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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. 5 . Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. or finance. like HTML pages. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. enterprise edition Figure 1. 1.7 business components Business code. retail.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.1 . like the client tier. are not considered web components. Figure 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.java platform. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. processes it (if necessary).2 Server communication 1. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. The web tier. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. processes it (if necessary).3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. and sends it back to the client program. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.

and other legacy information systems. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Before a web. database systems. For example. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. 6 .1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.3 Web. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. In addition.9 java EE Containers Normally. Business and EIS Tiers 1.1 .java platform. resource pooling. multithreading. and other complex low-level details.9. enterprise bean. or application client component can be executed. mainframe transaction processing.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). enterprise edition Figure 1. 1. 1.

1. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. For example.1 . JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. database connection resource pooling. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. data persistence. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.4. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.9. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. and remote connectivity. transaction management. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. After an enterprise bean is created. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 7 . including services such as security.java platform. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.

10. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. video. Applet container . Application clients and their container run on the client. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. text-based standard for representing data. enterprise edition Figure 1. maps. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.1 .manages the execution of applets. 8 . a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. develop. test. For example. Web container . The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. XML data. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Application client container . Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .manages the execution of application client components. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. or for document-oriented web services. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.java platform.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. extensible. or any kind of binary data such as audio. program files. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. 1.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. 1.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. When XML data is exchanged between parties.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.

all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10. The description includes the name of the service.1 .10. enterprise edition 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. 9 .10.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. and ways to communicate with the service. 1. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. such as Universal Description. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. the location of the service.java platform.

You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. 1. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. If the client terminates. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.11. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages.11. or if the server shuts down. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. standard set of tags. In Java EE 5. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. you employ a single. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. or enterprise bean. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.1 . and XML) and JSP elements. the session bean and its data are gone.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. Commonly.java platform. enterprise edition Figure 1. WML.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. 1. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. When the client finishes executing. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


the application is ready to run. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. servlet. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. JTA. SAAJ. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. No extra coding is needed. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. better tools. 15 .java platform. or a component.1 . module. such as better performance. and JNDI 1. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.ear extension. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. it is ready to be deployed. At runtime. or component accordingly. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or better customer support. a module. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. JSP page. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. Once deployed on a local platform.

the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. For example. which contain all Java interfaces. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. for example. Web modules. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. Together. GIF and HTML files. Resource adapter modules. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.java platform. JSP files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. such as caching directives.war (Web ARchive) extension. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. native libraries. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.jar extension. enterprise edition Figure 1. which contain servlet class files. • • 16 . and a web application deployment descriptor.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. supporting class files. Application client modules. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. classes.1 . Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and other documentation.

so far) version.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.html).0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. The server answers with a response message. namely HTTP 1.HTTP 2 . Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. we recommend www. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.1. POST.apps.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).HTTP 2. but they also have some common structural elements. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions..ietf. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. an initial line 2..) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . HEAD.. zero or more header lines 3. check the official HTTP site – www. .2 . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.w3. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. as follows: 1. These messages may have different contents. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.com/easy/http. was the object of several RFCs.jmarshall. RFC 2616 (06/99). The second (and last.org/Protocols .org/rfc/rfc1945. The client sends a request message to the server..2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). 2.

2 . .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.0). These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. HTTP/1. Here is their list: 1.1 specification. 2. in the HTTP 1. PUT 8. TRACE Three other commands are listed.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. CONNECT 5. but lack of support makes them obsolete. DELETE 6. HEAD 3. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. newsgroup. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. as well.html HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . unless that text happens to be the output of the process. OPTIONS 7.Annotation of existing resources.Posting a message to a bulletin board. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. POST 4. mailing list. 18 . The only difference is that the response must not have a body. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. GET 2.1.

In this case. to a data-handling process. 3. 2. such as the result of submitting a form. while POST may involve anything. or in the message body. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. (encoded as multipart/form-data). . after the “?” character.Extending a database through an append operation. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). or sending E-mail 2. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. 2. When used for form data submission.0 404 Not Found 2. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.6 differences between GET and POST 1. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. or ordering a product. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. like storing or updating data.HTTP or similar group of articles.Providing a block of data. or a record is subordinate to a database.2 .7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. separated by the character “&” or “.” On the other side. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.8 the status code A three-digit integer. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.

500 Server Error .the request succeeded. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. The most common use of the message body is in a response. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 404 Not Found .1). this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. file or script output) is returned in the message body. that is. such as text/html or image/jpg. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. Although the header names are not case sensitive. where the requested resource is returned to the client. separated a semicolon. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. header name and header value.0. 20 .the requested resource doesn't exist. 2.1 version specifies 46 of them. 2.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. If an HTTP message includes a body. one (Host) is mandatory.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. or otherwise can't run correctly.2 .HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .g. while the HTTP 1. fails.0 version specifies 16 headers. and the resulting resource (e. The HTTP 1. and section 10 for HTTP 1. none of them mandatory. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. out of which. header values are.1 only) .an unexpected server error. In particular.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. In a request.

1. . with subtypes mixed. audio. with subtypes octet-stream. text. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .info. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. alternative. external-body 4.ro. with subtype plain 2. with subtypes rfc822.uvt.info.0 200 OK Date: Fri.html first open a socket to the host web.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. application. with subtype basic 7. 21 . sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtype mpeg 2.apps. partial.ietf.html HTTP/1.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. message.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. RFC 1521 (www.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. digest. gif 6.org/rfc/rfc1521. postscript 5. multipart. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. with subtypes jpeg. Then.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. video. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.ro/path/file. parallel 3.HTTP 2.uvt. Here is the list of the seven types. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). image. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.0 From: someuser@yahoo.2 .

2 . the server closes the socket. 22 . </body> </html> After sending the response.HTTP .

com/tutors. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. A newer standard. Mosaic.html) and was widely supported. The first official version – HTML 2. As a practical reference site use – www.2 (3. namely HTML 1.0) dates from 08. HTML 3.www.99. The newest version of HTML is 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.w3.01.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.0 .org/Markup . All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. The latest version (XHTML 2.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. Other helpful sites . From 1999 on.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.com/indexdot/html . appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.0 draft was released in 01. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).org/rfc/rfc1866. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. The first version of HTML.htmlgoodies.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. www. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.0. Version 4. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .jmarshall.ietf. It is a revision of 4. However. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. check the official HTML site – www.html.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.apps.com/easy/html .w3c. Since it fits in a couple of pages.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. 3.HTML 3 . <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.0 and was accepted in December 1997.3 . HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. The XHTML 1.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. HTML describes how text.blooberry.0. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.HTML 3. Originally named Web Applications 1. a working draft for the next major revision.01) can be found at this address: http://www.

permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .3 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.

" (in hexadecimal) . though. HTML 4. If you wonder what a character reference is.acesta este un comentariu.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. 3.3 . the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.w3. <><> --> 25 . Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. 3. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. three DTDs (HTML 4. CONTROLS.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. 4. You get the point. "&#x6C34.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.0 contains an SGML declaration. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.01 specification. This section deals with some of the most common elements.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Transitional DTD. An example: <!-. VSAPCE are omitted. HTML 4. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. Check the address http://www.the chinese character for water. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. like ALIGN. DYNSRC.0 Strict DTD. the specification of HTML 4. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. Overall. …. BORDER. “&quot”.and end at the first occurrence of -->.

ro/webmail/src/login.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.uvt. NAME.3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.5 tables 26 .3.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. image.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. etc.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.info. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.HTML 3.3 .4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.

<THEAD>. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Usually. its rows. <TH> and <TD>.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns.3 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is their description and attributes. <TR>. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is a an example of a table: 3.

required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .3 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. allowing user input and parameter submittal.7 forms A form is a basic component container. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .

required.the default value. "image". since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. Example: http://web. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . "text/plain" • • 3. NAME . SIZE . • 3. 3.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. "checkbox". "file".required.8 form related elements 3.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .?.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Main attributes: 29 . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". "GET" . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. however.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . may have the values GET or POST. specifies the parameter name. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.HTML • METHOD .uvt. "hidden". Main attributes: • TYPE .sends the form values in a single transmission. "reset".specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.3 .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "radio". specifies how data will be sent to the server.info. the browser appends the values to the URL.8.:.required. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".if specified. after a quotation mark . "button". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .8.8.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "password". allows multiple selections from the choice list. "submit". Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .maximum number of options visible to the user.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

jit From source to execution.4. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Java source – a file with extension .90. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. Inc. -g : generate all debugging info.JAVA PRIMER 4. The current version (as of 10. the compilation process occurs.class 3.java.java 2.C:\TW\mySource. Example: Edit the file prog1.class file. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The current version (as of 10.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. but next time execution is much faster.2 version. Early versions of Java were released in 12.2 java the interpreter.java One example of command line compilation: 4. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .class file.95. The first time a class is loaded.95. In terms of execution time.JAVA PRIMER 4 . 4..3 java applications 31 .) in 08.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.4 . javac -classpath . project started in 12. To overcome this significant shortage.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. a tool named Just In Time compiler.class. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05.0. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. following the 1. Java bytecode – a file with extension .

