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1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.


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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.


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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.


1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.


7 business components Business code. enterprise edition Figure 1.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. are not considered web components. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. 5 . Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. and sends it back to the client program. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. processes it (if necessary). like the client tier. The web tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing.java platform. retail. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. processes it (if necessary).1 . 1. or finance. like HTML pages. Figure 1.2 Server communication 1. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.

9 java EE Containers Normally. enterprise bean. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.1 .8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. 1. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. resource pooling. Before a web. and other legacy information systems. and other complex low-level details.3 Web. For example. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. 6 . multithreading. enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform. 1. mainframe transaction processing. In addition. database systems. or application client component can be executed.9. Business and EIS Tiers 1.

Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. including services such as security. 1.4. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. 7 . The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. For example. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. After an enterprise bean is created. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.1 .java platform.9. and remote connectivity. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. data persistence. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. database connection resource pooling. transaction management.

4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server . program files. XML data. enterprise edition Figure 1. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design.java platform. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. text-based standard for representing data. Web container . or any kind of binary data such as audio. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Application clients and their container run on the client. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . develop. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. For example. test.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. maps.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. or for document-oriented web services. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. 1. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data.10. When XML data is exchanged between parties.manages the execution of applets. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. extensible. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists.manages the execution of application client components.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. you send documents containing the service data back and forth.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. 8 .1 . 1. Application client container . video. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. Applet container .

1 . The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. 1. enterprise edition 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. 9 . and ways to communicate with the service.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. 1. such as Universal Description. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services. the location of the service.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1.java platform.10.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services.10. The description includes the name of the service. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business.10. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.

2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.11. standard set of tags. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. WML. and XML) and JSP elements. In Java EE 5. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications.java platform. or if the server shuts down. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . 1. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. you employ a single. enterprise edition Figure 1.11. 1. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. Although servlets can respond to any type of request.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. Commonly. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.11. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. or enterprise bean. If the client terminates. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.1 . An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. the session bean and its data are gone.11. 1. When the client finishes executing.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to


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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the


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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.


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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates


No extra coding is needed. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . servlet. or a component. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean.1 .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. a module. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . or component accordingly. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. it is ready to be deployed.java platform. and JNDI 1. JSP page. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. module. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. better tools. At runtime. Once deployed on a local platform. JTA.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. such as better performance. or better customer support. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. the application is ready to run. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. 15 . and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS.ear extension. SAAJ. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP.

The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. JSP files. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Web modules. • • 16 . declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. For example. enterprise edition Figure 1.java platform. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. supporting class files. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. which contain servlet class files. such as caching directives. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a .jar extension. which contain all Java interfaces.1 .war (Web ARchive) extension. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. Resource adapter modules. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. GIF and HTML files. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. and a web application deployment descriptor. Together.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. and other documentation. A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. for example.jar extension. native libraries. classes. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . Application client modules.

The second (and last.HTTP 2 .. so far) version.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. As a site for understanding how HTTP works.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www. The server answers with a response message.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. RFC 2616 (06/99). It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee..HTTP 2. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. zero or more header lines 3. check the official HTTP site – www. These messages may have different contents. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. but they also have some common structural elements.org/Protocols .apps.w3. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . 2.com/easy/http..1.html). of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). an initial line 2. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. we recommend www. namely HTTP 1. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet. The client sends a request message to the server.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 .jmarshall. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). a blank line (CR/LF) 4. as follows: 1. POST.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. was the object of several RFCs.ietf. HEAD.org/rfc/rfc1945. . The first oficial version – HTTP 1..2 .

but lack of support makes them obsolete. as well. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. PUT 8. HTTP/1. DELETE 6. HEAD 3.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. mailing list. OPTIONS 7. CONNECT 5. 18 . POST 4. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one.2 . The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. GET /path/to/the/file/index.0).Annotation of existing resources. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . The only difference is that the response must not have a body.html HTTP/1. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.1. Here is their list: 1.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. in the HTTP 1. GET 2. . 2.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. newsgroup.1 specification. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. TRACE Three other commands are listed.Posting a message to a bulletin board.

In this case. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request.0 404 Not Found 2. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. 3. or a record is subordinate to a database. either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.Providing a block of data. or sending E-mail 2. after the “?” character.8 the status code A three-digit integer. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.6 differences between GET and POST 1.Extending a database through an append operation. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 .2 . or ordering a product. . The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. 2. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. or in the message body. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). 2.” On the other side. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. When used for form data submission. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body.HTTP or similar group of articles. while POST may involve anything. separated by the character “&” or “. like storing or updating data. (encoded as multipart/form-data). to a data-handling process. such as the result of submitting a form. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. .7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements.

such as text/html or image/jpg. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. fails.1 version specifies 46 of them. If an HTTP message includes a body. header name and header value. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. file or script output) is returned in the message body.the request succeeded.the requested resource doesn't exist. one (Host) is mandatory.2 . and section 10 for HTTP 1. Although the header names are not case sensitive. where the requested resource is returned to the client. or otherwise can't run correctly. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). and should be automatically retrieved by the client.1 only) . separated a semicolon. out of which. In particular.1). This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. none of them mandatory. The HTTP 1.g. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. that is. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. header values are.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.0 version specifies 16 headers. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. 2. In a request. and the resulting resource (e. 500 Server Error .an unexpected server error.0. The most common use of the message body is in a response.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 404 Not Found . 20 . The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. 2. while the HTTP 1.

uvt. 21 . alternative. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.0 From: someuser@yahoo. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. RFC 1521 (www. external-body 4.ietf. with subtypes octet-stream. . partial.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.apps. digest.html first open a socket to the host web. image. 1. text.0 200 OK Date: Fri.html HTTP/1. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. Here is the list of the seven types. multipart. application. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL).info. with subtype basic 7. audio.info. with subtypes jpeg. gif 6. with subtype plain 2.HTTP 2. video. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file.ro. postscript 5. message.2 . parallel 3.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtypes mixed.ro/path/file.uvt. Then. with subtypes rfc822.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. with subtype mpeg 2.org/rfc/rfc1521.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .

2 . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket. 22 .HTTP .

org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.org/Markup .html) and was widely supported.01) can be found at this address: http://www. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.www. check the official HTML site – www.com/tutors.2 (3.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997. A newer standard.com/easy/html . images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.3 .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. Version 4.0 draft was released in 01.w3c. Since it fits in a couple of pages. From 1999 on. The newest version of HTML is 4. The first version of HTML. The latest version (XHTML 2. 3. a working draft for the next major revision.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. Originally named Web Applications 1. Other helpful sites . namely HTML 1.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www.w3.0) dates from 08.99. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).org/rfc/rfc1866. As a practical reference site use – www. HTML describes how text.blooberry. The XHTML 1. The first official version – HTML 2.0 and was accepted in December 1997.htmlgoodies.0 .0. www.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.HTML 3 .01.html. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. However. It is a revision of 4. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.HTML 3. HTML 3.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. we can afford to have a look at this declaration.0.com/indexdot/html . using a variety of tags and their related attributes.jmarshall. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear.apps. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. Mosaic.ietf. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.

implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.3 .-_:" ".permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.

01 specification. three DTDs (HTML 4. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it.w3. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception. “&quot”. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. DYNSRC.0 contains an SGML declaration. Overall.0 Transitional DTD. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. "&#x6C34. 4.and end at the first occurrence of -->. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. You get the point. though. like ALIGN. the specification of HTML 4. 3.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references.0 Strict DTD. Document instances containing data (content) and markup.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements. look at these examples: “&lt”." (in hexadecimal) . There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. Check the address http://www. CONTROLS.3 .gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. BORDER. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD. <><> --> 25 . Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-.the chinese character for water. An example: <!-. If you wonder what a character reference is. …. HTML 4. 3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.acesta este un comentariu. VSAPCE are omitted.

specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3 . image. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. etc. NAME. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3.HTML 3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.uvt.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.info.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.3.3.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.5 tables 26 .ro/webmail/src/login.

Usually. <TH> and <TD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . its rows. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. Here is their description and attributes.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. <THEAD>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. headers and cells are <TABLE>.3 . columns. <TR>.

specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3.required. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . allowing user input and parameter submittal.7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .

"button". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. specifies how data will be sent to the server.8. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.sends the form values in a single transmission.required.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.required.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission. after a quotation mark .ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .required. "radio".3 .:. Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . "checkbox". Main attributes: • TYPE . Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . Main attributes: 29 . 3. "password". the browser appends the values to the URL.info.the default value.maximum number of options visible to the user. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character.& or (sometimes) by semicolon . "reset". "submit". "text/plain" • • 3. may have the values GET or POST. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'. allows multiple selections from the choice list. • 3. specifies the parameter name.uvt.2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. "hidden".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "image". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. "file". "GET" . Example: http://web. however.?. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".HTML • METHOD . SIZE .specifies the encoding type of the of the form content. NAME .8 form related elements 3.8.if specified.8. Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .

HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .3 .

