1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

1

1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

2

1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

3

1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

4

2 Server communication 1. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. Figure 1. and sends it back to the client program.1 . which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. retail. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. are not considered web components.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. like HTML pages. like the client tier.java platform. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. 1. enterprise edition Figure 1.7 business components Business code. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. processes it (if necessary). The web tier. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. or finance. processes it (if necessary). An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. 5 .3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.

java platform. 1. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. and other legacy information systems. enterprise bean. multithreading.1 . mainframe transaction processing. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. 6 . enterprise edition Figure 1.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. and other complex low-level details. resource pooling. Before a web.9 java EE Containers Normally. 1. or application client component can be executed.3 Web.9. For example. database systems. In addition. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Business and EIS Tiers 1.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.

an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.4. data persistence. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 1. For example.1 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.java platform.9. including services such as security. and remote connectivity. database connection resource pooling. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. transaction management. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. After an enterprise bean is created. 7 .

and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs.1 . set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.java platform. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. Web container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. video. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of applets. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. 8 . Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . 1. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. For example.1 XML XML is a cross-platform.manages the execution of application client components. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. text-based standard for representing data. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . Application client container .the runtime portion of a Java EE product. program files. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. test.10. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. When XML data is exchanged between parties. or any kind of binary data such as audio. maps.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. Applet container . 1. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. develop. extensible. Application clients and their container run on the client. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. XML data. enterprise edition Figure 1. or for document-oriented web services. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.

HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. 1. The description includes the name of the service.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. the location of the service. enterprise edition 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). and ways to communicate with the service. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1.1 . such as Universal Description.java platform. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10. 1. 9 .11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.10.10. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.

WML.11. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. or enterprise bean. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. you employ a single. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.11.java platform.1 . Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. 1. Commonly.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. When the client finishes executing. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. standard set of tags. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. the session bean and its data are gone. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener.11. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. 1.11. and XML) and JSP elements.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. If the client terminates. In Java EE 5. or if the server shuts down. 1. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

11

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

12

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

13

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

14

A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. better tools. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. the application is ready to run. 15 . Once deployed on a local platform.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. or a component. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.java platform. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.ear extension. At runtime. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. it is ready to be deployed. a module.xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. such as better performance. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. SAAJ. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. or better customer support. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. JSP page. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information.1 . and JNDI 1. servlet. JTA. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. or component accordingly. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. No extra coding is needed.

Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime.1 . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . Together. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. which contain all Java interfaces. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Web modules.jar extension. GIF and HTML files. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. such as caching directives. which contain servlet class files. for example.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. For example. and a web application deployment descriptor.jar extension. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. native libraries. and other documentation. Resource adapter modules. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. classes. Application client modules. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . JSP files. enterprise edition Figure 1. • • 16 . these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. supporting class files.java platform.

we recommend www. The first oficial version – HTTP 1.html). RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00).. .HTTP 2. HEAD.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements.1. The server answers with a response message.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.. The second (and last. as follows: 1.HTTP 2 . namely HTTP 1.jmarshall. POST.apps. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. check the official HTTP site – www. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. was the object of several RFCs.. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. RFC 2616 (06/99). These messages may have different contents.w3. so far) version. but they also have some common structural elements.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 .2 .com/easy/http.org/Protocols . It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. an initial line 2.org/rfc/rfc1945.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). The client sends a request message to the server. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.ietf. zero or more header lines 3.. 2. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen.

The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.1 specification. PUT 8. GET /path/to/the/file/index. CONNECT 5.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. OPTIONS 7. TRACE Three other commands are listed. Here is their list: 1. as well. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.2 . If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process.Annotation of existing resources.html HTTP/1.1. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.0). 18 . 2. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. in the HTTP 1. HEAD 3. HTTP/1.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. but lack of support makes them obsolete. mailing list. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . . GET 2. POST 4.Posting a message to a bulletin board. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. DELETE 6. newsgroup.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2.

In this case. . depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. or ordering a product. 2. like storing or updating data. When used for form data submission. . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. or a record is subordinate to a database.6 differences between GET and POST 1. such as the result of submitting a form. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. 3. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.” On the other side. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data.0 404 Not Found 2.2 . separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. 2. (encoded as multipart/form-data). to a data-handling process.HTTP or similar group of articles. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.Providing a block of data.8 the status code A three-digit integer. or sending E-mail 2. while POST may involve anything. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. separated by the character “&” or “.Extending a database through an append operation. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. or in the message body. after the “?” character. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type).

10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. such as text/html or image/jpg. one (Host) is mandatory.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. or otherwise can't run correctly.the requested resource doesn't exist.the request succeeded. 2. fails. that is. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. header values are.g. The most common use of the message body is in a response. and the resulting resource (e.an unexpected server error. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. and section 10 for HTTP 1.1).1 only) . none of them mandatory. separated a semicolon. If an HTTP message includes a body.0. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. while the HTTP 1. 20 . header name and header value. where the requested resource is returned to the client.2 . 404 Not Found . 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. 500 Server Error . The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. The HTTP 1. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. 2.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . In a request.1 version specifies 46 of them. out of which. Although the header names are not case sensitive. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. In particular. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. file or script output) is returned in the message body. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file.0 version specifies 16 headers.

11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.uvt. audio. postscript 5. with subtypes rfc822. Then.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). multipart. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.2 . 1.0 200 OK Date: Fri.info. message. with subtype mpeg 2.ro/path/file. gif 6.0 From: someuser@yahoo.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. . parallel 3.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.org/rfc/rfc1521. with subtypes octet-stream. with subtypes jpeg. with subtype basic 7.apps. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.uvt.ro. digest. external-body 4.ietf.info. partial. with subtypes mixed. RFC 1521 (www. with subtype plain 2. image. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. video.html first open a socket to the host web.html HTTP/1. text. alternative. 21 . application. Here is the list of the seven types.HTTP 2.

HTTP . the server closes the socket. 22 .2 . </body> </html> After sending the response.

It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). As a practical reference site use – www. The XHTML 1. The latest version (XHTML 2.apps. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. using a variety of tags and their related attributes.99. The newest version of HTML is 4.htmlgoodies. namely HTML 1. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .www.org/Markup .01.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.01) can be found at this address: http://www.0 . check the official HTML site – www. Other helpful sites . we can afford to have a look at this declaration.0) dates from 08.com/indexdot/html . A newer standard.w3. Mosaic. However. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.jmarshall.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. The first version of HTML.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. www.3 . The first official version – HTML 2.0.com/tutors. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.blooberry. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.HTML 3 .ietf. a working draft for the next major revision. HTML describes how text.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser.w3c.org/rfc/rfc1866.com/easy/html .org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. From 1999 on. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.html) and was widely supported.HTML 3. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status.0 and was accepted in December 1997. Since it fits in a couple of pages.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.0.2 (3. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. It is a revision of 4. Version 4. 3.html.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible. HTML 3.0 draft was released in 01. Originally named Web Applications 1. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.

increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.-_:" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .

HTML 4.0 Strict DTD.w3. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. "&#x6C34. You get the point. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. though. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. An example: <!-. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. HTML 4. like ALIGN.3 . Check the address http://www. VSAPCE are omitted. 3. the specification of HTML 4.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.acesta este un comentariu. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. BORDER. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd. three DTDs (HTML 4. “&quot”. This section deals with some of the most common elements. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element.01 specification. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag." (in hexadecimal) .3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. Overall. ….0 Transitional DTD. <><> --> 25 . A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. look at these examples: “&lt”. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.0 contains an SGML declaration. 3. DYNSRC. 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->. If you wonder what a character reference is. CONTROLS.the chinese character for water.

image.3 . etc. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. NAME.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.5 tables 26 .3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.info.uvt.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.ro/webmail/src/login.HTML 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.

the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 .HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. <THEAD>.3 . headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. columns. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. Usually. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is their description and attributes. its rows.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <TR>. <TH> and <TD>.

required. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . allowing user input and parameter submittal. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .

Example: http://web. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.8 form related elements 3. "checkbox". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .3 . specifies how data will be sent to the server.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE . Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.?. "GET" . "password".sends the form values in a single transmission. Main attributes: 29 . "hidden".2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . "reset". Main attributes: • TYPE . "text/plain" • • 3. after a quotation mark . the browser appends the values to the URL. may have the values GET or POST.maximum number of options visible to the user. however.required. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. specifies the parameter name.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . SIZE . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. NAME . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" .HTML • METHOD .8. 3.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.the default value. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "image". "radio". "file".:. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.info.if specified.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. • 3.required. "button".8.uvt. allows multiple selections from the choice list.3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.required. "submit".