1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.4 . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . or that it extends A). In general. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.jar file. Generally. 4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A.4. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4 object oriented concepts 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().java.4. An example: 32 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.

4. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Float. In OO jargon. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. with the root the class Object. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. Short.1 bit char .4.4 .5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). this is called method overloading.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Integer. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Long. Character. 33 . Double. 4. In fact. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. namely: Byte. providing its own implementation. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality.4. Therefore. a class can have more than one method with the same name. called Object. Boolean. Therefore. a Java class can extend a single base class.

the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . 34 . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .4 . 4.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. has the same value for all class instances.does not have any subclasses.access from any class anywhere private . } declares an abstract class. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. class .servlet. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. Except for the "package" concept. A final variable (method.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). which extends the class javax. A final: • • • variable ..one which is defined at class level. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. inherited).all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.servlet. • • • • no specifier . rather than at class instance.http.no access from outside the class itself protected .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .one which is constant method .http..HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. method . no templates.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. automatic garbage collection.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.the class is visible from any class. anywhere abstract .

2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. as defined in the java. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. java errors .7.7. 2. In Java. programmer defined exceptions 4.ThreadDeath. code or data errors .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. division by 0. namely class Error and the class Exception. standard method exceptions 3. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. not at execution time. array index out of bounds.4 .1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code.7.JAVA PRIMER 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .like invalid cast. 4. 4.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. Exception categories: 1.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.

awt.support for data collections.*.io java.by adding the key word throws. import.util.Properties. 4..this can be done by providing a try. 4. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified. An example: package com.security 36 .JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .ccards.awt .default. the class (the . the package statement is the first one in a java source file.lang .9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java..bank11. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). string analyzers. .servlets.support for event handling java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.util .support for user interface java. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. they have to be unique inside a package. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. import javax.zip . date and time info java. In the example above. finally construct.awt. As a general rule. catch. The package containing the standard classes is java.sql java.event .8. the default package is used). which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.support for java archives creation java.util.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. therefore.sql. 4. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.net java.1 Package names The default package has no name. All other packages must be explicitly imported. followed by the import statements.geom . don't have to import java.4 .java.nio java.rmi java.lang (automatically available).class file.

event .text javax. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.4 . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). it must be declared as abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. All variables (actually.swing .swing.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.support for event handling 4. 37 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.accessibility javax. static and final.

A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. then LiveScript and finally.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. This is not always what we want. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. The origins of this language date back to 1995.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. and . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . like QtScript or ActionScript.A JavaScript statement like this: document. as JavaScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . other 38 . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.5 . like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .javaScript 5 .HTML authors are normally not programmers. Subsequently. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .depending on the browser . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. 5. However.JAVASCRIPT 5.

. Save the external JavaScript file with a . 39 . or when an event is triggered. </script> </body> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. </script> </head> 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3. go in the head section.5 .3. 5...js file extension.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. When you place a script in the head section.3. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.. without having to write the same script on every page. point to the ..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. To simplify this.

.4. 5. The code in the body of the for . This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. while(). Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . in and the try ..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. while() it is worth mentioning the for .4.. break.. 5.. namely – if . catch constructs.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.javaScript 5. 5..5 . in loop is executed once for each element/property.4.. else. switch(). for().3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.....1 JavaScript for. continue.5.4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.In statement The for. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.

0.3 try. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". for (x in mycars) { document... mycars[0] = "Saab". This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. an array element.5. or a property of an object.5 . and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. they often leave the Web page.. } </script> </body> </html> 5..catch statement (available in IE5+.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.catch statement The try. The try block contains the code to be run. so you don't lose your audience.5.write(mycars[x] + "<br />").javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. Mozilla 1... var mycars = new Array().. Example Using for. When users see errors. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. mycars[2] = "BMW". mycars[1] = "Volvo"..2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .

6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.7 popup boxes 5. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").description + "\n\n".\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. 5. txt+="Error description: " + err. Also.7. txt+="Click OK to continue. When an alert box pops up.5 . Syntax: 42 .\n\n". alert(txt).

We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked."defaultvalue") 5. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.7.8. When a confirm box pops up.7. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the box returns false. If the user clicks "Cancel". Syntax: prompt("sometext". When a prompt box pops up. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.js file).8 functions 5.5 . Now. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.. If the user clicks "Cancel".3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. in the <head> section.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. If the user clicks "OK". A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the box returns true. in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns null. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 .

The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.var2. document. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .9..8...write(txt.9.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!". 5. So. and will be stored in the variable called product. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.length)..5 .javaScript function functionname(var1. 5. 5. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.9 javaScript objects 5. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2.varX) { some code } var1. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. etc are variables or values passed into the function. var2.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. and how they are used.

write(str.5 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". 45 .9. The first class consists of browser specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.javaScript 5. document. which will be specified in the next section.toUpperCase()).3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The other class are the language specific objects. </script> 5.

For example.com/jsref/default.asp 5. as well).w3schools.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.11. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. check the site http://www.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Properties FF: Firefox. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. which are called Objects.5 .1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. every Image on the page is an Object. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. or when the user interacts with a Web page. every Link on the page is an Object. When an event message has been triggered. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. Even this Document itself is an Object. N: Netscape. At its most basic level.

Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. N: Netscape.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.5 .11. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.5 . depending on the browser.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number.

according to Greenwich time. to a string.11. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to universal time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.5 . N: Netscape.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Properties FF: Firefox.

5 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Syntax for creating a new Number object. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).

N: Netscape.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 1 .11.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.

2. 2.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. Properties FF: Firefox. 0.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. N: Netscape.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.y) min(x.javaScript 5.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 1.y) pow(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.5 . 3. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.434) Returns PI (approx. 0.11.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.

lastname="Doe".2 Methods An object can also contain methods. etc. Objects also have methods.eyecolor="blue". etc. eye color.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). personObj.12. personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. play(). personObj. age. sleep(). weight. Assume that the personObj already exists .12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.age=30.12. 5.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj. with a collection of properties and methods. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. personObj. lastname. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. The persons' properties include name. work(). but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. personObj. All persons have these properties. age. 53 . The persons' methods could be eat().firstname="John".eyecolor="blue". personObj.you can give it properties named firstname. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.age=50. height.firstname).lastname="Doe". Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.firstname="John".5 . skin tone.write(personObj.12. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. document.

The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. myMother=new person("Sally"."Doe". Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. you can create new instances of the object.eyecolor=eyecolor. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. this. } Notice that the template is just a function.age=age. this.eyecolor=eyecolor. this.12.5 .eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.eat=eat."blue"). The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).lastname."Rally".age=age.lastname=new_lastname. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.lastname=lastname. Once you have the template. this. 54 ."green"). like this: myFather=new person("John". Inside the function you need to assign things to this.newlastname=newlastname. this.eyecolor) { this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.age.firstname=firstname.propertyName. 5.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.48.50. this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.lastname. this.age. You can also add some methods to the person object.lastname=lastname.

We define the events in the HTML tags. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. For example.. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.5 . Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. 5.newlastname("Doe").". So. now you can write: myMother.

and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. the submit should be cancelled.2 onFocus.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. If it returns true the form will be submitted.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. If the field values are not accepted. The name is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.13. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.13. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".w3schools. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. For example.5 . 5.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .javaScript event').

The W3C 58 .defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. and style of a document. the Document Object Model activity is closed. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.6 . The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. However. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document.Html DOM 6 . SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . CSS.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. XML. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. Right now (oct. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. In other words.. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.HTML DOM 6. SVG. particularly those used in Web browsers. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. 2010). HTML. or WebAPI being among them. 6.g. As of January 2008. By October 1998. structure. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.

4. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. 3. DOM Level 3 Core. DOM Level 3 Requirements. Level 1. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. each of which contains required and optional modules.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . As of 2005. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. 2. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. 5. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Validation. which further enhances the DOM 6. DOM Level 3 XPath. HTML-specific elements are included as well. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2 XML namespace support. Level 2. and 6. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). 6. To claim to support a level.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events.6 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. filtered views and events.