JAVA PRIMER 4 .95.C:\TW\myPackages -g login..java One example of command line compilation: 4.class file.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. jit From source to execution.java. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.class file. -g : generate all debugging info.2 java the interpreter. The current version (as of 10. To overcome this significant shortage.4 . the compilation process occurs.JAVA PRIMER 4.4. The first time a class is loaded. javac -classpath . The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.0. Early versions of Java were released in 12.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The current version (as of 10.class. but next time execution is much faster.java 2. In terms of execution time. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . Inc.) in 08. which accounts for a pretty slow execution. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. 4.90. Java source – a file with extension .1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. a tool named Just In Time compiler. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. Java bytecode – a file with extension . following the 1.C:\TW\mySource.95. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.2 version.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. project started in 12.class 3. Example: Edit the file prog1.3 java applications 31 .

An example: 32 . as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.4 . or is derived from A. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. In general. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main(). each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . 4. Generally. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter). A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.jar file. or that it extends A).4 object oriented concepts 4. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag.4.java.4.

4. called Object. the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. Double.1 bit char . Therefore. Long.4 . this is called method overloading. Float. Character.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. 4. Short. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B.4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. a Java class can extend a single base class. Therefore. In fact. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. Boolean. a class can have more than one method with the same name. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes).Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. namely: Byte. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . 33 . Integer. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. with the root the class Object. 4.4. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. providing its own implementation. In OO jargon.

the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. • • • • no specifier . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.. anywhere abstract .http. inherited).all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. has the same value for all class instances.does not have any subclasses.one which is constant method .. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .4 .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class.servlet. no templates.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . A final: • • • variable .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .no access from outside the class itself protected . A final variable (method. which extends the class javax.the class is visible from any class. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance.http.servlet.one which is defined at class level. method . which is visible only to the classes in the same package. } declares an abstract class.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface. Except for the "package" concept.access from any class anywhere private . they have the same basic meaning as in C++. class . 4. 34 . rather than at class instance. automatic garbage collection.

Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. array index out of bounds. code or data errors .ThreadDeath. programmer defined exceptions 4. java errors . 4. not at execution time.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.7.7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. In Java.like invalid cast. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.JAVA PRIMER 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . division by 0. standard method exceptions 3.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. Exception categories: 1. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. as defined in the java.7. 2.7. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). namely class Error and the class Exception. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .4 . 4.3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 4.

bank11.nio java.support for user interface java. date and time info java.support for data collections. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.sql.ccards.awt . which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.support for event handling java.8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.util .support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.support for java archives creation java.geom .util. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). string analyzers. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. In the example above. import.this can be done by providing a try. followed by the import statements..util.1 Package names The default package has no name. finally construct. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. the default package is used).net java. .servlets.Properties.awt.sql java.4 .default.awt.java.lang .zip .8.security 36 . don't have to import java.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.. 4. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) .*.by adding the key word throws. the package statement is the first one in a java source file. 4. An example: package com.lang (automatically available). 4. therefore. the class (the .rmi java.class file.event . they have to be unique inside a package. import javax. All other packages must be explicitly imported. catch. As a general rule. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored. The package containing the standard classes is java.io java.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .

If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.support for event handling 4. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.4 .swing .swing. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract.JAVA PRIMER • • • • java. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. static and final. All variables (actually.event . constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public.text javax.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.accessibility javax. it must be declared as abstract. 37 .10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.

and . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .5 . This is not always what we want.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. other 38 .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.depending on the browser . as JavaScript.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. The origins of this language date back to 1995.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. 5.javaScript 5 . JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. then LiveScript and finally. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .HTML authors are normally not programmers.2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.A JavaScript statement like this: document. Subsequently.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . like QtScript or ActionScript. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names.JAVASCRIPT 5. However.

5 .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. To simplify this. go in the head section. point to the .js file extension.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5.. </script> </head> 5. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script.3. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. </script> </body> 5. without having to write the same script on every page. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .javaScript times when a user triggers an event..3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.. or when an event is triggered.. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.. 39 . Save the external JavaScript file with a . When you place a script in the head section.3.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. 5.

while().5 .In statement The for. 5..5..4.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 .3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5..4..javaScript 5..4. 5.5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs. 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. while() it is worth mentioning the for .1 JavaScript for..1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. catch constructs.. in loop is executed once for each element/property. The code in the body of the for .. break.4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4. continue. namely – if . for(). This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script.. else. switch(). in and the try ...

they often leave the Web page.5.5. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. or a property of an object. The try block contains the code to be run. Example Using for. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. for (x in mycars) { document. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.. so you don't lose your audience. When users see errors.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x. mycars[2] = "BMW".0. an array element... mycars[0] = "Saab"..javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable.catch statement (available in IE5+. Mozilla 1.3 try.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. mycars[1] = "Volvo".. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. } </script> </body> </html> 5.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.. var mycars = new Array().catch statement The try.5 ..write(mycars[x] + "<br />").

When an alert box pops up.5 . Also. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.description + "\n\n". txt+="Click OK to continue. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. Syntax: 42 . strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.\n\n". the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.7.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). alert(txt).javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").\n\n". 5. txt+="Error description: " + err.7 popup boxes 5.

7."defaultvalue") 5. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.5 . in the example above had not been written within a function. the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel". Syntax: prompt("sometext".js file). in the <head> section. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. the box returns false.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. Now. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.7. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. the box returns null.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . When a prompt box pops up. When a confirm box pops up.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . If the user clicks "OK".8 functions 5.. If the user clicks "Cancel".8. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.

An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. and how they are used.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.length). An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".8..5 .write(txt. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. document. 5. etc are variables or values passed into the function. var2. 5. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .javaScript function functionname(var1.9.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. So.9 javaScript objects 5.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.var2.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.9.varX) { some code } var1. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. 5.. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. and will be stored in the variable called product.

The other class are the language specific objects.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. which will be specified in the next section.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". 45 . </script> 5.9.5 .write(str.javaScript 5.toUpperCase()).

javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. which are called Objects.w3schools. every Image on the page is an Object. At its most basic level.11. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. every Link on the page is an Object. Properties FF: Firefox. or when the user interacts with a Web page.asp 5. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. Even this Document itself is an Object. N: Netscape. For example. as well).5 . JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. check the site http://www.com/jsref/default.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. When an event message has been triggered. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.

N: Netscape. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value.11. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . Properties FF: Firefox.2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times.

1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.5 . as a four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1.

according to local time.5 .3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to Greenwich time. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to local time. Properties FF: Firefox. according to universal time.11. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. N: Netscape.javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). to a string. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.

11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 .5 3 4 .5 4 3 4 . Syntax for creating a new Number object. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. var myNum=new Number(number).

5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . N: Netscape.11. Properties FF: Firefox.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 .

1.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.y) min(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.11.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0.javaScript 5.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 1. N: Netscape. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. 2.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 2.y) pow(x. 3.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.434) Returns PI (approx.5 .414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 . 0. 0. Properties FF: Firefox.

etc.12.age=30. personObj. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.eyecolor="blue".firstname). personObj.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName.write(personObj.age=50.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). personObj. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. age. All persons have these properties.lastname="Doe".propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. etc. eye color.5 .methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. personObj.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. 53 . but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.firstname="John". play().12.lastname="Doe". The persons' properties include name. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. weight. sleep(). height.you can give it properties named firstname. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. Objects also have methods. lastname. skin tone. personObj. The code above will generate the following output: John 5.eyecolor="blue". Assume that the personObj already exists . personObj. work().firstname="John". with a collection of properties and methods.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. age.12. The persons' methods could be eat(). document. personObj. 5.

this."Doe".lastname=lastname.lastname. this."blue").age=age. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.age=age. this. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. myMother=new person("Sally". The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj. You can also add some methods to the person object. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear)."green").lastname=new_lastname.firstname=firstname. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. Once you have the template. 5."Rally".50.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this.lastname=lastname.age. like this: myFather=new person("John".lastname. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. this.eyecolor=eyecolor. } Notice that the template is just a function. this.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.12.48.eyecolor) { this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.newlastname=newlastname.5 . 54 .age. you can create new instances of the object.eat=eat.eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor. this.propertyName.

We define the events in the HTML tags. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.newlastname("Doe"). like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. now you can write: myMother.. For example.5 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. So. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.".. 5.

4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.5 . Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.2 onFocus.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. The name is then stored in a cookie.w3schools. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. For example. 5. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.13.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. 5.13.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . Next time the visitor arrives at your page. If the field values are not accepted. the submit should be cancelled. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.13. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.13. If it returns true the form will be submitted. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5.

gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .5 .return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').

or WebAPI being among them. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). However.. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . CSS. HTML. In other words. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG.g.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM .1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then.Html DOM 6 . As of January 2008. 2010). and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. By October 1998. Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.6 . particularly those used in Web browsers. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. and style of a document.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. SVG. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML.HTML DOM 6. The W3C 58 . the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. the Document Object Model activity is closed. Right now (oct.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. structure. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. XML. 6.

which further enhances the DOM 6. 2.6 . Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. Level 2 XML namespace support. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. a new DOM Core specification. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. filtered views and events. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. To claim to support a level.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Validation. 3. Level 1. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). As of 2005. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 4. Level 2. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. and 6. 6. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 XPath. each of which contains required and optional modules. HTML-specific elements are included as well. DOM Level 3 Core. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. 5.