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

The current version (as of 10.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. The first time a class is loaded.95. The current version (as of 10.. Example: Edit the file prog1. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21.class.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun.class file. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.class 3.java 2.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. jit From source to execution.JAVA PRIMER 4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. In terms of execution time. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.3 java applications 31 . Java source – a file with extension . To overcome this significant shortage.C:\TW\mySource.2 version. Early versions of Java were released in 12.95.java. javac -classpath .2 java the interpreter. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.JAVA PRIMER 4 . a tool named Just In Time compiler. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.class file. -g : generate all debugging info.C:\TW\myPackages -g login. the compilation process occurs. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. but next time execution is much faster. Java bytecode – a file with extension .) in 08.4 .0. project started in 12.90. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .java One example of command line compilation: 4. 4. following the 1. Inc.4.

java.4 object oriented concepts 4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. Generally. 4. In general. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4 . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is .4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .4.jar file. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). or that it extends A). This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. An example: 32 . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or is derived from A.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.

4. 4. 4. 4.4 . providing its own implementation.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Double. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. Character. called Object. Boolean. this is called method overloading. a class can have more than one method with the same name. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. namely: Byte. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. Long. Short. In fact. Therefore. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. In OO jargon. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). the forest we mentioned is actually a tree.4. Integer. 33 . a Java class can extend a single base class. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. Therefore. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).1 bit char . Float.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. with the root the class Object. While C++ allows multiple inheritance.

which is visible only to the classes in the same package.one which is constant method .the class is visible from any class. class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. 34 . The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . A final: • • • variable .no access from outside the class itself protected .servlet. class . 4.access from any class anywhere private .the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example. no templates.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .servlet. inherited). method .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. A final variable (method. automatic garbage collection.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. anywhere abstract . } declares an abstract class..http. has the same value for all class instances. rather than at class instance. • • • • no specifier .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax..http.one which is defined at class level. they have the same basic meaning as in C++.does not have any subclasses.4 .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. which extends the class javax.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . Except for the "package" concept.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).

1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. Exception categories: 1. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. 4.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. java errors .7.ThreadDeath.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. not at execution time.7.4 . 2. array index out of bounds. as defined in the java. standard method exceptions 3. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. namely class Error and the class Exception. In Java. 4.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors).like invalid cast. division by 0. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .JAVA PRIMER 4. code or data errors . programmer defined exceptions 4.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 4.

util.support for event handling java.zip .util.geom .by adding the key word throws. date and time info java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.support for java archives creation java.Properties.8. import.sql java.util .awt . finally construct.java.support for user interface java.bank11. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. As a general rule. 4. The names in a package are qualified by the package name. In the example above.servlets. 4.awt.. they have to be unique inside a package.net java. the class (the .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. therefore. .ccards. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. The package containing the standard classes is java. 4.rmi java. the default package is used).io java.default. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). don't have to import java.4 .lang (automatically available). All other packages must be explicitly imported. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .nio java.awt.event . rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.this can be done by providing a try. import javax. followed by the import statements. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.support for data collections.class file.1 Package names The default package has no name.sql. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .security 36 .lang . catch.*. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. An example: package com.. string analyzers.

accessibility javax.event .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.swing.4 .text javax. static and final. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. All variables (actually. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. 37 .support for event handling 4. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.swing . it must be declared as abstract. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.

JAVASCRIPT 5.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. 5. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.javaScript 5 . other 38 .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.5 . then LiveScript and finally. and . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.HTML authors are normally not programmers. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .A JavaScript statement like this: document. like QtScript or ActionScript.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . This is not always what we want. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. Subsequently.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. However. The origins of this language date back to 1995.depending on the browser .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. as JavaScript. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.

3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. or when an event is triggered..3.. 39 . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.3.js file extension. </script> </head> 5. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. To simplify this.. 5. When you place a script in the head section.1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. Save the external JavaScript file with a .2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. point to the . <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .5 ..js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. without having to write the same script on every page. </script> </body> 5.javaScript times when a user triggers an event.. go in the head section..3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script.

. break. in and the try . continue.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.4. for(). else.4.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.4.4. namely – if .2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".5 ... 5..... or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5.. 5. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . 5.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. while(). catch constructs. switch(). while() it is worth mentioning the for ..javaScript 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.. in loop is executed once for each element/property.In statement The for.1 JavaScript for.5... The code in the body of the for .

There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try.0. mycars[1] = "Volvo". we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". mycars[0] = "Saab". Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .write(mycars[x] + "<br />").. Example Using for.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. so you don't lose your audience...2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.5 . Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. or a property of an object.5. var mycars = new Array(). they often leave the Web page.catch statement (available in IE5+. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5... and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. The try block contains the code to be run.5. for (x in mycars) { document.catch statement The try. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.3 try.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. an array element. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.. Mozilla 1. mycars[2] = "BMW".. When users see errors. } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors..

5 . alert(txt).7 popup boxes 5.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. txt+="Error description: " + err.\n\n".description + "\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. 5.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). When an alert box pops up.7. Also. Syntax: 42 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.

"defaultvalue") 5. the box returns null. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. the box returns true. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!")..2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. in the <head> section.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.8.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Now.8 functions 5.5 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. If the user clicks "OK".7. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the script is not executed before the user hits the button. If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns false.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . If the user clicks "Cancel".7.js file). When a confirm box pops up. Syntax: prompt("sometext". in the example above had not been written within a function. When a prompt box pops up.

function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. So. 5.9. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. etc are variables or values passed into the function.. var2.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.var2.length).. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.varX) { some code } var1.9 javaScript objects 5. 5. document.8. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.5 . you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. and will be stored in the variable called product. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail.9... 5. and how they are used. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".write(txt.javaScript function functionname(var1. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.

10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. </script> 5. which will be specified in the next section. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 . In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".write(str.toUpperCase()). The first class consists of browser specific objects.5 .javaScript 5.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.9. document.

For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. check the site http://www. every Image on the page is an Object. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. For example.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. Properties FF: Firefox. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.5 .w3schools. When an event message has been triggered. N: Netscape.11.com/jsref/default. which are called Objects. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. or when the user interacts with a Web page. as well).11 javaScript language built in objects 5. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Even this Document itself is an Object. every Link on the page is an Object. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .asp 5. At its most basic level.

Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 .11.5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string. N: Netscape. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. depending on the browser.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. as a four-digit number. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.

1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to Greenwich time. Properties FF: Firefox.5 . N: Netscape. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. to a string.11. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. according to local time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to universal time.

javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. var myNum=new Number(number).5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.11.5 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .5 4 3 4 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object.4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 . Properties FF: Firefox.

11.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .5 .5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 . Properties FF: Firefox. N: Netscape.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.

14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.javaScript 5.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x. 1.y) pow(x. 0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.434) Returns PI (approx. 3.5 .718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 2.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.y) min(x. 0. 1. 2. N: Netscape.11. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 0.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . Properties FF: Firefox.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.

etc.12. The persons' properties include name. 5.propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. with a collection of properties and methods. personObj. height. The persons' methods could be eat().methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Properties are the values associated with the object.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. age. play(). and eyecolor as follows: personObj. age. personObj. personObj.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. document.firstname).firstname="John". All persons have these properties.12.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.12. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj. Assume that the personObj already exists .eyecolor="blue".lastname="Doe".age=50.5 . eye color.firstname="John".lastname="Doe". work().age=30. Objects also have methods. sleep(). etc. lastname.you can give it properties named firstname.eyecolor="blue".12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. weight. 53 .write(personObj. personObj. skin tone.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj.

lastname=new_lastname.age.eyecolor=eyecolor.eyecolor) { this. You can also add some methods to the person object.eyecolor=eyecolor."green"). this.age. this."Doe".propertyName. Once you have the template.5 . The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. myMother=new person("Sally".firstname=firstname.age=age. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this. } Notice that the template is just a function.lastname=lastname. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. like this: myFather=new person("John". This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. 5.50.lastname. this. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).age=age.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.eat=eat. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.lastname.12."blue").lastname=lastname.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple.48.eyecolor) { this. you can create new instances of the object. 54 . this.newlastname=newlastname."Rally". this.firstname=firstname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.

13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.newlastname("Doe").. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event. We define the events in the HTML tags. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. So.5 . JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. For example. now you can write: myMother..". we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.

If it returns true the form will be submitted.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. 5. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.w3schools. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.13.5 .com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.2 onFocus. The name is then stored in a cookie. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. For example.13. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". If the field values are not accepted. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. the submit should be cancelled. onBlur and onChange The onFocus.13. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.

Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . XML. SVG.HTML DOM 6. 6. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification..2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. 2010).Html DOM 6 . SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. structure. HTML. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM).1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. and style of a document. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then.g. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory.6 .defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). Right now (oct. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. By October 1998. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. In other words. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. As of January 2008. The W3C 58 .defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. However. the Document Object Model activity is closed. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. or WebAPI being among them. particularly those used in Web browsers. CSS. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.

4. Level 2 XML namespace support. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 1. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. 3. HTML-specific elements are included as well. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. and 6. 5. a new DOM Core specification. filtered views and events. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. As of 2005. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). To claim to support a level. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. DOM Level 3 XPath. 2. DOM Level 3 Validation. each of which contains required and optional modules.6 . Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. DOM Level 3 Requirements. DOM Level 3 Core. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. Level 2. 6.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 .3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. which further enhances the DOM 6. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. DOM Level 3 Load and Save.

