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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


retail. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. processes it (if necessary). An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. like the client tier.java platform.7 business components Business code. are not considered web components. 5 . enterprise edition Figure 1. or finance. and sends it back to the client program. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.1 . Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Figure 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. processes it (if necessary). Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. 1.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. like HTML pages.2 Server communication 1. The web tier.

Before a web. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. mainframe transaction processing.1 .9 java EE Containers Normally. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. enterprise edition Figure 1. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. For example. multithreading. Business and EIS Tiers 1. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). or application client component can be executed. enterprise bean. and other legacy information systems.3 Web. 6 . and other complex low-level details. resource pooling.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. In addition.9. 1. database systems. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. 1.java platform. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type.

The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. After an enterprise bean is created.4. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. data persistence. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.1 . application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. including services such as security. For example. and remote connectivity. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. transaction management. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 7 . JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.java platform.9. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. 1. database connection resource pooling.

the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. text-based standard for representing data.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. Application client container . and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. video.1 . 1. test. 1. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.java platform. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. When XML data is exchanged between parties.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. extensible.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. Web container .10. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. develop.manages the execution of applets. For example. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Application clients and their container run on the client. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. 8 . enterprise edition Figure 1. or for document-oriented web services. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. program files. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Applet container . Web components and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. or any kind of binary data such as audio. XML data. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. maps.manages the execution of application client components.

WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). the location of the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The description includes the name of the service. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.1 . Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.10. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. enterprise edition 1.java platform.10. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 9 . such as Universal Description. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. 1.10. 1.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. and ways to communicate with the service.

5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. 1. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. In Java EE 5.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. If the client terminates.11. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. or enterprise bean. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. standard set of tags. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. Commonly. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. 1. WML. enterprise edition Figure 1.11.1 . the session bean and its data are gone.11. When the client finishes executing. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities.java platform.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. or if the server shuts down. and XML) and JSP elements. you employ a single. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. better tools.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. a module. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. or a component. 15 . enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. JSP page. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. servlet. or component accordingly. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. it is ready to be deployed.java platform. or better customer support.1 . and JNDI 1. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. JTA. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. At runtime. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . No extra coding is needed. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. the application is ready to run. Once deployed on a local platform. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . module. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. such as better performance.ear extension. SAAJ. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files.

A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files.jar extension. supporting class files. enterprise edition Figure 1. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. which contain servlet class files. and other documentation. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. for example.1 .jar extension. GIF and HTML files. Resource adapter modules. which contain all Java interfaces. For example.java platform. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. such as caching directives. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules.war (Web ARchive) extension. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. and a web application deployment descriptor. native libraries. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. Web modules. classes. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . • • 16 .rar (resource adapter archive) extension. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. Together.

as follows: 1.ietf. was the object of several RFCs.org/rfc/rfc1945. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. but they also have some common structural elements. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text.jmarshall.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. so far) version.. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. 2. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. check the official HTTP site – www.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .org/Protocols .w3. HEAD. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.HTTP 2...com/easy/http. The client sends a request message to the server.html).2 . separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.apps. namely HTTP 1.HTTP 2 . . The second (and last. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. zero or more header lines 3. These messages may have different contents. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. we recommend www. The server answers with a response message. an initial line 2. RFC 2616 (06/99). POST. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.

PUT 8. as well. Here is their list: 1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. GET 2. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. 2.1 specification. POST 4. .2 .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. in the HTTP 1. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . DELETE 6. TRACE Three other commands are listed.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1.Posting a message to a bulletin board. 18 .html HTTP/1.0). OPTIONS 7. HTTP/1. The only difference is that the response must not have a body.1. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. newsgroup. CONNECT 5. HEAD 3. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.Annotation of existing resources. but lack of support makes them obsolete.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. mailing list.

3.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. 2. In this case.Extending a database through an append operation. while POST may involve anything. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. or in the message body. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.Providing a block of data. like storing or updating data. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. When used for form data submission. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). . while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. or ordering a product. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.8 the status code A three-digit integer.0 404 Not Found 2. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. such as the result of submitting a form. after the “?” character. to a data-handling process. (encoded as multipart/form-data). . separated by the character “&” or “. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or a record is subordinate to a database.2 . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. or sending E-mail 2. 2.” On the other side. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.6 differences between GET and POST 1.HTTP or similar group of articles. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces.

HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. fails. Although the header names are not case sensitive. 2.the requested resource doesn't exist. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. The most common use of the message body is in a response. such as text/html or image/jpg. and the resulting resource (e. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. 20 . none of them mandatory.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. while the HTTP 1. If an HTTP message includes a body.0 version specifies 16 headers. header values are.1).1 only) . that is.the request succeeded. 500 Server Error . out of which. 2.an unexpected server error. and should be automatically retrieved by the client.1 version specifies 46 of them.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).0. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. one (Host) is mandatory.2 . separated a semicolon. or otherwise can't run correctly.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts.g. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. header name and header value. In particular. The HTTP 1. where the requested resource is returned to the client. file or script output) is returned in the message body. In a request. and section 10 for HTTP 1. 404 Not Found . • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.

with subtypes octet-stream. text.uvt. 21 . 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtypes rfc822. alternative. with subtypes mixed.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.0 From: someuser@yahoo. audio. gif 6. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.ro.info.apps. parallel 3. with subtype plain 2. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. video. 1.info.0 200 OK Date: Fri. digest.ietf. image.html HTTP/1. Here is the list of the seven types. with subtype mpeg 2. RFC 1521 (www.ro/path/file. application. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.html first open a socket to the host web.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. with subtype basic 7.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.HTTP 2. multipart. with subtypes jpeg. message. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. partial. .org/rfc/rfc1521.uvt. postscript 5. Then.2 . external-body 4. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.

the server closes the socket.HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response.2 . 22 .

org/rfc/rfc1866. It is a revision of 4.0. Version 4.0 and was accepted in December 1997. 3. Originally named Web Applications 1. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. The latest version (XHTML 2.jmarshall.01. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. From 1999 on.0.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. Since it fits in a couple of pages.2 (3.html) and was widely supported. The first official version – HTML 2. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The XHTML 1.com/indexdot/html . images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.htmlgoodies.99. As a practical reference site use – www. HTML describes how text. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. HTML 3.apps.ietf. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.blooberry. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.www.3 .w3c. www. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. The first version of HTML. However. The newest version of HTML is 4. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. namely HTML 1. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.com/easy/html . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.0) dates from 08.com/tutors. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). check the official HTML site – www.org/Markup .HTML 3 . Mosaic. Other helpful sites .HTML 3.0 .html.0 draft was released in 01.01) can be found at this address: http://www. A newer standard. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. a working draft for the next major revision.w3.

-_:" ".SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .3 .increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.

look at these examples: “&lt”. 3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references.0 Strict DTD. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. though. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.3 . This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.and end at the first occurrence of -->. the specification of HTML 4. three DTDs (HTML 4. "&#x6C34. 4.acesta este un comentariu. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs.01 specification. DYNSRC.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. Check the address http://www. …. CONTROLS. <><> --> 25 . This section deals with some of the most common elements.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.0 Transitional DTD.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. 3. You get the point. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.w3. “&quot”. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. VSAPCE are omitted. If you wonder what a character reference is. HTML 4.0 contains an SGML declaration. BORDER. like ALIGN. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. HTML 4.the chinese character for water. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. Overall. An example: <!-.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception." (in hexadecimal) .

uvt. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. NAME.5 tables 26 . Example: <A HREF=”http://web. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.3 .info.ro/webmail/src/login. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.HTML 3. image. etc.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.

3 . the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <TR>. its rows. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. <TH> and <TD>. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. Here is their description and attributes. columns. headers and cells are <TABLE>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Usually.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.

3 .required.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.7 forms A form is a basic component container. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . allowing user input and parameter submittal.

:.HTML • METHOD . however.8.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. SIZE .sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. specifies the parameter name. the browser appends the values to the URL. • 3. "hidden". Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "radio". after a quotation mark . The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. "GET" .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.used with forms that contain a file-selection field.8. "text/plain" • • 3. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections.8 form related elements 3.required. "submit".3 .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.info. "image". "reset".uvt. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. Example: http://web. "checkbox".required. "file". Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". Main attributes: 29 . allows multiple selections from the choice list.?. "password".8.the default value. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . Main attributes: • TYPE .if specified.sends the form values in a single transmission. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". specifies how data will be sent to the server. "button". may have the values GET or POST.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .maximum number of options visible to the user.required. 3. NAME .