7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. The Window object represents a browser window. Opera.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. support multiple browsers. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.x and Netscape 4. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. Konqueror. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. that is. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. By 2005. along with their containing text and attributes.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. interoperability problems were numerous. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. can be accessed through the 60 . 6. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. In order to be cross-browser compatible. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.x were still widely used in 2000. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. All HTML elements. and Safari. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).6 . The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998.

JavaScript.Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted.6 . It can be used by any programming language like Java. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .

8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. the element node <title>.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. everything in an HTML document is a node. 62 . the text of an element node is stored in a text node. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".9. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.6 . However. <head> and <body>. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>. 6. The tree structure is called a node-tree.8. 6.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. The <html> node has two child nodes.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.8.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure.Html DOM 6. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. The <head> node holds a <title> node.

has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. the top node is called the root Every node.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. children.9. 63 . Their contents can be modified or deleted.getElementsByTagName("p"). You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The terms parent. By navigating the node tree. using the node relationships. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).getElementById('main'). and the connections between them. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6. child. By using the getElementById() method 2.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1.6 .2 node parents. and new elements can be created. • • • • • In a node tree. except the root.getElementsByTagName("p"). The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The node tree below shows the set of nodes. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. Parent nodes have children. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document.9. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.

• • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.length.i++) { document.9. document. each node is an object.innerHTML).write("<br />").4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).i<x. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. } 6. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.write(x[i].6 . that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.Html DOM for (i=0. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).

Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.9.getElementById("intro").firstChild.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.5 example . txt=x.nodeValue.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.Html DOM 6. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location. 6.6 . The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .

but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . frames. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. For elements. including window. For elements. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. objects and images.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.6 .

Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Also. DOMNodeInserted. 6. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. say "click". also supports these methods. During the event flow. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. When the user clicks on the inner element. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. for instance.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. Safari. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. 67 . Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0).3. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Fires when an element is activated. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Mozilla.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. as of version 1. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. and then bubbled up.6 . through a mouse click or a keypress.

DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. including information about target element. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. key pressed.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. preventDefault 68 . meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.Html DOM 6. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here.6 . Unfortunately. mouse position. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. etc. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. mouse button pressed. To cancel the event if it is cancelable.

using web services or Php scripts. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.AJAX 7. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images.AJAX 7 . crunching numbers. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. 7. etc. 69 . SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. For example. For improving sharing of resources. 7. dynamic website. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. It is not a technology in itself. The server does some processing — retrieving data. menus. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. before the whole page was sent within the network. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. choices of user. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. fields of forms. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form.7 . JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. but also to save resources. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side.

the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Instead of loading a web page. 70 . but the opposite is true. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. Obviously. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. waiting around for the server to do something.7 .AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. at the start of the session. waiting. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. Once an interface is loaded. the user waits some more. While the server is doing its thing. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. what’s the user doing? That’s right. And at every step in a task. we wouldn’t make users wait around.

AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. loading additional interface code. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. 71 . usually using XML. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously.7 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. editing data in memory.

holds loaded data as a string of characters. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. To get data on the server. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.holds a Xml loaded file. 1: connection established. DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. and in this purpose. DOM's method allows to extract data.for a Xml file or . This object provides two methods: .the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons.responseText .7 . . .200 is ok. boolean) .AJAX 7.mode: type of request. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . These events are user actions. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .returned by the server . 7. url. .send: send a request to the server.for a simple text. Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. 2: request received.responseXml . onreadystatechange .open: create a connection. 4: finished. GET or POST . thanks to its methods and attributes.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. 404 if the page is not found . It allows the interaction with the servers.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. 3: answer in process.url: the location of the file 72 .

fr/somefile.. http_request.XMLHTTP"). // Firefox. true for asynchronous. Safari.xul.onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.open: command GET or POST. 73 .send: with POST only.open('GET'. } else if (window..xml'. for browser compatibility.boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.readyState == 4) { // received.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest(). if (request.send(null). URL of the document. . step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. OK } else { // wait. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .7 .null for a GET command 7. http_request. true).. 'http://www. The request below reads a document on the server.. the data to send to the server.ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft. but two options must be tried.6 building a request. . if (window.AJAX . request.

onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. req.ajax.XMLHTTP).7.dyn=""Received:" + req.xml". by this code: var doc = req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.7.status.responseText. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.item(0). }.send(null).AJAX 7.ajax.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". req.dyn="Error code " + req.dyn="Received:" + req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .open("GET". req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.7 .responseXML. req. "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").7 examples 7. else if (window. else document.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().ajax.getElementsByTagName('root'). if(window. true).readyState == 4) if(req.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft. "data.status == 200) document.responseText.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).


7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.



8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •


with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.


classes.servlets.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes..xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Servlet. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. 6. like what pages are error. welcome pages. 2. Others. 8.8 . like: 1. JSPs and Java Server Faces. 4. For example. Initialization of parameters for servlets.class>com. Here is a small. Servlet. servlet classes.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . descriptions). Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. entries related to session configuration.)> <web-app> <!-. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings. database connection resource pooling.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. After an enterprise bean is created.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. 5.xml file: <?xml version="1. data persistence.. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.ccards.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services. MIME types used by the web application. but typical web.bank11. 3. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. web.

for flexibility. 1. The "/ccards" part of the URL is.bank11.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3.class" and that it is part of the package "com.xml file of the web application. In general. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.ccards. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly. Behind a very benign URL. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. Basicly. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat". However.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.servlets". basicly.ccards. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.bank11. whose name is rather long. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.xml" 2.8 .5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment.bank11. Unfortunately. For example.ccards. it is the alias of the real servlet class.servlets". the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").xml" file.xml".servlets. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. Then the "EnrollServlet.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . the name of the web application. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc".

1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. Technically speaking. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .5 and is in final state. modular design 9.0 specification is available for public review.2.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. but through a web container. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. 9. small footprint. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.4.9 . now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). in most cases as part of an application server. tjws spec 2. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. this is just a work in progress. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. 2010. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. which extend the functionality of the web server.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. platform independent programs.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. the HttpServlet) class.0 specification. 9.4. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. more often. the Java Servlet 3. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . As of oct. but at this point.SERVLETS 9. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. from BEA Systems.2.SERVLETS 9 .

public void destroy() throws ServletException. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. public void service(ServletRequest req.9 . Enterprise Edition.servlet javax.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. from Apple Inc. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. while the second one.servlet package.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. the javax. WebSphere.servlet. IOException. from IBM 9. which are part of the Java Platform SDK. These packages are: • • javax. 82 . public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet package are protocol independent.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages.

without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. More on the servlet life cycle. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. ServletConfig. in a different section. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. namely the HttpServlet class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. 83 .6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. The servlet API provides such a specific class. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request. respectively. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req.9 . The method performs all initialization required. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. After instantiating the servlet. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. as well. Throwable t) 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. 9. the web container calls its init() method.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo().

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req.lang.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.servlet. It also extends the java. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .lang. 9. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. service(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.9 .servlet.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.Exception and can be thrown by the init().SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.ServletException javax.Exception class. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.

There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. After instantiation. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. 9. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. Typically. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. etc.9 . DB connection opening. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. JSP or JSF. 85 . the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. this method contains JDBC driver loading. respectively. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.servlet. which will service all incoming requests. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax.SingleThreadModel. Also. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. Typically.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.

12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9.SERVLETS 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: 86 . Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests.9 .

A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server.9 .servlets.*.xml file. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. 87 .java" file: package com. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.ccards.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. This is done in server's (container's) server.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.bank11. import java.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet.io. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.

println("<head>"). out.setContentType(“text/html”).servlet. out. out.println("</html>"). IOException { resp.http. out.println("<html>").println("merge"). PrintWriter out = resp. out. // output your page here out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.*.init(config). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.println("</body>").SERVLETS import javax.getWriter().println("<br>"). public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super. } } 88 . out.9 .close().servlet. out. out.println("</head>"). import javax.*. out.println("<body>").

as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.sun. 1997. Starting with version 3.JDBC 10. These drivers fall into four standard categories.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb.JDBC 10 . JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. The JDBC 4.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity). JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). the javax. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems. After that. This solution is inefficient. 89 . A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. 10. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame.0.0 while the current (4.10 . Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application. as recognized by the DB industry.sql package 2. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. the java.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.jdbc. Type 1.sql package.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver .1. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.

Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The DB returns the result of the call to the API. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols.10 .JDBC Type 2. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. Part Java. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Type 4. 90 . like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). which in turn. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Type 3. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. because it eliminates one level of indirection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers.

sql.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.0).sql.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.Array java.sql.Blob java.sql.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.SQLException java.Timestamp java.Statement java.ResultSet java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.Driver java.SQLOutput java.sql.Struct java.sql.sql.SQLPermission java. java.sql.sql.sql.Clob java.sql.Date java.PreparedStatement java.SQLDataException java.CallableStatement java.sql.sql.Types java. let's remind some of the most important ones.JDBC 10.sql.DriverManager java.SQLWarning java.ResultSetMetaData java.0 API.sql.SQLData java.sql.Wrapper 91 .sql.10 .SQLInput java.sql.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.3 the java.Connection java.Time java.

sql. querying the database 4.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql. loading a database driver 2.sql.SQLOutput java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.sql.Connection java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLTransientException java.PreparedStatement java.Clob java.sql.Blob java.Types java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.NClob java.sql.CallableStatement java.CommonDataSource javax.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.sql.RowId java.DatabaseMetaData java.sql.sql.SQLXML java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLDataException java.sql.sql package.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.Wrapper javax.sql.10 .sql.sql.RowIdLifeTime java. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1. processing the result set 92 .SQLWarning java.SQLInput java.sql.Statement java.sql.SQLException java. java.StatementEventListener 10.sql.sql.sql.StatementEvent javax.0.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.ResultSet java.sql.

ibm.net. A database driver is specified by the driver name.jdbc.10 .JDBC 10.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.jdbc.db2.jdbc.OracleDriver sun.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 . The first one is loading a database driver.borland.odbc.SybDriver com.DB2Driver oracle.driver.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.datastore.sybase.

as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.printStackTrace().sql. String user = "root".bank11. by using the connection URL.forName("org. passwd).util. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.10 .mm. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". import java. 94 . The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.*. user. try { Class.gjt.*.Driver"). Since we just used it.getConnection(connURL. as specified by the driver vendor. the only protocol allowed in JDBC). } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). but let's take it for granted: import java.mysql. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.newInstance(). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.

10 . String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. java. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. "true").Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. we can use it for various purposes.put("autocommit". String user. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.put("create". prp. Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. "true").getConnection(connURL. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. prp.sql package.JDBC 10. Connection conn = DriverManager. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. prp). int resultSetConcurrency. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. Properties prp = new Properties().util. 10.

other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .JDBC 10.10 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. prepared statements and stored procedures. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. respectively. namely. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. Statement. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4.

". stmt.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.sql. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors.executeUpdate(sqlString). 10. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .createStatement().10 .ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution..JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.

all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. as the argument. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. 98 . a concurrency of read only. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.10 . PreparedStatement.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. and CallableStatement objects.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several


10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.


10 - JDBC
public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {


10 - JDBC
processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date


the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.sql.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql.math.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.produces a Connection object that will 103 . It is part of the javax. mins.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. There are three types of implementations: 1.sql package.Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.10 . basicly.sql. This interface is. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. time.DataSource object. Basic implementation -. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.Time java.math. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. Connection pooling implementation -. a factory for creating DB connections.produces a standard Connection object 2.0 optional package. secs date. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.

java. import import import import import import java. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.sql.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).getLogger(TestDataSource. 104 . private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards". 3.naming.ccards. This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax.*.*. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.bank11. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com. javax.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.class.getName()). theDataSource = (DataSource) env. } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.*. private DataSource theDataSource.servlet. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().io.10 .*.*.servlet.servlets. public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource.http. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger.lookup("java:comp/env"). javax. Distributed transaction implementation -. javax.sql.*.

10 . ServletException { . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. } } 105 . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e)...

11. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy. If the JSP is modified.tagext. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.jsp.1 and is related to the 2.servlet. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.servlet.JSP 11 .servlet. The JSP specific interfaces. The javax.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.jsp and javax. The package javax. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).servlet.jsp. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.5 Java Servlet specification.jsp. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. namely javax.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated.JSP 11.2 the java. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. The package javax. 11.servlet.11 .3 the generated servlet – an example 106 .JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {


11 - JSP
return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");


11 - JSP
} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {


11 - JSP
public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions


the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false"..6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" . 111 . The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" .. include and taglib..11 .JSP • if the URL does not start with / .. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true". It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.

7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 . The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page.11 . 11.JSP 11. Assigns it to available name or id.7 scripting elements 11. In Tomcat. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet. 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. this code goes to inside the service() method.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed.7.7.7.

already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties.Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.the name of a bean instance.11 . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. and if so.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. you must specify param. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter. Attributes description: • • • name .

converts them to string and displays the output to the client.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.only the "true" value is supported. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content. same format as the <%@include> directive. flush . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11.11 . <jsp:forward>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . 11. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.13 the forward standard action 114 .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property .the URL of the page.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:plugin> actions. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.name of the property to be retrieved 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .

a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . archive="URIToArchive. . It is used mainly.the type of object the plugin will execute... already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" .the name of a bean instance. 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags. You must include the . You must specify either bean or applet.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. name . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .class extension in the name following code. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name="instanceName" .the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. when we want to separate the application into different views.11 ..a name for the Bean or applet instance. as this attribute has no default value.. If you do not supply a value. depending on request. as well.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. code="classFileName" ." . servlet or to a static resource. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute..14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.

optional port number. The default value is 1. request . session .16 scopes 1. out .Object type and scope page 11.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. of the image the applet or Bean displays.the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . in pixels. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the amount of space. 1. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .1.lang.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. Must be a small nonzero number.it represents the buffered version of java.io.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.1" . with a protocol name. The value is a full URL.jsp. it has type PageContext with scope page 4.JspWriter type and scope page 7. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . config . hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .servlet. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. writes to the output stream to the client. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. application . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up. and domain name. response .an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object.the initial height and width. it has java. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. based on the servlet API.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.represents server's response to the request.11 . pageContext . page . request .PrintWriter. objects which are automaticly available. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. in pixels.represents the servlet context.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. it has javax. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6.

jsp file.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.JSP request object. Object value) method 11. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.11 .17 a short example The following is the Enroll. page .ccards.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.bank11.beans. Object value) method 4.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. Object value) method 2.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. application . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. session . Object value) method 3.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response. if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.init(). the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.

11. private String colors[].io.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. private String optional.simple.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.register(). // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.devsphere. a software development and consulting company. SimpleBean. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties. The SimpleBean class is declared public. a boolean and another String).11 . %> <jsp:forward page="response. private int list[]. since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private float number. private boolean flag. private int integer.18. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). an int.Serializable { private String string. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java.examples. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .JSP <% } else { enrollBean.java: package com.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String. private SimpleSubBean subBean.string. The public constructor could have been omitted. a float.mapping.

number = value.string = value.JSP this. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.colors[index]. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.colors = values. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.number.colors.integer = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.integer. } 119 .flag = value.flag.11 . } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.

} // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.optional = value. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index].list = values.subBean. } } 120 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. int value) { this.list.list[index] = value. String value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this.colors[index] = value.subBean = value.11 . } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.optional. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.

html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .string = value. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this.java: package com.11 .simple.Serializable { private String string. SimpleSubBean. } } 11.18.io. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. private float number.string. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).number = value.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.examples.mapping.devsphere.number. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.

11 .number SimpleForm.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.string subBean.

No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.number]".string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. the form's name and the processor's name. the processing order. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. a boolean and an int[].number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.examples.list]".colors]". "An option must be selected" }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]".util.11 .devsphere. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.list]". The default values are defined for a String. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section.simple. new int[] { 2.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. "One or more colors must be selected" }.mapping. new String[] { 123 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.integer]". public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. a float. "abc" }.18. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "One or more items must be selected" }.string]". new Float(0. SimpleBeanResources. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.java: package com. new Boolean(true) }. The list of optional properties has a single element. 3 } }.flag]". The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. the list of optional properties. There are three error messages.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. error messages.123) }.

The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "optional".devsphere.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false").jsp" } }. "flag".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.logging. new String[] { "string".util. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".simple. "SimpleProc.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl.18.devsphere.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.mapping. "list".JSP "optional" } }. SimpleHndl. "integer".*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.html" }.mapping.*. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements. "SimpleForm. "colors".11 . { "[PROC_NAME]". The formToBean() method of com. If necessary. { "[FORM_NAME]".devsphere.mapping.devsphere. "number".examples. The beanToForm() method of com.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data). a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. "subBean" } }. For a better understanding of this example. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.devsphere. string values are converted to numbers. com. } } 11.

// Construct the base path String basePath = request.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.util. formPath = application. // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application).getClass()). 125 . // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.removeUserErrors(errorTable).getTemplate(new java. simpleBean.getRealPath(formPath). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. errorTable = HandlerUtils.JSP = HandlerUtils.io.lastIndexOf('/').substring(0.getDocument(). int slashIndex = basePath.getString("[PROC_NAME]").formToBean(formData.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request). // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.equals("POST"). response).getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getMethod(). // Process the valid data bean instance application.trim().trim().forward(request.getServletPath(). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getBeanResources(simpleBean.File(formPath)). slashIndex+1) : "". if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.11 . // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java. basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath. logger).

length. } %> 11.11 .getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.getSubBean(). SimpleProc.devsphere.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.send(out).SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().simple.append("{ ").string = <%= simpleBean. document. for (int i = 0.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0]. i < list.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. i++) 126 .number = <%= simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.length == 0) return "". strbuf. if (list.getString() %> <P> subBean.examples.JSP elements logger).mapping.18.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. // Send the form document document.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc.getSubBean().getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.beanToForm(simpleBean. errorTable.

length == 0) return "".append(" ").jsp files.append(" ").append("}"). The localization of the Complex*.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. making the testing and the debugging easier. if (list. i++) { strbuf.util. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. } strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. strbuf.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java. In addition. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. ComplexHndl. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.append("{ "). strbuf. return strbuf. i < list.toString(list[0]).append(list[i]).toString(). } strbuf. strbuf. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().devsphere. ComplexForm. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.formToBean() call.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . In addition. } %> 11.append("}"). Using the framework.toString(). return strbuf.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. for (int i = 0.simple. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils. A single call to FormUtils.18.length.11 . default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.length == 1) return Integer.append(list[i]).examples.

