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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


java platform. like HTML pages. and sends it back to the client program. Figure 1. The web tier. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. are not considered web components. processes it (if necessary).3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.2 Server communication 1. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier.1 . or finance. 1. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. 5 . processes it (if necessary). retail. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. like the client tier. enterprise edition Figure 1. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.7 business components Business code.

thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.java platform. Before a web. 6 . you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.9 java EE Containers Normally. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). and other complex low-level details. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container.9. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 . Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. enterprise bean.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.3 Web. multithreading. In addition. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Business and EIS Tiers 1. database systems. For example. and other legacy information systems. 1. or application client component can be executed. mainframe transaction processing. 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.

transaction management.1 . including services such as security. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1.java platform. After an enterprise bean is created. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. For example. and remote connectivity. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. data persistence. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.4. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 7 .9. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 1. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. database connection resource pooling. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.

Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.java platform. Application clients and their container run on the client. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.manages the execution of applets. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. text-based standard for representing data.1 . When XML data is exchanged between parties. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1. or any kind of binary data such as audio. Application client container . These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. Web container .the runtime portion of a Java EE product. maps. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. extensible. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. video. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. test. program files. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. or for document-oriented web services. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. develop.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. For example.manages the execution of application client components. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. Applet container .10. 8 . XML data. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. 1. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. 1. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like.

5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. the location of the service. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.1 .10. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The description includes the name of the service. 1. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.java platform.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 9 . Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.10. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.10. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. 1. and ways to communicate with the service. such as Universal Description. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. enterprise edition 1.

A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.1 . If the client terminates. 1. 1. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. you employ a single. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server.11. enterprise edition Figure 1. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.java platform. or if the server shuts down. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. and XML) and JSP elements.11. Commonly. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. standard set of tags.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the session bean and its data are gone. WML. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.11.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.11. In Java EE 5. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. When the client finishes executing. or enterprise bean.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or better customer support. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. it is ready to be deployed. or a component. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. servlet. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. At runtime. 15 . Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. module. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . Once deployed on a local platform. and JNDI 1. or component accordingly. SAAJ. No extra coding is needed. better tools.java platform. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. the application is ready to run. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.ear extension. a module. JTA. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. such as better performance.1 . JSP page. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information.

• • 16 .war (Web ARchive) extension.jar extension. For example. enterprise edition Figure 1. Web modules. Resource adapter modules.1 . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. which contain servlet class files. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. such as caching directives. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. which contain all Java interfaces. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Together. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. for example. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. native libraries. supporting class files. Application client modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.java platform. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. and a web application deployment descriptor. and other documentation. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. classes. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . GIF and HTML files.

It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee.HTTP 2 .w3.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. The client sends a request message to the server. .html). 2.. zero or more header lines 3. HEAD. a blank line (CR/LF) 4.apps.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.2 . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . POST.org/rfc/rfc1945.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. RFC 2616 (06/99). so far) version. check the official HTTP site – www.. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.1.ietf.jmarshall. but they also have some common structural elements. an initial line 2.. as follows: 1. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.org/Protocols . was the object of several RFCs.com/easy/http. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2.. The second (and last. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. we recommend www. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. These messages may have different contents. namely HTTP 1. The server answers with a response message.

HTTP/1. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . DELETE 6. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. 18 . TRACE Three other commands are listed. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. CONNECT 5.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.2 .4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. GET 2.Annotation of existing resources. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. mailing list.Posting a message to a bulletin board. OPTIONS 7. in the HTTP 1.0). PUT 8. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. POST 4. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. but lack of support makes them obsolete. Here is their list: 1.1 specification. 2. newsgroup. as well.1. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.html HTTP/1. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. . HEAD 3.

or a record is subordinate to a database. (encoded as multipart/form-data).” On the other side. such as the result of submitting a form. or sending E-mail 2.Extending a database through an append operation. .7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. separated by the character “&” or “. When used for form data submission.0 404 Not Found 2.Providing a block of data. or in the message body. to a data-handling process. like storing or updating data. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. while POST may involve anything.2 . In this case. 2. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. 2.6 differences between GET and POST 1. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. or ordering a product. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .8 the status code A three-digit integer. 3. after the “?” character. . A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.HTTP or similar group of articles. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.

The most common use of the message body is in a response.an unexpected server error.1 only) .g. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.0.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.0 version specifies 16 headers. none of them mandatory. The HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. header name and header value.1 version specifies 46 of them. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). file or script output) is returned in the message body. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. 404 Not Found . Although the header names are not case sensitive. and the resulting resource (e. 20 .the requested resource doesn't exist. 500 Server Error . If an HTTP message includes a body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. one (Host) is mandatory. out of which. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. In particular. and section 10 for HTTP 1. In a request. header values are. such as text/html or image/jpg. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 2.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.1). that is. or otherwise can't run correctly. where the requested resource is returned to the client. 2.the request succeeded. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. fails. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error.2 . while the HTTP 1. separated a semicolon.

31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtype plain 2.ietf. Then. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.0 From: someuser@yahoo. Here is the list of the seven types. image.uvt. .info. with subtype mpeg 2. with subtypes jpeg. RFC 1521 (www. partial. audio. parallel 3. message. video.apps.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. multipart. 1.2 . send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.HTTP 2. gif 6. with subtypes rfc822. application.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. text.html HTTP/1. alternative.ro/path/file.html first open a socket to the host web. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. postscript 5. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.org/rfc/rfc1521. with subtypes mixed. 21 .com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. digest.info.ro.uvt.0 200 OK Date: Fri. external-body 4. with subtype basic 7. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. with subtypes octet-stream. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.

the server closes the socket. </body> </html> After sending the response.2 .HTTP . 22 .

namely HTML 1.blooberry. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. The XHTML 1.jmarshall.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.99.0 and was accepted in December 1997. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.html) and was widely supported. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.HTML 3 .com/indexdot/html . 3.2 (3. Mosaic. Version 4. From 1999 on. a working draft for the next major revision. It is a revision of 4. www. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.0.com/easy/html . However.01) can be found at this address: http://www.01.w3. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . Other helpful sites .3 .2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. Since it fits in a couple of pages. HTML describes how text.org/Markup . The newest version of HTML is 4. check the official HTML site – www. The first version of HTML.com/tutors.0 draft was released in 01.0 . A newer standard. Originally named Web Applications 1.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.0. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.HTML 3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.www.w3c. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.apps. As a practical reference site use – www.org/rfc/rfc1866.ietf.htmlgoodies.html.0) dates from 08. The latest version (XHTML 2. The first official version – HTML 2. HTML 3. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.3 .-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.-_:" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.

html for the latest version of the HTML DTD.0 Transitional DTD. HTML 4.w3. CONTROLS. 4. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element.01 specification.0 Strict DTD. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.acesta este un comentariu. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. look at these examples: “&lt”.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. DYNSRC. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. This section deals with some of the most common elements. Check the address http://www. the specification of HTML 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->. <><> --> 25 . The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. though. VSAPCE are omitted. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.the chinese character for water. Overall. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. BORDER.0 contains an SGML declaration. If you wonder what a character reference is. three DTDs (HTML 4.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. 3. ….3 ." (in hexadecimal) . “&quot”. HTML 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. You get the point.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. 3. "&#x6C34. An example: <!-. like ALIGN. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.

info. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.ro/webmail/src/login.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.uvt. etc.5 tables 26 .2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.3 . NAME. image.HTML 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.

6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <TR>. Usually. <THEAD>. columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is a an example of a table: 3.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. its rows. <TH> and <TD>.3 . Here is their description and attributes.

7 forms A form is a basic component container. allowing user input and parameter submittal.required.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.3 . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .

since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. "file". "radio". "submit".info. "GET" . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.3 .required. the browser appends the values to the URL.8. specifies the parameter name. "image". "button".required.8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".8 form related elements 3. "reset". specifies how data will be sent to the server. SIZE . after a quotation mark .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . Example: http://web. Main attributes: • TYPE . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. "checkbox".& or (sometimes) by semicolon . 3. may have the values GET or POST.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.?. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". • 3. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "text/plain" • • 3.HTML • METHOD . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "hidden".:.required. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .maximum number of options visible to the user.if specified. allows multiple selections from the choice list. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "password".used with forms that contain a file-selection field.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. NAME .sends the form values in a single transmission. Main attributes: 29 . however.8.uvt.the default value.