0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. 6. By 2005. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. that is. In order to be cross-browser compatible. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.x were still widely used in 2000.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).5 web browsers implementation Earlier.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. support multiple browsers. The Window object represents a browser window. can be accessed through the 60 . Konqueror. and Safari.x and Netscape 4. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. along with their containing text and attributes. interoperability problems were numerous. All HTML elements. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. Opera. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 . when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.

The contents can be modified or deleted. and new elements can be created.6 . It can be used by any programming language like Java. and VBScript. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .Html DOM DOM. JavaScript. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent.

9.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. The <head> node holds a <title> node. everything in an HTML document is a node. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. 62 . 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.Html DOM 6.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. the element node <title>. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". 6.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.6 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. However.8. The <html> node has two child nodes. <head> and <body>. The tree structure is called a node-tree.

The node tree below shows the set of nodes. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).getElementsByTagName("p").9. using the node relationships.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. By navigating the node tree.2 node parents. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. and the connections between them.getElementById('main').getElementsByTagName("p"). Their contents can be modified or deleted.6 . By using the getElementById() method 2.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. and new elements can be created. except the root. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. Parent nodes have children. The terms parent. the top node is called the root Every node. • • • • • In a node tree. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.9. 63 . child. children.

} 6.write("<br />").i<x. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.Html DOM for (i=0. each node is an object. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document.length. document.6 .4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).9.write(x[i]. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.innerHTML). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.

getElementById("intro"). Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6. 6.6 .5 example .nodeValue.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.9. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .firstChild. txt=x.

A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key.6 . For elements. objects and images. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. including window. frames.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.

Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). and then bubbled up. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. Safari. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers.3. During the event flow. Also. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. 6. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. for instance.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. DOMNodeInserted. When the user clicks on the inner element. through a mouse click or a keypress. 67 . Mozilla. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. also supports these methods. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not.6 . but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. as of version 1. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. say "click". and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Fires when an element is activated. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).

etc. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. including information about target element. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. mouse button pressed.6 . Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.Html DOM 6. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. mouse position. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. preventDefault 68 . key pressed. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Unfortunately. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched.

7. using web services or Php scripts.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.AJAX 7 . It is not a technology in itself. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. choices of user. dynamic website. before the whole page was sent within the network. For example. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. fields of forms. etc. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.7 . talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. menus. crunching numbers. 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. For improving sharing of resources. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side.AJAX 7. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. The server does some processing — retrieving data. 69 .1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but also to save resources. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast.

70 . This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. waiting around for the server to do something. And at every step in a task. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. at the start of the session. Obviously. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. Once an interface is loaded. but the opposite is true. we wouldn’t make users wait around.7 . why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. the user waits some more. While the server is doing its thing. waiting. Instead of loading a web page.

AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. usually using XML.7 . 71 . editing data in memory. loading additional interface code. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.

Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 404 if the page is not found . 2: request received. .url: the location of the file 72 .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.responseText .mode: type of request.returned by the server . 4: finished.for a Xml file or .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.holds a Xml loaded file.open: create a connection. To get data on the server.send: send a request to the server. These events are user actions. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.AJAX 7. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. url. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. GET or POST . . onreadystatechange .200 is ok. boolean) . 3: answer in process. and in this purpose. DOM's method allows to extract data. It allows the interaction with the servers. This object provides two methods: . . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 1: connection established.responseXml . they call functions associated to elements of the web page.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".holds loaded data as a string of characters.7 . 7. thanks to its methods and attributes.for a simple text.

send: with POST only.AJAX . if (request.. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . http_request. OK } else { // wait. . http_request. The request below reads a document on the server.. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. true for asynchronous.send(null).xml'. 'http://www. 73 . // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.7 .. . if (window.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. Safari. true).XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). the data to send to the server.XMLHTTP").fr/somefile. for browser compatibility.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .6 building a request. but two options must be tried. } else if (window.open: command GET or POST..null for a GET command 7.open('GET'. // Firefox.readyState == 4) { // received. request. URL of the document.xul.

7.send(null).onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7 examples 7.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.7.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".responseText.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().7 .ajax. else document.dyn="Error code " + req.XMLHTTP).dyn="Received:" + req. req.ajax.responseXML. true). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.status == 200) document. }. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").getElementsByTagName('root'). req.responseText. by this code: var doc = req.readyState == 4) if(req. req.AJAX 7. "data. req. if(window.item(0).ajax. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .open("GET".status.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.xml". else if (window.dyn=""Received:" + req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 4.class>com.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.)> <web-app> <!-. 5. Others.bank11. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. After an enterprise bean is created. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. like what pages are error. Here is a small. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.xml file: <?xml version="1. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. but typical web. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. descriptions). entries related to session configuration. data persistence. JSPs and Java Server Faces.8 . JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. welcome pages. classes. 3. web. database connection resource pooling.. Servlet. like: 1.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .ccards.. 6.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. Initialization of parameters for servlets. 8. MIME types used by the web application.servlets. Servlet. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. 2.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. For example. servlet classes.

For example. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.xml" 2. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.class" and that it is part of the package "com. Then the "EnrollServlet. In general.bank11. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.xml" file.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. basicly. whose name is rather long. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. the name of the web application. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8.ccards. for flexibility.bank11. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. Behind a very benign URL. 1.servlets". if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".8 . This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.servlets".xml file of the web application. Unfortunately. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.xml". To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.bank11. Basicly.ccards. However. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards.

2.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. Technically speaking. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source).2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. but at this point. which extend the functionality of the web server.SERVLETS 9. tjws spec 2. 2010. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. the Java Servlet 3. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .4. from BEA Systems.5 and is in final state. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . modular design 9. in most cases as part of an application server. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.9 . this is just a work in progress. platform independent programs.0 specification.0 specification is available for public review. As of oct.2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. 9. the HttpServlet) class. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. 9. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.4. small footprint. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. more often.SERVLETS 9 . but through a web container.

servlet javax. the javax. 82 .4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().servlet.servlet package are protocol independent. public void destroy() throws ServletException. IOException.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.servlet package. WebSphere. These packages are: • • javax. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. public void service(ServletRequest req. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. Enterprise Edition. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .9 .SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from Apple Inc. while the second one. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from IBM 9.

Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Throwable t) 9.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. After instantiating the servlet. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The method performs all initialization required. as well.9 . public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. The servlet API provides such a specific class. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. More on the servlet life cycle. 9. respectively. This method has two arguments. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. ServletConfig. 83 . Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. the web container calls its init() method. namely the HttpServlet class. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. in a different section. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.

containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . 9.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.Exception class. service(). It also extends the java. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.9 . namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.ServletException javax.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.lang.lang. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.Exception and can be thrown by the init().servlet.servlet.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.

There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. DB connection opening.SingleThreadModel. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. which will service all incoming requests. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. JSP or JSF.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. 85 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. Also. method which performs the initialization of the servlet.servlet. Typically. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. this method contains JDBC driver loading. Typically.9 . concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. 9. respectively.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. If the servlet does not implement the javax. After instantiation. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. etc.

13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 .

The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. This is done in server's (container's) server.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.xml file.*.bank11.ccards. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.servlets.io.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. 87 .java" file: package com. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.9 . public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. import java.

out. import javax. } } 88 .servlet.http.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). // output your page here out. out. out.println("<html>"). out.println("</html>").SERVLETS import javax.setContentType(“text/html”). out. out. PrintWriter out = resp.9 .servlet.println("</head>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out. out. out.*.init(config).println("<head>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.*.println("merge"). IOException { resp.close().println("</body>").println("<br>").println("<body>").getWriter(). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.

JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. as recognized by the DB industry. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access.odbc.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.JdbcOdbcDriver .JDBC 10. These drivers fall into four standard categories. After that.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. This solution is inefficient.sql package. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . 1997. The JDBC 4. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. 10. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. Type 1. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.JDBC 10 . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. the javax. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). Starting with version 3. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. the java.10 .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.0 while the current (4.1.sql package 2.jdbc. 89 .sun. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.

Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers.10 . which in turn. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).JDBC Type 2. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Type 4. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. Type 3. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Part Java. 90 . All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products.

sql.sql.sql.JDBC 10.sql.sql.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.Statement java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.Wrapper 91 .SQLWarning java. java.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.SQLData java.sql.Struct java.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.Types java.SQLInput java.0).sql.SQLOutput java.Connection java.Clob java. let's remind some of the most important ones.3 the java.sql.sql.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Time java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.SQLPermission java.sql.sql.sql.Timestamp java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.DriverManager java.SQLException java.Date java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.10 .Array java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.CallableStatement java.Driver java.PreparedStatement java.sql.0 API.Blob java.