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

java One example of command line compilation: 4.3 java applications 31 . The current version (as of 10. but next time execution is much faster.JAVA PRIMER 4. following the 1. To overcome this significant shortage. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.0.C:\TW\mySource.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.) in 08.4 . the compilation process occurs. Java source – a file with extension .class 3.2 java the interpreter.4.2 version.class file.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. javac -classpath . a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. Example: Edit the file prog1. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. 4. In terms of execution time.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.class file. The first time a class is loaded.java 2.95.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . jit From source to execution.class. project started in 12. -g : generate all debugging info. Inc.JAVA PRIMER 4 . pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable.. The current version (as of 10. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.java.90. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Early versions of Java were released in 12. Java bytecode – a file with extension . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.95.

4 object oriented concepts 4.jar file. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4 . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. In general.4. or is derived from A. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets. An example: 32 .java.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. Generally.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . 4. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or that it extends A).

4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. with the root the class Object. a class can have more than one method with the same name.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. In OO jargon. Long. In fact.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . this is called method overloading.1 bit char . That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees). The return type of a method is not part of this signature.4 . Therefore. 33 .4. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. 4. 4. Float. Boolean. Therefore. Double. called Object. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Integer. Short. providing its own implementation. Character.4. 4.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. namely: Byte. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. a Java class can extend a single base class. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.

class . A final variable (method.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references)..accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.access from any class anywhere private . rather than at class instance. } declares an abstract class. Except for the "package" concept. A final: • • • variable . method .one which is defined at class level.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . inherited).HttpServlet implements Serializable { .the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. which extends the class javax. 4.one which is constant method .servlet. no templates. anywhere abstract .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. 34 . The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.servlet.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.no access from outside the class itself protected . automatic garbage collection.the class is visible from any class. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. they have the same basic meaning as in C++. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . has the same value for all class instances.does not have any subclasses..the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.4 . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. which is visible only to the classes in the same package.http.http. • • • • no specifier .

namely class Error and the class Exception. Exception categories: 1. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. not at execution time.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. 2. In Java. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . standard method exceptions 3.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.4 .7. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. array index out of bounds. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.like invalid cast. programmer defined exceptions 4. code or data errors . these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. java errors .7.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.JAVA PRIMER 4.ThreadDeath. as defined in the java. 4.7.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. division by 0. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. 4.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually.7.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).

. finally construct.java.. An example: package com.this can be done by providing a try. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.util . followed by the import statements.awt . import. 4. therefore.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.sql. The package containing the standard classes is java. 4.awt.sql java. All other packages must be explicitly imported. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.support for user interface java. catch.bank11.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .Properties.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.rmi java. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.8.security 36 .geom . don't have to import java.net java. date and time info java. the default package is used).nio java.by adding the key word throws.io java. string analyzers.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. they have to be unique inside a package.ccards.support for data collections.4 .default. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.class file. As a general rule.support for event handling java. import javax.zip .event .*.. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.util. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.lang .servlets. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . In the example above.lang (automatically available). the class (the .util.support for java archives creation java.awt.1 Package names The default package has no name. 4.

accessibility javax.swing.event . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. static and final. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. 37 . All variables (actually.4 . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.text javax.support for event handling 4. it must be declared as abstract.swing .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.

HTML authors are normally not programmers. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. Subsequently. 5.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. This is not always what we want. other 38 . and .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .depending on the browser .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.javaScript 5 . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. The origins of this language date back to 1995. like QtScript or ActionScript. as JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. then LiveScript and finally. However.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.5 . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .A JavaScript statement like this: document.JAVASCRIPT 5.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .

. Save the external JavaScript file with a . point to the ..3.js file extension. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.. or when an event is triggered. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. When you place a script in the head section..2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. go in the head section. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. </script> </head> 5. </script> </body> 5.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called..js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3.5 . without having to write the same script on every page.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. To simplify this. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. 39 .

3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5... else.4. in loop is executed once for each element/property.. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. while() it is worth mentioning the for .. in and the try . switch()...5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.4. catch constructs. 5. The code in the body of the for ... 5.In statement The for.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". for(). or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.1 JavaScript for. 5.5 .5.. continue.. break.4.. while(). This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.javaScript 5. namely – if ..4.

. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. for (x in mycars) { document.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.5. Example Using for. mycars[2] = "BMW".2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. an array element. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". so you don't lose your audience. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .. they often leave the Web page.5. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. When users see errors.5 .write(mycars[x] + "<br />")...catch statement (available in IE5+.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5.. } </script> </body> </html> 5.3 try. mycars[0] = "Saab". mycars[1] = "Volvo".catch statement The try.... or a property of an object.0. The try block contains the code to be run. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. var mycars = new Array(). Mozilla 1. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.

1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.5 . Also. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.description + "\n\n". } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. txt+="Click OK to continue. txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up. strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). 5.7.\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. Syntax: 42 .\n\n". alert(txt).7 popup boxes 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).

Now. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the <head> section. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").js file). the box returns true. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.5 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded.8. Syntax: prompt("sometext". If the user clicks "OK".. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the box returns false. When a prompt box pops up. When a confirm box pops up. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. If the user clicks "Cancel".7.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. in the example above had not been written within a function. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.javaScript alert("sometext") 5.8 functions 5. If the user clicks "Cancel".7.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. the box returns null. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 ."defaultvalue") 5.

An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types... The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.write(txt. 5. etc are variables or values passed into the function.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. and will be stored in the variable called product. 5. and how they are used.varX) { some code } var1. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.9.8.javaScript function functionname(var1.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. var2. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.5 ..9 javaScript objects 5. So. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.9. document.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 . functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.length). The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. 5.var2.

9.write(str. which will be specified in the next section.5 . </script> 5. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.toUpperCase()).javaScript 5. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 .

asp 5.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.11. every Image on the page is an Object. For example. as well). IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . which are called Objects.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. N: Netscape. When an event message has been triggered. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. every Link on the page is an Object. Even this Document itself is an Object. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.com/jsref/default. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . or when the user interacts with a Web page. At its most basic level. check the site http://www. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.w3schools.

11.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.5 . N: Netscape. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .

as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. depending on the browser. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. as a four-digit number.5 . Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.

according to local time. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. according to Greenwich time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to universal time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 .3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time.11. to a string. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. N: Netscape.5 . Properties FF: Firefox. according to local time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.

5 4 3 4 .5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. Syntax for creating a new Number object.5 .11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 .

5 .11. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.

2. 0. 1.5 .693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) min(x. Properties FF: Firefox. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 3. 2. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. N: Netscape.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .434) Returns PI (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.y) pow(x.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.11.javaScript 5. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.

document.you can give it properties named firstname.age=30.firstname="John". and eyecolor as follows: personObj. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. play(). height. work().write(personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.age=50.5 . All persons have these properties.12. weight. personObj. sleep(). personObj.lastname="Doe".3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. personObj. skin tone.eyecolor="blue". age. 5.firstname).12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data.firstname="John".12. with a collection of properties and methods.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. The persons' methods could be eat().propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Properties are the values associated with the object. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. lastname.12.lastname="Doe". personObj.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. The persons' properties include name. personObj. 53 .methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. age. etc. Assume that the personObj already exists . The code above will generate the following output: John 5. etc. personObj.eyecolor="blue". eye color. Objects also have methods.

} Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.48.lastname=lastname. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.eyecolor) { this.newlastname=newlastname. this."Doe". this. this.eyecolor=eyecolor. myMother=new person("Sally".eyecolor) { this.age=age.firstname=firstname.firstname=firstname.lastname=new_lastname.lastname=lastname.12.age=age.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname."Rally".eyecolor=eyecolor. this. Once you have the template.age. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. 54 . you can create new instances of the object. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). this."blue").lastname. } Notice that the template is just a function.5 .propertyName. this."green"). You can also add some methods to the person object.lastname. 5.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.50. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.eat=eat.age. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. like this: myFather=new person("John".

For example. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .newlastname("Doe"). Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.". we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4..javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. now you can write: myMother. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.5 . Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. We define the events in the HTML tags. So.. 5.

5 . and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. the submit should be cancelled.13. 5.w3schools. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event.13.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. The name is then stored in a cookie. If the field values are not accepted. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. If it returns true the form will be submitted.13. For example. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. 5. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.13.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 .2 onFocus. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .

1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. or WebAPI being among them. XML. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.Html DOM 6 . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. By October 1998. However. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.HTML DOM 6. particularly those used in Web browsers. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). As of January 2008. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004.. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.g. and style of a document. CSS. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML.6 . the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. In other words. HTML. 6. SVG. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. 2010). and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. The W3C 58 .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. the Document Object Model activity is closed. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. structure. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. Right now (oct.

which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. 3. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. Level 2. a new DOM Core specification. 6. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. 2. DOM Level 3 XPath. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. 5. Level 2 XML namespace support. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. which further enhances the DOM 6. DOM Level 3 Core. To claim to support a level.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . DOM Level 3 Validation. HTML-specific elements are included as well. Level 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. and 6. As of 2005. filtered views and events.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Requirements. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. each of which contains required and optional modules.6 . Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. 4.

A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. In order to be cross-browser compatible. along with their containing text and attributes. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). and Safari.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. The Window object represents a browser window. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. 6. All HTML elements. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.6 . large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.x were still widely used in 2000.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. support multiple browsers. Konqueror. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. that is. can be accessed through the 60 .x and Netscape 4.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. interoperability problems were numerous. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. Opera. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. By 2005.

6 . The contents can be modified or deleted.Html DOM DOM. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created. and VBScript. It can be used by any programming language like Java. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. JavaScript.

"DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. <head> and <body>. everything in an HTML document is a node. The <html> node has two child nodes.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. The <head> node holds a <title> node.8. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.9.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 6.Html DOM 6. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. The tree structure is called a node-tree. the element node <title>. 6. 62 .8.6 .2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. However.

The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. child. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes).2 node parents. Their contents can be modified or deleted.getElementsByTagName("p").9. The terms parent.getElementsByTagName("p"). By using the getElementById() method 2.getElementById('main'). 63 . and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. Parent nodes have children.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. and the connections between them. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. and new elements can be created. children. using the node relationships. except the root.6 . The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.9. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. By navigating the node tree. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. the top node is called the root Every node. • • • • • In a node tree.

each node is an object.i<x. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.write(x[i]. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node. } 6. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node.9.length.write("<br />").6 . • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.i++) { document. document. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .innerHTML).4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).Html DOM for (i=0. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).

5 example .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro"). The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 . A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.6 .firstChild. 6.9.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.Html DOM 6.nodeValue. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. txt=x.

frames. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . For elements. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". For elements. including window. objects and images. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame.6 .

67 . DOMNodeInserted. as of version 1. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). also supports these methods. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. through a mouse click or a keypress. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. for instance. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.3.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. During the event flow. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Fires when an element is activated.6 . Safari.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. When the user clicks on the inner element.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. and then bubbled up. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Also. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Mozilla. say "click". 6.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator.

Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. etc. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). mouse position. including information about target element. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. preventDefault 68 . Unfortunately. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. key pressed.Html DOM 6.6 .

But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. menus. 7. 69 .AJAX 7 . SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.7 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. crunching numbers. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. choices of user. The server does some processing — retrieving data.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. dynamic website. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. For improving sharing of resources. 7. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. It is not a technology in itself. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. using web services or Php scripts. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. For example. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. before the whole page was sent within the network.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. but also to save resources. fields of forms.AJAX 7. etc. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.

at the start of the session. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. And at every step in a task.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. waiting around for the server to do something. the user waits some more. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. 70 . but the opposite is true. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon.7 . if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. what’s the user doing? That’s right. Once an interface is loaded. While the server is doing its thing. we wouldn’t make users wait around. Instead of loading a web page. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. Obviously.

If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. loading additional interface code. editing data in memory.7 . usually using XML. 71 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own.

4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. and in this purpose. boolean) .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode.url: the location of the file 72 . It allows the interaction with the servers.holds a Xml loaded file. 1: connection established.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready".for a simple text. 4: finished. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. To get data on the server. This object provides two methods: . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.responseXml .returned by the server . These events are user actions. GET or POST .7 . .for a Xml file or . 2: request received. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 3: answer in process.holds loaded data as a string of characters.AJAX 7. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . they call functions associated to elements of the web page.200 is ok. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . 404 if the page is not found .open: create a connection. onreadystatechange . thanks to its methods and attributes. . DOM's method allows to extract data. url.mode: type of request.responseText . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. 7.send: send a request to the server. .

if (request. true for asynchronous. request. the data to send to the server.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). 73 . http_request. URL of the document. . // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. OK } else { // wait. . // Firefox. The request below reads a document on the server. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. http_request.6 building a request. } else if (window.send(null).readyState == 4) { // received. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: . if (window..send: with POST only. 'http://www.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.open('GET'.7 .. Safari.fr/somefile.XMLHTTP").boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .open: command GET or POST. but two options must be tried.xml'.xul. for browser compatibility. true).null for a GET command 7...AJAX .

req.responseText.7.responseXML. if(window.ajax.xml".2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document. req.dyn="Error code " + req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .status.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.open("GET".getElementsByTagName('root'). "data.item(0).send(null).ajax.7.7 .ajax.7 examples 7. req.responseText.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.AJAX 7. by this code: var doc = req. true). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.dyn=""Received:" + req.status == 200) document. else if (window.dyn="Received:" + req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".readyState == 4) if(req.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). }. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). else document. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.XMLHTTP).

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
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If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
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XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.. database connection resource pooling. welcome pages.class>com. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. classes. like: 1. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. MIME types used by the web application. but typical web. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.servlets.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.8 . The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. Servlet. servlet classes. descriptions). JSPs and Java Server Faces.bank11. Others. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. 2. 8. like what pages are error. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.ccards. For example. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. entries related to session configuration. After an enterprise bean is created. 5..WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. Here is a small. Servlet. 3. 4.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . web.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. 6. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. Initialization of parameters for servlets.)> <web-app> <!-. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. data persistence. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.xml file: <?xml version="1. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.

the name of the web application. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets. Behind a very benign URL.xml". if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Then the "EnrollServlet.xml file of the web application. However. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.bank11.xml" file.ccards.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.bank11. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. basicly. 1. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps".class" and that it is part of the package "com.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . for flexibility.bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. In general. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.8 . Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME. whose name is rather long. For example.servlets".WEB APPLICATIONS 8. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".ccards. Basicly.xml" 2. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet.servlets". Unfortunately.

now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .0 specification.4. Web containers are implemented by various vendors.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3.4. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . Technically speaking.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. 2010. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .SERVLETS 9. 9.5 and is in final state. this is just a work in progress. the Java Servlet 3.0 specification is available for public review. platform independent programs. 9. but at this point. which extend the functionality of the web server. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets.2.SERVLETS 9 .1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. As of oct. but through a web container. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. small footprint. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. more often. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. in most cases as part of an application server. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. tjws spec 2. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from BEA Systems.9 . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. the HttpServlet) class.2. modular design 9.

The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. public void destroy() throws ServletException.9 .servlet package are protocol independent. 82 . public void service(ServletRequest req.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet package.servlet. public ServletConfig getServletConfig().3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. the javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from Apple Inc.servlet. IOException. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from IBM 9. WebSphere. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. Enterprise Edition. while the second one.servlet javax. These packages are: • • javax. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec .4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.

The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. ServletConfig. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. After instantiating the servlet. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. 9. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. namely the HttpServlet class. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces.9 . without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The servlet API provides such a specific class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. 83 . The method performs all initialization required. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. More on the servlet life cycle.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). This method has two arguments. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. as well. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. Throwable t) 9. respectively.

a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. service().9 .servlet.servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.ServletException javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java. It also extends the java. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. 9.lang.Exception class. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.lang.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.Exception and can be thrown by the init().

or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax. JSP or JSF. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. Typically. DB connection opening.SingleThreadModel. 9. which will service all incoming requests. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. etc.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. respectively. Also.9 .servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. 85 . this method contains JDBC driver loading. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. Typically. After instantiation.

Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.9 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.SERVLETS 9.

A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.ccards.bank11. import java.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.java" file: package com. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.*.9 .io.xml file. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. 87 .servlets.

*. out.println("merge"). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.setContentType(“text/html”).servlet.println("</body>").getWriter(). PrintWriter out = resp. out.9 .println("<html>"). out. out.init(config). IOException { resp.println("<body>").println("</html>").println("<head>").*. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). out.http. out.println("</head>"). import javax.close(). } } 88 . out.servlet. out. // output your page here out.println("<br>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.SERVLETS import javax.

JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.sql package.0.JDBC 10 . The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. These drivers fall into four standard categories.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.odbc. 1997. The JDBC 4. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.JdbcOdbcDriver . The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. the java.0 while the current (4. as recognized by the DB industry.sql package 2.jdbc. Type 1. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.1. Starting with version 3.JDBC 10. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.10 .1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. 89 . as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. the javax. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. 10. After that.sun. This solution is inefficient.

Type 3. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols.10 . Type 4. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). because it eliminates one level of indirection. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. Part Java. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API. which in turn.JDBC Type 2. forwards them to the JDBC driver.

0 API.Date java.sql.0).sql.JDBC 10.sql.Blob java. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql.sql.Timestamp java.ResultSetMetaData java.sql.sql.sql.Array java.sql.Connection java.sql.Time java.sql.Wrapper 91 .sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.ResultSet java.Struct java.3 the java.SQLWarning java.SQLOutput java.Types java.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.DriverManager java. java.10 .SQLXML java.sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.sql.Driver java.sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.Statement java.PreparedStatement java.SQLPermission java.SQLDataException java.sql.SQLInput java.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Clob java.SQLException java.sql.sql.SQLData java.

sql.sql package.sql.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.SQLClientInfoException java.SQLTransientException java.sql. querying the database 4.sql.SQLDataException java.CallableStatement java.Types java.SQLInput java.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Statement java.sql.sql.Wrapper javax.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.Blob java.NClob java.sql.PreparedStatement java. processing the result set 92 .SQLSyntaxErrorException java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.Clob java.sql.StatementEvent javax.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.sql. java.sql.sql.RowId java.SQLWarning java.SQLXML java.0.sql.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.10 .DatabaseMetaData java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLOutput java.ResultSet java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.Connection java.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.4 interaction schema in the java. loading a database driver 2.SQLException java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.

A database driver is specified by the driver name.odbc.10 .OracleDriver sun.SybDriver com.sybase.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .driver.datastore.jdbc.jdbc. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.db2.JDBC 10.DataStoreDriver com.net.jdbc.ibm.jdbc.borland. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.DB2Driver oracle.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.

sql. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.util. 94 .com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. user. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.*.10 .newInstance().bank11. import java. but let's take it for granted: import java.mysql.mm. String user = "root". the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". by using the connection URL. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).Driver").forName("org. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.getConnection(connURL.printStackTrace(). passwd). try { Class. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.*.gjt. as specified by the driver vendor. Since we just used it.

7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . we can use it for various purposes.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. prp.sql package.util.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Connection conn = DriverManager.JDBC 10. java. "true").getConnection(connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.put("create". Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. 10.put("autocommit". prp). Properties prp = new Properties(). "true"). String user. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. prp. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. int resultSetConcurrency. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.10 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.

JDBC 10.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. respectively. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 . Statement. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. prepared statements and stored procedures.

10.. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .10 .createStatement(). Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. stmt.. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.executeUpdate(sqlString).sql.". The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.

10 ResultSet characteristics By default. a concurrency of read only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.10 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. PreparedStatement. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. and CallableStatement objects. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. as the argument. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. not at 0) or the column name. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. 98 . all created ResultSets have a type of forward only.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


math.DataSource object. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.Time java. a factory for creating DB connections. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql package.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.0 optional package.produces a Connection object that will 103 .sql.sql.sql. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver. Basic implementation -. mins. There are three types of implementations: 1.math.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.10 .Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. Connection pooling implementation -. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. time. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.produces a standard Connection object 2. It is part of the javax. basicly. secs date. This interface is.

ccards.*.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax. javax. javax.*.servlet.*.getName()).10 . } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). 104 . throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.class.naming.servlet. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.io. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.sql.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.*. java.servlets.sql. private DataSource theDataSource. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. Distributed transaction implementation -. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.http. 3.getLogger(TestDataSource.bank11. javax.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).*. import import import import import import java.

JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e). HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException. } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request..10 . } } 105 ..

The JSP specific interfaces. the servlet code is regenerated. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.5 Java Servlet specification. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.1 and is related to the 2.jsp and javax. 11.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The package javax. The javax.jsp. If the JSP is modified.servlet.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.jsp. The package javax.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.tagext. 11.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . namely javax.11 .jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.servlet.servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.JSP 11.servlet.2 the java.JSP 11 . The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


... %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .11 . the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).JSP • if the URL does not start with / . 111 . These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. include and taglib. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page.. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.

7 scripting elements 11. 11. 11. 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing.7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7. 11. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.JSP 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.11 . Assigns it to available name or id. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. In Tomcat.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. this code goes to inside the service() method.7.7.

the name of a bean instance. and if so.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. you must specify param. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .11 .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.

the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. <jsp:plugin> actions.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . 11.11 .13 the forward standard action 114 .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. flush .the URL of the page.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. same format as the <%@include> directive.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.the name of a bean instance. You must include the . name="instanceName" . as well.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required)." .a name for the Bean or applet instance. depending on request.class extension in the name following code.. code="classFileName" ..JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" . You must specify either bean or applet. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. when we want to separate the application into different views.. It is used mainly. 11. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . name . servlet or to a static resource.. archive="URIToArchive.. If you do not supply a value. as this attribute has no default value.the type of object the plugin will execute.11 .

hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . config .the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. it has javax.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.represents the servlet context. it has java. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. 1.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.1.11 .Object type and scope page 11. based on the servlet API. request . with a protocol name. objects which are automaticly available. session . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents server's response to the request. out . application . page . response . and domain name. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.PrintWriter. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. in pixels. The default value is 1.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.1" . The value is a full URL.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. of the image the applet or Bean displays.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.io.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.lang. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.the amount of space. pageContext .servlet.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. Must be a small nonzero number.it represents the buffered version of java. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.JspWriter type and scope page 7.jsp. optional port number.the initial height and width. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . in pixels.16 scopes 1. writes to the output stream to the client. request .

an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. application . Object value) method 11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. session . the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 3. Object value) method 4.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.bank11. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.init().EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .jsp file.17 a short example The following is the Enroll.11 . Object value) method 2. if (enrollBean. page .invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.ccards.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.beans.

private int integer. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 . private String colors[]. an int. SimpleBean.string. a software development and consulting company. private float number. 11. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. a float. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.register().JSP <% } else { enrollBean.18.11 . a boolean and another String).java: package com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.Serializable { private String string. The public constructor could have been omitted.io. private int list[]. private boolean flag.examples.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. %> <jsp:forward page="response. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.devsphere. The SimpleBean class is declared public. private String optional. private SimpleSubBean subBean.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.mapping.simple.

} // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this.flag = value.colors. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.string = value.colors = values. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.11 .integer. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.integer = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number = value. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.flag.number. } 119 .colors[index].

list[index] = value.subBean. String value) { this.subBean = value.11 .list[index].list = values. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.optional = value. int value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. } } 120 .colors[index] = value. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.optional.list.

simple. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.java: package com.string = value.string.devsphere.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). private float number.number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.18.io. } } 11.examples. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this. SimpleSubBean.number = value.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .11 .mapping.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.Serializable { private String string. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .11 .number SimpleForm.string subBean.

JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.list]".devsphere.examples.11 . "An option must be selected" }.util. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. new Boolean(true) }.number]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. new Float(0. 3 } }.simple. "One or more items must be selected" }. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". The list of optional properties has a single element. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.123) }. new String[] { 123 . the form's name and the processor's name.flag]". the list of optional properties.string]".18.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. "abc" }. a boolean and an int[]. "One or more colors must be selected" }. new int[] { 2. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.list]".java: package com. a float.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.integer]". There are three error messages. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.colors]". error messages. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.mapping. the processing order. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. The default values are defined for a String. SimpleBeanResources.

ResourceBundle beanRes 124 . } } 11.18. For a better understanding of this example. { "[PROC_NAME]". "integer". "optional". string values are converted to numbers.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.mapping. The formToBean() method of com.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.devsphere.*.11 . A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").mapping. "SimpleProc.devsphere. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.devsphere.html" }. "subBean" } }.mapping. "SimpleForm. new String[] { "string".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. "list". "flag".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. { "[FORM_NAME]".logging.util. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. The beanToForm() method of com. "colors".devsphere.mapping. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".jsp" } }. If necessary.devsphere.simple. SimpleHndl. com.JSP "optional" } }.examples. "number".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).

getString("[PROC_NAME]").getRealPath(formPath).formToBean(formData. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes. simpleBean. logger). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).lastIndexOf('/'). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.trim().getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Process the valid data bean instance application.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getTemplate(new java.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).substring(0.File(formPath)). slashIndex+1) : "". formPath = application. errorTable = HandlerUtils.getDocument(). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.trim(). response). 125 .equals("POST").getClass()).getMethod().removeUserErrors(errorTable).getBeanResources(simpleBean.util. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getServletPath(). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.io.JSP = HandlerUtils.forward(request. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.11 . // Construct the base path String basePath = request. int slashIndex = basePath.

simple.send(out). document.getSubBean().5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.JSP elements logger). // Send the form document document.append("{ ").18. for (int i = 0.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.mapping.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. i++) 126 .beanToForm(simpleBean. strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.devsphere.length == 0) return "".string = <%= simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.examples.number = <%= simpleBean.getString() %> <P> subBean.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean. if (list.getSubBean(). i < list. } %> 11. errorTable.11 .getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.length. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). SimpleProc.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].

jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.mapping. In addition.length == 1) return Integer. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.jsp files. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles.18. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("}").6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. } strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append(" "). Using the framework. making the testing and the debugging easier. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.11 . strbuf.toString(). beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.formToBean() call.length == 0) return "". This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.util.toString(list[0]). strbuf. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . } %> 11. ComplexHndl. if (list. for (int i = 0.append("}").beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. A single call to FormUtils. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.examples.append("{ ").simple. return strbuf. The localization of the Complex*.append(list[i]).length. i++) { strbuf.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. i < list. } strbuf.toString().append(" "). ComplexForm.devsphere.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. return strbuf.append(list[i]). In addition.

j < colors.length. "green".getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean checked = simpleBean. for (int i = 0. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. "Option 2". i < colorValues. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "blue" }. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". 128 . if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i < integerLabels.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Option 3" }.length. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].getColors(). "Green".11 .getInteger() == value. "Blue" }.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. j++) if (colors[j]. i++) { boolean checked = false. for (int i = 0. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

getList().examples.JSP break. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.getSubBean(). "subBean. for (int i = 0. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". "Item 3" }. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. boolean selected = false.length.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .mapping.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.length. i < listItems.simple.setSubBean( new com. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.11 . i++) { int value = i+1. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. break.devsphere. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. "Item 2". } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.SimpleSubBean()).string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.

getString() == null || simpleBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable errorTable.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.mapping.getSubBean().simple.equals("POST").util. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.mapping. "subBean. if (message == null) message = "".getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.simple. } %> ComplexHndl.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.examples.util.get(property).devsphere.getString(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.examples.length() == 0) { simpleBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getMethod().jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean. return message.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).setString("abc").devsphere.11 . 130 .

} simpleBean.getColors(). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).11 . //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.length == 0) { 131 .length() != 0) simpleBean. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("flag").setNumber(0. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "Must be a number").floatValue()). "string".getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("number"). "An option must be selected").setFlag(flagValue != null). "integer". "Must be filled"). "number".123f). setErrorMessage(errorTable. else { simpleBean. "Must be filled").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.equals("false")) flagValue = null.trim(). } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.length() == 0 || flagValue.getColors() == null || simpleBean. "number". if (flagValue.123f).

"subBean.getParameter("subBean.string".length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. //* subBean. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be filled").getList() == null || simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }). "Must be } //* subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean. "colors". "list".getList().setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setOptional("").string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.number"). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.11 . "subBean. if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "One or more colors must be selected"). 132 .JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.floatValue()).number".setString(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean. "One or more items must be selected"). else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number : text try { String numberValue = request.getString().

That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.util. simpleBean.mapping.devsphere. simpleSubBean. } } else { simpleBean.setString("abc").\ 133 .setString("").xml: SimpleHndl.simple. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.SimpleBean.helpers. "Must be a number").Hashtable errorTable.18.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. } %> 11.jsp.setOptional(""). 3 }). simpleBean.devsphere. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". message). which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2. "subBean.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.properties or web. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.put(property. simpleBean.setFlag(true).devsphere. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class.code=com.11 .mapping.123f).examples.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. String property.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.helpers. simpleBean. The com.setNumber(0.number".JSP filled").jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.

helpers.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .properties (or web.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. If you have another bean-form pair.mapping.11 .devsphere.company.helpers.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.mapping.another.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.devsphere. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.18. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A servlet can be made bean-independent.AnotherBean.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. 11.properties: AnotherHndl.code=com.examples.devsphere.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.examples. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. you could add a few other lines to servlets.code=com.host. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.devsphere.simple.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.mapping.host. In many cases.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.host. a servlet is identified with its class. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.xml) file: ServletName.

JSP 135 .11 .

0. processes events. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. 12. builds a component tree. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 2. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. Version 2.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. buttons.javaserver faces 12 . A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.12 .2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. which loads the appropriate view template.0 supersedes version 1. like input fields.JAVASERVER FACES 12. This technology includes: 1. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Version 2.

12 .4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1. 12.javaserver faces 12.4.2 of the JFS specification. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.

The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. such as alternating row colors. Common formatting techniques.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. see the column tag documentation.12 . respectively.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . For more information about columns. columns and rows.4. 12. footers. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs.

3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.12 .total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. your options include using plain HTML forms.

5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.</span> 12.4.user.4.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text". green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. 12.12 .5.user." /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). red for error.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.

For example.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. 12.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean. The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 .5.

mycompany.5.5. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. Any component that receives user input. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. 12. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. but only if the new input is validated successfully.12 . The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. Without this JavaScript event.customer. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. can publish value change events. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.javaserver faces 12. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. The body content of this tag must be empty. validateLength.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .

JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.mycompany. for each locale you wish to support. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.12 . This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. Example: welcome_en.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.5.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. myJSFapp 143 . The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.javaserver faces 12. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. including images and styles. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. If you have not specified a default locale.mycompany.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.

static resources. custom tag libraries. mandatory for any JSF application web.jar faces-config. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. like third party jar files jsf-impl.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. Define navigation rules 3. and so on. Create managed beans 4. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. JSP pages.exadel.javaserver faces /ant build.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create properties files 144 . It has a deployment descriptor.jar – files included in the /lib directory.html. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. Create JSP pages 2.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . jsf-api.contains libraries required by the application. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.xml web.12 .jar jsf-api.

jsp is greeting. As a diagram.7. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. if the "outcome" of executing inputname.jsp.xml file.javaserver faces 5.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.7. Deploy and run the application 12. Compile the application 8. Edit JSP pages 6. The directory structure already exists. In our application. You only need to create the JSP files. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp file 7.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. 12.jsp and greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . And that's all there is to this.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp to greeting.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. we just want to go from inputname.12 . You just need to create its contents. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. we can create a navigation rule. Now that we have the two JSP pages. Create an index.

The next line is the full class name. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. 12. of course.xml file should look like this: 146 .3. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. You can easily create more complex ones.xml Now. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. myJFSapp. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.7.12 . This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.3 creating the Managed Bean Next.7. a very simple navigation rule. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. the second part of faces-config. 12. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.xml Your final faces-config.javaserver faces This is.java file. This class is straight-forward.7. public class PersonBean { String personName. we will create a PersonBean.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. To read more about navigation rules.3. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.) 12.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. request sets the bean scope in the application. Inside this myJFSapp folder.PersonBean.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.3 faces-config.1 PersonBean.3. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.

Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.sun.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.1 inputname.properties file in the bundle folder.7.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.7.12 .jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.5.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.sun.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 . 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1//EN" "http://java.4.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages. Inc.javaserver faces <?xml version="1. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages. 12.1 messages.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.sun. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.

messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Then.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.bundle.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. <h:inputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.sun.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.sun.12 .

personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Lines 3-5. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before..6 creating the index.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config. The second line will access a Java bean.</h3> tags.5.jsp page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. and also print its contents on the page.javaserver faces Line 1.bundle. Creates an HTML input text box.xml file.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.sun. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.7. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 6.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. Having an index.2 greeting. The first three lines are identical to our first page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.. specifically the bean attribute personName.7. name! 12.greeting_text}" />. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. Line 2. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Create the index.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.sun. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.12 . That's how JSF knows where to go next.

12. though. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. we need to deploy it. We are almost done with this example.jsp. 12. verifies the information. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. Of course. 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. This is a "login" application. might possibly be different).bat in Tomcat's bin directory).8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. 150 . 12. and forwards the user to a success or error page. Your setup. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.javaserver faces Now.8. This is used here.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.7.xml file.12 .jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. you'll notice the file suffix is .jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.jsf and not .9 Running Next.7. When Tomcat is done loading. because in the web.html . C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). which asks an user for an ID and password.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname.7. To build the application run the build.xml file for the application *. To do this.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.sourceforge.

your mileage may vary. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. and set up folders for a web application. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project... enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. say. 12.. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. Enter project name.8. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. and to add JSF libraries to the project. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog.. see Installing & Uninstalling.src | +-. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. 6. c. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. select the Source tab. name the folder webroot 5. click Finish 4. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder.. 3. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Yes through messages that appear. 9.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. in the wizard that appears.webroot | +-. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. 7.. click Next d.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.xml Editor (see faces-config. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. click Next.. 2.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. name the folder pages. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. from the menubar select File/New/Other. Select Java Project. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. make sure all checkboxes are checked.WEB-INF 151 . 1. click Next. jsf-login. a. 10. click Add Folder. Select the Amateras node. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. The New Project wizard appears.12 . in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. in the Add JSF Support page.

3. 1. } String getPassword() { return _pwd.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". if ( _uid. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. private String _pwd = "".3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.LoginManager. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. for class enter login.lib | +-. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. The faces-config. Click Finish. in the Name field enter LoginManager. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. In Package Explorer select the src folder. enter login.xml. In the Package field.javaserver faces | | | +-.12 . } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. } return action. from its context menu select New/Class. 2. b. c. input widgets appear d.xml Editor.pages 12.java package login. } 4. a. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. The Java code editor opens. We then configure it to be a managed bean. else action = "loginFail". click Add. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.8. The New Java Class wizard appears. click Managed Bean. for scope select 152 . for name enter mgr. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".xml editor opens.

jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.webroot/pages/error.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. <!-. All pages except login.webroot/pages/success. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.webroot/index.jsp: a. success. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.12 . so we create them first.jsp: create this file similarly to index. the JSP Editor opens.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp).jsp: create this file similarly to index. from its context menu select New/File. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. e. c.jsp.jsp is placed directly in webroot. enter the following code. click Finish. save the file and close the editor. and 3 content pages (login. from the menubar select File/Save. Create error. then close the editor 12. </body> Please try 153 .jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp. but in webroot/pages. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.8. again.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.javaserver faces session. b. in Package Explorer select webroot. the New File wizard appears. Create index. but in webroot/pages. for File name enter index.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp and error. index. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp). 1. Enter the following code: <!-. Then we create login.jsp.jsp.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. Create success.

from its context menu select New/Other. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and the JSP Editor can help with code.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. To see this in action.jsp: a.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. the New wizard appears. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. <%@ page contentType="text/html.javaserver faces </html> 4. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. place your cursor in one of these lines. now we want to add attributes to this element... and uses them for code completion as well. click Finish. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. a code-completion window pops up. etc. d.sun. with the following template code.sun. click Next c. as shown below. b. and choose default for Template. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements.12 . and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. Create login. g. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. enter jsf-login e. 154 . and dock it along the right. (See Show View Dialog) f. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Open the JSF palette. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. for File name enter login.jsp.completion.

i. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. with the barest presentational formatting. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. enter #{mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. insert another <h:inputText> element.sun.) j. a code-completion window pops up.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and hit Enter. with bean properties available in mgr.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .password}" l.12 . set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". in the code-completion window scroll down to value. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. set its value to Login.. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. complete the expression with the closing { k.javaserver faces h. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. this inserts value="" at the cursor. insert a <h:commandButton> element. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.loginAction} The final code.

password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. then click inside the editor window. using a FacesIDE editor.8. click on Page. 1.12 . 2. this inserts a page icon into the editor.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. Open faces-config. This is shown below. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.xml Editor.xml. it should open in the faces-config. Select the Navigation tab 3. 156 .

in the Properties view. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. 5.jsp 4. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). change the value of path to /index. select Navigation Case.jsp and then on the icon for success. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp and /pages/error.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. from the palette at left. add 3 more pages.jsp. and is represented by an arrow. 6. /pages/success. notice that the warning triangle disappears. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. and set them to /pages/login. Its properties appear in the Properties view.12 .jsp.jsp. then click first on the icon for login.

Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. all we need do in web. As it turns out.xml.xml Here we edit web. and extension-based mapping is turned on.jsp. or leave it as-is.6 Editing web. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. Once deployed browse to index.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. so uncomment it.8. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. and you should be sent to the success page. any other id/password should send you to the error page.xml. We want virtual path-based mapping. 12.javaserver faces 7. We'll set some properties in web. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. open web.jsp. Similarly add a forward-action from login.xml for the specifics of our application. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).jsp to error. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. The application is now complete.12 . since we have such a trivial application. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. 1.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2.

8. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.0 1.html javax.model javax. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.validator javax.faces.. For a given factory class name.10 the javax. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.el javax. that factory is used. open its Manager application in a browser.CONFIG_FILES 159 .faces.faces.. start Tomcat. click Deploy 3.javaserver faces 12.context javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.convert javax.component javax. as file:///.faces.12 .render javax.faces.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. leave XML Configuration File URL blank. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.component. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm..faces javax.faces. 12. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces. scroll down to Deploy. the Manager application should reload.lifecycle javax.application javax.faces.webapp 12.event javax.faces.

• • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If none of the above steps yield a match. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. StateManager . and supporting internationalization and accessibility.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . FacesMessage.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. 12. those factories are used.faces.Severity . defining page navigation. with the last one taking precedence. StateManagerWrapper . the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. FacesMessage . handling events and input validation. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.represents a single validation (or other) message.12 . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.11 the javax. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. ViewHandlerWrapper .Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. with the last one taking precedence.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. ApplicationFactory .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. ViewHandler .

NamingContainer . UICommand .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes. ContextCallBack . Here they are: • • UIColumn .the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. or a hyperlink. • ViewExpiredException . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.FacesContext. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. StateHolder . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. a menu item.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.context. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".restoreView(javax. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. EditableValueHolder .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. String) results in failure on postback. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. String.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. UIComponentBase .an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.12 . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. UIComponent .an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. 12. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression.faces. ValueHolder .faces. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.12 the javax.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. when activated by the user. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. • • 161 . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . ActionSource2 .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.

the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.javaserver faces • UIData . This component has no rendering. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. it is for display purposes only. UINamingContainer . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. that is displayed to the user. it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that has a value. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIGraphic . it is for display purposes only.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. UIMessage . Optionally.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value.component. by storing it as the value property of the component. UISelectBoolean . UISelectMany . UIMessages . UIViewRoot . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UIParameter .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent.13 the java. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIInput . During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. identified by a clientId. UISelectItem . UIForm .This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. UISelectOne . and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.html package 162 . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding).12 . The user can modify the selected values. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. Optionally.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.faces. The user can modify the selected value. The user cannot manipulate this component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIPanel .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UIOutput .

HtmlInputSecret . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.by default.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.renders child components in a table. HtmlOutputText .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlCommandButton . HtmlInputHidden . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlPanelGrid . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.by default. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlColumn . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlDataTable . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. and renders the result. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlMessages . HtmlPanelGroup . The label text is specified by the component value.Message".represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML img element. HtmlInputText .12 . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. On a redisplay.faces. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlMessage . HtmlForm .represents an HTML input element of type password. This component must be placed inside a form.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML form element. HtmlOutputLink .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlOutputFormat .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.faces. HtmlOutputLabel .represents an HTML label element. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlCommandLink . or not. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.

represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext . In particular. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. HtmlSelectManyListbox . It is passed to. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing a single available option at a time.15 the java.javaserver faces property.convert package 164 .faces. showing a single available option at a time. HtmlSelectOneMenu .14 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. and the rendering of the corresponding response.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.12 . HtmlSelectOneRadio .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. • • • • 12. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. and potentially modified by.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . ResponseWriterWrapper .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseWriter .allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. HtmlSelectManyMenu .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. FacesContextFactory . • • • • • • 12. HtmlSelectOneListbox .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces. each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseStream .

an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.15. PropertyResolver . ValueBinding . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. Classes: MethodBinding .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. VariableResolver . • • • • 165 .12 . 12.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.16 the java. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.faces. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.javaserver faces 12.

an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. MethodNotFoundException .an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. • • • • • One exception .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. PhaseEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.faces. ReferenceSyntaxException .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.AbortProcessingException . and event implementation classes. ValueChangeListener .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.17 the java. PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. PhaseListener . Interfaces: ActionListener . • • • • 12.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. FacesEvent .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . PhaseId .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. ValueChangeEvent . FacesListener .12 . 166 .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.

Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModelEvent . SelectItem .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.12 .represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ResultDataModel . DataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". ListDataModel . SelectItemGroup . The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request. 12.faces.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces. ResultSetDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.20 the java. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. Renderer . • • • • • • • • • 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object.18 the java. ScalarDataModel .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).faces. Classes: ArrayDataModel .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.javaserver faces 12. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.faces.19 the java.

and concrete validator implementation classes. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.21 the java. which perform the actual rendering process for each component.faces.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. including a standard servlet.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. ResponseStateManager . as well. Typically. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.22 the java. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. markup language. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. 12.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . and/or user Locale.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.faces. RenderKitFactory .validator package Interface defining the validator model.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .represents a collection of Renderer instances that. • • 12. AttributeTag . ConverterTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. • RenderKit . LongRangeValidator .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.12 .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. base classes for JSP custom component tags. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder. The package contains an exception. together. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.

• • • • • FacesServlet . UIComponentTag .the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the controller is the 169 . the controller sends a message to the model. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. which passes the request to the page class. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. ValidatorTag . Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. but basically. telling the view to update its presentation. the life cycle is more complicated. When the user takes some action with the presentation. When the model is updated. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.12 . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). In JSF. or some other web technology. the controller sends a message to the view.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. telling the model to update its data. FacetTag . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. servlets. When a web server receives a request. In MVC. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. related to a UIComponent. the JSF life cycle does not apply. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. Also. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). the process includes a few more components or pages. or when an exception occurs. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. UIComponentBodyTag .a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. that request is passed to the container. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.a base class for all JSP custom actions. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. 12. Likewise. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. that need to process their tag bodies.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. When using JSF. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. which has several implications. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.

In addition. If this is a subsequent request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). For a JSF-enabled application. 170 . any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. In addition. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. Data for some components. It updates only the UI components with the new data. such as components that create HTML input fields. or from request headers. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. However. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. it creates UI objects for each view component. and a piece of data failed validation. the conversion occurs in this phase. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. not every request will flow through all six phases. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. These objects update their state with the data values. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. and the response is sent to the client. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. the JSF implementation must create the view. converting a String to a Date object). • Invoke Application: During this phase. depending on the request. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated.javaserver faces JSF implementation. As with the previous phase. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. from cookies sent as part of the request. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request.12 . is validated at this time. and the UI components are the view. The components are stored in a component tree. Data can come from input fields in a web form. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. and what happens during the processing and response.

if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. skipping any remaining phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also. 171 .12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. For example. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. if errors occur during any of the phases.javaserver faces In the above figure.

Thus the DNS name sales.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales.48. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.JNDI 13 . It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. 13.9. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. For example. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system."). /usr/hello. c:\bin\autoexec.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. which is located in the root of the file system.COM. possibly multiple. It enables applications to access different. identifiers. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. names a file hello in the file directory usr. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. you supply it the name of the object. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. The DNS entry Wiz. For example. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. 172 . DNS.JNDI 13.5). NDS. A file system maps a filename (for example. you are always naming one object or another. when you use an electronic mail system. naming and directory services using a common API. such as LDAP. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. In addition.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. To access a file in the computer. When using almost any computer program or system.Wiz. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.13 . you must supply its name. in turn. For example. The UNIX pathname. 13. and NIS(YP). such as addresses.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. for example. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations.COM. Using JNDI.sun. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.2. or objects typically used by computer programs.

might contain only information on how to reach the printer. such as c=us. is a context. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. For example. Typically. relative to the entry o=Sun. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. and fuel and instrument status. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service."). it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. Every context has an associated naming convention. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. also called a file handle. A reference is information about how to access an object. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. is relative to c=us. For example. A printer object.2. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. for example. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). on the other hand. and its flight number and departure time. unbinding names. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. By contrast. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. delimited by the comma character (".2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. some objects cannot be stored directly. a file directory. For example. a file name is bound to a file. and listing bound names. A file object.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. A printer object reference.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. Instead. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. such as COM. while the object itself might contain more state information. that is. In another example. which in turn. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. 173 . c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. its flight plan. 13. that is. That is. such as /usr. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. for example. For example. is accessed using a file reference. in the UNIX file system is a context.2. in the DNS domain Sun. Using the reference. such as its print server name and printing protocol.c=us. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. an LDAP entry.COM. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. is a context. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). For simplicity. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. in a file directory /usr/bin. Finally. 13. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. 13. they must be stored by reference. For example. o=Sun. might contain the state of the printer.13 .JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. a DNS domain.2.

programs. For example. postal mail address. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. various telephone numbers. resolution. for example. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number.2. An example is the telephone company's directory service. to some extent. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. one context can be viewed. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses.13 .JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. 13. and color. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.3. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. to represent a printer. a name is unique 13. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. Thus. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. because we can. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. And it kind of makes sense.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. For example. or a network. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. For example. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. a computer. however. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. two different computer 174 .3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. and computer account information. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). and even the computer itself and other computers. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. For example. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. 13. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. a person. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. A directory object can be used. For example. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.

such as that relating to machines. for example. The query is called a search filter.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. an organization object.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. networks. 175 . The service is accessed through its own interface. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. removing. Similarly. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. adding.3. 13. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. 13. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. The email address. like any other program running on the network. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. support the notion of searches.smith@somewhere. the ability to access directory services will become essential. and users.113. for example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. By using a directory service.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. many directories. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. When you search. such as the file and print services. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. printers. that is. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. can use the directory in the traditional way.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. Alternatively.50". such as those based on the LDAP.13 . Many examples of directory services are possible.com". 13. 13. called a directory information tree (DIT). they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. Within the DIT.3. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. For example.4. A Java mail client program.3. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. for example. For example. "mail" is the attribute identifier. 13.

13. It extends the v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. Thus a variety of directories--new.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality.13 . To use the JNDI. v1. v1. v1. 13. 13. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.event javax. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.naming. and even the network.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. 13.5. For example. emerging. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. For example. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.naming. more coherent and manageable. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.2.directory javax. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.naming. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.ldap 176 .3 and later releases. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.1 and the Java 2 SDK.2.5.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.1 and Java 2 SDK.4. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.1 and v1.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. The Java 2 SDK.naming javax. v1. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.

JNDI • javax. The overloads that accept java. 13. In this case. list() is similar to listBindings(). so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.lookup("treekiller").1 context The javax. Furthermore.naming package defines a Context interface.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lang. For example. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.print(report).6. and so on.6 the naming package The javax. However. 13. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.spi 13.6. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. For the methods in the Context interface.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. which is the core interface for looking up. and the object itself. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. printer. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. that is.String name argument represents a composite name. composing them. A java. and it returns the object bound to that name. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.naming. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.String name. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. 13. the name of the object's class.6.13 . The most commonly used operation is lookup() .) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names.6.lang.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. 13. a 177 . for some objects in the directory. binding/unbinding. comparing components.

13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. Otherwise. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.6. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. 178 . replace.7. they should catch NamingException.naming. You can add. InitialContext. There are no absolute roots. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. 13. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects.5 the Initial context In the JNDI. In the simplest and most common form of usage. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.7 directory package The javax. Once you have an initial context. 13. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13.13 . a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson).7.6. 13.directory package extends the javax. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). For example.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.

directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax.directory package. such as information about the object before and after the change. called controls . Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.naming.8 event package The javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 .naming.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. 13. In fact. For example. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. such as "object added. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. such as "object changed. that is. To receive event notifications.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Once registered. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. 13. 13. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. These operations are called "extended" operations. controls." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. or unsolicited notifications. 13. and vice versa." and those that do not.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.naming.9. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.9.9 LDAP package The javax.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor.ldap package at all. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.9.13 . For example.JNDI 13.naming.

9. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.2 java object support The javax. sending request controls. import javax.naming. implementors of Context.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. This support is provided in the form of object factories. For example.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.spi package supports implementors of Context. 13.11. and receiving response controls. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.java.naming.Context. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.10. 13.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. In the process of completing an operation. This package also provides support for doing the reverse.naming package.10 service provider package The javax.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. if you look up a printer name from the directory.10. This support is provided in the form of state factories.naming. 13. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.naming.10. It uses a service provider for the file system.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.1 plug-In architecture The javax. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor. That is. create a file named Lookup. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 180 .13 . 13.

Otherwise. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11.13 . 13. Object obj = ctx.java).2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program.jndi. use Context.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).3 looking up an Object Next. To compile to program.out.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. For this reason. using the capitalization shown. you must have access to the JNDI classes. } 13. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.JNDI import javax. If the compilation fails.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.RefFSContextFactory").naming.NamingException. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.err. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.jar as an installed extension.5 compiling the program Next. "com. v1. If the compilation succeeds.11. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. // Print it System. env. 181 .INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.InitialContext. create an initial context.11. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). then the JNDI classes are already included. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). you compile the source file using the Java compiler. as follows. 13.sun. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.lookup() to look up an object.naming.put(Context. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.lookup(name). 13. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.3. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx.11. } catch (NamingException e) { System. import javax.fscontext. If you are still having problems.lookup(name).

the file system service provider. and your example class (Lookup. create a file named Getattr. javax.naming. create an initial directory context. To run the program.13 .1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.naming. 13. javax. javax.jndi. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. env.jndi. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.put(Context. javax. "com. env.JNDI 13. 182 .put(Context.directory.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.Attributes. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. Finally. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.12.PROVIDER_URL. include the directory that contains your Lookup.directory.DirContext.Context.jar).6 running the program To run the program. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.directory packages. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). import import import import import javax.jar and providerutil. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.naming. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. you need access to the JNDI classes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.bat If you supply a file directory. v1.3.java.naming and javax.naming. 13.class).NamingException.sun. supply the name of a file in your file system.naming.naming. then you will see something like the following. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.fscontext.LdapCtxFactory").ldap.sun.directory.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.12.11.InitialDirContext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().

3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. For now. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.13 . use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.get()).get() and then from that attribute get its value. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. } catch (NamingException e) { System.12. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. If the compilation succeeds.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). ou=People"). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. For this reason. If the compilation fails. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } 13. Similar to the naming example. 13.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.12. compile the source file using the Java compiler.out.6 compiling the program Next.err. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get().getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12.get() on it to get its value: attrs. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.java). ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.get("sn"). Attributes. 13. As with the naming example. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.12. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. If you are still having problems. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). using the capitalization shown.get("sn").println("sn: " + attrs. 183 .class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People"). 13.

# java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then these classes are already included.7 running the program As with the naming example.jar and providerutil.put(Context. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.JNDI 13. env. With this configuration. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). then see the Common Problems lesson. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.12. Getattr. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.class. v1.jar).PROVIDER_URL. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. ou=People". this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.3. 184 . Once it has the attributes.13 . If you have any trouble running this example.

An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS message . It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. the messages are delivered in the order sent. JMS producer . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a JMS client that receives messages. • 14.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. Enterprise Edition.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.14 . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. unless it has established a durable 185 . JMS client . JMS queue . A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. JMS consumer .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . As the name queue suggests. In this model.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. Here. JMS topic .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. 14.3 the JMS API programming model 14.4. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. 14.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data.14 . In that case. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. On the receiving side. 186 .1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Using Java.jms. Depending on the type of message.

you must close any connections that you have created.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object.createConnection(). If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. 14.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). 14.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. Like the connection factory. When you have a ConnectionFactory object.14 . the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. In a J2EE application. Before an application completes. and users discover them using JNDI. It receives messages sent to a destination.4. you must call the connection's start() method. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. For example. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. Before your application can consume messages. Depending on the connection type.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.4. connection. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.4. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. For example. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Connections implement the Connection interface. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.close(). Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). you call the stop() method.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. 14. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. It is either a queue or a topic. The JMS administrator creates these objects.

however.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.) When message delivery begins. (Remember always to call the start() method. connection. After you register the message listener. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. and you can use it to receive messages. This object implements the MessageListener interface. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. a message listener object may be used. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. you are likely to miss messages.start().14 .receive(). Moreover. You use the Session. it becomes active. usually expect a specific message type and format.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. which contains one method. A message listener does. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. onMessage(). For example. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.4. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myTopic). You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. if it needs to reply to messages. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. After you have created a message consumer. 14.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages.setMessageListener(myListener). forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.receive(1000). // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. Message m = consumer.createConsumer(myQueue). Message m = consumer.start(). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. 188 . consumer. For example. In the onMessage() method. MessageConsumer consumer = session.

14 . A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2.send(myQueue. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. 14. bytes message. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. and object message). message. 189 . // msg_text is a String producer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter.createProducer(myQueue). that is. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. After you have created a message producer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. A message has three main parts: 1. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. from one application to another.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.4.createProducer(myTopic).receive(). message). Here.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.setText(msg_text). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message.4. At the consuming end. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. 3. You must first create the messages. if you created an unidentified producer. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. MessageProducer producer = session.createProducer(null). map message. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. stream message. With an unidentified producer. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. For example. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.send(message). to create and send a TextMessage. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.createTextMessage(). you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. anon_prod.send(message).

Sessions implement the Session interface. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. } else { // Handle error } 14. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. 190 . Here. To create a transacted session.14 . the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. Before committing the transaction. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. If the user selects transaction support.createSession(false. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.getText()). The first argument means that the session is not transacted.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). then delivers the messages. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.println("Reading message: " + message. After you create a Connection object.createSession(true.4. use the following code: Session session = connection. Session. and message consumers to receive messages.out. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. the first argument means that the session is transacted.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. 0).

0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.transaction management can be complex.DB interaction transactions . improved performance security . What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The component lives inside a container. message-driven beans The 2.0.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. bundled into a single unit.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.no developer coding. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .object oriented representation of data in a DB.0.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). the container lives (in general) in an application server.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. container which offers services to the component. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.jar file into the application server. Version 1. component recovery scalability portability 191 . On the other side. server which provides an execution environment for containers.logging.consistent error handling framework . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . 15.

It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard.xml 15.15 . returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. which is an xml file.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the home interface of the bean 3. the remote interface of the bean 4. as follows: 1. the deployment descriptor. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. called ejb-jar. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.

ejb.RemoteException.rmi. import. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. import java. import java.javax. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans. import. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods. String lastName.15 .rmi.*. int custId) throws RemoteException. The developer does not implement this interface.*. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. RemoteException. } 15. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.ejb.RemoteException.javax. } 193 .

put(Context. } 194 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. In the case of an web application.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). this can be done (for example) through SSL. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.15 . getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.interfaces. how to create or find the bean 2.NamingContextFactory". implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). if the client executes outside the container. prop. "org. we need to know: 1.put(Context. "localhost:1099"). how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. prop. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. creating them for the client application. This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific.jnp.PROVIDER_URL. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().

It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP..e. more specifically.rmi. IIOP has not been designed for Java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.narrow(homeRef. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. to the appropriate type.PortableRemoteObject class and. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. Problem is.class).rmi. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.15 . the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. Why? For EJB. do implements the java. in fact. • if the client executes outside the container. This is done through the javax. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. in fact. and this means that there are some limitations. but for generic languages.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).Remote interface). using the narrow() method. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. MyBeanHome.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). the client has a stub).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. that is part of CORBA standards. 195 .lookup("MyBean"). create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. Some languages. do not have the concept of casting.rmi.

ejbeans.bank11. int custId) { // method implementation . } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . import javax.15 ..processEntry("Dumitrascu". call business methods on the bean myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.SessionContext.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation ..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections.create(). we concentrate now on the bean class itself.ccards. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.. 1102). 15.ejb. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). "Vasile". String lastName.ejb.remove(). as well). public class MyBean implements javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. remove the bean instance myObject..

The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. that is.15 . the object is activated. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. namely stateful and stateless beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 15. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15. A stateless bean does not.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. 197 .8 session beans There are two types of session beans.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. 15.

the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. the EJB container activates the bean.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. and then moves it to the ready stage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. 15. is inside the bean class. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. For example. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. All other methods in Figure 15.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.1 are invoked by the EJB container. At the end of the life cycle. The ejbCreate method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. Figure 15.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. (Typically. for example. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. or passivate. the client invokes the remove method. 198 .15 .

equals() 199 . support for concurrent access 3. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. stored in a Database).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 .13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.

200 .14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class.lang. in the same order. state data is stored into data store (usually.14. methods which have the same parameters.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. all throwing RemoteException. 15. as the parameters in the original create() method.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. CreateException. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.15 . when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Update and Delete.bank11.ccards. On the other side. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. Read. an instance of that bean is created. We can have more create() methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.

After instantiation. it is empty. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. but in general. for BMPs.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.15 . the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. After the EJB container creates the instance.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. On the second path. in BMP. for BMP. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. Second. the client invokes the create method. 201 . 15.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. First. While in the pooled stage.14. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. a client can invoke the remove method. it's business methods can be invoked. not null. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. All instances in the pool are identical.14. the programmer will create actual SQL code. left empty most of the time in CMP. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. On the first path. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances.14. but the developer returns null for CMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). 15. actual SQL update code.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).

the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. it does not automatically set the primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 .16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. the values of the instance variables are not needed. In the pooled state. 202 . when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. If the primary key is incorrect. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. another enterprise bean. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. With bean-managed persistence. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. It acts as a JMS message listener.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. Therefore. or a Web component .an application client. 15. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. In the pooled state.getPrimaryKey(). but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.

In several respects.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. The onMessage method may call helper methods. To avoid tying up server resources. 203 . max-beans-infree-pool.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. If this element is set to more than one. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. message-driven bean can be used. an open database connection. Previously.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. 15. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. If message processing is rolled back.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. 15. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. 15. For more information on this element see. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.16. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. Unlike a session or entity bean. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.15 . but not asynchronously. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.16. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. When a message arrives. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance.for example.16. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. a JMS API connection. the message will be redelivered.16. To ensure concurrency. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly.

methods. 2. Obtain a new bean instance. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. or create a new one.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {..Message. 3.jms. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.16.. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. As with other EJB types.. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. finalize{}. public void onMessage(javax. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. Classes.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.15 .0 specification. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15... onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static.ejb. and it must not // accept parameters.16. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().jms. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. public void ejbRemove() {. 15.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. Note: These instances can be pooled. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . 15.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class.}.} // onMessage() is required. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.16.Message MessageName) {. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. // An EJB constructor is required.

The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.16. If any method throws such an exception. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.16.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.jms. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.16. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.This is not a client context.16. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). getUserTransaction().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. 15. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.onMessage() for more information. However. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. 15. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). 15. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. See javax. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. even in onMessage(). getRollbackOnly() . The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. For example.MessageListener. 15. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.15 .

14 deployment elements The EJB 2. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.xml. as described in the EJB 2. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.15 . Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . as required by the EJB 2. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. 15. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.0 specification. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.16.16.16. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. In either case. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.0 specification.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.

message.ejb20. 207 .4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. </message-driven> . For each instance. 2. as described in the EJB 2.xml deployment file..0 specification.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples..Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.xml elements.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.jms. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. the weblogic-ejb-jar. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.15 . 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.

the home interface name 7. EJB class name 5. access control entries . which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. isolation level. control descriptors . This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. the remote interface name 8.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. At the end of the life cycle.security issues. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. attributes . here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. environment properties 6. the container calls the ejbRemove method. session specific elements 9. security 208 .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. a message-driven bean is never passivated.15 . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.like transaction. entity specific elements 10. bean home name . 15. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one.

bank11.bank11.bank11.bank11.bank11.ejb.ejb.bank11.15 .ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.lang.ccards.ejb.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.ccards.ejb.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.lang.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.15 ...


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