7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Konqueror. The Window object represents a browser window. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. along with their containing text and attributes.6 . can be accessed through the 60 . 6. All HTML elements.x and Netscape 4. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). By 2005. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. and Safari.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. that is. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Opera. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. support multiple browsers. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. interoperability problems were numerous. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported.x were still widely used in 2000.

It can be used by any programming language like Java.6 . and VBScript. The contents can be modified or deleted. JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created.

in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.9. the element node <title>. the text of an element node is stored in a text node.6 . All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. <head> and <body>. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.8. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. However.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. The <html> node has two child nodes. 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.8.Html DOM 6. 62 . The tree structure is called a node-tree.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. everything in an HTML document is a node.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.

6 . Their contents can be modified or deleted. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. using the node relationships. the top node is called the root Every node. 63 . The terms parent. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. child. • • • • • In a node tree. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. children.2 node parents.9. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). and new elements can be created. By navigating the node tree. The node tree below shows the set of nodes.getElementById('main').Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and the connections between them. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). By using the getElementById() method 2. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. Parent nodes have children. except the root. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.getElementsByTagName("p").getElementsByTagName("p").3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.9.

document. each node is an object. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.innerHTML). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object). } 6.i++) { document. that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.write(x[i].write("<br />"). • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .Html DOM for (i=0.9.length.6 .i<x.

Html DOM 6.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.getElementById("intro").9.firstChild. txt=x. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.5 example . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .6 .nodeValue.

A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. including window. For elements.6 . objects and images. frames.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. For elements. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.

Events are first captured until it reaches the target element.6 . This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. say "click". but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. also supports these methods. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. as of version 1. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). and/or by stopping the event (with method event. for instance. Mozilla. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Safari. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle.3. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. During the event flow.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). 6. 67 . DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Fires when an element is activated.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. through a mouse click or a keypress.stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. When the user clicks on the inner element. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. DOMNodeInserted. and then bubbled up. Also. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).

there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. key pressed.6 . Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. including information about target element. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Unfortunately. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. mouse button pressed. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. mouse position. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. etc. preventDefault 68 . Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event.

AJAX 7 . Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. using web services or Php scripts. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. but also to save resources. dynamic website. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. 7. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. The server does some processing — retrieving data. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. For improving sharing of resources. etc. For example.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. 69 . before the whole page was sent within the network.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. choices of user. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 7. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. It is not a technology in itself. fields of forms. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting.AJAX 7.7 . menus. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. crunching numbers.

if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. but the opposite is true.7 . but it doesn’t make for a great user experience.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. Once an interface is loaded. at the start of the session. the user waits some more. waiting. Instead of loading a web page. 70 . While the server is doing its thing. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. waiting around for the server to do something. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. And at every step in a task. we wouldn’t make users wait around. what’s the user doing? That’s right. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. Obviously.

71 . editing data in memory. usually using XML. loading additional interface code. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation.7 .AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

responseText .responseXml . It allows the interaction with the servers.7 . This object provides two methods: . 2: request received. GET or POST . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .holds a Xml loaded file. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.open: create a connection.send: send a request to the server. url. they call functions associated to elements of the web page.for a Xml file or . . .url: the location of the file 72 . onreadystatechange . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.200 is ok.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. and in this purpose.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. . DOM's method allows to extract data.AJAX 7.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". 404 if the page is not found . thanks to its methods and attributes. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class.for a simple text. 3: answer in process. These events are user actions.holds loaded data as a string of characters. To get data on the server. 7. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.mode: type of request. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . 4: finished.returned by the server . 1: connection established. boolean) .

.null for a GET command 7. but two options must be tried. . OK } else { // wait. } else if (window. for browser compatibility. URL of the document.open('GET'.open: command GET or POST. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. request. The request below reads a document on the server. Safari. 73 . } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .AJAX . true for asynchronous.xul.6 building a request... true).XMLHTTP").ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. 'http://www.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .send(null). step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. if (request. http_request.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. http_request. if (window.xml'.7 . // Firefox.. the data to send to the server.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().send: with POST only..fr/somefile.readyState == 4) { // received.

req. "data.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.send(null).item(0).dyn=""Received:" + req. else if (window. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.XMLHTTP).XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ajax.7.responseText.7 . // read the first element with a dom's method 74 . req.status == 200) document.responseText.xml".7. }.dyn="Received:" + req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.responseXML. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.status. by this code: var doc = req.ajax.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.setRequestHeader("Content-Type".getElementsByTagName('root').AJAX 7.ajax. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"). true). req.readyState == 4) if(req.open("GET". req.dyn="Error code " + req.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req.7 examples 7. if(window. else document.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

76

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

3.servlets. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. but typical web. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 4.bank11. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. JSPs and Java Server Faces. like: 1. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. 2. data persistence.. welcome pages. servlet classes. Others. database connection resource pooling. Servlet. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. entries related to session configuration. classes. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans.xml file: <?xml version="1. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. For example.ccards. After an enterprise bean is created.)> <web-app> <!-.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . Servlet.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. 6. 8. descriptions). web. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. MIME types used by the web application. Initialization of parameters for servlets. Here is a small. like what pages are error.class>com.8 . JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. 5.

then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. Then the "EnrollServlet.bank11.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. for flexibility.class" and that it is part of the package "com. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. basicly.xml" file.servlets.ccards. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.8 .xml" 2.bank11. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards. Unfortunately. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.ccards. whose name is rather long.servlets". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. For example. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. In general. 1. it is the alias of the real servlet class.bank11.xml file of the web application.xml".class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".servlets". in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". However. the name of the web application. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". Behind a very benign URL. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Basicly.

SERVLETS 9. As of oct. 9. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.0 specification is available for public review. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.SERVLETS 9 . in most cases as part of an application server.5 and is in final state. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. 9. but at this point. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. small footprint. 2010.4.0 specification.4. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. tjws spec 2.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. more often. the HttpServlet) class. but through a web container.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. which extend the functionality of the web server. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Technically speaking.2. from BEA Systems. this is just a work in progress.2.9 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). the Java Servlet 3. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. platform independent programs. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. modular design 9. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server .

the javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server . from Apple Inc. IOException. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9.servlet package are protocol independent. Enterprise Edition. while the second one.servlet. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. public void service(ServletRequest req.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. WebSphere.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet javax. from IBM 9.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. 82 .http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. These packages are: • • javax.servlet package.9 . from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). public void destroy() throws ServletException. which are part of the Java Platform SDK.

as well. More on the servlet life cycle. After instantiating the servlet. 9. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. The method performs all initialization required. Throwable t) 9. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.9 .5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. namely the HttpServlet class. 83 . ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. in a different section. the web container calls its init() method. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. ServletConfig. The servlet API provides such a specific class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. respectively. This method has two arguments.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request.

Exception and can be thrown by the init(). a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.lang. It also extends the java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.9 .lang.servlet.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.ServletException javax.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. 9. service(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.

Typically. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. If the servlet does not implement the javax. Typically. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. 9. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. DB connection opening. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. this method contains JDBC driver loading. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. JSP or JSF.SingleThreadModel. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. 85 . The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. After instantiation. respectively.9 .servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. Also. etc. which will service all incoming requests.

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods. Here are the most important ones: 86 .13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.SERVLETS 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.9 .

A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.java" file: package com. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.xml file. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. import java. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.io.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.servlets.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.*.bank11.ccards.9 . String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. 87 . String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. This is done in server's (container's) server.

println("<head>").println("</head>").close(). out.getWriter().println("<body>"). out.println("<html>").setContentType(“text/html”).println("</body>"). } } 88 .init(config).println("merge"). out. out. // output your page here out. out. out. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. out. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").servlet. IOException { resp.println("</html>").SERVLETS import javax.9 .http.println("<br>").servlet. import javax.*. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.*. PrintWriter out = resp. out.

odbc. the javax.JdbcOdbcDriver .sun. as recognized by the DB industry. 89 . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls.jdbc. These drivers fall into four standard categories. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.1.JDBC 10 . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 1997.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. the java. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).sql package. This solution is inefficient. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. Starting with version 3. Type 1. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3.0 while the current (4. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. The JDBC 4.sql package 2. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.0. 10.JDBC 10.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. After that.10 .