"Option 3" }. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1. i++) { boolean checked = false. "blue" }. "green".length. i < colorValues. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". boolean checked = simpleBean.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getInteger() == value.getColors(). for (int i = 0. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1". "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean.length. for (int i = 0.11 . j++) if (colors[j]. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. 128 . i < integerLabels. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < colors.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0].length. "Blue" }. String colorValues[] = { "red". "Green".

devsphere.getList().simple. "subBean.JSP break.setSubBean( new com.length. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. break. "Item 2".SimpleSubBean()). boolean selected = false.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 .string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. if (list == null) list = new int[0]. j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. i < listItems. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i++) { int value = i+1.length. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. String listItems[] = { "Item 1".getSubBean().mapping.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. "Item 3" }. for (int i = 0. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.11 .examples.

getString(). "subBean.getSubBean().examples.equals("POST").simple.length() == 0) { simpleBean.mapping. 130 .Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.Hashtable errorTable. } %> ComplexHndl.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.devsphere.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.util.devsphere.mapping.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.util.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).getMethod().simple.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. boolean isPostMethod = request. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. return message.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.11 .getString() == null || simpleBean.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.setString("abc"). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.get(property). if (message == null) message = "".examples.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.

getParameter("flag"). "integer". } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. "number". else { simpleBean. } simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(0.123f).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. "number". "string".length() == 0 || flagValue.setNumber(0.getColors() == null || simpleBean. "Must be a number"). setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 .getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.length() != 0) simpleBean. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. "Must be filled").11 . if (flagValue.equals("false")) flagValue = null. setErrorMessage(errorTable.getParameter("number").getColors().floatValue()). } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.trim().setNumber(new Float(numberValue). if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "An option must be selected").123f). "Must be filled").setFlag(flagValue != null). } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.

string". } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.number : text try { String numberValue = request.number".getList() == null || simpleBean. "subBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled").getList().string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue. "One or more items must be selected").floatValue()).getString(). 3 }). "One or more colors must be selected").11 .setString("").setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable.setOptional("").setList(new int[] { 2. "subBean. "Must be } //* subBean.number").getParameter("subBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. //* subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. "colors". "list".

The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.11 . That was a simple and compact way to present a handler.setFlag(true). message). simpleBean. String property. 3 }). This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.setList(new int[] { 2.simple.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>". which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl. errorTable.code=com. "Must be a number").devsphere.setOptional(""). simpleSubBean. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. } %> 11.properties or web.helpers.setString("").helpers.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.Hashtable errorTable.SimpleBean.18.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. } } else { simpleBean. simpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.\ 133 . The com. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.util.setNumber(0.mapping.devsphere.number".put(property.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler. simpleBean.123f).isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.examples.setString("abc"). "subBean.JSP filled").xml: SimpleHndl.jsp.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.mapping. simpleBean.devsphere.

initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.properties: AnotherHndl.company.helpers.helpers.xml) file: ServletName.host.properties (or web.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com. a servlet is identified with its class.host. 11. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. In many cases.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet.devsphere. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.examples.AnotherBean.mapping.code=com. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.18.simple.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean.11 .mapping. A servlet can be made bean-independent. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.code=com. If you have another bean-form pair.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.another.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.mapping.host.devsphere.mapping.devsphere. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.examples.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl. you could add a few other lines to servlets.devsphere.

JSP 135 .11 .

using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification.JAVASERVER FACES 12. processes events.0 supersedes version 1. This technology includes: 1. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. buttons. 12. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. Version 2.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.javaserver faces 12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .12 . like input fields. Version 2.0. which loads the appropriate view template. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. 2. builds a component tree. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions.

here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .2 of the JFS specification.12 .javaserver faces 12.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12. 12.4.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.

such as alternating row colors. For more information about columns. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.12 . see the column tag documentation. columns and rows. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. Common formatting techniques.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. footers.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4.4. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. 12. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. respectively.

javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.checkout}" /> 139 . your options include using plain HTML forms.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.4.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.12 . Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12.4.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.

5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().user.5. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean." /> 12.4.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. red for error. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.4.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.</span> 12.12 . You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required.1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 . 12.5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.user. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 .12 . 12. For example. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.

The body content of this tag must be empty. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events.5. validateLength. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself. 12. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5.12 . You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.mycompany. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. can publish value change events.customer.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . Any component that receives user input.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Without this JavaScript event. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. but only if the new input is validated successfully.javaserver faces 12.

5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes. If you have not specified a default locale. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. including images and styles. for each locale you wish to support. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.mycompany.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. myJSFapp 143 .jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.12 . JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. Example: welcome_en.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.javaserver faces 12. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.5.mycompany.

xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. custom tag libraries. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. like third party jar files jsf-impl. static resources. included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.jar.contains libraries required by the application.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.xml – the JSF configuration file. Create managed beans 4. It has a deployment descriptor.jar jsf-api. jsf-api.xml web. and so on.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.jar – files included in the /lib directory.exadel.12 .jar faces-config.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. JSP pages.html.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. mandatory for any JSF application web. Create properties files 144 .xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . Create JSP pages 2. Define navigation rules 3.javaserver faces /ant build.

jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. Edit JSP pages 6.jsp file 7. The directory structure already exists. As a diagram.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. we just want to go from inputname. we can create a navigation rule. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. You only need to create the JSP files.7. Create an index.jsp to greeting. In our application.12 . And that's all there is to this. You just need to create its contents.jsp.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp and greeting.7. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. Compile the application 8. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. Now that we have the two JSP pages.jsp.jsp is greeting.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . if the "outcome" of executing inputname. 12. These files will act as place holders for now.xml file. Deploy and run the application 12.javaserver faces 5.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.

3 faces-config. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.xml Now. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.xml file should look like this: 146 . a very simple navigation rule. of course. To read more about navigation rules.javaserver faces This is. 12. the second part of faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. request sets the bean scope in the application.1 PersonBean. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.java file. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.7.3.7.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.3.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml Your final faces-config.PersonBean.3. myJFSapp. The next line is the full class name.) 12. 12. we will create a PersonBean.7. You can easily create more complex ones.7.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item. This class is straight-forward. Inside this myJFSapp folder.12 . public class PersonBean { String personName.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.

Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page.sun.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12. 12. 12.4. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.1 messages.1//EN" "http://java. Inc.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.properties file in the bundle folder.sun.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.12 .com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.7. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.7.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.5.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.1 inputname.7.

bundle. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp. <h:inputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 .prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.bundle.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.sun. Then.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.12 .inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.sun. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

<h:outputText value="#{personBean. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg.bundle. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. Line 6.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.jsp page. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.xml file. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. That's how JSF knows where to go next. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname.javaserver faces Line 1.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .sun. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Creates an HTML input text box.sun. The first three lines are identical to our first page.</h3> tags.5. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.6 creating the index. Lines 3-5. and also print its contents on the page.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.2 greeting. Create the index. name! 12.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The second line will access a Java bean.7. specifically the bean attribute personName.greeting_text}" />.12 . Having an index.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page.. Line 2. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.

7.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag. When Tomcat is done loading.html . 150 . might possibly be different). Of course. This is a "login" application.8. To build the application run the build. because in the web. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example.javaserver faces Now.jsp. we need to deploy it. verifies the information.sourceforge. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. This is used here.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. 12.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. 12.jsf and not .8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). and forwards the user to a success or error page. though.xml file for the application *.12 . 12. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.xml file. To do this.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat. 12.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. Your setup.7. We are almost done with this example.7. which asks an user for an ID and password. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. you'll notice the file suffix is . insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server.

Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. see Installing & Uninstalling. and set up folders for a web application. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. select the Source tab. 9.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b.8. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. 1.WEB-INF 151 . 7. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.. click Next d. from the menubar select File/New/Other. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 6. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. The New Project wizard appears. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. 3. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. click Yes through messages that appear. and to add JSF libraries to the project. in the wizard that appears. name the folder webroot 5. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. Enter project name. 2. Select the Amateras node.12 . click Next.. click Finish 4. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.. your mileage may vary.. a.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. c. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).. click Add Folder. click Next.. in the Add JSF Support page. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. This folder will contain all "functional" pages. jsf-login. make sure all checkboxes are checked.src | +-. 10.xml Editor (see faces-config..2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Select Java Project. 12. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.webroot | +-. say.. name the folder pages.

12 . in the Name field enter LoginManager.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. In Package Explorer select the src folder. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. input widgets appear d.lib | +-. for name enter mgr. 2. b. 1. for class enter login.LoginManager.java package login. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass". from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. 3. from its context menu select New/Class. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. else action = "loginFail". in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. private String _pwd = "".javaserver faces | | | +-. for scope select 152 .8.xml editor opens.pages 12. } return action. Click Finish. c.xml. a. enter login. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. } 4.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. click Managed Bean. The New Java Class wizard appears. In the Package field. We then configure it to be a managed bean. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". click Add. The Java code editor opens. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.xml Editor.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. if ( _uid. The faces-config. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.

jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. from its context menu select New/File.12 .8. c. again. <!-.jsp). the New File wizard appears. in Package Explorer select webroot. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. success. but in webroot/pages. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.webroot/pages/success.jsp.jsp and error.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid. 1.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp: a.jsp. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.jsp are simple pages with static content. Create success. </body> Please try 153 .jsp).jsp. enter the following code. Enter the following code: <!-. but in webroot/pages. click Finish.webroot/pages/error. Create index. Create error. All pages except login. index.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index.jsp: create this file similarly to index. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp: create this file similarly to index. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. Then we create login. so we create them first. and 3 content pages (login. then close the editor 12. the JSP Editor opens.webroot/index. for File name enter index. b.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. e. save the file and close the editor.javaserver faces session.

jsp: a. place your cursor in one of these lines.sun. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. now we want to add attributes to this element.. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. and uses them for code completion as well. the New wizard appears. etc. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.completion.javaserver faces </html> 4. click Next c.. as shown below. enter jsf-login e. click Finish. g. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. To see this in action. Create login.12 .jsp. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. d. b.. 154 . charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. <%@ page contentType="text/html.sun. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. for File name enter login. and the JSP Editor can help with code. (See Show View Dialog) f. and choose default for Template. Open the JSF palette. and dock it along the right. from its context menu select New/Other. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. a code-completion window pops up. with the following template code.

i. insert a <h:commandButton> element. with the barest presentational formatting. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. complete the expression with the closing { k. insert another <h:inputText> element.password}" l.sun. place the cursor between the quotes in value="". and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. and hit Enter. a code-completion window pops up. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. enter #{mgr. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. set its value to Login.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.. with bean properties available in mgr. select userID from the code-completion window. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.12 .javaserver faces h. in the code-completion window scroll down to value. this inserts value="" at the cursor.) j.loginAction} The final code.sun. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager.

from the Navigation panel in the palette at left. Open faces-config. This is shown below. 2. Select the Navigation tab 3. it should open in the faces-config. then click inside the editor window.12 . this inserts a page icon into the editor. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.xml.8. 1. click on Page. 156 . using a FacesIDE editor.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml Editor.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.

add 3 more pages.jsp.jsp and /pages/error. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp and then on the icon for success.jsp 4. 6. in the Properties view. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it. and set them to /pages/login. from the palette at left. change the value of path to /index. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).12 . Its properties appear in the Properties view.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. notice that the warning triangle disappears. /pages/success. then click first on the icon for login. 5.jsp. This is shown below: 157 .jsp. select Navigation Case. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.jsp. and is represented by an arrow.

xml Here we edit web. and extension-based mapping is turned on. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.jsp.xml.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping. Once deployed browse to index. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. As it turns out. 12. We'll set some properties in web. We want virtual path-based mapping. so uncomment it. The application is now complete. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. and you should be sent to the success page. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. since we have such a trivial application. or leave it as-is.xml. all we need do in web.jsp.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping. 1. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-.8. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .jsp. open web. Similarly add a forward-action from login.javaserver faces 7.xml for the specifics of our application. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.6 Editing web. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.12 .jsp to error. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. any other id/password should send you to the error page.

faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.webapp 12. leave XML Configuration File URL blank.faces.8. scroll down to Deploy. start Tomcat.faces javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.faces.lifecycle javax.validator javax.faces. that factory is used.10 the javax. as file:///. for Context path enter /jsf-login.component. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.faces. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces..7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.el javax.faces. 12.12 . open its Manager application in a browser.javaserver faces 12.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages..faces.faces.faces. For a given factory class name.faces.html javax.application javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. Click on its link to launch the application.0 1.faces.faces. click Deploy 3.render javax.event javax.component javax.model javax.CONFIG_FILES 159 . the Manager application should reload.context javax.convert javax. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot..

represents a single validation (or other) message.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. If none of the above steps yield a match.faces. FacesMessage. ViewHandler . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. StateManager .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration. with the last one taking precedence. and supporting internationalization and accessibility.11 the javax.12 . StateManagerWrapper .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . those factories are used. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. ApplicationFactory . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. defining page navigation. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). with the last one taking precedence. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. 12. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. FacesMessage . its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name.Severity .A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . handling events and input validation. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. ViewHandlerWrapper .

UIComponentBase . ContextCallBack . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. • • 161 .extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.restoreView(javax. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. • ViewExpiredException . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. UICommand .12 the javax. Here they are: • • UIColumn . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. ActionSource2 .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.context.faces. StateHolder . or a hyperlink.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. a menu item. NamingContainer . EditableValueHolder . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. 12.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response. String) results in failure on postback. when activated by the user. String. This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.FacesContext.12 .a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. ValueHolder .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. UIComponent .faces.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . triggers an application specific "command" or "action".

a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user. UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. The user can modify the selected value. UIViewRoot .13 the java.12 . UISelectItem . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. UISelectMany . UIGraphic . The user cannot manipulate this component. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). by storing it as the value property of the component.faces. UISelectBoolean .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. Optionally. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIForm .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UISelectOne . UINamingContainer . Optionally. that is displayed to the user.a UIComponent that has a value.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.component. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.html package 162 . it is for display purposes only.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. it is for display purposes only. UIInput .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. UIPanel . The user can modify the selected values. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.javaserver faces • UIData . This component has no rendering.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. identified by a clientId.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component. UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. it just serves as the root of the component tree.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIParameter . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. UIMessage .

by default. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML img element.renders child components in a table.represents an HTML input element of type password. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified. HtmlMessages .represents an HTML input element of type hidden.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents an HTML input element of type text. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. HtmlOutputText .represents an HTML input element of type checkbox. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components. the rendererType property must be set to "javax.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. used to retrieve and render a graphical image.represents an HTML label element.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlMessage . the rendererType property must be set to "javax.Message".represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.12 .represents an HTML form element. or not. HtmlColumn . HtmlCommandLink . used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.faces.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. and renders the result. but the application wishes to render more than one. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlOutputFormat . HtmlOutputLink . The label text is specified by the component value. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlDataTable . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlPanelGrid .by default. HtmlInputTextarea . This component must be placed inside a form.represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. HtmlCommandButton . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.renders the component value as text.faces. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlInputSecret . HtmlInputText . On a redisplay. HtmlForm . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlGraphicImage .Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.

HtmlSelectManyListbox .15 the java. HtmlSelectOneRadio .javaserver faces property.14 the java. HtmlSelectOneMenu . showing either all available options or the specified number of options. ResponseStream .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. ResponseWriterWrapper . and potentially modified by. ResponseWriter . • • • • • • 12.convert package 164 .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .faces. each phase of the request processing lifecycle.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.faces.an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. showing a single available option at a time.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. and the rendering of the corresponding response.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. HtmlSelectManyMenu . HtmlSelectOneListbox . FacesContextFactory . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . • • • • 12. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. It is passed to.12 . showing a single available option at a time. FacesContext .represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox. In particular.

represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance.javaserver faces 12.12 .faces. PropertyResolver . ValueBinding . 12.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.16 the java. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException . to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. Classes: MethodBinding . • • • • 165 . VariableResolver .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.15.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.

represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).17 the java.the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents. MethodNotFoundException .interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object. 166 .faces.AbortProcessingException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. PhaseEvent . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. PhaseListener . and event implementation classes. PhaseId . PropertyNotFoundException .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . ValueChangeEvent .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object. • • • • • One exception . Interfaces: ActionListener .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners. FacesEvent . FacesListener .12 .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents.an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ValueChangeListener .listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. • • • • 12.represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. ReferenceSyntaxException .

represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. ResultSetDataModel .faces. • • • • • • • • • 12. ListDataModel .12 . SelectItemGroup .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.20 the java.19 the java.an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". DataModel . 12. SelectItem .lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.18 the java.render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. DataModelEvent .converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . ResultDataModel .faces. Renderer . Classes: ArrayDataModel .javaserver faces 12.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. ScalarDataModel .

validator package Interface defining the validator model. and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . Typically. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit. markup language. ResponseStateManager .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. RenderKitFactory . which perform the actual rendering process for each component.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. 12. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name. and concrete tag implementations for core tags.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. together. ConverterTag . and/or user Locale.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. • • 12. LongRangeValidator . base classes for JSP custom component tags. as well.21 the java. and concrete validator implementation classes. • RenderKit .12 .a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 . AttributeTag .faces. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. including a standard servlet.faces. The package contains an exception.22 the java. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.

When the model is updated. or when an exception occurs. UIComponentTag . When a web server receives a request. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. When using JSF. the life cycle is more complicated. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. ValidatorTag .12 . • • • • • FacesServlet . UIComponentBodyTag . the process includes a few more components or pages. servlets.a base class for all JSP custom actions. that request is passed to the container.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. which has several implications. the controller is the 169 . the controller sends a message to the model. Likewise. telling the view to update its presentation. but basically. When the user takes some action with the presentation. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. which passes the request to the page class. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. 12. In MVC. The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. telling the model to update its data. that need to process their tag bodies. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). or some other web technology. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. the JSF life cycle does not apply. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. FacetTag . the controller sends a message to the view. related to a UIComponent. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. Also. In JSF. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class.

from cookies sent as part of the request. and the UI components are the view. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. Data for some components. In addition. The components are stored in a component tree. or from request headers. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. and what happens during the processing and response. If this is a subsequent request. it creates UI objects for each view component. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. converting a String to a Date object). If this is the client’s first visit to a page. Data can come from input fields in a web form. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. and the response is sent to the client. However. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. It updates only the UI components with the new data. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. 170 . in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. and a piece of data failed validation. is validated at this time. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive.javaserver faces JSF implementation.12 . the conversion occurs in this phase. For a JSF-enabled application. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the JSF implementation must create the view. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. These objects update their state with the data values. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. such as components that create HTML input fields. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. depending on the request. In addition. not every request will flow through all six phases. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. • Invoke Application: During this phase. As with the previous phase.

if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client. 171 . you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle.12 . One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid. if errors occur during any of the phases. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. Also. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. skipping any remaining phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase.javaserver faces In the above figure. For example. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase.

applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type.13 .COM. identifiers. For example.sun. Thus the DNS name sales.JNDI 13 . as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. and NIS(YP). 13. names a file hello in the file directory usr. such as LDAP.COM. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. in turn.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. DNS. To access a file in the computer. you are always naming one object or another. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. The UNIX pathname.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.5). which is located in the root of the file system. 172 .Wiz. you must supply its name. For example. For example. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model. When using almost any computer program or system.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. or objects typically used by computer programs. naming and directory services using a common API. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. /usr/hello. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. NDS.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.2. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects.48. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". such as addresses. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system.JNDI 13. you supply it the name of the object. 13. for example. when you use an electronic mail system. possibly multiple.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names.9. Using JNDI. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. The DNS entry Wiz. In addition."). It enables applications to access different. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). A file system maps a filename (for example. c:\bin\autoexec. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. relative to the DNS entry Wiz.

3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. 13. also called a file handle. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. and fuel and instrument status. Instead. That is. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. in the DNS domain Sun. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. in a file directory /usr/bin. For example. is relative to c=us. For simplicity. in the UNIX file system is a context. delimited by the comma character (". the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. might contain the state of the printer. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. A reference is information about how to access an object. and its flight number and departure time. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. 13. such as its print server name and printing protocol. on the other hand. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. that is. for example. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. a DNS domain. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. such as c=us. For example. 13.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. and listing bound names. such as COM. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. In another example. For example. that is. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. Typically. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). unbinding names. A printer object reference. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). 173 . Finally. A file object.c=us. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. a file directory. Using the reference. its flight plan. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object.COM. By contrast.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. such as /usr. A printer object. is accessed using a file reference. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. For example.2. a file name is bound to a file. o=Sun. some objects cannot be stored directly. while the object itself might contain more state information. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. which in turn. is a context. an LDAP entry. For example. is a context.2. for example. they must be stored by reference. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.").2.13 .JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. Every context has an associated naming convention. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. relative to the entry o=Sun.

the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. various telephone numbers.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories.3. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. because we can. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). one context can be viewed. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. resolution. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. programs. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. For example. a computer. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. a person. postal mail address. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. for example. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. Thus. and color. to represent a printer. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries.13 . It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. 13. For example. For example. to some extent. and computer account information. And it kind of makes sense. For example. and even the computer itself and other computers. a name is unique 13. 13. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A directory object can be used. two different computer 174 . An example is the telephone company's directory service. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses.2. or a network. however. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed. For example.

printers. for example. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP.3. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. 13. such as those based on the LDAP.113. an organization object.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.13 . Many examples of directory services are possible. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. A Java mail client program.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. Within the DIT. When directory objects are arranged in this way. and users. "mail" is the attribute identifier. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. 175 . adding.3. Similarly.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. 13.smith@somewhere. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. called a directory information tree (DIT). Alternatively. can use the directory in the traditional way. the ability to access directory services will become essential.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. When you search.4. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. networks. for example. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. 13. for example. that is. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. many directories.50". Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. The query is called a search filter. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The service is accessed through its own interface. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. 13.com". By using a directory service. like any other program running on the network. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. such as that relating to machines. such as the file and print services. For example. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. For example.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. removing.3. The email address. 13. support the notion of searches.

event javax.ldap 176 . more coherent and manageable. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.5.4.naming. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).1 and v1.naming javax. 13.1 and the Java 2 SDK.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.naming. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. 13. v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. For example. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way. Thus a variety of directories--new. It extends the v1. v1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. v1.directory javax.naming. For example. The Java 2 SDK. 13. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.2. and even the network. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services.13 . 13. emerging. v1.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK.5.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.2.1 and Java 2 SDK.3 and later releases. To use the JNDI.

However. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. printer.JNDI • javax. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. composing them. comparing components. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . binding/unbinding. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class.lang.6. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings.print(report).String name argument represents a composite name. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. 13.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.naming package defines a Context interface. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. 13. a 177 . for some objects in the directory. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair. the name of the object's class. and it returns the object bound to that name. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail.1 context The javax. 13.naming.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. and so on. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. For example. 13. A java. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx.lookup("treekiller").6.6. and the object itself.String name. Furthermore. list() is similar to listBindings(). The overloads that accept java.spi 13. For the methods in the Context interface. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components. which is the core interface for looking up. that is. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.6 the naming package The javax.lang. In this case.13 .lang.6. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.

2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. You can add. 178 . For example. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. replace. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. Otherwise. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. In the simplest and most common form of usage. 13. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.13 . or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.7. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). There are no absolute roots. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.7 directory package The javax. Once you have an initial context.7. 13.directory package extends the javax.6. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.6. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. InitialContext. 13.naming. 13. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException. they should catch NamingException. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13.

2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.9.9. 13. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.naming.naming. or unsolicited notifications.13 . An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace." and those that do not. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . such as "object added. such as "object changed.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify.naming. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.directory package. In fact. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener.ldap package at all.9.8 event package The javax. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. and vice versa. 13. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. such as information about the object before and after the change. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. For example. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension.9 LDAP package The javax. 13. controls." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. These operations are called "extended" operations. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . For example. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. 13. To receive event notifications. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.naming. called controls .naming.JNDI 13. Once registered.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. that is.

1 plug-In architecture The javax. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. 13.10. It uses a service provider for the file system.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. implementors of Context.naming. This support is provided in the form of state factories. 13.Context.10 service provider package The javax.10. and receiving response controls. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson. create a file named Lookup. if you look up a printer name from the directory. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.11. 13.spi package supports implementors of Context.naming. 13.13 . You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.java. This support is provided in the form of object factories. For example.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. That is.naming.10. import javax.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.naming package. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. In the process of completing an operation.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 180 .4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.9.2 java object support The javax. sending request controls.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.naming. 13. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. 13. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context.

INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. use Context. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. If the compilation fails. 13.put(Context.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.lookup() to look up an object. Object obj = ctx. For this reason.naming. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.11.NamingException. If you are still having problems.11. Otherwise.3 looking up an Object Next.jar as an installed extension.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj).err.java). as follows.5 compiling the program Next. using the capitalization shown. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. "com.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).naming. // Print it System.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.InitialContext. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. 13. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. import javax. then the JNDI classes are already included. } 13.3. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. create an initial context.11.sun. env. 13. 181 .fscontext.out.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. you compile the source file using the Java compiler. you must have access to the JNDI classes.JNDI import javax. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor.11.lookup(name). Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). If the compilation succeeds. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.RefFSContextFactory"). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.lookup(name). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. } catch (NamingException e) { System. To compile to program.13 . How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.jndi. v1.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.

12. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.directory. supply the name of a file in your file system.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.directory. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. "com.jndi.jar). Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). To run the program. javax. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.put(Context. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.naming. javax.11.naming.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. env. you need access to the JNDI classes.13 . 13.Context. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.put(Context.sun.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.DirContext. javax.naming. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. import import import import import javax.12. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.naming.3.naming. 182 .12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). v1. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext. Finally.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. include the directory that contains your Lookup.sun.fscontext. create an initial directory context. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.directory.naming and javax.LdapCtxFactory"). This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. 13.directory packages.JNDI 13.jar and providerutil.ldap. create a file named Getattr.class).PROVIDER_URL. the file system service provider.naming.jndi.InitialDirContext. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. and your example class (Lookup. env.NamingException.java. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.Attributes. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.bat If you supply a file directory.6 running the program To run the program. then you will see something like the following. javax.

compile the source file using the Java compiler. For this reason.println("sn: " + attrs. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).get() and then from that attribute get its value.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.get()). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. If the compilation succeeds.err. As with the naming example. If you are still having problems. 183 . 13. using the capitalization shown. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. ou=People"). you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. 13.12.get() on it to get its value: attrs.13 . If the compilation fails. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes. } 13.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). } catch (NamingException e) { System. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).out. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.get("sn"). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. ou=People").12. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine.get("sn"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. For now. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. Attributes. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.java).12. 13.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. Similar to the naming example.12. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.get().6 compiling the program Next. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.

then see the Common Problems lesson. With this configuration. then these classes are already included.jar).PROVIDER_URL. If you have any trouble running this example. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.class. env.7 running the program As with the naming example.3. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. Once it has the attributes. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). v1.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.JNDI 13.12.jar and providerutil. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. Getattr. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.put(Context. 184 . "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). ou=People". this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389.13 .

A message is removed from the queue once it has been read.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS client . and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914. JMS producer . Enterprise Edition.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). the messages are delivered in the order sent. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. Here.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. As the name queue suggests. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. unless it has established a durable 185 . Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. JMS queue . In this model.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. JMS message . • 14. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read.a JMS client that receives messages. JMS consumer . JMS topic . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.14 .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.

Using Java. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic.3 the JMS API programming model 14. 14. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory. 186 . On the receiving side.14 . 14.4. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. Depending on the type of message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider.jms. In that case. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages.

It receives messages sent to a destination. The JMS administrator creates these objects.14 . Depending on the connection type.4.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). you must close any connections that you have created. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. Before an application completes. For example. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. For example.close(). The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.createConnection().JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program.lookup("jms/MyTopic"). 14. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. Connections implement the Connection interface. In a J2EE application. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). Before your application can consume messages. connection. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. 14.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.4. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.4. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe. Like the connection factory. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. you call the stop() method. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. and users discover them using JNDI.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. It is either a queue or a topic. 14.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . you must call the connection's start() method. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. a connection to a JMS provider can be created.

14 . Message m = consumer. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener(). This object implements the MessageListener interface.receive(). you are likely to miss messages. which contains one method. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. Moreover. it becomes active.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. and you can use it to receive messages. you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery.setMessageListener(myListener).receive(1000). consumer. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. A message listener does.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myTopic). MessageConsumer consumer = session.start(). a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. 14. 188 .start().) When message delivery begins. Message m = consumer. however. usually expect a specific message type and format. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example. After you register the message listener. onMessage(). A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. For example. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. if it needs to reply to messages.createConsumer(myQueue). connection.4. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic. a message listener object may be used. After you have created a message consumer. In the onMessage() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. You use the Session. (Remember always to call the start() method.

the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.createTextMessage().4.send(message). use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. 189 . The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. if you created an unidentified producer. message. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. You must first create the messages. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. that is. 3.setText(msg_text).createProducer(null). bytes message. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors). if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. // msg_text is a String producer. stream message.send(message). A message has three main parts: 1. and object message).createProducer(myTopic). you do not specify a destination until you send a message. from one application to another. to create and send a TextMessage. The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. 14. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. With an unidentified producer. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. anon_prod.14 . After you have created a message producer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. map message.receive(). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. message).4. At the consuming end. MessageProducer producer = session. For example.createProducer(myQueue). Here.send(myQueue.

The first argument means that the session is not transacted.println("Reading message: " + message.4. and message consumers to receive messages. To create a transacted session.out.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. 0). The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. After you create a Connection object. Here. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. use the following code: Session session = connection. } else { // Handle error } 14.14 .createSession(false. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. Sessions implement the Session interface.createSession(true. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. If the user selects transaction support.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE). 190 .getText()). then delivers the messages. Before committing the transaction. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. Session. the first argument means that the session is transacted.

the container lives (in general) in an application server. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . message-driven beans The 2.consistent error handling framework .DB interaction transactions .2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. server which provides an execution environment for containers.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components.0. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .jar file into the application server. bundled into a single unit. Version 1.0. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. container which offers services to the component.transaction management can be complex. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. The component lives inside a container.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . component recovery scalability portability 191 .0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. 15.no developer coding.object oriented representation of data in a DB. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents.logging. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. On the other side. Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. improved performance security .

called ejb-jar.15 . as follows: 1.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. which is an xml file. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the remote interface of the bean 4. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException.xml 15. the deployment descriptor. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the home interface of the bean 3. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least).

rmi. The developer does not implement this interface. public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException.rmi. String lastName. import java.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.*. import. int custId) throws RemoteException.RemoteException. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. While the Remote interface declares no methods.ejb. } 193 . import. RemoteException. } 15.javax. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.ejb. import java.RemoteException.15 .5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.javax.*.

the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface. "org. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. "localhost:1099"). we need to know: 1. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface.jnp.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. In the case of an web application. this can be done (for example) through SSL. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties.NamingContextFactory". creating them for the client application. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties().15 . Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop).6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. prop. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.PROVIDER_URL. if the client executes outside the container. how to create or find the bean 2. } 194 .put(Context.interfaces. prop. This object acts like a factory for EJBs.

MyBeanHome. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. using the narrow() method. the client has a stub)..rmi. Why? For EJB. in fact. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. the client should use the narrow() method of javax. This is done through the javax.lookup("MyBean").ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. Problem is.Remote interface). more specifically.narrow(homeRef. in fact. Some languages.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. • if the client executes outside the container. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. to the appropriate type. IIOP has not been designed for Java. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol).e. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. and this means that there are some limitations. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA.15 .PortableRemoteObject class and. do not have the concept of casting. but for generic languages.class).PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. do implements the java. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.rmi.rmi. 195 . that is part of CORBA standards. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.

7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity).ejbeans. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ccards.SessionContext..ejb.ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . 15..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.15 .bank11. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean.create(). as well). "Vasile". import javax. call business methods on the bean myObject. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface.. String lastName. 1102). remove the bean instance myObject. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods. public class MyBean implements javax.processEntry("Dumitrascu".remove().

because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. A stateless bean does not.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. 15. namely stateful and stateless beans. that is.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked.15 . the object is activated. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 15. 15. 197 . When a client invokes a method on the EJB object.

its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. For example.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. and then moves it to the ready stage.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. or passivate. 198 . (Typically. All other methods in Figure 15. is inside the bean class.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. 15. At the end of the life cycle.1 are invoked by the EJB container.15 .11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. the client invokes the remove method. the EJB container activates the bean. Figure 15. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. The ejbCreate method. for example. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.

13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database). providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.15 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). support for concurrent access 3.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com.ccards. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). in the same order. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. Read. 15. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. state data is stored into data store (usually.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. methods which have the same parameters. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. all throwing RemoteException. as the parameters in the original create() method. We can have more create() methods. Update and Delete.14.bank11.15 . a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). On the other side. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. CreateException.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. an instance of that bean is created.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.lang. 200 .

15. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. While in the pooled stage.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. it's business methods can be invoked. actual SQL update code. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. After instantiation. the client invokes the create method. for BMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. On the first path.15 . causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime. for BMPs. Second.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. 201 . There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. 15. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. it is empty. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. After the EJB container creates the instance. All instances in the pool are identical. but in general. not null. in BMP. First. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. On the second path. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. the programmer will create actual SQL code. a client can invoke the remove method. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class.14. but the developer returns null for CMP.14.14. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. left empty most of the time in CMP.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.

or a Web component .or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. the values of the instance variables are not needed. Therefore.an application client. 15. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database.getPrimaryKey(). 202 . the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key.15 . which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. another enterprise bean. it does not automatically set the primary key. In the pooled state. It acts as a JMS message listener.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. With bean-managed persistence. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . If the primary key is incorrect.

To avoid tying up server resources.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. the message will be redelivered.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.16.15 . a JMS API connection.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. If this element is set to more than one. In several respects.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. 15. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. max-beans-infree-pool. If message processing is rolled back.16. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. 15.16. 15. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. 203 . you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. message-driven bean can be used. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. but not asynchronously. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To ensure concurrency. Previously.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. Unlike a session or entity bean. the container will spawn as many threads as specified.for example.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. For more information on this element see. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. an open database connection.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. When a message arrives.

onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.jms. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context. 3. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2..ejb. Obtain a new bean instance. Note: These instances can be pooled.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.Message MessageName) {.16. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. // An EJB constructor is required. finalize{}. or create a new one. As with other EJB types. Classes. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.Message.0 specification. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances.jms.}. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created.. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2..15 .. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage()..5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. 15. methods.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs.. 15.16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2.} // onMessage() is required. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. public void ejbRemove() {. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class.16. 2. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception. and it must not // accept parameters. public void onMessage(javax. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.

getRollbackOnly() . so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. If any method throws such an exception.16. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. However.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly(). from the client perspective the EJB still exists. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. For example. 15. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. even in onMessage(). it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. 15. getUserTransaction(). although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. 15. See javax. if the EJB throws a runtime exception).15 .MessageListener. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.16.16.16.This is not a client context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage().jms.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). 15.onMessage() for more information. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.

For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. In either case. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions.0 specification. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. 15.16.0 specification.xml. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.16. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 .16. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message. as required by the EJB 2.15 . as described in the EJB 2. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation.

.jms. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.xml elements.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> .17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15..xml deployment file.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. the weblogic-ejb-jar.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.0 specification.message.. 2. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.15 . </message-driven> . </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. For each instance. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE. 207 . It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. 15. as described in the EJB 2.ejb20.

which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. 15. environment properties 6. the remote interface name 8. isolation level.15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. a message-driven bean is never passivated. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. entity specific elements 10. At the end of the life cycle. attributes . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. access control entries .like transaction. bean home name . and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. the container calls the ejbRemove method.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. the home interface name 7. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection.security issues. control descriptors . security 208 . session specific elements 9. EJB class name 5.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3.

Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.bank11. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.15 .CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.ejb.ccards.ccards.bank11.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.ccards.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ejb.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.bank11.bank11.bank11.ejb.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.lang.ccards.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.bank11.

lang.15 . Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> ..5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .


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