up.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.6.lang.print(report).lang. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. and the object itself. A java. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .String name. for some objects in the directory. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.6. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. In this case.lang. and so on. a 177 .3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. the name of the object's class.spi 13.JNDI • javax. For example.6 the naming package The javax. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. composing them. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.1 context The javax.6. However.naming package defines a Context interface. binding/unbinding. 13. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. 13.6. For the methods in the Context interface. printer. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.naming. and it returns the object bound to that name. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.

13. replace.directory package extends the javax. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. For example. 13. they should catch NamingException.6. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). 13. Once you have an initial context. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.13 . InitialContext. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. 178 . DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context.7.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.6. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. Otherwise. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.7. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. You can add. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. In the simplest and most common form of usage. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.naming.7 directory package The javax. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. There are no absolute roots. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes().

A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . or unsolicited notifications. These operations are called "extended" operations. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. For example. Once registered. called controls . the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.9. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .9 LDAP package The javax.naming. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace.JNDI 13. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. 13. controls.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.naming.9. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. 13. such as "object changed.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. such as information about the object before and after the change.directory package.naming.13 .naming. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. and vice versa. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.9.naming. 13.ldap package at all. that is. 13. To receive event notifications. In fact. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. For example. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. such as "object added.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.8 event package The javax." and those that do not.

For example. That is.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.10 service provider package The javax. create a file named Lookup.1 plug-In architecture The javax.2 java object support The javax.naming. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. import javax.13 . one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10. and receiving response controls. 13. This support is provided in the form of state factories.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. 180 .java. In the process of completing an operation. This support is provided in the form of object factories. 13.naming. if you look up a printer name from the directory. 13. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.9. implementors of Context.10. 13.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13.Context. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.naming. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.11. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.naming package.10. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. 13. sending request controls. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. It uses a service provider for the file system.

jndi. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). For this reason.NamingException. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. env.err.sun.naming.lookup() to look up an object. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.5 compiling the program Next. 13. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). then the JNDI classes are already included.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. use Context. Object obj = ctx. as follows. 13. 13.InitialContext. import javax.out.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.RefFSContextFactory"). } 13. "com. If you are still having problems. If the compilation fails. // Print it System. Otherwise. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. To compile to program. you must have access to the JNDI classes.JNDI import javax. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.lookup(name). If the compilation succeeds.3.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.11.11.java). then see the Common Problems lesson for help.3 looking up an Object Next.put(Context.lookup(name). v1. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. 181 . How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.naming.11.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). create an initial context. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.13 .jar as an installed extension. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).fscontext. using the capitalization shown. } catch (NamingException e) { System.

java. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. create a file named Getattr. supply the name of a file in your file system.naming. import import import import import javax. create an initial directory context.sun.12.jndi.Attributes.bat If you supply a file directory.PROVIDER_URL.directory. javax. then you will see something like the following.fscontext. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.JNDI 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.13 .INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). 13. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.directory.LdapCtxFactory"). v1. To run the program.11. javax.directory packages.naming.put(Context. javax. you need access to the JNDI classes. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.directory. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. 13.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. 182 . "com. Finally.jar and providerutil. and your example class (Lookup. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). env. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.ldap. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.jndi.6 running the program To run the program.naming and javax.put(Context.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.DirContext. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. the file system service provider.12. env.sun.naming.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.Context. javax.jar).naming. include the directory that contains your Lookup.naming.3.NamingException.class). then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.naming. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.InitialDirContext.

then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.out. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.err.get() on it to get its value: attrs. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. For now.get(). 13. If the compilation succeeds. As with the naming example. If the compilation fails. ou=People").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get("sn"). using the capitalization shown. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.12. } 13. If you are still having problems.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.println("sn: " + attrs. For this reason. Similar to the naming example. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). compile the source file using the Java compiler.13 . 13. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Attributes. } catch (NamingException e) { System. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.get() and then from that attribute get its value. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. ou=People").12. 183 .4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.6 compiling the program Next.java). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.get("sn"). try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. 13. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.12. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.get()). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.

Getattr. Once it has the attributes. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.12. then see the Common Problems lesson.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.JNDI 13.PROVIDER_URL. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. ou=People". v1.class. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then these classes are already included. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jar). With this configuration. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. 184 .7 running the program As with the naming example.jar and providerutil. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.3.13 . Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. env.put(Context. If you have any trouble running this example. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.

• 14.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS topic .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.a JMS client that receives messages. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. JMS message . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. unless it has established a durable 185 . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. In this model. As the name queue suggests.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.14 . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS queue .2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS consumer . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. Enterprise Edition. Here. JMS producer . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS client .

the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. 186 .3 the JMS API programming model 14.4. 14. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.jms. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. Using Java.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. On the receiving side. 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.14 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. Depending on the type of message. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. In that case.

When you have a ConnectionFactory object.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.4. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. 14. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. It receives messages sent to a destination. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Before an application completes. you call the stop() method. 14. Before your application can consume messages. Depending on the connection type. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().4.createConnection(). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. you must close any connections that you have created. Like the connection factory. In a J2EE application. For example.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.14 . and users discover them using JNDI. Connections implement the Connection interface.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). It is either a queue or a topic.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.close().lookup("jms/MyQueue").3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. connection. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. For example. The JMS administrator creates these objects.4. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. 14. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. you must call the connection's start() method. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.

Moreover.receive().5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myQueue). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. (Remember always to call the start() method. This object implements the MessageListener interface. consumer. connection. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). 188 . Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. For example. usually expect a specific message type and format.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. you are likely to miss messages. which contains one method.setMessageListener(myListener). After you register the message listener. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. Message m = consumer. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. MessageConsumer consumer = session. however.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. 14. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. After you have created a message consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.createConsumer(myTopic). onMessage(). if it needs to reply to messages. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. a message listener object may be used.start(). it becomes active.start(). and you can use it to receive messages. A message listener does. You use the Session. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered.) When message delivery begins. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. Message m = consumer.4. In the onMessage() method.14 . For example. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.receive(1000).

send(message). from one application to another. At the consuming end. MessageProducer producer = session.14 . You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.receive(). message).send(myQueue. You must first create the messages. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.createProducer(myQueue). a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. to create and send a TextMessage. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. map message. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. For example. With an unidentified producer. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. 189 .4. Here. anon_prod. if you created an unidentified producer.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. stream message. and object message).createTextMessage().4. 3. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. 14.send(message). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. bytes message.createProducer(myTopic).setText(msg_text). use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. message. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). that is. // msg_text is a String producer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A message has three main parts: 1. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. After you have created a message producer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.createProducer(null). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.

0).println("Reading message: " + message. To create a transacted session. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.createSession(false. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.4. Here.createSession(true.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.out. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. Before committing the transaction. } else { // Handle error } 14. Session. After you create a Connection object. the first argument means that the session is transacted. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.getText()). Sessions implement the Session interface. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. 190 . A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. then delivers the messages. use the following code: Session session = connection. and message consumers to receive messages. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. If the user selects transaction support.14 .

2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.object oriented representation of data in a DB.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. message-driven beans The 2. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. The component lives inside a container. Version 1.no developer coding.consistent error handling framework .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . bundled into a single unit. improved performance security . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .0.15 .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .jar file into the application server. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.0. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. On the other side. container which offers services to the component.transaction management can be complex. 15.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. component recovery scalability portability 191 . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.logging. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). server which provides an execution environment for containers. the container lives (in general) in an application server.DB interaction transactions .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.

3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.xml 15. which is an xml file. the deployment descriptor. the remote interface of the bean 4. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. called ejb-jar.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface.15 . It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. as follows: 1. the home interface of the bean 3. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 .

ejb. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException. import.*.ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.rmi.javax. import java. String lastName. import. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.*. The developer does not implement this interface. } 193 . void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods.rmi. import java.javax. RemoteException. } 15.

getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. prop. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. we need to know: 1. prop.put(Context.jnp. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.put(Context. In the case of an web application.15 . how to create or find the bean 2. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).PROVIDER_URL. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. "localhost:1099"). "org. } 194 . this can be done (for example) through SSL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. if the client executes outside the container. creating them for the client application.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.interfaces.NamingContextFactory".

to the appropriate type. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.rmi. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). MyBeanHome. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. and this means that there are some limitations. do implements the java. Problem is. 195 .class).lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). in fact.rmi. Why? For EJB.narrow(homeRef. This is done through the javax. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. the client has a stub).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. • if the client executes outside the container.PortableRemoteObject class and. more specifically. do not have the concept of casting. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.e. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.Remote interface). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.15 .. but for generic languages.rmi. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.lookup("MyBean"). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. IIOP has not been designed for Java. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. Some languages. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. in fact. that is part of CORBA standards. using the narrow() method.

15. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation . as well). set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).SessionContext.ejb. import javax. 1102). "Vasile"..create(). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean..remove().processEntry("Dumitrascu". remove the bean instance myObject..15 .. call business methods on the bean myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.ejbeans. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 .ccards. public class MyBean implements javax. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.ejb. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. int custId) { // method implementation .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.bank11.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. String lastName.

A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. A stateless bean does not. that is. 15. 197 . namely stateful and stateless beans. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.15 .9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. the object is activated. 15. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.

the EJB container activates the bean. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. Figure 15. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. The ejbCreate method. for example. the client invokes the remove method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. All other methods in Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. 198 .15 . If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.1 are invoked by the EJB container. For example. (Typically. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. is inside the bean class. or passivate.

maintaining a cache between transactions 4. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. stored in a Database). equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.15 . The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.

15. in the same order. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).lang.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. Read.ccards.15 .1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. state data is stored into data store (usually. as the parameters in the original create() method. On the other side.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. methods which have the same parameters. Update and Delete. We can have more create() methods. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.14. all throwing RemoteException.bank11. 200 . CreateException. an instance of that bean is created.

After the EJB container creates the instance. but in general.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. but the developer returns null for CMP. Second. 15. it is empty. it's business methods can be invoked.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. the client invokes the create method. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. On the second path.14. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. a client can invoke the remove method. the programmer will create actual SQL code. in BMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.14.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). left empty most of the time in CMP. 201 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. While in the pooled stage.15 .4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). for BMP. not null. 15. for BMPs. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. After instantiation. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. On the first path. actual SQL update code. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. All instances in the pool are identical. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. First.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.an application client. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. With bean-managed persistence. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state.15 . It acts as a JMS message listener. the values of the instance variables are not needed. 202 . The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. If the primary key is incorrect. In the pooled state. or a Web component . 15.getPrimaryKey().3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. Therefore. it does not automatically set the primary key. another enterprise bean.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.

The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. If this element is set to more than one. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . To avoid tying up server resources. When a message arrives. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. but not asynchronously. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. change the weblogic-ejb-jar.15 . • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. The onMessage method may call helper methods. 15. a JMS API connection. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. If message processing is rolled back. To ensure concurrency. Unlike a session or entity bean. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. an open database connection. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.16. 15.16. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. message-driven bean can be used.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context.16. Previously. For more information on this element see.for example. 15. In several respects. max-beans-infree-pool. 203 . a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. the message will be redelivered.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.

16. // An EJB constructor is required. Obtain a new bean instance. Note: These instances can be pooled. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.Message. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic... The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context..16.jms. and it must not // accept parameters. public void ejbRemove() {. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. As with other EJB types.Message MessageName) {. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.ejb. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. Classes. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. 2.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.0 specification. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. methods. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.. 15.. or create a new one.15 . // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. public void onMessage(javax. 3. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.}. finalize{}.jms.} // onMessage() is required.

if the EJB throws a runtime exception).8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. See javax.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.16. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.MessageListener.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.16. even in onMessage().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.16. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. getRollbackOnly() . because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. If any method throws such an exception. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. However. For example.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. 15.16. 15.This is not a client context. 15. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. 15. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .onMessage() for more information.jms.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. getUserTransaction().15 . although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). passing the full JMS message object as an argument. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.

16. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. 15.16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.0 specification.xml. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.0 specification. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. as described in the EJB 2. In either case. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.16.15 .14 deployment elements The EJB 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. as required by the EJB 2. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .

as described in the EJB 2. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.0 specification..xml deployment file.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.. the weblogic-ejb-jar.message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.ejb20.jms. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 207 . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. 2.15 .xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.xml elements.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. For each instance.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. </message-driven> .Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. 15.

control descriptors . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. environment properties 6.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. At the end of the life cycle. session specific elements 9. a message-driven bean is never passivated.like transaction. security 208 . bean home name .specifies control attributes for transactions 4.15 . the remote interface name 8. access control entries . EJB class name 5. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. the home interface name 7. attributes . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. 15. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. entity specific elements 10.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.security issues. the container calls the ejbRemove method.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. isolation level. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.

1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ejb.ccards.ejb.lang.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 . here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ejb.bank11.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.ccards.15 .ejb.ccards.ccards.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.bank11.bank11.bank11.bank11.

5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..15 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..lang.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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