The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls.JDBC Type 2. which in turn. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. forwards them to the JDBC driver. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. 90 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). The DB returns the result of the call to the API. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Type 4. Part Java. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Type 3. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection.10 .

sql.sql.SQLDataException java.Struct java.DriverManager java.sql.SQLInput java.Array java.sql.0 API.JDBC 10.Wrapper 91 .sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql. let's remind some of the most important ones.ResultSet java.sql.sql.Types java.sql.sql.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. java.sql.3 the java.Date java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.Statement java.PreparedStatement java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.Time java.Connection java.SQLWarning java.ResultSetMetaData java.Driver java.CallableStatement java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Blob java.Clob java.sql.sql.sql.Timestamp java.SQLException java.SQLPermission java.SQLData java.sql.sql.10 .SQLOutput java.sql.0).org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.sql.

sql.sql.sql.PreparedStatement java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql.Types java.Blob java.10 .sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.ResultSet java.sql.StatementEvent javax.NClob java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql package.sql.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.RowId java.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql. querying the database 4.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.Wrapper javax.sql.CallableStatement java.0.SQLWarning java. processing the result set 92 .SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java. java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.SQLDataException java.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.SQLException java.sql.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.ClientinfoStatus java.Connection java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.SQLXML java.sql.sql. loading a database driver 2.SQLInput java.Statement java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.SQLNonTransientException java.CommonDataSource javax.sql.Clob java.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.

A database driver is specified by the driver name.JDBC 10.ibm.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.SybDriver com. The first one is loading a database driver.DB2Driver oracle.OracleDriver sun. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .sybase.jdbc.jdbc.driver.10 .odbc.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.net.borland.datastore.db2.jdbc.

by using the connection URL.Driver").*. String user = "root". The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. Since we just used it. import java.getConnection(connURL.*. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".gjt.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.mysql. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. try { Class. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. user.forName("org. passwd). the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). as specified by the driver vendor. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.bank11. 94 .10 .mm.util. but let's take it for granted: import java.newInstance().printStackTrace().sql.

The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. "true"). Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. prp. "true"). There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp).Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. Once we get the hold of a Connection object.JDBC 10. Properties prp = new Properties().6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. we can use it for various purposes.put("create".10 .put("autocommit". int resultSetConcurrency. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. prp.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. java.getConnection(connURL.sql package. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . String user. Connection conn = DriverManager. 10. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.util. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements.

other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. prepared statements and stored procedures.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. respectively. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements.10 .JDBC 10. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. namely. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3.

Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.sql.".executeUpdate(sqlString).10 . 10.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.createStatement(). String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.. stmt. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.

a concurrency of read only. and CallableStatement objects. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. PreparedStatement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 . The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. as the argument. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. not at 0) or the column name. 98 . and cursors are held over commit boundaries.10 ResultSet characteristics By default.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

100

10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

101

10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

102

Connection pooling implementation -.math.Big Decimal Object float 10. There are three types of implementations: 1.produces a standard Connection object 2.math.DataSource object. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java. mins. This interface is.sql.10 .sql package. time. Basic implementation -. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. a factory for creating DB connections.produces a Connection object that will 103 .0 optional package.sql.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. secs date.Time java.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.sql.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. It is part of the javax. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. basicly.

throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. Distributed transaction implementation -. private DataSource theDataSource.bank11. javax. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().class. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.naming.io.sql.getLogger(TestDataSource.10 .ccards. 3.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. java.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax.servlets.http.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*.*. 104 .sql.servlet. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.*. javax.servlet.*. import import import import import import java.getName()).*. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).

. ServletException { . } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").10 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

servlet. The JSP specific interfaces.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. the servlet code is regenerated. If the JSP is modified.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.5 Java Servlet specification. The package javax.tagext.servlet.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. namely javax. The package javax.jsp.2 the java.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.servlet.servlet.servlet. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.jsp and javax.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The javax.servlet.11 .jsp.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.1 and is related to the 2.JSP 11 . 11. 11.JSP 11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).jsp.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

107

11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

108

11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

109

11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

11 . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. include and taglib...JSP • if the URL does not start with / . it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". 111 . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).

2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. this code goes to inside the service() method. 11.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.7. 11.7.JSP 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance.7. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7 scripting elements 11.11 .3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. 11. Assigns it to available name or id. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . In Tomcat. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.

already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 . you must specify param.the name of a bean instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.11 . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. and if so. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name .Sets one Bean property to a specific value. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.

flush .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.13 the forward standard action 114 .the URL of the page.name of the property to be retrieved 11. <jsp:forward>. converts them to string and displays the output to the client. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:plugin> actions.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name .only the "true" value is supported. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies. 11. same format as the <%@include> directive.11 .

a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 .11 . You must include the . You must specify either bean or applet. It is used mainly. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. code="classFileName" . followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag." . name . as this attribute has no default value. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. If you do not supply a value.the type of object the plugin will execute.a name for the Bean or applet instance. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • .the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. 11. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" ..class extension in the name following code.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. servlet or to a static resource... depending on request.the name of a bean instance. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .. name="instanceName" .. when we want to separate the application into different views. as well. archive="URIToArchive. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.

it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. out . with a protocol name.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.it represents the buffered version of java. session .provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. The default value is 1. response .1" . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .jsp. optional port number. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11.the initial height and width. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. in pixels.1. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . pageContext . and domain name.the amount of space.PrintWriter.servlet. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. page .represents server's response to the request.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. of the image the applet or Bean displays. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .lang. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . request . application . it has javax. objects which are automaticly available.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.11 . based on the servlet API.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. 1.16 scopes 1. The value is a full URL. request .represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. in pixels.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.JspWriter type and scope page 7. it has java.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.io. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.Object type and scope page 11.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. config .represents the servlet context. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" . Must be a small nonzero number. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. writes to the output stream to the client.

an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. session . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. Object value) method 3.JSP request object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. Object value) method 4.jsp file.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.bank11.beans.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.init(). the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. if (enrollBean. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.ccards. Object value) method 2.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 11.11 . page .

18.string. %> <jsp:forward page="response.java: package com. a software development and consulting company. private String optional. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. 11.simple.mapping. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.JSP <% } else { enrollBean. private int list[].io.Serializable { private String string. private String colors[]. private int integer. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). The public constructor could have been omitted. a boolean and another String). private boolean flag.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. a float. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.examples. an int. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. The SimpleBean class is declared public.register(). SimpleBean. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private float number.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.devsphere. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11.11 .

} // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.integer. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.JSP this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.flag.colors = values.integer = value.number = value. } 119 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors.colors[index]. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.string = value.number.flag = value.11 . } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.

} // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.list[index] = value.optional = value. } } 120 .list = values. int value) { this. String value) { this.subBean. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.11 .colors[index] = value. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this.list[index].optional.list. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.subBean = value. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.

JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.11 .simple. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.number = value. SimpleSubBean. } } 11.string. private float number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.io.examples. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.number.18.java: package com.Serializable { private String string.mapping. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.string = value.devsphere.

11 .number SimpleForm.string subBean.JSP colors list optional subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

{ "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". 3 } }.string]". new int[] { 2.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.colors]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.devsphere.simple. error messages.integer]".3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values.18. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. new Boolean(true) }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. new Float(0.11 .JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. "An option must be selected" }.flag]". "One or more colors must be selected" }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes.util. "One or more items must be selected" }.mapping. "abc" }. a boolean and an int[]. the form's name and the processor's name. The list of optional properties has a single element. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. a float. the list of optional properties. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property.list]". new String[] { 123 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.java: package com.list]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.examples. SimpleBeanResources. There are three error messages. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.number]".123) }. the processing order. The default values are defined for a String.

"number". new String[] { "string". "integer".18. "list". string values are converted to numbers. } } 11. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable.simple. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. The beanToForm() method of com.html" }. "flag".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. For a better understanding of this example.mapping.devsphere.devsphere. "optional". A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").mapping.mapping. { "[FORM_NAME]".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter. If necessary. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. The formToBean() method of com. "subBean" } }.util.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .logging.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.JSP "optional" } }. { "[PROC_NAME]". public Object[][] getContents() { return contents. SimpleHndl.jsp" } }. "SimpleProc.mapping. "SimpleForm.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.*.devsphere.devsphere. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). com.devsphere. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".examples.11 . "colors".

equals("POST"). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getTemplate(new java. } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET. slashIndex+1) : "". // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getDocument().getString("[PROC_NAME]"). 125 . // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).trim(). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Process the valid data bean instance application.getClass()). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.getMethod().trim().getServletPath().getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).JSP = HandlerUtils. // Construct the base path String basePath = request. errorTable = HandlerUtils. response). logger).lastIndexOf('/').formToBean(formData.File(formPath)).getBeanResources(simpleBean.forward(request.getString("[FORM_NAME]").11 .util. int slashIndex = basePath.getRealPath(formPath). simpleBean. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.substring(0. formPath = application.io. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.removeUserErrors(errorTable). // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.

getString() %> <P> subBean.send(out). strbuf. } %> 11.length. i < list.simple. SimpleProc.getSubBean().getSubBean(). for (int i = 0.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.examples.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.18.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append("{ ").mapping. i++) 126 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.number = <%= simpleBean.11 .SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().JSP elements logger). errorTable. if (list. document.beanToForm(simpleBean.string = <%= simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].devsphere. // Send the form document document.length == 0) return "".getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.