Statement java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.sql. java. establishing a database connection 3.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.PreparedStatement java.sql. querying the database 4. loading a database driver 2.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.Clob java.sql.10 .NClob java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.0.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.ResultSet java.sql.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.StatementEvent javax.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.sql package.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLDataException java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.CallableStatement java. processing the result set 92 . The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.Connection java.sql.Blob java.SQLWarning java.sql.SQLException java.RowId java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.sql.Types java.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.SQLXML java.SQLClientInfoException java.

borland. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.DB2Driver oracle.OracleDriver sun.jdbc.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.net.jdbc.ibm.jdbc.datastore.JDBC 10.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .sybase. The first one is loading a database driver. A database driver is specified by the driver name.SybDriver com.10 .jdbc.driver.db2.

The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.*.printStackTrace(). Since we just used it.getConnection(connURL.bank11.sql. as specified by the driver vendor.10 . 94 .newInstance(). the only protocol allowed in JDBC). let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. passwd). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). but let's take it for granted: import java.util. import java.forName("org. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".Driver"). by using the connection URL.*. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.mm. user. try { Class.gjt. String user = "root".mysql. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.

int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.put("create".put("autocommit". String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Connection conn = DriverManager. we can use it for various purposes.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. int resultSetConcurrency. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. 10. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. String user.10 . "true"). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.JDBC 10. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.getConnection(connURL. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. prp.util. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Properties prp = new Properties(). "true").Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. java. prp).sql package. prp.

Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.10 . other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. namely. respectively.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1.JDBC 10.

ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. stmt. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.".sql.executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.createStatement().JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects..9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .10 . String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . 10.. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.

The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. and CallableStatement objects. PreparedStatement. as the argument.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. a concurrency of read only. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. not at 0) or the column name.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. 98 . What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


produces a standard Connection object 2. basicly.Time java.sql.0 optional package. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. a factory for creating DB connections. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. It is part of the javax.DataSource object. There are three types of implementations: 1.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.produces a Connection object that will 103 . This interface is.sql package.10 . While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. time. mins.math.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.math. Connection pooling implementation -.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql. secs date.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql. Basic implementation -.Big Decimal Object float 10.

throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.class. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.servlets. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. javax.*.lookup("java:comp/env"). 104 . import import import import import import java.getLogger(TestDataSource. 3. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). java. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.io.http.sql. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. javax.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*.*.10 .naming.sql. Distributed transaction implementation -.*.servlet.*.bank11. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.*. javax. private DataSource theDataSource.getName()).servlet. javax.ccards. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".

ServletException { . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request..10 . } } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.. } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").

the servlet code is regenerated.servlet. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet. If the JSP is modified.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. 11.jsp and javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. The javax. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.11 .tagext. namely javax.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet.jsp.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.5 Java Servlet specification.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .1 and is related to the 2.jsp.servlet.servlet.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.JSP 11 . 11. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).2 the java. The package javax. The JSP specific interfaces.JSP 11. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The package javax.servlet.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .JSP • if the URL does not start with / . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page... The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope... it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. include and taglib. 111 .11 . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.

11.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. 11. Assigns it to available name or id. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . 11.JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.7 scripting elements 11. 11.7.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. this code goes to inside the service() method. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. In Tomcat.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.11 .

The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .11 . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to a specific value.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.the name of a bean instance. and if so. you must specify param.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.

JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. flush . <jsp:forward>.only the "true" value is supported. same format as the <%@include> directive.name of the property to be retrieved 11.11 .the URL of the page. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . <jsp:plugin> actions.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.13 the forward standard action 114 .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.

the type of object the plugin will execute. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag." . It is used mainly..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required).JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. name .11 . .a name for the Bean or applet instance. name="instanceName" .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. code="classFileName" . depending on request. when we want to separate the application into different views. as this attribute has no default value.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.the name of a bean instance. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.. archive="URIToArchive. 11. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . You must specify either bean or applet.class extension in the name following code. servlet or to a static resource.. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . as well. If you do not supply a value. You must include the .

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .1" . it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. page .represents server's response to the request. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. it has java. objects which are automaticly available. application .Object type and scope page 11. 1.io. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . in pixels.11 . pageContext . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . out .lang. The value is a full URL.jsp.JspWriter type and scope page 7. Must be a small nonzero number. in pixels. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.servlet. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. and domain name.the amount of space.16 scopes 1. writes to the output stream to the client. config .it represents the buffered version of java. request .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.the initial height and width.1. response . of the image the applet or Bean displays.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.represents the servlet context. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. The default value is 1. request . optional port number.PrintWriter. session . based on the servlet API. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. with a protocol name. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. it has javax.

jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.jsp file. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.beans.init(). the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. if (enrollBean.ccards. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. application .userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 3. page .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. Object value) method 4. Object value) method 2.11 .an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. session . the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.bank11.JSP request object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.

jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private String optional. SimpleBean. The public constructor could have been omitted. a software development and consulting company.11 . // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.java: package com. The SimpleBean class is declared public.examples.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. private String colors[]. %> <jsp:forward page="response.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.io.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private boolean flag. private SimpleSubBean subBean. an int. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. private int list[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. 11.Serializable { private String string.mapping. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). a float.devsphere.18. a boolean and another String). private int integer. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .register().simple.string. private float number.

} // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.integer = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.11 . } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.JSP this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.flag = value.integer. } 119 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors.flag. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.colors[index].number = value.colors = values.number.string = value.

subBean = value.colors[index] = value.optional. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. String value) { this.list = values. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index]. int value) { this.list[index] = value. } } 120 . } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list.11 .optional = value.

} // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.Serializable { private String string.mapping.number = value.string.11 .simple.string = value.number.examples.java: package com.io. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.18.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).devsphere. private float number.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm. SimpleSubBean.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } } 11.

number SimpleForm.11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.

mapping. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "One or more colors must be selected" }.util. the form's name and the processor's name. "abc" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".devsphere. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. new Float(0.18. The list of optional properties has a single element. new Boolean(true) }.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.examples. new String[] { 123 . { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new int[] { 2. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. 3 } }. There are three error messages.flag]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. the processing order.list]". No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.simple. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. error messages. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.java: package com.123) }. "One or more items must be selected" }.number]". a float. The default values are defined for a String.11 . SimpleBeanResources.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.integer]". a boolean and an int[]. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "An option must be selected" }. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. the list of optional properties.colors]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.string]".

"colors". { "[FORM_NAME]".ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping. } } 11. For a better understanding of this example.devsphere. SimpleHndl. "SimpleProc.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.util. "flag". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). The formToBean() method of com.examples.*.18. "subBean" } }. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere. "list".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "number". "SimpleForm. string values are converted to numbers. The beanToForm() method of com.mapping. new String[] { "string".FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. { "[PROC_NAME]".devsphere.devsphere. com. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").JSP "optional" } }. "optional". The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.devsphere.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. If necessary.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.logging.html" }. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.jsp" } }. "integer".11 .mapping.simple.

getRequestDispatcher(procPath).getTemplate(new java. logger). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.util.getServletPath().Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.File(formPath)). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.trim(). response).equals("POST"). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).removeUserErrors(errorTable).11 .getDocument(). errorTable = HandlerUtils. slashIndex+1) : "". if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.formToBean(formData. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. 125 .io. formPath = application.getBeanResources(simpleBean.JSP = HandlerUtils. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.forward(request.lastIndexOf('/'). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.getString("[PROC_NAME]").getRealPath(formPath).getClass()). int slashIndex = basePath.substring(0.trim(). // Process the valid data bean instance application. simpleBean. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.getMethod().getString("[FORM_NAME]").

11 . StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). } %> 11.string = <%= simpleBean. i++) 126 .5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. document. SimpleProc.examples.number = <%= simpleBean.send(out).getSubBean(). if (list.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.devsphere. strbuf.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].mapping.append("{ "). errorTable. // Send the form document document.beanToForm(simpleBean. i < list.JSP elements logger).getSubBean(). // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getString() %> <P> subBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.18.length.simple.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. for (int i = 0.length == 0) return "".

} strbuf. i < list.formToBean() call.append(list[i]). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.devsphere. ComplexForm.mapping.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. A single call to FormUtils.append("}").jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. if (list.length == 0) return "". beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.examples.append(list[i]).11 . } %> 11. In addition. return strbuf.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. Using the framework. strbuf.util. } strbuf. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. for (int i = 0.append("}").length == 1) return Integer.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().18.toString(list[0]).6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.append("{ "). strbuf.simple.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . strbuf.append(" "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. In addition. ComplexHndl.toString().jsp files. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.toString(). i++) { strbuf.length. making the testing and the debugging easier.append(" ").JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.

"blue" }. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. "Option 2".equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. i++) { int value = i+1.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < colors.length. j++) if (colors[j]. i < integerLabels. "green". "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }. "Green".11 . boolean checked = simpleBean. for (int i = 0. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".getColors().getInteger() == value. i < colorValues.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }. i++) { boolean checked = false. 128 . "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0.length. String colorValues[] = { "red".

} %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 2". "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "Item 3" }.getList().string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".simple. i < listItems.SimpleSubBean()).11 . "subBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.mapping. break.examples.length.JSP break.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . boolean selected = false. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean().setSubBean( new com. i++) { int value = i+1. for (int i = 0.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. j < list.

if (message == null) message = "".SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable. "subBean.mapping.examples.util.getSubBean(). 130 . return message.mapping.11 .getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. boolean isPostMethod = request.getMethod().simple.length() == 0) { simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("abc").Hashtable errorTable.util.simple.devsphere.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples.getString().setSubBean(simpleSubBean).devsphere. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.equals("POST"). } %> ComplexHndl.get(property).

"An option must be selected").getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue. "integer". } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.equals("false")) flagValue = null.setNumber(0. else { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number".11 .123f). "number". if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.setNumber(0. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be a number"). "Must be filled").setFlag(flagValue != null).floatValue()).123f).getColors().length() == 0 || flagValue.trim().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "string". setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.getParameter("number"). "Must be filled").getParameter("flag").length() != 0) simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . } simpleBean.getColors() == null || simpleBean.

getString().setString(""). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }). "subBean.getList().setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setOptional(""). "colors".JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "One or more items must be selected").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "subBean.11 .length() != 0) simpleSubBean.number").getParameter("subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getList() == null || simpleBean. //* subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.string". if (numberValue != null && numberValue. 132 . else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "Must be filled"). "One or more colors must be selected").number". "list".floatValue()). "Must be } //* subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.

3 }). simpleBean. "subBean.devsphere.setString("abc").code=com.mapping.setOptional(""). message). A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. The com. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.number".helpers.jsp.JSP filled"). simpleBean. } } else { simpleBean. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".devsphere.setNumber(0.properties or web. simpleBean. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. String property.put(property. "Must be a number").7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.setFlag(true). errorTable.18. } %> 11.setList(new int[] { 2.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.SimpleBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.helpers.Hashtable errorTable. simpleBean.123f).mapping.util.examples.devsphere.simple.\ 133 . simpleSubBean. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.setString("").11 .xml: SimpleHndl.

Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.host. If you have another bean-form pair. In many cases.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.code=com.devsphere.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.host.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.host.examples.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.devsphere.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.helpers.helpers. a servlet is identified with its class. A servlet can be made bean-independent.code=com.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.properties (or web.simple.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. you could add a few other lines to servlets.devsphere.11 .18. 11.AnotherBean.mapping.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.company.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.examples.properties: AnotherHndl.another. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.

JSP 135 .11 .

which loads the appropriate view template. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. like input fields. 2.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2.javaserver faces 12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.0.0 supersedes version 1. Version 2. builds a component tree.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. This technology includes: 1.12 . A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. 12. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.JAVASERVER FACES 12. Version 2.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. buttons. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. processes events. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.

1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.2 of the JFS specification.javaserver faces 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.4. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .12 . The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12.

we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. For more information about columns. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. footers. respectively.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.12 . can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Common formatting techniques.4. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. see the column tag documentation. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. columns and rows. 12. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. such as alternating row colors.

total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. your options include using plain HTML forms.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.4. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.12 .checkout}" /> 139 . The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.

4.5.user.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.user.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). 12. red for error. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean." /> 12. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.</span> 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .12 . You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.4.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.

5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . 12. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. For example.12 .

Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. validateLength. but only if the new input is validated successfully.5.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.javaserver faces 12.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.customer. Any component that receives user input.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. 12. Without this JavaScript event. can publish value change events.mycompany.12 . the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.5. The body content of this tag must be empty. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.

mycompany.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.5. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.12 .jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. Example: welcome_en.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.mycompany. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.javaserver faces 12. including images and styles. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. myJSFapp 143 .jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. If you have not specified a default locale.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. for each locale you wish to support.

Create managed beans 4.xml web.12 .xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . jsf-api.jar jsf-api.jar faces-config.jar – files included in the /lib directory. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. custom tag libraries. Create JSP pages 2. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.jar.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.html. static resources.contains libraries required by the application. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. mandatory for any JSF application web. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. It has a deployment descriptor.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. like third party jar files jsf-impl. JSP pages. Define navigation rules 3.javaserver faces /ant build. and so on.xml – the JSF configuration file.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.exadel. Create properties files 144 .7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.

As a diagram.jsp.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . In our application.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. These files will act as place holders for now.12 .7. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. The directory structure already exists.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. we can create a navigation rule. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. Compile the application 8.jsp to greeting. Deploy and run the application 12.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7. And that's all there is to this. Create an index.xml file.jsp is greeting. You just need to create its contents.jsp file 7.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages. 12. we just want to go from inputname.javaserver faces 5. You only need to create the JSP files.jsp and greeting. Edit JSP pages 6. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp.

the second part of faces-config.7.java file.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. myJFSapp.12 .xml file should look like this: 146 .7. request sets the bean scope in the application.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.1 PersonBean. This class is straight-forward.) 12. of course. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. 12. 12. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. To read more about navigation rules. You can easily create more complex ones.3. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. public class PersonBean { String personName.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.xml Now.3 faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml Your final faces-config.PersonBean. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. a very simple navigation rule.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7. The next line is the full class name. Inside this myJFSapp folder.javaserver faces This is. we will create a PersonBean.3.3.

5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.sun.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.1//EN" "http://java.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. 12.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.7.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.properties file in the bundle folder. 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.5. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.4.1 inputname.1 messages. 12.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.12 . this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.7.7. Inc.

button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .12 . One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun.bundle. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. Then.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.

xml file. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Create the index.</h3> tags.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp..bundle. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Line 6. Having an index. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.sun. Creates an HTML input text box.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . <h:outputText value="#{personBean. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. The first three lines are identical to our first page.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.sun.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.jsp page. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. 12.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.2 greeting. The second line will access a Java bean.5.javaserver faces Line 1. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.greeting_text}" />.12 .6 creating the index.. name! 12. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.7. Line 2. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.7. specifically the bean attribute personName. Lines 3-5. and also print its contents on the page.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.

To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. We are almost done with this example.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. To do this. Your setup. 12.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.7.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. because in the web.7. and forwards the user to a success or error page.9 Running Next. 150 .sourceforge. you'll notice the file suffix is . verifies the information. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml file.jsp.xml file for the application *. which asks an user for an ID and password. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. To build the application run the build. might possibly be different). put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.jsf and not .1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. When Tomcat is done loading. 12.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). though. Of course.12 .8. 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. This is used here.html . C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12.javaserver faces Now. we need to deploy it. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.7.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. This is a "login" application.

note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. click Finish 4. in the wizard that appears.12 . Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Add Folder. 2..src | +-. click Yes through messages that appear. 10. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. make sure all checkboxes are checked. 1. c. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.xml Editor (see faces-config. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. and to add JSF libraries to the project.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. click Next d. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. a. select the Source tab.. 3.webroot | +-. 7. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. and set up folders for a web application. Select Java Project.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. The New Project wizard appears. jsf-login. click Next. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. 9. Select the Amateras node. click Next. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Enter project name. your mileage may vary.WEB-INF 151 . and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot... in the Add JSF Support page. from the menubar select File/New/Other.. name the folder webroot 5. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. see Installing & Uninstalling. say.. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. 6.. name the folder pages. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.8. 12.

for class enter login. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. a.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.xml editor opens.javaserver faces | | | +-.java package login. 1.pages 12. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. We then configure it to be a managed bean. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". private String _pwd = "".xml Editor. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.lib | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". c.xml. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. In the Package field. 3. } return action. The faces-config. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. click Managed Bean. The New Java Class wizard appears. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. for scope select 152 . from its context menu select New/Class.8. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. if ( _uid. else action = "loginFail". } 4. for name enter mgr. 2. in the Name field enter LoginManager. enter login. click Add. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.LoginManager. The Java code editor opens. b. input widgets appear d. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. Click Finish.12 . In Package Explorer select the src folder.

from the menubar select File/Save. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. success.8.webroot/pages/error.javaserver faces session. Create success. enter the following code. Create error.jsp are simple pages with static content. </body> Please try 153 . so we create them first. Then we create login. 1. c. but in webroot/pages.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp.jsp.jsp: create this file similarly to index. b.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. <!-. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. but in webroot/pages.webroot/pages/success.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. save the file and close the editor.webroot/index.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp). index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.jsp. for File name enter index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File. the New File wizard appears. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp). e. and 3 content pages (login. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. again. All pages except login. the JSP Editor opens. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp and error.12 .jsp: a. click Finish. Create index. then close the editor 12.

charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Open the JSF palette. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and choose default for Template.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Create login. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and dock it along the right. as shown below. a code-completion window pops up. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. click Next c. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages.jsp: a. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location.jsp.javaserver faces </html> 4.completion. and uses them for code completion as well. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets.. etc. enter jsf-login e. the New wizard appears. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. 154 . <%@ page contentType="text/html. for File name enter login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. d. with the following template code. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. and the JSP Editor can help with code. place your cursor in one of these lines. now we want to add attributes to this element.sun. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.12 . (See Show View Dialog) f.. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. from its context menu select New/Other. click Finish. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. g. b. To see this in action..

set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. complete the expression with the closing { k.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. i. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. with the barest presentational formatting.12 . set its value to Login. and hit Enter. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. enter #{mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . with bean properties available in mgr. a code-completion window pops up. insert a <h:commandButton> element.javaserver faces h. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.loginAction} The final code.. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". this inserts value="" at the cursor.) j. insert another <h:inputText> element.sun.sun. select userID from the code-completion window.password}" l. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr.

loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Open faces-config. Select the Navigation tab 3.xml. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.8. This is shown below. 2. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. click on Page. using a FacesIDE editor. 156 .xml Editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. it should open in the faces-config. 1.12 . this inserts a page icon into the editor. then click inside the editor window.

5. and is represented by an arrow.jsp. then click first on the icon for login. /pages/success. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. select Navigation Case.12 . Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. and set them to /pages/login. add 3 more pages.jsp. change the value of path to /index. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp. This is shown below: 157 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. 6. notice that the warning triangle disappears. in the Properties view.jsp. from the palette at left.jsp 4. Its properties appear in the Properties view. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp and /pages/error.jsp and then on the icon for success.

and extension-based mapping is turned on. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.jsp. Once deployed browse to index. all we need do in web.jsp.6 Editing web. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).javaserver faces 7. since we have such a trivial application.xml Here we edit web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.12 . As it turns out.jsp.8. so uncomment it.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. and you should be sent to the success page. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. Similarly add a forward-action from login.xml for the specifics of our application. The application is now complete. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. 12. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.jsp to error. open web.xml. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. We want virtual path-based mapping. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . We'll set some properties in web. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. 1. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml. or leave it as-is.

faces.faces.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. that factory is used.validator javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.webapp 12.0 1..12 .model javax. 12. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. start Tomcat. the Manager application should reload.10 the javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.el javax..faces.convert javax.javaserver faces 12.faces.. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.component.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.faces.faces. click Deploy 3.8. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces. For a given factory class name. Click on its link to launch the application.faces javax.context javax.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.event javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. for Context path enter /jsf-login.html javax.application javax. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. as file:///. open its Manager application in a browser.faces. scroll down to Deploy.faces.render javax.lifecycle javax.component javax.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 . If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.

the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.Severity . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. those factories are used. with the last one taking precedence. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. ApplicationFactory . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. If none of the above steps yield a match.represents a single validation (or other) message. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests.faces.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. ViewHandlerWrapper .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . 12. handling events and input validation.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage .11 the javax. StateManager .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. defining page navigation. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. ViewHandler . FacesMessage.12 . A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. StateManagerWrapper .

ContextCallBack . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. String. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. EditableValueHolder .context.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces.12 the javax. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. • • 161 . UIComponentBase . • ViewExpiredException . ActionSource2 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.restoreView(javax. ValueHolder .12 . 12. or a hyperlink.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. UICommand .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. String) results in failure on postback.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.FacesContext. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. NamingContainer . Here they are: • • UIColumn . StateHolder . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. when activated by the user.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. UIComponent . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.faces. a menu item. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.faces.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".

UIInput . UIGraphic . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.html package 162 . and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. Optionally. UISelectItem .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that has a value. it just serves as the root of the component tree.13 the java. it is for display purposes only. UIPanel . UIParameter . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UISelectOne . UIMessage .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.component.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UIMessages . that is displayed to the user.javaserver faces • UIData . by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. The user can modify the selected value. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. UIOutput .12 . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. Optionally. UIForm . UINamingContainer .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UIViewRoot . it is for display purposes only. UISelectMany . The user can modify the selected values.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. The user cannot manipulate this component. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.faces.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. identified by a clientId.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. This component has no rendering. UISelectBoolean . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.

used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML img element. This component must be placed inside a form.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. HtmlOutputText . Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlMessages .Message".represents an HTML input element of type hidden.by default. HtmlOutputLink . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. but the application wishes to render more than one.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlPanelGrid . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlDataTable .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlInputSecret .faces. or not. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. HtmlForm .faces. The label text is specified by the component value. On a redisplay. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML label element. HtmlOutputLabel . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.12 .causes all child components of this component to be rendered. and renders the result.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.renders child components in a table.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. starting a new row after the specified number of columns.by default.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlInputText . HtmlColumn . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlGraphicImage . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlOutputFormat . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlCommandLink .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents an HTML input element of type password.

FacesContextFactory . HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. and the rendering of the corresponding response. HtmlSelectOneListbox .12 . • • • • 12. ResponseWriter . FacesContext . and potentially modified by.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.faces. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. ResponseWriterWrapper .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox .14 the java. showing a single available option at a time.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.15 the java. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. It is passed to.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. In particular.faces. HtmlSelectOneRadio . • • • • • • 12.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.convert package 164 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. showing a single available option at a time.javaserver faces property.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. ResponseStream . HtmlSelectOneMenu . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.

1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. PropertyResolver . ValueBinding . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. 12. • • • • 165 . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.javaserver faces 12.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver .12 .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.faces.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. Classes: MethodBinding .15.16 the java.

166 .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. and event implementation classes. ValueChangeEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. ReferenceSyntaxException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. MethodNotFoundException .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PropertyNotFoundException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. FacesListener .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . ValueChangeListener . PhaseId .17 the java.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). • • • • 12.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . Interfaces: ActionListener .AbortProcessingException .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. FacesEvent .12 . • • • • • One exception .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.faces. PhaseEvent .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PhaseListener .

a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).20 the java. SelectItemGroup . ScalarDataModel .a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".19 the java. SelectItem .faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ResultSetDataModel . ResultDataModel . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. Classes: ArrayDataModel . ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. Renderer . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. • • • • • • • • • 12.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . 12.faces.18 the java.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. DataModelEvent .12 .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.faces. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. DataModel .

22 the java. The package contains an exception. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.21 the java. and/or user Locale.12 .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. ConverterTag . AttributeTag . A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.faces. Typically. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. including a standard servlet. RenderKitFactory .webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. ResponseStateManager .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.faces. • • 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . 12. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). base classes for JSP custom component tags. LongRangeValidator . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. as well. markup language. and concrete validator implementation classes.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. together.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. • RenderKit .validator package Interface defining the validator model.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .

A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. servlets. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. FacetTag .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. In JSF. When the model is updated. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. which passes the request to the page class. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF life cycle does not apply. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. or when an exception occurs. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. When a web server receives a request. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). which has several implications. the controller sends a message to the model. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. • • • • • FacesServlet . UIComponentTag . telling the view to update its presentation. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. the life cycle is more complicated. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. Also. ValidatorTag . that request is passed to the container.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. or some other web technology. related to a UIComponent.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. 12.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces.12 . the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. telling the model to update its data. the controller sends a message to the view. In MVC. UIComponentBodyTag . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response.a base class for all JSP custom actions. When using JSF. the process includes a few more components or pages. Likewise. but basically. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the controller is the 169 . that need to process their tag bodies.

the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. These objects update their state with the data values. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. converting a String to a Date object). this does not yet update the business objects in the application. such as components that create HTML input fields. and a piece of data failed validation. is validated at this time. and the response is sent to the client. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example.javaserver faces JSF implementation. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. In addition. For a JSF-enabled application. As with the previous phase. the JSF implementation must create the view. and the UI components are the view. • Invoke Application: During this phase. it creates UI objects for each view component. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the conversion occurs in this phase. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. In addition.12 . or from request headers. and what happens during the processing and response. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. 170 . not every request will flow through all six phases. If this is a subsequent request. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. depending on the request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Data for some components. However. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. Data can come from input fields in a web form. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. The components are stored in a component tree.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.javaserver faces In the above figure. if errors occur during any of the phases. Also. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.12 . 171 . For example. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. skipping any remaining phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

JNDI 13. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. you must supply its name. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.2. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. Thus the DNS name sales. and NIS(YP). NDS. It enables applications to access different."). the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. A file system maps a filename (for example.JNDI 13 . 172 .1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. For example. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. /usr/hello. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". identifiers. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. such as LDAP. In addition. 13.48. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.COM. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). When using almost any computer program or system. which is located in the root of the file system.sun. for example.9. The DNS entry Wiz. The UNIX pathname. such as addresses.Wiz.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes.5). when you use an electronic mail system. For example. To access a file in the computer. you are always naming one object or another. you supply it the name of the object. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. or objects typically used by computer programs.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. For example. DNS. naming and directory services using a common API.13 . 13.COM. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. in turn. c:\bin\autoexec. names a file hello in the file directory usr. Using JNDI. possibly multiple.

For example. in a file directory /usr/bin. that is. delimited by the comma character (".2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. In another example. they must be stored by reference. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). might contain only information on how to reach the printer. in the UNIX file system is a context. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. For example. which in turn. Every context has an associated naming convention. a file directory. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. For example. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. its flight plan. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. For example. such as its print server name and printing protocol. o=Sun. A printer object. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. such as /usr. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. for example. For example. Typically. 13. a file name is bound to a file. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. 13. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. By contrast.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. is a context.COM. might contain the state of the printer. For simplicity. and listing bound names. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. such as COM. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. Finally.c=us. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. Using the reference. A reference is information about how to access an object."). some objects cannot be stored directly.2. for example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. on the other hand.13 . and its flight number and departure time. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. is a context. an LDAP entry. Instead. also called a file handle. and fuel and instrument status. 13. while the object itself might contain more state information.2. is relative to c=us. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. in the DNS domain Sun. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. That is. A printer object reference.2. 173 . that is. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is accessed using a file reference. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. relative to the entry o=Sun. such as c=us. A file object. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. a DNS domain. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. unbinding names.

This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. however. Thus. and computer account information. 13. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. resolution. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. For example. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address.13 . For example. a computer. two different computer 174 . one context can be viewed. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). and even the computer itself and other computers.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. postal mail address. various telephone numbers. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. or a network. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses.3. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. to some extent. The computer's directory service is much more powerful.2. And it kind of makes sense. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. programs. a name is unique 13. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree).1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. A directory object can be used. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. 13. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. to represent a printer. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. and color. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. For example. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. a person. because we can. for example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. For example. For example. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment.

The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter.3. such as those based on the LDAP. support the notion of searches. 13. can use the directory in the traditional way.13 . This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. removing. adding. networks. many directories.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. printers.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute.4. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. "mail" is the attribute identifier. For example.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. By using a directory service. 13.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. 175 . Many examples of directory services are possible. Alternatively. for example. 13.smith@somewhere. such as that relating to machines. For example. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. When directory objects are arranged in this way. The email address. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. like any other program running on the network. Similarly.com". The service is accessed through its own interface.113. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. for example. the ability to access directory services will become essential. 13. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. such as the file and print services. The query is called a search filter. 13. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. and users. that is. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. Within the DIT. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. an organization object. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service.50". When you search. called a directory information tree (DIT).4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.3. A Java mail client program. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. for example. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.3.

v1.3 and later releases. To use the JNDI. more coherent and manageable. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.1 and the Java 2 SDK.event javax. For example. 13.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). v1. It extends the v1. For example. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. 13. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.naming. emerging.1 and Java 2 SDK. Thus a variety of directories--new. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.1 and v1.directory javax. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.naming javax.4. v1.13 . This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system. and even the network. 13.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.naming. 13.ldap 176 .2. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2.5. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.naming. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. v1.5. The Java 2 SDK. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.

String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. and so on. 13. which is the core interface for looking up. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.13 . composing them. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. However. the name of the object's class. binding/unbinding.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.6 the naming package The javax. Furthermore. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.1 context The javax.spi 13. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. In this case.lang.lookup("treekiller").print(report).JNDI • javax. 13.lang. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . A java. and the object itself. that is.6. 13.6.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. For the methods in the Context interface.6. For example. comparing components. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.String name. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. a 177 . A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.naming package defines a Context interface.naming. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. The overloads that accept java.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.lang. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. for some objects in the directory.6. printer. 13. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.String name argument represents a composite name. list() is similar to listBindings(). a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . and it returns the object bound to that name. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.

7. You can add. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.13 .5 the Initial context In the JNDI.naming. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. Otherwise. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. 13. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. InitialContext. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. There are no absolute roots. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. 13. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.6. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). For example.7 directory package The javax. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes.7. 13. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. 178 . The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.directory package extends the javax. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.6. In the simplest and most common form of usage. they should catch NamingException. replace. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. Once you have an initial context.

naming. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.naming.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. 13.JNDI 13.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. 13. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. such as information about the object before and after the change. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.8 event package The javax. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.9 LDAP package The javax. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Once registered.9. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. such as "object added. For example. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents.ldap package at all. called controls .9. 13. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. and vice versa." and those that do not.naming. These operations are called "extended" operations. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.9. 13. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .naming. To receive event notifications. such as "object changed. In fact. controls.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. For example. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. or unsolicited notifications. that is. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.13 .event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.directory package. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.naming. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.

if you look up a printer name from the directory.11. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.9.naming. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.10. In the process of completing an operation. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming. 13. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This support is provided in the form of state factories. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 180 . and receiving response controls.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. 13. That is. import javax. It uses a service provider for the file system. This support is provided in the form of object factories.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.Context.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. 13.naming.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. sending request controls. create a file named Lookup.10.10 service provider package The javax.13 . then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.1 plug-In architecture The javax.naming. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.spi package supports implementors of Context. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.java.2 java object support The javax.naming package. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider.10.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. implementors of Context. 13. For example.

13.11.naming. If the compilation fails. use Context.lookup(name).put(Context.3. } 13.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). For this reason. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. using the capitalization shown. 181 . you must have access to the JNDI classes.java). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.3 looking up an Object Next. 13.naming. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.sun. Object obj = ctx. // Print it System.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).RefFSContextFactory"). Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).11. import javax.out. To compile to program.NamingException. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.InitialContext. v1. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.fscontext. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. "com. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. 13. then the JNDI classes are already included. If you are still having problems.err. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. Otherwise.lookup() to look up an object.11. env. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.jar as an installed extension.lookup(name).JNDI import javax. If the compilation succeeds.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.11. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).13 . create an initial context. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. } catch (NamingException e) { System. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.jndi.5 compiling the program Next. as follows.

as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. supply the name of a file in your file system.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. env.11.put(Context.java.JNDI 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.class). javax.Context.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.12. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.naming.3. javax.jar). javax.12.naming.naming. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. env.directory.PROVIDER_URL.sun. include the directory that contains your Lookup. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.directory packages.put(Context. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").jndi.naming.NamingException. then you will see something like the following. Finally.DirContext.ldap. To run the program.InitialDirContext. 13. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). 182 . 13.naming.jndi. you need access to the JNDI classes. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.naming. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. the file system service provider.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. import import import import import javax.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.directory. create a file named Getattr. and your example class (Lookup.LdapCtxFactory"). v1.Attributes. create an initial directory context.naming and javax.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.directory. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. javax.fscontext.13 .sun.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.bat If you supply a file directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.6 running the program To run the program. "com.jar and providerutil. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.

using the capitalization shown. } catch (NamingException e) { System. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.6 compiling the program Next. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. For this reason.get() and then from that attribute get its value. } 13.get() on it to get its value: attrs.out.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.12.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. If you are still having problems.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.get("sn"). Similar to the naming example. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12.java). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.get().12. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.get()). The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. compile the source file using the Java compiler. 13.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If the compilation succeeds.13 .get("sn"). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. As with the naming example.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. 183 . For now. ou=People"). If the compilation fails. 13. 13. Attributes. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).err. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.12. ou=People"). you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.println("sn: " + attrs.

ou=People". env. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.jar and providerutil. then these classes are already included. v1. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").13 . Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.PROVIDER_URL.put(Context. 184 .) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. With this configuration.JNDI 13. then see the Common Problems lesson.12.jar). Once it has the attributes.7 running the program As with the naming example. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. If you have any trouble running this example. Getattr. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.class. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.3.

Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. JMS topic . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS client . neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message.a JMS client that receives messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. Here. As the name queue suggests. JMS producer .An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM).14 .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS message . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. Enterprise Edition. In this model. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS queue . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. JMS consumer . The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. unless it has established a durable 185 . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. • 14.

Using Java. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. 14. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4. On the receiving side. In that case. 14.3 the JMS API programming model 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.jms. 186 . Depending on the type of message. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.

JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). 14. Before your application can consume messages.4.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.lookup("jms/MyTopic").JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The JMS administrator creates these objects. It receives messages sent to a destination.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). and users discover them using JNDI. 14. Depending on the connection type. In a J2EE application. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().close(). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. 14. It is either a queue or a topic. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. you must call the connection's start() method.4. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Before an application completes. connection. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. For example. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. For example. Like the connection factory.14 .createConnection(). you must close any connections that you have created.4. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you call the stop() method. Connections implement the Connection interface.

and you can use it to receive messages. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. (Remember always to call the start() method.setMessageListener(myListener). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.start().) When message delivery begins. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. After you have created a message consumer. In the onMessage() method. onMessage(). You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method.start(). the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. which contains one method. it becomes active. MessageConsumer consumer = session. Message m = consumer.createConsumer(myTopic). consumer. For example.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). you are likely to miss messages. After you register the message listener. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.14 . however. You use the Session.receive(1000). connection. A message listener does. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. 188 . For example. if it needs to reply to messages. Moreover. a message listener object may be used. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. 14. usually expect a specific message type and format. Message m = consumer. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.receive().4.createConsumer(myQueue). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. This object implements the MessageListener interface. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.

use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. bytes message.4. 189 . you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.send(message).createProducer(null). anon_prod.14 . the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. to create and send a TextMessage. With an unidentified producer. map message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.receive(). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.createProducer(myQueue). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. Here.createTextMessage(). At the consuming end. 3. message. After you have created a message producer. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. For example. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. that is.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. // msg_text is a String producer. stream message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. and object message). 14.4. You must first create the messages.setText(msg_text). A message has three main parts: 1. if you created an unidentified producer. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.send(myQueue. from one application to another. message).send(message). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). MessageProducer producer = session.createProducer(myTopic).

you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. After you create a Connection object. } else { // Handle error } 14. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. 190 . use the following code: Session session = connection. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. Before committing the transaction.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).14 .8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. To create a transacted session. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 0).createSession(true. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. and message consumers to receive messages. then delivers the messages.getText()). The first argument means that the session is not transacted. If the user selects transaction support. Session.4.out. Sessions implement the Session interface.createSession(false. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. the first argument means that the session is transacted.println("Reading message: " + message. Here. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.

container which offers services to the component.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . bundled into a single unit. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.jar file into the application server.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.0.logging. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.object oriented representation of data in a DB.consistent error handling framework .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.DB interaction transactions . Version 1. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. component recovery scalability portability 191 .15 . On the other side. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. server which provides an execution environment for containers. message-driven beans The 2. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .transaction management can be complex.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.0. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. improved performance security .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . the container lives (in general) in an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. 15.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. The component lives inside a container.no developer coding.

RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. the home interface of the bean 3. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the deployment descriptor. the remote interface of the bean 4.15 . The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. which is an xml file.xml 15. called ejb-jar. as follows: 1.

RemoteException. import.javax. } 15. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.rmi. import java.15 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.*.javax.RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. String lastName. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. } 193 .rmi. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. import.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. While the Remote interface declares no methods.ejb. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. import java.*.

Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). if the client executes outside the container.interfaces.15 .put(Context. this can be done (for example) through SSL. "org. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. In the case of an web application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. "localhost:1099"). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.PROVIDER_URL. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). creating them for the client application. } 194 . prop. we need to know: 1. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.put(Context.NamingContextFactory". how to create or find the bean 2. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.jnp.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. prop.

The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).lookup("MyBean"). Some languages. Why? For EJB. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. MyBeanHome.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). do implements the java. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Problem is. to the appropriate type.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. This is done through the javax.rmi. in fact. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i..Remote interface).rmi. the client has a stub).PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. but for generic languages.rmi. more specifically. and this means that there are some limitations. in fact.e. using the narrow() method.class). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.narrow(homeRef. 195 .PortableRemoteObject class and. • if the client executes outside the container.15 . It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. that is part of CORBA standards. IIOP has not been designed for Java. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. do not have the concept of casting.

"Vasile".ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . import javax.15 .remove(). call business methods on the bean myObject.ejbeans. 1102). int custId) { // method implementation . } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.processEntry("Dumitrascu". remove the bean instance myObject.create(). public class MyBean implements javax.. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.ccards. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.bank11.SessionContext. as well).ejb.. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.. String lastName.ejb.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. 15. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.

A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. that is. it can evict stateful session beans from memory.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. 15. 15. A stateless bean does not. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. the object is activated. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. 197 . The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean.15 . namely stateful and stateless beans.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.

) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. At the end of the life cycle. the client invokes the remove method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. for example. All other methods in Figure 15.1 are invoked by the EJB container. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. The ejbCreate method. and then moves it to the ready stage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. For example. (Typically. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. or passivate.15 . 198 . The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. is inside the bean class.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. 15. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. the EJB container activates the bean. Figure 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.

12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.15 . equals() 199 .13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. support for concurrent access 3. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. stored in a Database). maintaining a cache between transactions 4. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.

all throwing RemoteException. Read.ccards.14.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). 15.15 . Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. as the parameters in the original create() method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. in the same order. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. 200 . methods which have the same parameters. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). On the other side. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. state data is stored into data store (usually. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.bank11. We can have more create() methods. Update and Delete. CreateException. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. an instance of that bean is created.lang.

15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. 201 .3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. the programmer will create actual SQL code. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. but the developer returns null for CMP.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. but in general. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. left empty most of the time in CMP. While in the pooled stage.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. 15. All instances in the pool are identical. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.14. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. First.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). After instantiation. it's business methods can be invoked. On the second path. it is empty. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. actual SQL update code. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). for BMP. After the EJB container creates the instance. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 15. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.15 . in BMP. Second. not null.14. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. the client invokes the create method. a client can invoke the remove method. for BMPs.14. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. On the first path.

The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. it does not automatically set the primary key.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. In the pooled state. Therefore. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. another enterprise bean. With bean-managed persistence.15 .an application client. It acts as a JMS message listener. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. 202 . The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . the values of the instance variables are not needed. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. In the pooled state. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. If the primary key is incorrect. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.getPrimaryKey(). 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. or a Web component .

a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. an open database connection.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.15 . message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. message-driven bean can be used. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. but not asynchronously. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. 203 . a message-driven bean has only a bean class. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. the message will be redelivered. Unlike a session or entity bean. If message processing is rolled back. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients.16. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. max-beans-infree-pool. 15. The onMessage method may call helper methods. If this element is set to more than one.16.16. a JMS API connection. When a message arrives. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. 15. To ensure concurrency. For more information on this element see.for example. 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. In several respects. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context.16. Previously.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. To avoid tying up server resources. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.

// The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. finalize{}.jms.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.jms. methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. 15.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. Classes. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. Note: These instances can be pooled. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. As with other EJB types. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.16.16.. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. // An EJB constructor is required. 2. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. public void ejbRemove() {..0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. 15. Obtain a new bean instance. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. or create a new one..16. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.0 specification..7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.ejb..Message.Message MessageName) {. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.} // onMessage() is required. and it must not // accept parameters. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.15 . onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. 3.. public void onMessage(javax. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.}.

the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.16. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. 15.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.onMessage() for more information. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. even in onMessage(). However.16. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions).jms. If any method throws such an exception. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. getRollbackOnly() .MessageListener.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.16.This is not a client context. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. For example. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.15 . getUserTransaction(). 15. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. 15. See javax.

both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. as described in the EJB 2.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. 15. as required by the EJB 2.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.15 .xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16.0 specification.0 specification. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16. In either case. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.xml.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.jms. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. the weblogic-ejb-jar..xml deployment file. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . 2. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.0 specification. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 207 .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.message. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1...15 .. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. as described in the EJB 2.ejb20. 15. For each instance. </message-driven> .xml elements. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.

This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. entity specific elements 10. the remote interface name 8. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. a message-driven bean is never passivated. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. control descriptors .security issues. isolation level. EJB class name 5.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. environment properties 6.like transaction.15 . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. bean home name . access control entries . At the end of the life cycle. the home interface name 7. attributes . the container calls the ejbRemove method. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. session specific elements 9. security 208 .

ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.ejb.ejb.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.ccards.ejb.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.ccards.bank11.ejb.ccards.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.15 .CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.bank11.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.lang.bank11.

Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.lang.15 .. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> . </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.


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