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

but next time execution is much faster. The current version (as of 10.JAVA PRIMER 4 . The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.class. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.0..C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.95.java One example of command line compilation: 4.2 version. the compilation process occurs.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.95. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. project started in 12. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Example: Edit the file prog1.C:\TW\mySource.java 2. Inc.java.class 3. Early versions of Java were released in 12. The first time a class is loaded.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. In terms of execution time. Java source – a file with extension . The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.2 java the interpreter. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.4. jit From source to execution. a tool named Just In Time compiler. javac -classpath . following the 1.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.) in 08. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .3 java applications 31 . allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. 4.4 . Java bytecode – a file with extension .class file.JAVA PRIMER 4. -g : generate all debugging info.90.class file. The current version (as of 10. To overcome this significant shortage.

4. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. or is derived from A.java. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.4. An example: 32 . Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().4 object oriented concepts 4. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. Generally.4. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. or that it extends A).JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.4 . each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .jar file. In general.

Float. In fact. a class can have more than one method with the same name. Long.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . namely: Byte. Therefore. Character. this is called method overloading.4. Short. 4.4 . 33 .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 4. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. Therefore. with the root the class Object. called Object.1 bit char .Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. a Java class can extend a single base class. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. 4. Boolean. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. providing its own implementation. In OO jargon. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Integer. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). Double.4. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).

4. Except for the "package" concept.servlet.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.does not have any subclasses. which extends the class javax.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example..servlet. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . • • • • no specifier . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.one which is defined at class level. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. automatic garbage collection.the class is visible from any class. inherited). class . A final: • • • variable . which is visible only to the classes in the same package.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . they have the same basic meaning as in C++.access from any class anywhere private . A final variable (method. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . 34 .http. no templates.http. method .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).one which is constant method . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . anywhere abstract .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.no access from outside the class itself protected . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. } declares an abstract class.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.4 . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax. has the same value for all class instances.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables.. rather than at class instance.

Exception categories: 1. 4. division by 0.4 . The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. java errors . 4. array index out of bounds.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.7. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . namely class Error and the class Exception. standard method exceptions 3. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. In Java. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.like invalid cast.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. as defined in the java. 4. programmer defined exceptions 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . not at execution time.JAVA PRIMER 4. code or data errors .ThreadDeath. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.

.event .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .rmi java. import.bank11.support for data collections. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.support for event handling java.Properties. All other packages must be explicitly imported.sql. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. the class (the . .net java. finally construct.util.geom .8.java.default. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. date and time info java.nio java. import javax.util. As a general rule.by adding the key word throws. followed by the import statements.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .awt.io java. the default package is used). they have to be unique inside a package. An example: package com.4 .sql java. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. 4.support for java archives creation java.support for user interface java.security 36 . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.this can be done by providing a try. 4. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.awt.lang .util .zip .lang (automatically available).class file. 4. The package containing the standard classes is java.. In the example above. catch.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.ccards.awt . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. therefore.*. don't have to import java.servlets.1 Package names The default package has no name. string analyzers. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).

4 .text javax.event .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.swing . An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. All variables (actually.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. it must be declared as abstract. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. static and final.support for event handling 4.swing.accessibility javax. 37 . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).

as JavaScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . other 38 .5 .depending on the browser .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.javaScript 5 . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. This is not always what we want.A JavaScript statement like this: document.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. then LiveScript and finally. 5. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . Subsequently.JAVASCRIPT 5. However.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.HTML authors are normally not programmers. like QtScript or ActionScript. and . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .

js file extension. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. To simplify this..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. go in the head section.3.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. When you place a script in the head section. </script> </head> 5. without having to write the same script on every page.. 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> ..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. or when an event is triggered. Save the external JavaScript file with a .3.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.3.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. point to the .5 .. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.. </script> </body> 5. 39 .4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.

switch().3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. 5.. while().1 JavaScript for. continue.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. for().2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".. 5...4. The code in the body of the for .4...5 . else..In statement The for.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.5. in loop is executed once for each element/property.4. 5. namely – if .javaScript 5.4... This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script. while() it is worth mentioning the for .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. break.. in and the try . Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 ... catch constructs.

The try block contains the code to be run. an array element. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. they often leave the Web page. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . var mycars = new Array().. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".5.catch statement (available in IE5+.5 .. mycars[2] = "BMW".catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). Example Using for. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. for (x in mycars) { document. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. Mozilla 1. } </script> </body> </html> 5. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. When users see errors.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. so you don't lose your audience... mycars[1] = "Volvo".5.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. or a property of an object.3 try... Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. mycars[0] = "Saab".catch statement The try.0.

Syntax: 42 .\n\n". 5.7 popup boxes 5. Also. txt+="Error description: " + err.7. When an alert box pops up.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. alert(txt). } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5.5 . the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.description + "\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. If the user clicks "Cancel".2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Now.8 functions 5.8. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. When a confirm box pops up. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. If the user clicks "Cancel"."defaultvalue") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns true. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. in the <head> section. When a prompt box pops up. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.7. Syntax: prompt("sometext". the box returns null. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.5 .javaScript alert("sometext") 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the box returns false.js file). If the user clicks "OK".7.

3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.. var2.write(txt.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function...9.. 5. and how they are used. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. 5.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .5 . An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.8. So.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.javaScript function functionname(var1.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".9 javaScript objects 5. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.var2.length). document. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. etc are variables or values passed into the function. 5. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.9. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.varX) { some code } var1. and will be stored in the variable called product. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.

The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5. which will be specified in the next section.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.write(str. The other class are the language specific objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". document.9.5 .10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. 45 .javaScript 5.toUpperCase()).

com/jsref/default. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. every Link on the page is an Object. which are called Objects. check the site http://www.w3schools.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. Even this Document itself is an Object. At its most basic level. N: Netscape. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. When an event message has been triggered.11. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . every Image on the page is an Object. Properties FF: Firefox.asp 5.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. or when the user interacts with a Web page. For example. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. as well).

javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.11. Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.

1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.5 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . depending on the browser. as a four-digit number.

5 .11. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. to a string. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to local time. Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time. according to Greenwich time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to universal time. N: Netscape.

var myNum=new Number(number).javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 4 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 3 4 .5 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .

5 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.5 .

14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. N: Netscape. 0. Properties FF: Firefox.y) min(x. 2.5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.11.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.434) Returns PI (approx.y) pow(x. 1.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.javaScript 5. 2. 3. 1.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 0.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.

lastname="Doe".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). weight.5 .12.firstname="John".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. personObj. All persons have these properties. Assume that the personObj already exists . document. lastname. 5. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. The persons' methods could be eat().1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.age=30. work(). personObj. personObj. personObj.you can give it properties named firstname. etc. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. eye color.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. sleep(). personObj. play().eyecolor="blue". The persons' properties include name.firstname="John". 53 . skin tone. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj.eyecolor="blue".write(personObj. height.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.firstname). Properties are the values associated with the object.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.lastname="Doe". age. personObj.12. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. with a collection of properties and methods. Objects also have methods.age=50. age.12. etc.

5 .4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. myMother=new person("Sally".firstname=firstname.12. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. like this: myFather=new person("John"."blue").lastname.50. you can create new instances of the object. this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.eat=eat. You can also add some methods to the person object.lastname=lastname.firstname=firstname. this.lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.48. this."green"). 5.age=age.age. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. this. Once you have the template. 54 .eyecolor) { this. this.lastname=lastname.eyecolor=eyecolor.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.eyecolor) { this. this. } Notice that the template is just a function. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.newlastname=newlastname.lastname=new_lastname."Doe".propertyName.age. this.age=age."Rally".

". and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. For example..13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.5 . Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. So.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . 5.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. We define the events in the HTML tags. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.newlastname("Doe"). now you can write: myMother. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.

otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.13. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. the submit should be cancelled. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.13.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. 5. 5.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. If the field values are not accepted. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.2 onFocus.5 . An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.w3schools. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.13. The name is then stored in a cookie.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . For example. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".

javaScript event').5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

SVG. Right now (oct. or WebAPI being among them.g. 6. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. particularly those used in Web browsers. CSS. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state.Html DOM 6 . The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. However. As of January 2008. the Document Object Model activity is closed. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM .6 . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. structure. The W3C 58 .defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). In other words. and style of a document. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. 2010). DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. By October 1998. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. XML..HTML DOM 6. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. HTML.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.

Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. each of which contains required and optional modules.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 2. Level 1. HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Validation. 6.6 . DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. filtered views and events. 4. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). a new DOM Core specification. Level 2 XML namespace support. 2. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. To claim to support a level. 5. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. As of 2005. DOM Level 3 XPath. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. and 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 Core. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. which further enhances the DOM 6. 3. DOM Level 3 Requirements.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications.

W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. All HTML elements.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.x were still widely used in 2000.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x and Netscape 4. By 2005. Konqueror.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. and Safari. interoperability problems were numerous. 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Opera. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. can be accessed through the 60 . when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. The Window object represents a browser window. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. that is.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox).6 . support multiple browsers. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. along with their containing text and attributes. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM.

The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and VBScript. JavaScript. and new elements can be created.Html DOM DOM. The contents can be modified or deleted. It can be used by any programming language like Java.6 .

8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. 62 .9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. everything in an HTML document is a node. <head> and <body>. the element node <title>.Html DOM 6. 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node. However. The tree structure is called a node-tree. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property.8. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.9. The <html> node has two child nodes.6 .

The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The terms parent. and sibling are used to describe the relationships.9.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. • • • • • In a node tree.getElementsByTagName("p"). 63 . By using the getElementById() method 2. except the root.9.2 node parents.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. using the node relationships. Parent nodes have children. By navigating the node tree.getElementsByTagName("p"). The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and new elements can be created. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). the top node is called the root Every node.getElementById('main'). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. Their contents can be modified or deleted. and the connections between them. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.6 . The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. children. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. child.

6 .i++) { document.write(x[i]. document. } 6.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).9. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. each node is an object.length. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).Html DOM for (i=0.i<x. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML).write("<br />").

The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.getElementById("intro").10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.nodeValue. txt=x.5 example .Html DOM 6.9.firstChild.

including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including window. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images.6 . frames. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.

Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Mozilla. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Also. 67 . DOMNodeInserted. 6. Fires when an element is activated. When the user clicks on the inner element. Safari.3. for instance. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). through a mouse click or a keypress. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle.6 . This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. During the event flow. and then bubbled up. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). say "click".Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. also supports these methods. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. as of version 1. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified.

Specifies whether or not the event can bubble.6 . meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). key pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. mouse button pressed. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Unfortunately. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse position. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. etc. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. including information about target element. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. preventDefault 68 .

7 . without to wait and to freeze the display of the page. For example. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. 69 . The server does some processing — retrieving data. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. etc.AJAX 7 . But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. menus. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. but also to save resources. choices of user. 7. before the whole page was sent within the network. using web services or Php scripts. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. 7. fields of forms. dynamic website. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. For improving sharing of resources. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.AJAX 7. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. crunching numbers. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. It is not a technology in itself.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript.

So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. we wouldn’t make users wait around. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. And at every step in a task. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. but the opposite is true. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. the user waits some more.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. Instead of loading a web page. Once an interface is loaded. waiting around for the server to do something. what’s the user doing? That’s right. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. While the server is doing its thing. at the start of the session. waiting.7 . Obviously. 70 . It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.

or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. editing data in memory. usually using XML.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. loading additional interface code. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 . If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.

responseXml . DOM's method allows to extract data.holds a Xml loaded file. thanks to its methods and attributes. boolean) . url. 1: connection established. 3: answer in process.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. 404 if the page is not found .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. This object provides two methods: .returned by the server . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.AJAX 7. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. GET or POST . 7.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.for a Xml file or . and in this purpose.responseText .open: create a connection.7 . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 2: request received. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. onreadystatechange . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. 4: finished. . It allows the interaction with the servers. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".holds loaded data as a string of characters.send: send a request to the server.for a simple text. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.url: the location of the file 72 . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. These events are user actions.200 is ok. . To get data on the server. .mode: type of request. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .

for browser compatibility. true for asynchronous. if (request. http_request.AJAX . .send(null).send: with POST only. OK } else { // wait.XMLHTTP").open('GET'.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. if (window. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. true). the data to send to the server..readyState == 4) { // received. but two options must be tried.null for a GET command 7.6 building a request. .XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.xml'.open: command GET or POST. // Firefox.. The request below reads a document on the server. 73 .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.7 .xul. request.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . URL of the document. Safari.. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . 'http://www.fr/somefile. } else if (window. http_request.

// read the first element with a dom's method 74 . // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.7 . "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").open("GET".status.dyn=""Received:" + req.send(null).ajax.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.responseText.item(0).status == 200) document. else if (window. true).7.AJAX 7. "data.getElementsByTagName('root'). else document.XMLHTTP).responseText.dyn="Error code " + req.responseXML.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.7 examples 7.readyState == 4) if(req. req. if(window.xml". by this code: var doc = req.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().7.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". }.ajax. req.dyn="Received:" + req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. req. req.ajax.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


class>com.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . like what pages are error. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. entries related to session configuration. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Here is a small.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 5. servlet classes.8 .bank11. For example. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names.. descriptions). JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. JSPs and Java Server Faces. welcome pages. 3. MIME types used by the web application.xml file: <?xml version="1. 4. database connection resource pooling. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Servlet. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.ccards. 2. Others.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. but typical web. 6. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine..0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.servlets. classes. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.)> <web-app> <!-.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. web. After an enterprise bean is created. Servlet.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. 8. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. data persistence. like: 1. Initialization of parameters for servlets. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.

basicly. Unfortunately. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.servlets". Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. However. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. In general. it is the alias of the real servlet class. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" file. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.bank11. 1.servlets.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.bank11.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . For example. whose name is rather long. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml file of the web application. Behind a very benign URL. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com.8 .xml".xml" 2.bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com.servlets". Basicly. the name of the web application. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. for flexibility. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.ccards.ccards. Then the "EnrollServlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.

SERVLETS 9.5 and is in final state. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.4. more often.0 specification. platform independent programs. in most cases as part of an application server. Technically speaking. tjws spec 2. but at this point. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. the HttpServlet) class. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). but through a web container. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. 2010. this is just a work in progress.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. which extend the functionality of the web server.2. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. 9. modular design 9. small footprint.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.2. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.9 . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . As of oct. 9.SERVLETS 9 . from BEA Systems. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .4.0 specification is available for public review. the Java Servlet 3.

servlet package are protocol independent.servlet package. IOException. from Apple Inc. from IBM 9. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . public ServletConfig getServletConfig().9 . The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. public void service(ServletRequest req.servlet javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. 82 .servlet.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. These packages are: • • javax. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . Enterprise Edition. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. the javax. while the second one. WebSphere. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.

before the servlet processes any HTTP request. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. as well. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. in a different section. More on the servlet life cycle. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. ServletConfig. 83 . The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. the web container calls its init() method. respectively. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method.9 . The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. 9. After instantiating the servlet. namely the HttpServlet class. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. Throwable t) 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. This method has two arguments. The method performs all initialization required.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg.

namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.ServletException javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .Exception class.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.lang.servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. 9.9 .Exception and can be thrown by the init(). It also extends the java.lang. service(). HttpServletResponse resp) 9.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.

this method contains JDBC driver loading. Also. JSP or JSF. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. DB connection opening.9 . There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. respectively. 9.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. Typically. After instantiation.SingleThreadModel. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. etc. If the servlet does not implement the javax.servlet. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Typically. which will service all incoming requests. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. 85 . The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.

12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: 86 .9 . Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.

9 .15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.java" file: package com. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.*.servlets. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. 87 . public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.io.ccards. import java. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. This is done in server's (container's) server.

println("<html>").println("<head>"). out.println("</head>"). out. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.SERVLETS import javax. out. out. // output your page here out.http.getWriter(). out.println("<body>").println("<br>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. } } 88 . PrintWriter out = resp.println("merge").close().setContentType(“text/html”).init(config).9 .*. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out. IOException { resp.println("</body>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.servlet.servlet.println("</html>"). out. import javax.*. out.

It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.sun.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.jdbc. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.0 while the current (4.JdbcOdbcDriver . These drivers fall into four standard categories. as recognized by the DB industry. Starting with version 3.sql package. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.JDBC 10 . The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . the javax. This solution is inefficient. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. the java. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.JDBC 10. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 10. The JDBC 4.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.1. 89 . Type 1.odbc.0.sql package 2. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. 1997. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. After that. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.10 .

JDBC Type 2. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. Part Java. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Type 3. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. which in turn.10 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). Type 4. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. 90 . This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.

PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.Array java.sql.Date java.DriverManager java.SQLData java.SQLXML java.sql.Timestamp java.SQLInput java.sql.SQLOutput java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Struct java.Wrapper 91 .sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLPermission java.Time java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.sql.0).ResultSet java.10 .SQLDataException java.Blob java.sql.Connection java.sql.sql.JDBC 10.sql.sql.Clob java. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.sql.Statement java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.Types java.Driver java.0 API.ResultSetMetaData java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.sql.sql.3 the java.SQLWarning java.SQLException java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.sql. java. let's remind some of the most important ones.CallableStatement java.

sql.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.Clob java. loading a database driver 2.Connection java.sql.sql.NClob java. java.sql.SQLXML java.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLClientInfoException java.StatementEvent javax.ResultSet java.SQLException java.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.sql.sql.CommonDataSource javax. querying the database 4.sql.sql.Types java.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.sql.sql.Statement java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java. processing the result set 92 .StatementEventListener 10.SQLWarning java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.Wrapper javax.0.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.sql.SQLInput java.sql package.sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLTransientException java.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLOutput java.10 .DatabaseMetaData java.sql.Blob java.RowId java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.

jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.SybDriver com.db2. A database driver is specified by the driver name.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database. The first one is loading a database driver.odbc.DB2Driver oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.net.ibm. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.datastore.sybase.jdbc.JDBC 10.10 .JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .jdbc.driver.borland.jdbc.

as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.sql. Since we just used it. String user = "root". but let's take it for granted: import java.util. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.getConnection(connURL. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.Driver"). by using the connection URL. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).10 . as specified by the driver vendor.mysql. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. import java. passwd).newInstance().mm. try { Class.*. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.*.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.printStackTrace(). Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". 94 . the only protocol allowed in JDBC).forName("org.gjt. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. user.bank11. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.

put("create". "true"). int resultSetConcurrency.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp). int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Connection conn = DriverManager. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. 10.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.JDBC 10. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Properties prp = new Properties(). but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.10 .put("autocommit". prp.getConnection(connURL. "true"). let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. java. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.sql package. we can use it for various purposes. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. prp.util. String user.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .

JDBC 10. namely. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. prepared statements and stored procedures.10 . Statement. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. respectively.

Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .createStatement(). 10. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . stmt. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql.10 .".executeUpdate(sqlString). The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved...

98 . These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1.10 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. a concurrency of read only. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. and CallableStatement objects. PreparedStatement.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. time.10 .DataSource object. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. a factory for creating DB connections.Big Decimal Object float 10. secs date.math.sql. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. It is part of the javax.sql. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.produces a Connection object that will 103 .Time java. Basic implementation -.sql.0 optional package.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs. This interface is. basicly.sql package.math. mins.produces a standard Connection object 2. There are three types of implementations: 1. Connection pooling implementation -.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.

*.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. 3. 104 .*. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".naming.sql. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. javax. import import import import import import java. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager.*. private DataSource theDataSource.http. javax.*.bank11.*.class.servlet.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.sql. javax.10 . public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.getName()).servlet. java.servlets.io.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.ccards.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.getLogger(TestDataSource. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). javax. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.

. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).10 . ServletException { . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").

The current JSP specification is JSP 2. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.JSP 11 . namely javax.1 and is related to the 2.jsp.servlet.11 . JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.servlet. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. 11. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The package javax.servlet.jsp and javax.JSP 11.servlet.tagext.5 Java Servlet specification. the servlet code is regenerated.jsp.servlet.jsp. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet. The javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.2 the java. The package javax.servlet.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. If the JSP is modified.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. 111 . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".... attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . include and taglib. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).11 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false".

11. 11.7. 11.7 scripting elements 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. 11.7.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. In Tomcat. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . Assigns it to available name or id.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.11 . It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.JSP 11.7.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. this code goes to inside the service() method.

the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . Attributes description: • • • name . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. and if so.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.11 .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .

converts them to string and displays the output to the client.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:forward>.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . flush . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.only the "true" value is supported. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.13 the forward standard action 114 .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. 11.the URL of the page.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.11 . same format as the <%@include> directive. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . <jsp:plugin> actions.

followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. You must include the . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . name . as well.11 .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. servlet or to a static resource..a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 ." .the name of a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). If you do not supply a value. code="classFileName" . archive="URIToArchive..class extension in the name following code.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. You must specify either bean or applet..the type of object the plugin will execute. . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . as this attribute has no default value. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. 11. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. It is used mainly.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. name="instanceName" . when we want to separate the application into different views..a name for the Bean or applet instance. depending on request.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.

1" .1. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . request . in pixels. optional port number.lang. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.PrintWriter.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.represents the servlet context.11 . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.servlet. application .the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. and domain name.it represents the buffered version of java. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. writes to the output stream to the client. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. in pixels. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . Must be a small nonzero number. pageContext . based on the servlet API.jsp.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents server's response to the request.16 scopes 1. out . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. session .it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.the amount of space.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires.io. The default value is 1. config .the initial height and width.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. objects which are automaticly available. it has javax. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. request . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. page .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. The value is a full URL. response . 1.JspWriter type and scope page 7. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. it has java.Object type and scope page 11. with a protocol name.

an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. page . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. session .beans. Object value) method 2.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.bank11. Object value) method 3.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.init().jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.JSP request object. if (enrollBean. Object value) method 4. application .ccards. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.jsp file.11 .registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.

SimpleBean.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. a float.Serializable { private String string.register(). private int list[].devsphere.string. The public constructor could have been omitted.18. private float number. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). private int integer. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. a boolean and another String).18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.simple. an int. The SimpleBean class is declared public. private boolean flag.11 . since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. a software development and consulting company.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. 11.mapping. %> <jsp:forward page="response.examples. private String colors[]. private SimpleSubBean subBean.java: package com. private String optional.io.

} // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.flag = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.number = value.colors[index]. } 119 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.integer = value.11 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.colors = values.flag.number.colors.string = value.integer.JSP this.

} // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. int value) { this. } } 120 .optional = value.list[index].JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. String value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.list = values.optional.colors[index] = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.11 .list. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.list[index] = value.subBean. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.

number = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.mapping.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } } 11.Serializable { private String string.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.devsphere. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.simple. SimpleSubBean.examples. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.string. private float number.11 .io.java: package com.number.string = value. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.18. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .string subBean.11 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.

11 .123) }. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. SimpleBeanResources.integer]". { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.list]".util. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. "One or more colors must be selected" }. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". There are three error messages. The default values are defined for a String. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. "One or more items must be selected" }. the form's name and the processor's name. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. new Boolean(true) }. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. the processing order.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The list of optional properties has a single element. 3 } }.examples.java: package com. the list of optional properties. new Float(0. "abc" }. a boolean and an int[].mapping. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.flag]".list]". error messages.colors]". a float. new String[] { 123 . The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.simple. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.number]".devsphere. new int[] { 2. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.18.string]". "An option must be selected" }.

For a better understanding of this example.mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").jsp" } }. { "[PROC_NAME]".logging.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).devsphere.mapping. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. "number".html" }. "list". If necessary. "optional".4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.devsphere.devsphere. "flag". SimpleHndl.18. "colors".devsphere.*.mapping. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .11 . } } 11. "subBean" } }.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. com.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. The beanToForm() method of com. "integer". string values are converted to numbers.devsphere.util.mapping. "SimpleForm. "SimpleProc. The formToBean() method of com.examples. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. new String[] { "string".JSP "optional" } }. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".simple. { "[FORM_NAME]".

lastIndexOf('/'). logger). 125 .getString("[PROC_NAME]").trim().getClass()).getBeanResources(simpleBean. // Process the valid data bean instance application.equals("POST"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).substring(0.io.JSP = HandlerUtils.getTemplate(new java. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getMethod(). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). formPath = application. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.util.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils. response).removeUserErrors(errorTable). simpleBean. slashIndex+1) : "". int slashIndex = basePath. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. // Construct the base path String basePath = request.trim(). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.11 .getString("[FORM_NAME]").getDocument().File(formPath)). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.forward(request. errorTable = HandlerUtils.getServletPath().getRequestDispatcher(procPath).formToBean(formData.getRealPath(formPath). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.

StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().number = <%= simpleBean.beanToForm(simpleBean.append("{ "). errorTable.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.JSP elements logger). i++) 126 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getString() %> <P> subBean.length == 0) return "".simple. // Send the form document document. for (int i = 0.string = <%= simpleBean.mapping.length.examples.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.send(out). document.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. } %> 11. strbuf.devsphere. i < list.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. SimpleProc.getSubBean().length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. if (list.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean().11 .18.

jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append("{ "). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. return strbuf.11 .length == 0) return "". making the testing and the debugging easier. for (int i = 0.append("}").mapping.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. if (list.jsp files. In addition. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.length == 1) return Integer. } strbuf.length. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. Using the framework.append(list[i]).append(" "). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. ComplexForm.simple.append("}"). } %> 11.toString(). strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list. i < list. The localization of the Complex*.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.examples.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. i++) { strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.util.append(list[i]).toString(). strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append(" ").toString(list[0]). A single call to FormUtils. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). In addition. strbuf. return strbuf. } strbuf.formToBean() call.devsphere.18. ComplexHndl. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.

"flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. i < colorValues. j++) if (colors[j]. j < colors. i++) { boolean checked = false. "Green". i++) { int value = i+1. "blue" }.getColors(). "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "Blue" }.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. for (int i = 0. String colorLabels[] = { "Red".11 .JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. for (int i = 0. String colorValues[] = { "red".getInteger() == value.length. "green". "Option 2". i < integerLabels.length. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. 128 . boolean checked = simpleBean.

"subBean.devsphere. if (list == null) list = new int[0].getSubBean().simple. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i < listItems.setSubBean( new com. boolean selected = false.length.SimpleSubBean()).length. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.getList(). %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.examples. i++) { int value = i+1. "Item 2".getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 3" }. break. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. for (int i = 0. j < list. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.JSP break.11 .mapping.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.

simple.Hashtable errorTable.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.examples.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). return message. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.11 . String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.mapping.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.devsphere.get(property). 130 .devsphere. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getSubBean().examples.getString() == null || simpleBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean.equals("POST"). "subBean. } %> ComplexHndl.getString().util.getMethod().jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.util.setString("abc").simple. if (message == null) message = "".mapping.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.

"string". "number".length == 0) { 131 . "Must be a number").setFlag(flagValue != null). "number".getColors().trim(). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.length() != 0) simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.setNumber(0.123f).getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "An option must be selected"). "integer". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("number").11 . else { simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.123f). "Must be filled").floatValue()).equals("false")) flagValue = null. } simpleBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "Must be filled").getColors() == null || simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setNumber(0. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.getParameter("flag").length() == 0 || flagValue.

setOptional("").length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. "list".number".length() != 0) simpleSubBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.11 .getString(). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more colors must be selected"). 3 }).string". "subBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue.number : text try { String numberValue = request. "Must be } //* subBean.setList(new int[] { 2.setString(""). "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()).getList().getParameter("subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "colors". 132 . "One or more items must be selected").length == 0) { simpleBean. "subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getList() == null || simpleBean. //* subBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.number").

code=com. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setString("abc"). simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.helpers. message).mapping. "Must be a number"). simpleBean.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. The com.number".setString("").jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.JSP filled"). The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.util. simpleBean.xml: SimpleHndl.jsp. "subBean. simpleBean. } } else { simpleBean.SimpleBean.setNumber(0.setFlag(true).put(property.examples.simple.devsphere.devsphere. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".Hashtable errorTable. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.18.setOptional("").11 . errorTable. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.devsphere. simpleSubBean.\ 133 . 3 }).jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.helpers.mapping.properties or web.123f).7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. } %> 11. String property.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.setList(new int[] { 2. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.

examples. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.code=com.code=com. you could add a few other lines to servlets.host.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.devsphere. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.helpers.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.company. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.simple.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com. a servlet is identified with its class.examples.helpers. 11.18.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.properties (or web.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.AnotherBean.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. If you have another bean-form pair. A servlet can be made bean-independent.xml) file: ServletName.mapping.mapping.host.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .devsphere.another. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. In many cases. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.host.mapping.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.devsphere.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.properties: AnotherHndl.11 .devsphere.

JSP 135 .11 .

2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.12 . released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. builds a component tree. 2. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.javaserver faces 12 . buttons.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. This technology includes: 1. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. processes events. like input fields. 12.JAVASERVER FACES 12.0. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.0 supersedes version 1. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . which loads the appropriate view template. Version 2. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. Version 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.

As of version 1. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . there are 25 HTML JSF tags.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.2 of the JFS specification. 12. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.4.12 .javaserver faces 12.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

see the column tag documentation. Common formatting techniques. columns and rows.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. footers. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. such as alternating row colors. 12. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. For more information about columns.4. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. respectively.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.12 . A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.

If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.checkout}" /> 139 .javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.12 .00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.4. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.4.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. your options include using plain HTML forms.

5.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.</span> 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. red for error.user.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 ." /> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".user.4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself. 12. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.4.12 .

you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.12 . 12.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. For example.5.

12 . can publish value change events. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.5. The body content of this tag must be empty.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.javaserver faces 12.customer. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Without this JavaScript event. validateLength. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.5. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. 12. but only if the new input is validated successfully. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.mycompany. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.

MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. including images and styles.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.5.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.javaserver faces 12.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.12 .mycompany. Example: welcome_en. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. If you have not specified a default locale. myJSFapp 143 . This allows you to design localized versions of each page. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. for each locale you wish to support.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.

static resources.jar.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Define navigation rules 3.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar – files included in the /lib directory.exadel. and so on. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. Create JSP pages 2. Create properties files 144 .html. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.12 . JSP pages. It has a deployment descriptor. jsf-api.javaserver faces /ant build.jar jsf-api. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Create managed beans 4. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application.contains libraries required by the application.xml web.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.xml – the JSF configuration file.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. like third party jar files jsf-impl. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. mandatory for any JSF application web. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. custom tag libraries.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.jar faces-config.

You only need to create the JSP files. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. As a diagram. Compile the application 8.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. 12. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.7.12 .jsp and greeting.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. And that's all there is to this. we can create a navigation rule. These files will act as place holders for now. In our application.jsp. You just need to create its contents. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. The directory structure already exists.jsp to greeting. Deploy and run the application 12. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp is greeting.jsp file 7. Now that we have the two JSP pages. we just want to go from inputname. Create an index.7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.javaserver faces 5.xml file.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.

visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. To read more about navigation rules. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.PersonBean. 12. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.7. public class PersonBean { String personName. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. of course.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.7. myJFSapp.javaserver faces This is. we will create a PersonBean. 12. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. You can easily create more complex ones. request sets the bean scope in the application.7.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.xml Now.12 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.3.java file. The next line is the full class name. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.3.7.1 PersonBean.3. the second part of faces-config. a very simple navigation rule.) 12. This class is straight-forward. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml file should look like this: 146 . Inside this myJFSapp folder.xml Your final faces-config.3 faces-config.

jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.5.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.sun. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.1//EN" "http://java. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. 12.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.properties file in the bundle folder.12 . Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. Inc.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.4.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.1 inputname.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. 12.sun.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .7.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.sun.1 messages. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.

One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. Then. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.sun.sun. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.bundle.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle.

In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. specifically the bean attribute personName.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. 12.2 greeting.12 .greeting_text}" />.sun.</h3> tags.7.7. and also print its contents on the page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Lines 3-5. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.javaserver faces Line 1.jsp page.xml file. The first three lines are identical to our first page.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. That's how JSF knows where to go next.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Line 2.6 creating the index.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. name! 12.bundle.sun. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.5. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.. Having an index. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. Line 6. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Creates an HTML input text box. Create the index. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The second line will access a Java bean. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname..

jsf and not .bat in Tomcat's bin directory).xml file for the application *.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. which asks an user for an ID and password. 150 .9 Running Next.7. When Tomcat is done loading. 12. This is a "login" application. Your setup.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. we need to deploy it. To build the application run the build.jsp. 12. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.javaserver faces Now. you'll notice the file suffix is . We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.7. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.html . To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. Of course. This is used here. though.7.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. We are almost done with this example.12 . because in the web. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. 12. 12. might possibly be different).xml file. verifies the information.8. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.sourceforge. To do this.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. and forwards the user to a success or error page. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).

WEB-INF 151 . 12. click Finish 4. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. c.webroot | +-. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot... Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. see Installing & Uninstalling. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.8. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. 10. 6. and to add JSF libraries to the project.xml Editor (see faces-config.src | +-. Select Java Project. and set up folders for a web application. 1. click Yes through messages that appear. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. Enter project name. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. click Next. select the Source tab... Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. jsf-login. 9.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.12 . say.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.. name the folder webroot 5. a. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. Select the Amateras node. your mileage may vary... click Next. 3. 2. 7. click Add Folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. click Next d. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. make sure all checkboxes are checked. in the wizard that appears. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the Add JSF Support page.. name the folder pages. from the menubar select File/New/Other. The New Project wizard appears. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.

} void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. if ( _uid. } return action. b. In the Package field. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.lib | +-.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.java package login.LoginManager. enter login.xml Editor.8.javaserver faces | | | +-. click Managed Bean. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". Click Finish. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. 2. from its context menu select New/Class.xml. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig.pages 12. a. The New Java Class wizard appears. } 4. 3. input widgets appear d. else action = "loginFail". click Add.xml editor opens. for class enter login. for scope select 152 . The Java code editor opens. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. The faces-config. c. in the Name field enter LoginManager. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. In Package Explorer select the src folder.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. for name enter mgr. 1.12 .equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". We then configure it to be a managed bean. private String _pwd = "".

Then we create login. success. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp).webroot/pages/success.12 .jsp.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. c. save the file and close the editor.jsp and error. Create success.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.javaserver faces session.jsp. from its context menu select New/File. so we create them first. the New File wizard appears. b. click Finish. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp: a. the JSP Editor opens. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. enter the following code. and 3 content pages (login.jsp).jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. for File name enter index. 1.jsp.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. then close the editor 12.8.jsp: create this file similarly to index. e.jsp are simple pages with static content.webroot/index. All pages except login.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. again. <!-. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. Create error. Create index. index. but in webroot/pages. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp: create this file similarly to index.webroot/pages/error.jsp. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages.jsp is placed directly in webroot. </body> Please try 153 .

you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. now we want to add attributes to this element. for File name enter login.12 . and hit CTRL + Spacebar.. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages.sun. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. a code-completion window pops up. b. the New wizard appears. and choose default for Template. with the following template code. d. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. To see this in action. place your cursor in one of these lines. 154 . Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. enter jsf-login e. click Next c. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. click Finish.jsp: a. and dock it along the right. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. as shown below. Open the JSF palette. and the JSP Editor can help with code..jsp. g. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and uses them for code completion as well. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. <%@ page contentType="text/html.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. (See Show View Dialog) f. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements.completion.javaserver faces </html> 4. etc.. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. Create login. from its context menu select New/Other.

insert a <h:commandButton> element.. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. enter #{mgr. set its value to Login. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". select userID from the code-completion window. and hit Enter. with bean properties available in mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. insert another <h:inputText> element.password}" l.sun. i. this inserts value="" at the cursor.loginAction} The final code. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.12 .) j. with the barest presentational formatting.javaserver faces h. a code-completion window pops up. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.

8. Select the Navigation tab 3. using a FacesIDE editor.xml Editor. 156 . and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. Open faces-config. 2.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. then click inside the editor window.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. This is shown below.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.12 . click on Page.xml.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. 1. it should open in the faces-config.

jsp. and set them to /pages/login. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp. then click first on the icon for login. /pages/success.12 .jsp and /pages/error. change the value of path to /index. select Navigation Case. notice that the warning triangle disappears. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. in the Properties view. add 3 more pages.jsp. 6. This is shown below: 157 . then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp 4.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. and is represented by an arrow. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). from the palette at left. 5. Its properties appear in the Properties view.

all we need do in web. Similarly add a forward-action from login.jsp. open web.xml. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).xml.xml Here we edit web. Once deployed browse to index. or leave it as-is.jsp. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. 1. any other id/password should send you to the error page. 12. We'll set some properties in web. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8.12 .javaserver faces 7.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and extension-based mapping is turned on.jsp to error. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.jsp. We want virtual path-based mapping. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. since we have such a trivial application.xml for the specifics of our application. so uncomment it. The application is now complete.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be sent to the success page. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.6 Editing web. As it turns out.8. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.

8.convert javax.lifecycle javax.faces. 12.model javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.faces.10 the javax. For a given factory class name.event javax. for Context path enter /jsf-login.validator javax. click Deploy 3. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.12 .application javax..faces.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. that factory is used.faces.faces.render javax.webapp 12.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.component javax.faces.0 1.faces.html javax..7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax. start Tomcat.faces.faces.el javax. open its Manager application in a browser.javaserver faces 12.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages..faces. Click on its link to launch the application.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.component.faces. scroll down to Deploy. the Manager application should reload. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. as file:///.context javax.

Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . If none of the above steps yield a match.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. defining page navigation.12 . 12. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. with the last one taking precedence. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.Severity .application package Contains the following classes: • Application . FacesMessage . StateManager . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. FacesMessage. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.faces.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). ViewHandler . and supporting internationalization and accessibility. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. ApplicationFactory . its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. StateManagerWrapper . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.represents a single validation (or other) message.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. handling events and input validation. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. with the last one taking precedence. ViewHandlerWrapper . those factories are used.11 the javax.

a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. UIComponent . String) results in failure on postback. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. when activated by the user.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.restoreView(javax. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . a menu item.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. 12. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. • ViewExpiredException .12 the javax. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.FacesContext.12 .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.context.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. or a hyperlink. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.faces. String.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. EditableValueHolder . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. Here they are: • • UIColumn . • • 161 .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.faces. ValueHolder .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. StateHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. UIComponentBase . ActionSource2 .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. UICommand . NamingContainer . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. ContextCallBack .

a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UIOutput .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. UIForm . UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. The user can modify the selected value.a UIComponent that has a value. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). UIInput .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. Optionally.javaserver faces • UIData . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UISelectOne . the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UINamingContainer .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. The user can modify the selected values. identified by a clientId. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIMessage .faces.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. it just serves as the root of the component tree. UISelectBoolean . by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. The user cannot manipulate this component. UIMessages . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. UISelectItem .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.component. by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. that is displayed to the user. UIPanel .13 the java. Optionally.12 . UIParameter .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.html package 162 .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. it is for display purposes only. it is for display purposes only. This component has no rendering. UISelectMany . UIGraphic .

represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.12 . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlOutputText . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . but the application wishes to render more than one.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlInputHidden .by default.represents an HTML img element.faces. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlDataTable .Message".causes all child components of this component to be rendered. HtmlOutputLink . or not. HtmlPanelGroup . On a redisplay. HtmlColumn . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlCommandLink .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlInputSecret .by default.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML form element. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlOutputLabel . The label text is specified by the component value.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlCommandButton . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlForm . and renders the result.represents an HTML label element.renders the component value as text. HtmlMessage .faces. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlPanelGrid . This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlInputText . HtmlMessages .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlOutputFormat .renders child components in a table.

context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. HtmlSelectOneListbox .javaserver faces property. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing a single available option at a time. ResponseWriterWrapper . • • • • • • 12.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.12 .15 the java.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. FacesContext . • • • • 12. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. HtmlSelectOneMenu . In particular.14 the java.faces.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. and the rendering of the corresponding response. and potentially modified by. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyMenu . It is passed to.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. FacesContextFactory . ResponseStream . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing a single available option at a time. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. HtmlSelectManyListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.convert package 164 .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseWriter .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.

on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .12 . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.javaserver faces 12.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. • • • • 165 . Classes: MethodBinding . 12.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.16 the java.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. VariableResolver . ValueBinding .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.15.faces. PropertyResolver .

AbortProcessingException . Interfaces: ActionListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ValueChangeListener . and event implementation classes.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. FacesListener .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PropertyNotFoundException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. PhaseEvent . • • • • 12.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. MethodNotFoundException . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . • • • • • One exception .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.faces. 166 .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. PhaseListener .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.17 the java.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle. ReferenceSyntaxException . ValueChangeEvent .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .12 .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. PhaseId . FacesEvent .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.

an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.faces.20 the java. 12.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . DataModelEvent . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.12 . SelectItem .18 the java. ListDataModel .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.faces. Renderer .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. ResultSetDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.faces. Classes: ArrayDataModel . DataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. ScalarDataModel .19 the java. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. ResultDataModel . • • • • • • • • • 12.javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. SelectItemGroup .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.

A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. AttributeTag . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.22 the java. markup language.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.faces. Typically.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. • • 12. as well. The package contains an exception.12 . RenderKitFactory .faces. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. 12. and concrete validator implementation classes.validator package Interface defining the validator model.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.21 the java.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. • RenderKit . together. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags. ConverterTag . A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. ResponseStateManager . LongRangeValidator . including a standard servlet. and/or user Locale.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.

the life cycle is more complicated. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. which has several implications. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the controller sends a message to the view. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. When using JSF. related to a UIComponent. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. 12. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. that need to process their tag bodies.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. In MVC. Also. which passes the request to the page class. Likewise.a base class for all JSP custom actions. but basically. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. • • • • • FacesServlet . servlets. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. the controller is the 169 . When a web server receives a request. UIComponentTag . We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. FacetTag . the controller sends a message to the model.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. that request is passed to the container. the process includes a few more components or pages. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. UIComponentBodyTag . the JSF life cycle does not apply. or when an exception occurs.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. telling the model to update its data.12 . or some other web technology. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. When the model is updated. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. telling the view to update its presentation.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. In JSF. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model).javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. When the user takes some action with the presentation. ValidatorTag . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.

the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. The components are stored in a component tree. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. • Invoke Application: During this phase. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. and what happens during the processing and response. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and the response is sent to the client. It updates only the UI components with the new data. 170 . Data can come from input fields in a web form. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. In addition. As with the previous phase. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. In addition. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the JSF implementation must create the view. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. is validated at this time. it creates UI objects for each view component. Data for some components. However. If this is a subsequent request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. from cookies sent as part of the request. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. For a JSF-enabled application. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. converting a String to a Date object). and the UI components are the view.javaserver faces JSF implementation. such as components that create HTML input fields. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request.12 . the conversion occurs in this phase. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). or from request headers. not every request will flow through all six phases. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. depending on the request. and a piece of data failed validation. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. These objects update their state with the data values.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.javaserver faces In the above figure. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. if errors occur during any of the phases. skipping any remaining phases. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.12 . For example. Also. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. 171 .

you must supply its name. when you use an electronic mail system. or objects typically used by computer programs. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. such as LDAP. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (".2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. you supply it the name of the object. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.1 names To look up an object in a naming system.JNDI 13. When using almost any computer program or system. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. identifiers. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.2. 172 . possibly multiple.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").sun. The UNIX pathname. For example.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. and NIS(YP). A file system maps a filename (for example.COM. For example.13 . for example. which is located in the root of the file system. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. NDS. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.5). /usr/hello. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.9. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services.48. 13. 13.COM. In addition. Using JNDI. names a file hello in the file directory usr. Thus the DNS name sales. For example. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. in turn."). To access a file in the computer. The DNS entry Wiz.Wiz. DNS. It enables applications to access different. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. c:\bin\autoexec. naming and directory services using a common API.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. such as addresses. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. you are always naming one object or another.JNDI 13 .

A printer object reference. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. while the object itself might contain more state information. A file object. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. A reference is information about how to access an object. such as COM. in the UNIX file system is a context. By contrast. for example. for example. such as c=us. is a context. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. is relative to c=us. also called a file handle. an LDAP entry. such as /usr. o=Sun. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. and its flight number and departure time. Every context has an associated naming convention. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). some objects cannot be stored directly. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. Typically. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. they must be stored by reference. Finally. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. is a context. in a file directory /usr/bin.").2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. 13. 173 . For example. such as its print server name and printing protocol. relative to the entry o=Sun.COM. delimited by the comma character (".4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. For example. a file name is bound to a file. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. and listing bound names. a DNS domain. Using the reference. A printer object. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. on the other hand. For simplicity.2. a file directory. that is. and fuel and instrument status. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. 13. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. might contain the state of the printer. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. is accessed using a file reference. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. that is. in the DNS domain Sun.c=us. its flight plan. unbinding names.2. In another example.2. For example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. which in turn. For example. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. For example. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory).13 . That is. 13. Instead.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service.

For example. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. A directory object can be used. two different computer 174 . A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. however.13 . a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. a computer. For example. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. For example. various telephone numbers. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. and color. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. a name is unique 13. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. for example. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. resolution. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. An example is the telephone company's directory service. For example.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. 13. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. or a network. For example. to represent a printer. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. Thus.3. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. And it kind of makes sense. A naming service is accessed through its own interface.2. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. a person. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. programs. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. and even the computer itself and other computers. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. and computer account information.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. to some extent. because we can.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. 13. one context can be viewed. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. postal mail address.

support the notion of searches.com". When you search.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. that is. Within the DIT. many directories. 13. The email address. By using a directory service.113. and users.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service.4. an organization object. for example. such as the file and print services. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. called a directory information tree (DIT).3. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. for example. A Java mail client program. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. For example. 175 . you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have.smith@somewhere. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. printers. 13. Many examples of directory services are possible. The query is called a search filter. Alternatively. 13. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. such as that relating to machines.50". the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. When directory objects are arranged in this way.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching.3. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. 13.3. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. for example. networks. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. The service is accessed through its own interface. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. such as those based on the LDAP. the ability to access directory services will become essential. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. like any other program running on the network. 13.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. For example. adding. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects.13 . A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. "mail" is the attribute identifier. Similarly. removing. can use the directory in the traditional way. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases.

1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). For example.naming.2.1 and v1. v1.naming. 13.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.1 and Java 2 SDK.naming. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.2. v1. v1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. The Java 2 SDK.13 . a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. 13. 13. For example. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors. and even the network. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. To use the JNDI.3 and later releases. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.event javax.naming javax. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.5.5. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Thus a variety of directories--new.4. emerging. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way. v1. more coherent and manageable.directory javax.ldap 176 . It extends the v1.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.

A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. For the methods in the Context interface. 13. A java.6. the name of the object's class.lang. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. Furthermore. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.13 . Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. However. 13.naming.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. a 177 . NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.String name argument represents a composite name. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.String name.lang. and so on.naming package defines a Context interface. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.JNDI • javax. which is the core interface for looking up. printer. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. that is.6. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. composing them. 13.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.6. and the object itself.6.1 context The javax. The overloads that accept java. list() is similar to listBindings().lookup("treekiller").6 the naming package The javax. For example. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.print(report). binding/unbinding. comparing components.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. and it returns the object bound to that name. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.spi 13. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.lang. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. for some objects in the directory. In this case. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . 13. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.

178 . Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception.naming. For example. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. replace.directory package extends the javax. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.7. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. There are no absolute roots.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. Otherwise. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object.13 . all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 13. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13.7 directory package The javax. In the simplest and most common form of usage.7. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Once you have an initial context.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).6. InitialContext. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. they should catch NamingException. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. 13. 13. You can add.6. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference.

the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.9.8 event package The javax. such as "object changed. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.JNDI 13.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. such as "object added. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. that is. such as information about the object before and after the change. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. 13.ldap package at all.13 .9.directory package. 13. For example. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. and vice versa.naming.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.9 LDAP package The javax.naming. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. To receive event notifications. These operations are called "extended" operations.naming. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . called controls . 13. In fact. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. there need not be a response control for each request control sent. 13. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Once registered. For example.9. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service." and those that do not. or unsolicited notifications.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. controls.

The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. create a file named Lookup.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.2 java object support The javax.11. 13. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. implementors of Context. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. import javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. 13.naming.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.9.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. That is.10 service provider package The javax.Context. This support is provided in the form of state factories.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.spi package supports implementors of Context. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. 13. sending request controls.13 .11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.naming. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system.10. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. This support is provided in the form of object factories. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.naming.1 plug-In architecture The javax. For example. and receiving response controls. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. In the process of completing an operation.naming package.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.java. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.10. 180 . You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. 13.naming.10.

Object obj = ctx. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. // Print it System. 13. import javax.java).put(Context.3. env.jar as an installed extension.lookup(name).NamingException.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).3 looking up an Object Next.err. } 13. v1.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. using the capitalization shown.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. If you are still having problems. 13.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).fscontext.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).out. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.RefFSContextFactory").11. 13. 181 . as follows. If the compilation succeeds. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). If the compilation fails. use Context. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.jndi. To compile to program.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.lookup() to look up an object. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. then the JNDI classes are already included.5 compiling the program Next. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.JNDI import javax.11.sun.lookup(name). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. Otherwise.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. you must have access to the JNDI classes.11. } catch (NamingException e) { System. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.InitialContext.naming. create an initial context. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. For this reason.11. "com.13 . then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.naming. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.

DirContext.ldap. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.13 .2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.naming. the file system service provider. javax. env. javax. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.directory.naming. env.12.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.PROVIDER_URL.JNDI 13.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.sun. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. Finally. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.jar and providerutil. To run the program.6 running the program To run the program.java. javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.fscontext.InitialDirContext.naming.directory. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.naming. 182 .directory packages. include the directory that contains your Lookup.12. v1.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.Attributes.jndi.directory. import import import import import javax.11. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").LdapCtxFactory").NamingException. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.put(Context. 13. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.3.put(Context.sun. you need access to the JNDI classes. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. 13. and your example class (Lookup. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.jndi. create an initial directory context.naming and javax. javax. then you will see something like the following. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). supply the name of a file in your file system. "com.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.Context.bat If you supply a file directory.class). except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.jar). create a file named Getattr.naming.naming.

12. 183 . you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. For this reason.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. Attributes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.12.get(). } 13. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. If the compilation succeeds. As with the naming example.java).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.get() and then from that attribute get its value. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. 13. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.get()). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.get("sn"). the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.12. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.println("sn: " + attrs. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. For now. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. ou=People"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. 13. If you are still having problems. ou=People").6 compiling the program Next.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. using the capitalization shown. } catch (NamingException e) { System. compile the source file using the Java compiler.get("sn").out. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get() on it to get its value: attrs.err.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).13 . Similar to the naming example. If the compilation fails.12.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. 13.

jar and providerutil. then see the Common Problems lesson. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").class. env. Getattr. ou=People". serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. Once it has the attributes.JNDI 13. 184 . then these classes are already included. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. If you have any trouble running this example. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. v1. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.12.put(Context.jar). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.3.13 .PROVIDER_URL.7 running the program As with the naming example. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. With this configuration.

A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. Here. • 14. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS producer . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. JMS queue .14 .a JMS client that creates and sends messages. JMS consumer . JMS topic . JMS message . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. As the name queue suggests.a JMS client that receives messages. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. In this model. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. JMS client .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. Enterprise Edition. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. unless it has established a durable 185 .

In that case. 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.3 the JMS API programming model 14.4.14 . The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. 186 . Using Java. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.jms. 14. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Depending on the type of message. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. On the receiving side.

When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Before an application completes. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. 14.close(). you must close any connections that you have created. For example. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext().3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. For example. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The JMS administrator creates these objects. connection.4.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. and users discover them using JNDI. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. you must call the connection's start() method. Connections implement the Connection interface. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx.lookup("jms/MyQueue").2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.14 . 14. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. you call the stop() method. It is either a queue or a topic. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.4.4. Before your application can consume messages. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). Like the connection factory. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. Depending on the connection type.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. It receives messages sent to a destination. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.createConnection(). In a J2EE application. 14. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.

The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. For example. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.start(). Message m = consumer. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. Moreover. (Remember always to call the start() method.14 . it becomes active. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().createConsumer(myQueue). a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. A message listener does. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.receive(1000). (If you call start() before you register the message listener.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. MessageConsumer consumer = session. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. onMessage().start(). usually expect a specific message type and format. and you can use it to receive messages. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. 14.) When message delivery begins. if it needs to reply to messages. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. This method is valid only if you are using a topic.createConsumer(myTopic). This object implements the MessageListener interface. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. Message m = consumer. You use the Session. 188 . which contains one method. After you register the message listener. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. however. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. you are likely to miss messages.setMessageListener(myListener). In the onMessage() method. connection. For example. After you have created a message consumer.receive(). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. consumer.4. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. a message listener object may be used.

if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. to create and send a TextMessage. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). With an unidentified producer. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent.4. For example. bytes message. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. anon_prod. message). For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. After you have created a message producer. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.14 .receive(). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.send(message). MessageProducer producer = session. Here. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. that is. message.createProducer(null).6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. // msg_text is a String producer. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message.4.createProducer(myQueue). You must first create the messages. and object message). you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.send(myQueue. 14.send(message).createTextMessage(). A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. stream message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. At the consuming end.createProducer(myTopic). 189 . A message has three main parts: 1. from one application to another.setText(msg_text). 3. map message. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. if you created an unidentified producer. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.

Sessions implement the Session interface. use the following code: Session session = connection. 0). the first argument means that the session is transacted. } else { // Handle error } 14.out. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. If the user selects transaction support.getText()). Session. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. To create a transacted session. After you create a Connection object. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).println("Reading message: " + message.14 . A session allows users to create message producers to send messages.createSession(true.createSession(false. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.4.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 190 . The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. and message consumers to receive messages. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Here. then delivers the messages.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. Before committing the transaction.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. improved performance security .intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).logging. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . container which offers services to the component.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.consistent error handling framework . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.15 .transaction management can be complex.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .no developer coding. bundled into a single unit. Version 1. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. 15. component recovery scalability portability 191 . server which provides an execution environment for containers. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .jar file into the application server. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. On the other side. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. The component lives inside a container.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. message-driven beans The 2.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .DB interaction transactions .0. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. the container lives (in general) in an application server.object oriented representation of data in a DB.0.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. called ejb-jar. the remote interface of the bean 4. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. as follows: 1. the home interface of the bean 3. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. which is an xml file. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . the deployment descriptor.15 . It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2.xml 15. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).

rmi. import.javax.javax. import.*. String lastName. RemoteException.rmi. } 15. While the Remote interface declares no methods. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. int custId) throws RemoteException. import java. The developer does not implement this interface.RemoteException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.ejb. import java. } 193 .RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.*.

6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. In the case of an web application. if the client executes outside the container. "localhost:1099"). how to create or find the bean 2.put(Context. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. prop. } 194 . This object acts like a factory for EJBs. this can be done (for example) through SSL.NamingContextFactory". what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.15 .jnp. prop. "org. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. we need to know: 1.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.interfaces. creating them for the client application.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL.

create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.15 .Remote interface). The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. This is done through the javax. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.rmi.. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. • if the client executes outside the container.rmi. IIOP has not been designed for Java. in fact. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. more specifically. but for generic languages. Some languages. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. Problem is. the client has a stub). do implements the java. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.PortableRemoteObject class and. in fact. and this means that there are some limitations. MyBeanHome.rmi.e. to the appropriate type. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. Why? For EJB. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. using the narrow() method. that is part of CORBA standards. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.lookup("MyBean"). do not have the concept of casting.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.class). 195 .narrow(homeRef.

.15 .7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.ccards. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.remove(). import javax. we concentrate now on the bean class itself. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 ... the code implementing this class may look like this: package com.create(). } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ejbeans. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. String lastName.. "Vasile".processEntry("Dumitrascu". as well). remove the bean instance myObject.bank11.ejb.ejb. 1102). 15.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. int custId) { // method implementation . public class MyBean implements javax.SessionContext. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. call business methods on the bean myObject.

the object is activated. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. that is. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. namely stateful and stateless beans. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 197 . A stateless bean does not.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. 15.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.15 .

For example. All other methods in Figure 15. for example. 198 . (Typically. The ejbCreate method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. Figure 15. is inside the bean class.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method.15 . Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. or passivate. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the client invokes the remove method. At the end of the life cycle. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.

stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15.15 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key.

bank11. state data is stored into data store (usually. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.ccards. Read. CreateException. We can have more create() methods.15 . methods which have the same parameters.14. Update and Delete.lang. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. in the same order. 15. as the parameters in the original create() method.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. On the other side. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. an instance of that bean is created. all throwing RemoteException.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. 200 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.

for BMP. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. Second. left empty most of the time in CMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. On the first path. the client invokes the create method. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.14. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. for BMPs. but the developer returns null for CMP. the programmer will create actual SQL code.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. actual SQL update code. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. After instantiation. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. 15. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. After the EJB container creates the instance. a client can invoke the remove method. 15. but in general.15 .2 read • • • ejbLoad().14.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. it is empty. 201 . First. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. not null. it's business methods can be invoked. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. While in the pooled stage. On the second path. All instances in the pool are identical. in BMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).14. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.

or a Web component . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. it does not automatically set the primary key. If the primary key is incorrect. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. another enterprise bean. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.an application client.15 . The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. the values of the instance variables are not needed. It acts as a JMS message listener. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. In the pooled state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. Therefore.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.getPrimaryKey(). the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. 15. In the pooled state. With bean-managed persistence. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. 202 .

When a message arrives.16. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. 15. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. 203 . allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. Unlike a session or entity bean.16.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.16. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To ensure concurrency. an open database connection. To avoid tying up server resources. The onMessage method may call helper methods. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.for example. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. 15.15 . Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. message-driven bean can be used. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. the message will be redelivered. Previously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. 15. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. If this element is set to more than one. max-beans-infree-pool.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. If message processing is rolled back. For more information on this element see.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. but not asynchronously.16. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. a JMS API connection. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. In several respects.

The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.16. Note: These instances can be pooled.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. finalize{}. 2.. and it must not // accept parameters. or create a new one.}.ejb. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. 3. // An EJB constructor is required. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. Obtain a new bean instance.0 specification.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.16. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.15 . and must take a single parameter of // type javax. 15. public void ejbRemove() {.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.Message MessageName) {. As with other EJB types. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created..6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.jms. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. methods..16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.jms. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.} // onMessage() is required. Classes.Message. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. public void onMessage(javax. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists...

because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. 15. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. However.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. even in onMessage().15 .MessageListener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.This is not a client context. getUserTransaction(). WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. 15. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.16. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). For example. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . getRollbackOnly() . Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.16. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove().8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. If any method throws such an exception. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. 15.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. 15. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.16.jms. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.onMessage() for more information. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.16. See javax.

0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .xml.16. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. as described in the EJB 2.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.15 . WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. In either case. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. as required by the EJB 2.0 specification. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.16. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. 15. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.0 specification. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.

.xml deployment file.. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. the weblogic-ejb-jar. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. For each instance..15 . 15. 2. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. 207 . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.jms. as described in the EJB 2..ejb20. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.xml elements.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method.message. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.0 specification. </message-driven> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.

15. EJB class name 5. the home interface name 7. bean home name . security 208 . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.like transaction. the remote interface name 8. session specific elements 9. At the end of the life cycle. access control entries . isolation level. entity specific elements 10.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. a message-driven bean is never passivated. the container calls the ejbRemove method. attributes . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. environment properties 6. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1.15 . control descriptors .security issues.

CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.lang.ccards.ejb.ejb.bank11.bank11.ejb.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.bank11.bank11.bank11.15 .ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.ccards.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ejb.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.bank11.

lang. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .15 .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2... Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.


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