ComplexHndl.mapping. strbuf. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.toString(list[0]).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.append("{ ").JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.length. if (list.18.toString().jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. i++) { strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.length == 0) return "".simple.length == 1) return Integer. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.append(" "). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. return strbuf. ComplexForm. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework. The localization of the Complex*. making the testing and the debugging easier.jsp files. In addition.append("}").toString().devsphere. return strbuf. A single call to FormUtils. for (int i = 0. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). } strbuf.append(list[i]).examples.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. In addition. } %> 11. i < list.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.util. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.11 .Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append(list[i]). strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.formToBean() call.append(" "). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append("}"). strbuf.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard. } strbuf. Using the framework. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.

i++) { int value = i+1. i < colorValues. i < integerLabels. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "blue" }. for (int i = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". 128 . "Green". j++) if (colors[j]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. j < colors. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".11 . boolean checked = simpleBean. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.length. "Option 3" }.getColors(). "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. for (int i = 0. "green". %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Blue" }.length.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true.getInteger() == value.

i++) { int value = i+1. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. break. "subBean.length. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 2".length.examples. j < list. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 3" }. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i < listItems. boolean selected = false. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.11 .string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.devsphere.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.simple.JSP break.mapping.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .getList().SimpleSubBean()).setSubBean( new com.getSubBean(). } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. for (int i = 0. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.

getString().devsphere. if (message == null) message = "".examples.11 . } %> ComplexHndl. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean().mapping.getMethod().mapping.setString("abc").equals("POST").number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. 130 .number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.devsphere.Hashtable errorTable. boolean isPostMethod = request.util.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.examples.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.simple.get(property).jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.simple.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleBean.util.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). "subBean.

"number". "string". } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.getParameter("flag"). "Must be filled").123f).setNumber(0.length() != 0) simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.setFlag(flagValue != null). "Must be filled"). if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.floatValue()). } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getColors().getParameter("number").JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.setNumber(0. "integer". if (flagValue. else { simpleBean.trim(). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "number".setNumber(new Float(numberValue).123f).getColors() == null || simpleBean.length == 0) { 131 . } simpleBean.11 .getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0 || flagValue. "An option must be selected"). "Must be a number").

"Must be filled").getOptional() == null) simpleBean. "subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.11 . "One or more items must be selected"). "One or more colors must be selected"). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. "Must be } //* subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.getString(). //* subBean. "colors".getList() == null || simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setList(new int[] { 2.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 . 3 }).length() != 0) simpleSubBean.number".number : text try { String numberValue = request.floatValue()). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.setOptional("").getParameter("subBean.getList(). } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "list".setString(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.string".number").

setFlag(true).simple.123f).properties or web.18. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. simpleBean. "Must be a number").code=com. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet. simpleBean. String property.put(property.setOptional(""). simpleBean. simpleBean. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.xml: SimpleHndl. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.mapping.JSP filled").devsphere. simpleSubBean.number".mapping.setString(""). "subBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet.setNumber(0.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.setList(new int[] { 2.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.helpers.Hashtable errorTable.11 .util.devsphere. errorTable. message).\ 133 .7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. The com. 3 }).BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.helpers.SimpleBean.jsp. } } else { simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.devsphere.examples.setString("abc"). } %> 11.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.

\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.helpers. A servlet can be made bean-independent.mapping.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.simple.properties: AnotherHndl.devsphere. If you have another bean-form pair. 11.mapping. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.xml) file: ServletName. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.company. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.host.examples.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.helpers. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . In many cases.code=com.code=com. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.11 .8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.mapping.devsphere.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.18.another.AnotherBean.devsphere. a servlet is identified with its class.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.devsphere. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. you could add a few other lines to servlets.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.properties (or web.examples.host.host.mapping.

11 .JSP 135 .

0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. Version 2. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. builds a component tree.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.0. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. buttons. like input fields. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. which loads the appropriate view template.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.12 .0 supersedes version 1. Version 2.javaserver faces 12 . processes events. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. 12. This technology includes: 1. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.JAVASERVER FACES 12.

The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12. there are 25 HTML JSF tags.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.javaserver faces 12. As of version 1.4. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .12 . JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views.2 of the JFS specification.

For more information about columns. Common formatting techniques. footers. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. see the column tag documentation. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. columns and rows. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. 12.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 .2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.12 .01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.4. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. such as alternating row colors. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. respectively.

total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.checkout}" /> 139 .00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean. your options include using plain HTML forms.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4.12 .4. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).

12 . Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent(). You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.</span> 12. 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user. red for error.4. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.user.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.5.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .4. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.12 .5.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . For example.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. 12.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.

optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .12 .5. 12. The body content of this tag must be empty. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.mycompany.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Without this JavaScript event. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener.5.customer. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. can publish value change events. validateLength. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Any component that receives user input.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean.javaserver faces 12.

javaserver faces 12.12 . Example: welcome_en.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.5. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. for each locale you wish to support.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.mycompany. including images and styles. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. If you have not specified a default locale.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.mycompany. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. myJSFapp 143 . You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.

What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. Create managed beans 4.jar – files included in the /lib directory. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. JSP pages.exadel. like third party jar files jsf-impl. custom tag libraries.javaserver faces /ant build.12 . and so on.contains libraries required by the application.xml web.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. static resources. Create JSP pages 2.jar faces-config.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.html. Define navigation rules 3.jar. It has a deployment descriptor.xml – the JSF configuration file. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. jsf-api. Create properties files 144 . mandatory for any JSF application web.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar jsf-api.

1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.jsp file 7. Compile the application 8.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.javaserver faces 5. The directory structure already exists. we just want to go from inputname. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. Deploy and run the application 12. 12.jsp go to the view (page) greeting. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp to greeting.12 .xml file. And that's all there is to this. Create an index. In our application. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp. You only need to create the JSP files.7. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config.jsp and greeting. As a diagram. You just need to create its contents.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. we can create a navigation rule.7.jsp is greeting.

java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.7.7.7. You can easily create more complex ones. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12.javaserver faces This is.xml Now. myJFSapp.3. the second part of faces-config. This class is straight-forward. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. public class PersonBean { String personName. The next line is the full class name. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName. request sets the bean scope in the application. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name. 12.3.7.PersonBean. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.12 .2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. we will create a PersonBean.java file.3.xml Your final faces-config. 12.1 PersonBean.) 12. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3 faces-config. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml file should look like this: 146 . Inside this myJFSapp folder. To read more about navigation rules. of course. a very simple navigation rule.

5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.1 inputname.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.sun. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.5. 12. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. 12. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.properties file in the bundle folder.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. Inc.12 .0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.7.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.sun. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.7. 12. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.4.7.7.1//EN" "http://java.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.1 messages.

messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.12 . <%@ taglib uri="http://java. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. Then. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.

.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The first three lines are identical to our first page. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.</h3> tags. 12. Having an index.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.xml file.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .jsp page. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. Line 2. and also print its contents on the page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.7. Creates an HTML input text box. specifically the bean attribute personName.javaserver faces Line 1. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.sun. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.sun. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The second line will access a Java bean. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.2 greeting. Create the index. name! 12.greeting_text}" />.bundle.7. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 6. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. That's how JSF knows where to go next.5..12 . Lines 3-5.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.6 creating the index. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

xml file for the application *.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.html . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. might possibly be different). you'll notice the file suffix is .sourceforge.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.bat in Tomcat's bin directory).xml file. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. When Tomcat is done loading.7. 12. 12. 12. we need to deploy it. because in the web. which asks an user for an ID and password.8.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. 12. This is a "login" application. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. We are almost done with this example.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. This is used here. To build the application run the build. verifies the information. To do this. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.jsp.7. though. Your setup. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent).12 . We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. and forwards the user to a success or error page.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. Of course.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.9 Running Next. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. 150 .7.jsf and not .javaserver faces Now.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.

Enter project name. click Next. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. in the Add JSF Support page. and set up folders for a web application. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. select the Source tab. jsf-login. in the wizard that appears. Select the Amateras node.12 . click Next. click Yes through messages that appear.8. see Installing & Uninstalling. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. say.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click Next d.webroot | +-. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. 6. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. 1. click Add Folder.WEB-INF 151 . enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. from the menubar select File/New/Other. 10. Select Java Project. The New Project wizard appears. c.. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support.. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. a...2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom.src | +-.. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. and to add JSF libraries to the project. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). click Finish 4. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin.. name the folder pages.xml Editor (see faces-config.. 12. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. make sure all checkboxes are checked. name the folder webroot 5. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. 2. 3. your mileage may vary. 9. 7. From the menu bar select File/New/Project..

in the Name field enter LoginManager. c. Click Finish. from its context menu select New/Class.lib | +-.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. else action = "loginFail". Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". for class enter login. for name enter mgr. click Managed Bean. for scope select 152 .java package login. enter login. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. In Package Explorer select the src folder. The New Java Class wizard appears. The faces-config. input widgets appear d. 3.javaserver faces | | | +-.xml.12 . if ( _uid. b.xml editor opens. We then configure it to be a managed bean. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid.pages 12. In the Package field.8. The Java code editor opens. 2.LoginManager. } return action. } 4.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. private String _pwd = "". } String getPassword() { return _pwd. click Add. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. a. } public String loginAction() { String action = null.xml Editor. 1.

jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. <!-. in Package Explorer select webroot. 1. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. Create index.webroot/pages/success.jsp. Create success.jsp: create this file similarly to index.jsp and error. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. index. c.jsp).javaserver faces session.jsp). for File name enter index. All pages except login. </body> Please try 153 . Create error. click Finish. then close the editor 12. the New File wizard appears. Then we create login. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.webroot/index.jsp are simple pages with static content. but in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages. so we create them first. from its context menu select New/File.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. and 3 content pages (login. save the file and close the editor.jsp: a. success. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. again.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. the JSP Editor opens.jsp.12 . b. enter the following code. Enter the following code: <!-. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. e.webroot/pages/error.8.

you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. and uses them for code completion as well.completion. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements.jsp: a. g. click Finish.. 154 . for File name enter login. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File.12 . as shown below..com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. now we want to add attributes to this element. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>.sun.jsp.javaserver faces </html> 4. d. enter jsf-login e. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. etc.. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. with the following template code. the New wizard appears. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. (See Show View Dialog) f. and choose default for Template.sun. Create login. from its context menu select New/Other. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. a code-completion window pops up. and dock it along the right. To see this in action. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. and the JSP Editor can help with code.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. click Next c. Open the JSF palette. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. place your cursor in one of these lines. b. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.

and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. insert another <h:inputText> element. enter #{mgr. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". complete the expression with the closing { k.javaserver faces h.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . insert a <h:commandButton> element.password}" l. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well.sun. in the code-completion window scroll down to value..loginAction} The final code. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value to Login. a code-completion window pops up.) j. with the barest presentational formatting. this inserts value="" at the cursor.12 . is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. with bean properties available in mgr.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. select userID from the code-completion window. and hit Enter. i. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.

then click inside the editor window.12 . it should open in the faces-config. 1.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr. Select the Navigation tab 3.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. click on Page. This is shown below. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. using a FacesIDE editor.xml.8. this inserts a page icon into the editor. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml Editor.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. 156 . Open faces-config. 2.

then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. 5. add 3 more pages. change the value of path to /index.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. then click first on the icon for login.jsp. /pages/success. Its properties appear in the Properties view. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.jsp and /pages/error.jsp. and is represented by an arrow.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp 4. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more). This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp. select Navigation Case. and set them to /pages/login. 6. notice that the warning triangle disappears.12 .jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. from the palette at left. This is shown below: 157 . in the Properties view.

1.jsp. Similarly add a forward-action from login.javaserver faces 7. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. all we need do in web. so uncomment it. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).jsp to error.xml Here we edit web. We'll set some properties in web. since we have such a trivial application. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. We want virtual path-based mapping.xml. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . Once deployed browse to index.12 . and you should be automatically forwarded to login.xml. or leave it as-is. 12.jsp. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. and extension-based mapping is turned on. The application is now complete. open web.xml for the specifics of our application. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.6 Editing web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.8. As it turns out.jsp. any other id/password should send you to the error page. and you should be sent to the success page. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.

validator javax.faces. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.component javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. as file:///.faces. for Context path enter /jsf-login.application javax.event javax.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages.faces javax. the Manager application should reload.8. click Deploy 3. leave XML Configuration File URL blank..webapp 12. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.10 the javax.el javax.faces.model javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 ..component. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.convert javax. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.faces.lifecycle javax..faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces. start Tomcat. Click on its link to launch the application.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.faces. scroll down to Deploy.javaserver faces 12. 12. that factory is used.render javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces.faces. For a given factory class name.12 .0 1.html javax.context javax.

those factories are used. StateManager . • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. with the last one taking precedence. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. defining page navigation. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). ApplicationFactory .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.Severity .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. 12.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.12 . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances. ViewHandlerWrapper .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.represents a single validation (or other) message. FacesMessage .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. ViewHandler . with the last one taking precedence. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . and supporting internationalization and accessibility.faces.11 the javax. If none of the above steps yield a match. handling events and input validation. StateManagerWrapper .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. FacesMessage.

• ViewExpiredException . ValueHolder .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view. Here they are: • • UIColumn . UICommand .javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . UIComponent . String. or a hyperlink.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. a menu item.context. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.12 the javax. 12.12 .a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. NamingContainer . EditableValueHolder .restoreView(javax.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. StateHolder . ContextCallBack .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component.faces. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.FacesContext. when activated by the user. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. String) results in failure on postback. • • 161 .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components. ActionSource2 . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. UIComponentBase . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.faces.

The user cannot manipulate this component. UIMessage . it is for display purposes only. UISelectOne . it is for display purposes only. Optionally.faces.12 . that is displayed to the user. identified by a clientId. UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree.a UIComponent that has a value.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIPanel . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). The user can modify the selected values. UIGraphic . This component has no rendering.html package 162 . UIParameter . It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. UISelectItem . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. by storing it as the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIViewRoot .a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UIForm . it just serves as the root of the component tree.component. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.13 the java.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UIInput . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. Optionally.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.javaserver faces • UIData . The user can modify the selected value. UINamingContainer . UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. UISelectBoolean . The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance.

optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. HtmlOutputLabel .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlInputSecret . HtmlGraphicImage . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.faces.represents an HTML form element.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.faces.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlInputText . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. HtmlColumn . HtmlMessages . HtmlOutputText . HtmlPanelGrid . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML input element of type text. The label text is specified by the component value.causes all child components of this component to be rendered.represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML label element.12 .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.renders child components in a table. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. This component must be placed inside a form. HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlOutputLink . HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . HtmlCommandLink .renders the component value as text. HtmlInputHidden . HtmlMessage .by default.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.by default. render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML input element of type password.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlForm . On a redisplay. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlCommandButton .represents an HTML img element. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. and renders the result. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. or not. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlDataTable . based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. but the application wishes to render more than one.Message".

convert package 164 .12 . ResponseStream . this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. FacesContextFactory . It is passed to.15 the java. and potentially modified by.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. HtmlSelectOneMenu . • • • • 12. HtmlSelectManyMenu .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance.faces. HtmlSelectOneListbox .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. HtmlSelectOneRadio .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . • • • • • • 12. and the rendering of the corresponding response. In particular. showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseWriter . ResponseWriterWrapper . FacesContext .14 the java.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. showing a single available option at a time.faces. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.javaserver faces property. showing a single available option at a time. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.

represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time. ValueBinding .represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. • • • • 165 .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . Classes: MethodBinding .el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.javaserver faces 12.16 the java. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12.faces. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.15.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. PropertyResolver .12 . VariableResolver .

ReferenceSyntaxException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. PhaseId .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. PhaseListener . • • • • 12.faces. Interfaces: ActionListener .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. ValueChangeListener . MethodNotFoundException . 166 .AbortProcessingException .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. • • • • • One exception .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. ValueChangeEvent . and event implementation classes. FacesEvent .12 . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent . PropertyNotFoundException .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.17 the java. PhaseEvent . FacesListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.

render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. DataModel . Renderer . SelectItemGroup . depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.18 the java. 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. ResultDataModel . ListDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.12 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData). ResultSetDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.19 the java.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". DataModelEvent .faces.javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. • • • • • • • • • 12. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. SelectItem .20 the java. Classes: ArrayDataModel .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. ScalarDataModel .represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.

if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. including a standard servlet. • RenderKit . and/or user Locale.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . Typically. • • 12.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). together. 12.12 . Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .faces.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. markup language.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. as well.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. AttributeTag . ResponseStateManager .validator package Interface defining the validator model.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . RenderKitFactory . LongRangeValidator . and concrete validator implementation classes.21 the java. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.22 the java.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. ConverterTag . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.faces. The package contains an exception. base classes for JSP custom component tags. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.

or some other web technology. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. UIComponentBodyTag . When the model is updated. FacetTag . each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. servlets. When a web server receives a request. or when an exception occurs. that request is passed to the container.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. ValidatorTag . Also. the life cycle is more complicated. 12. the JSF life cycle does not apply. In MVC.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. the controller sends a message to the view.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. that need to process their tag bodies. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. which has several implications. telling the model to update its data. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. Likewise. the controller sends a message to the model. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. the process includes a few more components or pages. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. In JSF.12 . User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. UIComponentTag . a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). the controller is the 169 .the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. telling the view to update its presentation. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request).a base class for all JSP custom actions. When using JSF. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. which passes the request to the page class. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. but basically. related to a UIComponent. • • • • • FacesServlet . A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.

• Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). If this is a subsequent request. or from request headers. the conversion occurs in this phase. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. The components are stored in a component tree. In addition. is validated at this time. and what happens during the processing and response. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state.12 . and the response is sent to the client. However. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. For a JSF-enabled application. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. It updates only the UI components with the new data. and the UI components are the view. In addition. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. the JSF implementation must create the view. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. it creates UI objects for each view component. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. Data can come from input fields in a web form.javaserver faces JSF implementation. converting a String to a Date object). such as components that create HTML input fields. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. not every request will flow through all six phases. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. These objects update their state with the data values. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. and a piece of data failed validation. 170 . Data for some components. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. depending on the request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. from cookies sent as part of the request. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. • Invoke Application: During this phase. As with the previous phase. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required.

For example. 171 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. if errors occur during any of the phases.javaserver faces In the above figure. skipping any remaining phases. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.12 . if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. Also. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

identifiers.JNDI 13 .bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name."). For example. For example. When using almost any computer program or system. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.5). and NIS(YP).48.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. or objects typically used by computer programs. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. NDS. for example. It enables applications to access different. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. names a file hello in the file directory usr. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. c:\bin\autoexec. which is located in the root of the file system.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. in turn. 13. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. possibly multiple. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). you are always naming one object or another. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales.COM.sun. The DNS entry Wiz.2. A file system maps a filename (for example.9. Using JNDI. you must supply its name.JNDI 13.13 . DNS. such as addresses. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. you supply it the name of the object. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. when you use an electronic mail system. /usr/hello.COM.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. To access a file in the computer. naming and directory services using a common API. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". In addition. 13. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.Wiz. The UNIX pathname. such as LDAP. For example. 172 . Thus the DNS name sales. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.

a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. in the DNS domain Sun. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. is a context. A printer object. Typically. is accessed using a file reference. Every context has an associated naming convention. they must be stored by reference. Using the reference. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. 173 . For example. o=Sun.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service.2. Instead. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry.COM. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. In another example. in a file directory /usr/bin. that is. also called a file handle. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. an LDAP entry. a file name is bound to a file. such as c=us. in the UNIX file system is a context. A file object. A reference is information about how to access an object. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. By contrast. For example.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. For example. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. Finally.c=us. and fuel and instrument status.2. relative to the entry o=Sun. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. for example. for example. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. might contain the state of the printer. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee.2. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. A printer object reference. and its flight number and departure time. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. such as /usr. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses.13 . a file directory. on the other hand. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). For example. For simplicity. delimited by the comma character (". unbinding names. 13. which in turn. For example. a DNS domain.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. while the object itself might contain more state information. and listing bound names. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. is a context. is relative to c=us. such as COM. its flight plan. 13."). some objects cannot be stored directly. 13. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. that is. That is. such as its print server name and printing protocol.

programs. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. and even the computer itself and other computers. A directory object can be used. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. postal mail address.2. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. resolution. for example. For example. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. various telephone numbers. a name is unique 13.3. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.13 . or a network. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. because we can. and computer account information. Thus. two different computer 174 .3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. For example. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. And it kind of makes sense. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. An example is the telephone company's directory service. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. 13.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. and color. one context can be viewed. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. a person. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. to represent a printer. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. to some extent.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. 13. For example. a computer. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. however. For example. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. For example.

When directory objects are arranged in this way. adding. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. an organization object. such as the file and print services. Alternatively. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. for example. such as that relating to machines. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. 13.113. Similarly. 13. When you search. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. printers. for example.3. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. for example. 13.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. For example. the ability to access directory services will become essential. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree.com".4. 175 . And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. Many examples of directory services are possible.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing.3. "mail" is the attribute identifier.50". The email address. support the notion of searches.13 . can use the directory in the traditional way. The query is called a search filter. For example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. 13.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. A Java mail client program. removing. 13. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. Within the DIT. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.smith@somewhere. many directories. called a directory information tree (DIT). By using a directory service.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. networks. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.3.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. and users. that is. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. The service is accessed through its own interface. like any other program running on the network. such as those based on the LDAP.

2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. more coherent and manageable. v1.naming. and even the network. 13. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. It extends the v1.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). 13. 13. To use the JNDI. 13.13 . Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. v1.event javax.5. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.directory javax. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.ldap 176 .naming. For example.2. emerging. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.1 and the Java 2 SDK. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.4.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. v1. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. The Java 2 SDK. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1.3 and later releases. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.naming javax. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. For example. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.1 and v1.2. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.naming.5. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and Java 2 SDK.

spi 13.naming. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. binding/unbinding.lang.lang. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name.13 . You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.print(report). a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.lookup("treekiller").3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. 13. For the methods in the Context interface. For example. that is. and so on. printer. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. However. and it returns the object bound to that name. 13.6. 13. The overloads that accept java. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. and the object itself. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6 the naming package The javax.JNDI • javax.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.String name argument represents a composite name.naming package defines a Context interface. for some objects in the directory. comparing components. 13.String name. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. a 177 .naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.6.6. In this case.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.1 context The javax. the name of the object's class. list() is similar to listBindings(). Furthermore. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts.lang. composing them. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them. A java. which is the core interface for looking up. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information.6.

you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.13 . Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. You can add.6. InitialContext. 13. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. replace.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation.7.6. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. 178 .naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. 13. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. There are no absolute roots. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). In the simplest and most common form of usage. Otherwise. For example. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. they should catch NamingException. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.directory package extends the javax.7 directory package The javax. 13.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.naming. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. 13. Once you have an initial context.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.7. 13.

1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. controls. In fact.naming.13 . the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. For example. such as "object changed. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.naming. or unsolicited notifications.8 event package The javax. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change.naming. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service. called controls . and vice versa. 13.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server." and those that do not.9.directory package. such as information about the object before and after the change. 13. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. such as "object added. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.naming.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. To receive event notifications. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Once registered.9 LDAP package The javax. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. that is.9.9. 13. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. These operations are called "extended" operations. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .JNDI 13. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. 13. For example.naming.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.ldap package at all. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.

implementors of Context.naming. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13.13 . 13. For example. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.spi package supports implementors of Context.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. 13.10 service provider package The javax.10. That is. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13. if you look up a printer name from the directory. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. import javax. This support is provided in the form of object factories.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.Context.naming. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.naming. 13.11.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. create a file named Lookup.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. In the process of completing an operation. It uses a service provider for the file system. 180 . 13.10. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.java.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. This support is provided in the form of state factories.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.9.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.2 java object support The javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. 13.naming package.naming. sending request controls. and receiving response controls.1 plug-In architecture The javax. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.10.

// Print it System.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. } 13.11.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. create an initial context. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.naming. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. env. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line.5 compiling the program Next.lookup(name). import javax. For this reason.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.java). you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.naming. 13.fscontext. then the JNDI classes are already included.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). To compile to program.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.lookup() to look up an object. 181 .InitialContext. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.put(Context. If you are still having problems. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.jar as an installed extension. If you are using the Java 2 SDK.RefFSContextFactory").err.13 . v1.out. If the compilation fails.sun. using the capitalization shown. you must have access to the JNDI classes. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.3.11. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).JNDI import javax. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. 13. 13. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). If the compilation succeeds.11.jndi. Object obj = ctx.lookup(name).3 looking up an Object Next. use Context.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup. as follows.NamingException.11. } catch (NamingException e) { System. "com. Otherwise.

It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.Attributes.jar).NamingException.bat If you supply a file directory. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.directory.naming.13 .class).DirContext. create an initial directory context.6 running the program To run the program.naming.put(Context. To run the program.jndi. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec. 13. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions. supply the name of a file in your file system. import import import import import javax.directory packages.InitialDirContext.12.jndi.JNDI 13.ldap. javax. env.sun.directory.sun.Context. javax.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. you need access to the JNDI classes.fscontext. "com. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. javax.put(Context. env.naming.naming. then you will see something like the following. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.directory.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.11.LdapCtxFactory"). javax. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.jar and providerutil. and your example class (Lookup. the file system service provider. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). Finally. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.3.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. create a file named Getattr. 182 .1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. include the directory that contains your Lookup.naming and javax.naming. v1. 13.PROVIDER_URL.java.12.

If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. For this reason. If the compilation fails. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail.12. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.13 . For now. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. Similar to the naming example. } catch (NamingException e) { System. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("sn: " + attrs. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. 13.get()).get().12. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. ou=People"). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. Attributes.get() on it to get its value: attrs. As with the naming example.12. 13. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. 183 . compile the source file using the Java compiler.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).12. } 13.6 compiling the program Next. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.get("sn"). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. If you are still having problems. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get() and then from that attribute get its value. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. using the capitalization shown.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).out. ou=People").5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. 13. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).err. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.java). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. If the compilation succeeds.

3. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step.12. env. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. Getattr. 184 . "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").JNDI 13. If you have any trouble running this example. ou=People".class.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.PROVIDER_URL. Once it has the attributes.put(Context. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. v1. then these classes are already included. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").jar and providerutil. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property.13 . With this configuration. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap. then see the Common Problems lesson. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.7 running the program As with the naming example.jar). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.

and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. Enterprise Edition. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. JMS client . JMS queue . The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . Here.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS message . JMS is a part of the Java Platform. JMS producer . The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. • 14. JMS topic . unless it has established a durable 185 .a JMS client that creates and sends messages.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue.a JMS client that receives messages. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. the messages are delivered in the order sent. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. In this model.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. As the name queue suggests. The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. JMS consumer .14 .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.

JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. 14. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.3 the JMS API programming model 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.4. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. 186 . The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. Depending on the type of message. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.14 . In that case.jms. On the receiving side. 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. Using Java.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.

lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Before an application completes.4. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you must call the connection's start() method. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained.4. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. The JMS administrator creates these objects. 14. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. and users discover them using JNDI.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). 14.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server.close(). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. It receives messages sent to a destination. connection. which is where messages are delivered and consumed.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider.14 . Depending on the connection type. For example.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). Connections implement the Connection interface. Like the connection factory.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). It is either a queue or a topic. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. you must close any connections that you have created. you call the stop() method. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. In a J2EE application. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Before your application can consume messages. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. 14.4. For example.createConnection().

(Remember always to call the start() method. After you register the message listener. MessageConsumer consumer = session. if it needs to reply to messages. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. however. You use the Session. Moreover. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.14 .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging.setMessageListener(myListener).4. consumer.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. For example. which contains one method. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors.createConsumer(myQueue). you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method.) When message delivery begins. Message m = consumer. connection.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. This object implements the MessageListener interface. In the onMessage() method.start(). The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. After you have created a message consumer. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. For example. it becomes active. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. you are likely to miss messages. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. usually expect a specific message type and format. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. 188 .) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types.receive(). You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.receive(1000).start(). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. and you can use it to receive messages. onMessage(). A message listener does. Message m = consumer. 14.createConsumer(myTopic). a message listener object may be used. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. 14.4.createTextMessage().send(message). if you created an unidentified producer. With an unidentified producer. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message has three main parts: 1. bytes message. message). 189 . and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. from one application to another. Here. message.createProducer(null).6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type.4. MessageProducer producer = session. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. For example. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. anon_prod.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. You must first create the messages. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. to create and send a TextMessage. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.send(message). that is. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. At the consuming end. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. and object message). After you have created a message producer. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.receive().setText(msg_text). the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. 3. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. // msg_text is a String producer. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.createProducer(myQueue).send(myQueue. stream message.createProducer(myTopic). map message. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.14 . The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.

println("Reading message: " + message.14 . A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. Before committing the transaction. } else { // Handle error } 14. the first argument means that the session is transacted.getText()). meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.out. After you create a Connection object. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.createSession(false. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. To create a transacted session.4.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). then delivers the messages. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. Sessions implement the Session interface.createSession(true.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. Here. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. If the user selects transaction support. and message consumers to receive messages. use the following code: Session session = connection. 190 . 0). you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. Session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System.

multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier.logging.no developer coding. component recovery scalability portability 191 . server which provides an execution environment for containers.0. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.consistent error handling framework .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans .0. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3.DB interaction transactions . On the other side. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . improved performance security .transaction management can be complex. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . Version 1. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . bundled into a single unit.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. the container lives (in general) in an application server. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. container which offers services to the component.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .15 .jar file into the application server. The component lives inside a container.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.object oriented representation of data in a DB. 15. message-driven beans The 2.

4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. which is an xml file. as follows: 1. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.xml 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. called ejb-jar. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the home interface of the bean 3. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. the remote interface of the bean 4. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException.15 .

15 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.javax. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. } 193 . While the Remote interface declares no methods.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface. RemoteException. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.ejb.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.RemoteException. String lastName.rmi. import. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. The developer does not implement this interface. import.javax. import java. import java.rmi. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.*.RemoteException. } 15.ejb. int custId) throws RemoteException.*.

} 194 . "localhost:1099"). Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. In the case of an web application. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.put(Context.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. prop. creating them for the client application. "org.jnp. we need to know: 1. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). this can be done (for example) through SSL. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. if the client executes outside the container.interfaces.PROVIDER_URL.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.put(Context. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). how to create or find the bean 2.15 . how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. prop. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.NamingContextFactory". Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).

PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. that is part of CORBA standards. do not have the concept of casting. Problem is. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space.rmi. MyBeanHome. Some languages. IIOP has not been designed for Java. but for generic languages. Why? For EJB. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). more specifically. 195 . do implements the java. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually.PortableRemoteObject class and.e. to the appropriate type. in fact. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.rmi. and this means that there are some limitations.15 .narrow(homeRef.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. in fact.Remote interface). The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i.lookup("MyBean"). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. • if the client executes outside the container. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. the client has a stub). this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces..lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").class). the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. This is done through the javax. using the narrow() method.rmi. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.

. int custId) { // method implementation . set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity)..ejb.processEntry("Dumitrascu".ccards.create().ejbeans. public class MyBean implements javax. 1102). as well). import javax. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.ejb. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .. String lastName.remove(). Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. call business methods on the bean myObject.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. 15. "Vasile".SessionContext..7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . remove the bean instance myObject.15 . we concentrate now on the bean class itself.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. the object is activated.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. that is. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. A stateless bean does not. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.15 . namely stateful and stateless beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. 15. 15. 15.

2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. Figure 15. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. For example. At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container activates the bean. The ejbCreate method.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. 198 . (Typically. and then moves it to the ready stage. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.15 . for example. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. is inside the bean class. 15. All other methods in Figure 15. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. or passivate.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the client invokes the remove method. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.

• • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. equals() 199 . maintaining a cache between transactions 4. This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans. stored in a Database). For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode().12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. support for concurrent access 3.

String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.lang. methods which have the same parameters.bank11. all throwing RemoteException. 15. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. These methods are mandatory for entity beans.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. CreateException. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.14. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. On the other side. 200 .ccards. an instance of that bean is created. as the parameters in the original create() method. state data is stored into data store (usually. in the same order. Read. Update and Delete. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. We can have more create() methods. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.

There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. it is empty. 15.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. but the developer returns null for CMP. not null.14. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. 201 . While in the pooled stage. After the EJB container creates the instance. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. it's business methods can be invoked. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the client invokes the create method.14. a client can invoke the remove method. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage.14. for BMPs. First. left empty most of the time in CMP. On the second path. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage.15 . All instances in the pool are identical.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. actual SQL update code. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. 15. Second. On the first path.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. the programmer will create actual SQL code. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. but in general.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. in BMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). After instantiation. for BMP.

Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. If the primary key is incorrect. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. another enterprise bean. it does not automatically set the primary key. 15. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. or a Web component . Therefore.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. the values of the instance variables are not needed. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . With bean-managed persistence.an application client.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.15 . In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. In the pooled state. 202 . the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context.getPrimaryKey(). the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.

the message will be redelivered. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. Unlike a session or entity bean. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. a message-driven bean has only a bean class.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.16. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. 203 .16. an open database connection. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported.16. message-driven bean can be used.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. For more information on this element see. a JMS API connection.15 . max-beans-infree-pool.for example. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. 15. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. Previously. but not asynchronously. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. To ensure concurrency. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. To avoid tying up server resources. If message processing is rolled back. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. In several respects. If this element is set to more than one. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. 15. When a message arrives. 15.

use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. 15. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. public void ejbRemove() {. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.. methods..Message. 3..jms. finalize{}. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification.Message MessageName) {.}.16. or create a new one. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists.ejb. Obtain a new bean instance. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.} // onMessage() is required. public void onMessage(javax.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.15 . If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15..16. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. As with other EJB types. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. 2.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. // An EJB constructor is required.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. and it must not // accept parameters. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. 15. Classes.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.16. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.. Note: These instances can be pooled. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.jms.

It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().16. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. For example. See javax.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. 15. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 .This is not a client context.15 . Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method.16. getRollbackOnly() .onMessage() for more information. However. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. getUserTransaction(). 15. 15. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. passing the full JMS message object as an argument. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. even in onMessage(). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). 15. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.16.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. If any method throws such an exception.jms.MessageListener.16.

both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. 15.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).0 specification. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16. as described in the EJB 2.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.0 specification. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. as required by the EJB 2. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. In either case.xml. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16.16. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.15 . but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.

subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable..message.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.. 15. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. as described in the EJB 2.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. 207 .xml deployment file. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. the weblogic-ejb-jar.15 .0 specification.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. For each instance..MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. </message-driven> .jms.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.ejb20. 2..xml elements.

This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. entity specific elements 10. a message-driven bean is never passivated. application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. EJB class name 5. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. attributes .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. 15. security 208 . session specific elements 9.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. bean home name . isolation level. At the end of the life cycle.15 . The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. the home interface name 7. access control entries .security issues. environment properties 6. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages. the remote interface name 8.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. control descriptors .4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. the container calls the ejbRemove method.like transaction.

bank11.ccards.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.15 .ejb.ccards.ccards.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ejb.bank11.ccards.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 . here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.ccards.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.lang.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.ccards.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.bank11.bank11.

</enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.15 ..lang.. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .15 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful