Basic Java EE Book | Enterprise Java Beans | Java Server Pages

1 - java platform, enterprise edition

1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. are not considered web components.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. or finance.7 business components Business code. retail.2 Server communication 1. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. like the client tier. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. and sends it back to the client program. enterprise edition Figure 1. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses.1 . An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage. Figure 1. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. The web tier. processes it (if necessary). processes it (if necessary). which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.java platform. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. 1. like HTML pages. 5 .

database systems.1 . enterprise edition Figure 1. Before a web. In addition. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. mainframe transaction processing. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand.3 Web. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity. 1.9. Business and EIS Tiers 1. 1. or application client component can be executed. For example. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. and other legacy information systems. 6 . and other complex low-level details. resource pooling.9 java EE Containers Normally.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP).java platform. multithreading. enterprise bean.

java platform. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups.9. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles. For example. database connection resource pooling. and remote connectivity. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. transaction management. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services.4. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. After an enterprise bean is created. Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. 1. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. including services such as security. data persistence. 7 .1 . an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed.

set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.manages the execution of application client components. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable.the runtime portion of a Java EE product. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. or for document-oriented web services. test.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. or any kind of binary data such as audio. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container . you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. For example. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data. 1. computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. extensible.10. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. Application clients and their container run on the client. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. text-based standard for representing data. maps. Application client container . When XML data is exchanged between parties. develop. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet.manages the execution of applets.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. program files. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server. video. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. Applet container . No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. XML data. These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections.java platform. 1. 8 .1 . and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. Web container . XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications.

the location of the service. such as Universal Description.java platform.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services.10.1 . The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. 1.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both).10.10.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients. HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. and ways to communicate with the service. 9 . The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. enterprise edition 1. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type. 1. and the APIs used in Java EE applications. and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The description includes the name of the service.

1. standard set of tags. or if the server shuts down. WML.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1. In Java EE 5. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans. If the client terminates. enterprise edition Figure 1.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. or enterprise bean. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved. 1. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 .1 . An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component. the session bean and its data are gone.11.11.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. you employ a single. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. Commonly. 1. and XML) and JSP elements. allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. When the client finishes executing.java platform.11.

1 - java platform, enterprise edition
implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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JSP page. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. or better customer support.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers. or a component. At runtime. JTA. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. it is ready to be deployed. SAAJ. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. such as better performance. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. module. better tools. No extra coding is needed. or component accordingly. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. 15 . enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. servlet. Once deployed on a local platform. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an . and JNDI 1. a module. the application is ready to run. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database.1 .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application.ear extension.java platform.

Application client modules.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a .war (Web ARchive) extension. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.1 . An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. which contain all Java interfaces. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType. supporting class files. EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. For example. JSP files.java platform. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.jar extension. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. and other documentation. classes. enterprise edition Figure 1.jar extension. the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. which contain servlet class files. Web modules. Together. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. such as caching directives. native libraries. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. and a web application deployment descriptor. • • 16 . A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. Resource adapter modules. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . for example. GIF and HTML files.

2. but they also have some common structural elements.jmarshall. As a site for understanding how HTTP works. so far) version. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97).1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text. The second (and last.org/rfc/rfc1945.com/easy/http. It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.HTTP 2. as follows: 1. was the object of several RFCs.1... separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions. The server answers with a response message. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data. check the official HTTP site – www. The client sends a request message to the server.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model.apps. POST. zero or more header lines 3.2 . It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. we recommend www.ietf.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . a blank line (CR/LF) 4. Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen..html). HEAD. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2. RFC 2616 (06/99).HTTP 2 . an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . namely HTTP 1. .org/Protocols . The first oficial version – HTTP 1. an initial line 2.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. These messages may have different contents. RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00)..0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.w3.

TRACE Three other commands are listed.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. as well. DELETE 6. but lack of support makes them obsolete. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. mailing list.1 specification.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . unless that text happens to be the output of the process. Here is their list: 1. 18 . CONNECT 5. HEAD 3. GET 2.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.Annotation of existing resources. The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line.html HTTP/1. 2.1. newsgroup. .0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. PUT 8. The only difference is that the response must not have a body. POST 4.0). in the HTTP 1. HTTP/1. OPTIONS 7.2 . GET /path/to/the/file/index.Posting a message to a bulletin board.

2 . A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. after the “?” character. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. while POST may involve anything. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. to a data-handling process. 2. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it.0 404 Not Found 2. 3.8 the status code A three-digit integer. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. 2. like storing or updating data. In this case.6 differences between GET and POST 1. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status.HTTP or similar group of articles. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI.” On the other side. or a record is subordinate to a database. . depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. (encoded as multipart/form-data). separated by the character “&” or “. a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. When used for form data submission. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . such as the result of submitting a form. .Providing a block of data. or sending E-mail 2.Extending a database through an append operation. or ordering a product. or in the message body.

301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. 2.0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1.1). that is.0 version specifies 16 headers. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. fails. header values are. while the HTTP 1. • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. and section 10 for HTTP 1. In particular. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax. header name and header value. such as text/html or image/jpg.g. 2.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK . or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header).the request succeeded.the requested resource doesn't exist. one (Host) is mandatory.2 .1 version specifies 46 of them. 500 Server Error .an unexpected server error. and the resulting resource (e. or otherwise can't run correctly. none of them mandatory. separated a semicolon. The most common use of the message body is in a response.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. out of which.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. 404 Not Found . where the requested resource is returned to the client. The HTTP 1. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3. file or script output) is returned in the message body. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. Although the header names are not case sensitive.0. If an HTTP message includes a body. 20 . In a request.1 only) .

together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. multipart. alternative. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) .12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web. partial.0 200 OK Date: Fri. application.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. with subtypes mixed.html HTTP/1. message. Here is the list of the seven types. Then. with subtype basic 7. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. . although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1.info.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. gif 6. parallel 3. with subtypes rfc822.info. audio.uvt. external-body 4.ro.org/rfc/rfc1521.HTTP 2. digest. video. with subtypes jpeg. text. with subtype plain 2.2 . Each extension consists of a type and a subtype.ietf. 21 . 1.uvt. port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). with subtype mpeg 2. RFC 1521 (www. image.html first open a socket to the host web. with subtypes octet-stream.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following. postscript 5.apps.ro/path/file.0 From: someuser@yahoo.

2 . 22 .HTTP . </body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket.

It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)).html. It is a revision of 4. A newer standard. a working draft for the next major revision.0.0) dates from 08.HTML 3 .html) and was widely supported. using a variety of tags and their related attributes. The newest version of HTML is 4.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.0 .org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl. Version 4.3 . The first official version – HTML 2. Originally named Web Applications 1. The XHTML 1. It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. Mosaic. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008. the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group.w3c. appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.org/Markup .0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.jmarshall. HTML describes how text. Other helpful sites .www. check the official HTML site – www. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser.ietf. As a practical reference site use – www.blooberry. From 1999 on.org/rfc/rfc1866.99.0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets. namely HTML 1.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.com/indexdot/html . The first version of HTML. However.0. www. HTML 3.w3.01. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.0 and was accepted in December 1997. 3.0 draft was released in 01.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.htmlgoodies.2 (3.01) can be found at this address: http://www. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. The latest version (XHTML 2.com/easy/html . Since it fits in a couple of pages.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4.apps.HTML 3.com/tutors. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 .

Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.3 .SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .

HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2.and end at the first occurrence of -->.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element.0 contains an SGML declaration. An example: <!-.01 specification. 3. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. If you wonder what a character reference is. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. though. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements. CONTROLS. the specification of HTML 4.acesta este un comentariu. DYNSRC.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. 3. look at these examples: “&lt”. You get the point. Check the address http://www. “&quot”. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.0 Strict DTD.the chinese character for water. <><> --> 25 . "&#x6C34.w3. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. HTML 4. like ALIGN. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. ….0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. HTML 4. Document instances containing data (content) and markup." (in hexadecimal) . Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. three DTDs (HTML 4. Overall. BORDER. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.3 .0 Transitional DTD. VSAPCE are omitted. 4.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.

3.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call.5 tables 26 . NAME.ro/webmail/src/login. etc. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3. Example: <A HREF=”http://web. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3 .3.HTML 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>. image.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.info.uvt.

<THEAD>.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. columns. Usually. Here is their description and attributes. the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. headers and cells are <TABLE>. <TH> and <TD>.3 . Here is a an example of a table: 3.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . its rows. <TR>.

allowing user input and parameter submittal.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION . specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 .7 forms A form is a basic component container.3 .required.

Example: http://web.HTML • METHOD .3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.8. "file". The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .maximum number of options visible to the user. Main attributes: • TYPE .2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.uvt.if specified. specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text". the browser appends the values to the URL.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.8. however.required. Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element. Main attributes: 29 . either as a drop-down menu or as a list box.3 . allows multiple selections from the choice list. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" .8.used with forms that contain a file-selection field. data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. may have the values GET or POST. "reset". 3. "checkbox". Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE .8 form related elements 3. "GET" . "hidden". NAME .info.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form. "password". specifies the parameter name. "button".& or (sometimes) by semicolon .required. "radio". "image".ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .the default value.:. specifies how data will be sent to the server. after a quotation mark .required. • 3. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . "submit". Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST". where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.sends the form values in a single transmission.?. "text/plain" • • 3. SIZE .

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. 4. which accounts for a pretty slow execution.0.90.2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5.4 . Java source – a file with extension . Example: Edit the file prog1.4. The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1. The current version (as of 10.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. Inc. but next time execution is much faster.class.2 java the interpreter.. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one. javac -classpath .95.3 java applications 31 .C:\TW\myPackages -g login. The current version (as of 10.java One example of command line compilation: 4. Java bytecode – a file with extension . following the 1.java 2.JAVA PRIMER 4 .class file. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool.95. -g : generate all debugging info. jit From source to execution. In terms of execution time.C:\TW\mySource. project started in 12. a tool named Just In Time compiler. To overcome this significant shortage.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. the compilation process occurs.2 version.class file.JAVA PRIMER 4.class 3. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the .java.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1. The first time a class is loaded.) in 08. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape. Early versions of Java were released in 12.

4 object oriented concepts 4. or that it extends A). an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.jar file. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a .2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. In general.java. This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends.4.1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . Generally.4. An example: 32 . The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. 4. use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. or is derived from A. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).4 . the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.

but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class. 4. a class can have more than one method with the same name.4. Therefore. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). Double. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. this is called method overloading. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. Character.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean . Long. providing its own implementation.4 . While C++ allows multiple inheritance.4. namely: Byte. Therefore.JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Short. 4.1 bit char . the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. Integer. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. 33 . a Java class can extend a single base class. 4. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. In OO jargon. In fact. called Object.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. Boolean. Float. all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. with the root the class Object.

The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass. } declares an abstract class. Except for the "package" concept.6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers.one which is constant method .access from any class anywhere private .HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.the class is visible from any class.4 .JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references). A final variable (method.no access from outside the class itself protected . Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier .servlet.the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. no templates.http.http. A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.HttpServlet implements Serializable { . • • • • no specifier . anywhere abstract .the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .. which extends the class javax.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. 34 . More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . class . they have the same basic meaning as in C++.accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. has the same value for all class instances. A final: • • • variable . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden.one which is defined at class level. method . automatic garbage collection. inherited). The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability. rather than at class instance. 4.does not have any subclasses.servlet.

not at execution time.7.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 .7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. standard method exceptions 3. 4. 2.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. as defined in the java. an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. division by 0.ThreadDeath. 4. Exception categories: 1.7. namely class Error and the class Exception. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.4 .1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. In Java. programmer defined exceptions 4.7. java errors . All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable.JAVA PRIMER 4. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error .JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. code or data errors .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class. 4. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.like invalid cast. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError. array index out of bounds.7. all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.

support for event handling java. 4. therefore.this can be done by providing a try. 4.bank11..java.rmi java.zip . catch.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method .util. the class (the . finally construct. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11). The names in a package are qualified by the package name.lang (automatically available). import.geom .lang .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes.8. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.support for user interface java. string analyzers.. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets.9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.1 Package names The default package has no name.servlets.io java. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.awt.util . followed by the import statements.awt.support for data collections.default.by adding the key word throws. they have to be unique inside a package. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.support for java archives creation java.sql. The package containing the standard classes is java.*.net java. don't have to import java. followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method. As a general rule.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java. An example: package com. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.4 .class file. date and time info java. the default package is used).util.awt . import javax.sql java.Properties. All other packages must be explicitly imported. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . 4. In the example above.nio java.event .security 36 .ccards. .

swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java.support for event handling 4. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions.swing .text javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods.accessibility javax.swing.4 .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.event . While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class). 37 . Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++. static and final. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. it must be declared as abstract. All variables (actually.

A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data . This is not always what we want.load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies .A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server.A JavaScript statement like this: document. and . However. The origins of this language date back to 1995.5 . then LiveScript and finally.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. as JavaScript. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements . This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser . other 38 .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool .A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page .A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events . 5. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Subsequently. the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript.HTML authors are normally not programmers.depending on the browser . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha.JAVASCRIPT 5.3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. like QtScript or ActionScript.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5.javaScript 5 . Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications.

39 .1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . 5.js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. </script> </head> 5. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. When you place a script in the head section..js file extension. To simplify this.3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages.javaScript times when a user triggers an event. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . you can write a JavaScript in an external file.3.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section... </script> </body> 5.4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.3. Save the external JavaScript file with a .5 . or when an event is triggered. point to the ...3. without having to write the same script on every page.js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5. go in the head section..

for()..javaScript 5.5. in and the try . switch(). This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script... namely – if .. 5. The code in the body of the for ..4..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.1 JavaScript for. or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd".4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". break.In statement The for.4. while(). in loop is executed once for each element/property. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 ... else.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5. continue.. 5. catch constructs.5 .4.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. while() it is worth mentioning the for . 5..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.4...

.javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?".. mycars[2] = "BMW".5 .2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet.5. } </script> </body> </html> 5.catch statement The try.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). an array element.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.5. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. or a property of an object. Mozilla 1.3 try. The try block contains the code to be run. var mycars = new Array(). mycars[0] = "Saab". and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. for (x in mycars) { document... When users see errors. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. they often leave the Web page. Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 .catch statement (available in IE5+. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.0.. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.. so you don't lose your audience. mycars[1] = "Volvo". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. Example Using for...

description + "\n\n".1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.7 popup boxes 5. 5.\n\n". } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type). strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator. } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page. txt+="Click OK to continue.7. Also.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!").\n\n". alert(txt).5 . Syntax: 42 . txt+="Error description: " + err. When an alert box pops up.

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. in the example above had not been written within a function. If the user clicks "Cancel". the script is not executed before the user hits the button. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").8.7.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.. Syntax: prompt("sometext".5 . it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. the box returns true. If the user clicks "OK".javaScript alert("sometext") 5.8 functions 5. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . The syntax for creating a function is: 43 . When a prompt box pops up. in the <head> section. When a confirm box pops up. Now. If the user clicks "Cancel". the box returns null. the box returns false.7. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page."defaultvalue") 5. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.js file).

5. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.9.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.5 .varX) { some code } var1. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .. function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6.write(txt. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. and will be stored in the variable called product.8. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.length).9.9 javaScript objects 5..2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object. and how they are used. 5...var2. etc are variables or values passed into the function. So. document. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".javaScript function functionname(var1. 5. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. var2. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.

javaScript 5.toUpperCase()).5 . which will be specified in the next section. </script> 5. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!".write(str.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects. The other class are the language specific objects. 45 . The first class consists of browser specific objects.9.3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. document.

com/jsref/default.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 . Properties FF: Firefox.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data.w3schools.11. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them. every Image on the page is an Object. or when the user interacts with a Web page. as well). Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. N: Netscape. which are called Objects. check the site http://www. At its most basic level.asp 5. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. When an event message has been triggered. every Link on the page is an Object.11 javaScript language built in objects 5. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers. Even this Document itself is an Object.5 . For example.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 .javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. Properties FF: Firefox. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . N: Netscape.11.

as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. depending on the browser. as a four-digit number.javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year.5 . from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year.

IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . according to universal time. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to local time. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. according to Greenwich time. Properties FF: Firefox. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object.11. to a string. according to local time. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object. according to local time. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object.5 .javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits).3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. N: Netscape. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.

5 4 .11. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string.5 4 3 4 .5 . Syntax for creating a new Number object. var myNum=new Number(number).5 3 4 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .

Properties FF: Firefox.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5. N: Netscape.5 1 .11.javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 .

2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx.y) pow(x.434) Returns PI (approx.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx. 2. Properties FF: Firefox.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 0.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .javaScript 5. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y.11.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks.y) min(x. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 0. 3. It includes several mathematical constants and functions.5 . 0. N: Netscape. 1.

propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value.lastname="Doe". personObj. eye color.firstname).3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). Objects also have methods.12. Properties are the values associated with the object.write(personObj. etc.lastname="Doe".12.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.firstname="John". personObj.eyecolor="blue". personObj.firstname="John". etc. work(). sleep(). weight. The persons' properties include name. The persons' methods could be eat().12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. height. personObj. document. The code above will generate the following output: John 5. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Assume that the personObj already exists . skin tone.5 . lastname.12.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. All persons have these properties.age=30. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName.you can give it properties named firstname. age. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. personObj. age. with a collection of properties and methods. 5.age=50.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. play(). personObj. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object.eyecolor="blue".2 Methods An object can also contain methods. 53 . personObj.

age=age. That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. this. myMother=new person("Sally". The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear).propertyName.eyecolor) { this. } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects."green").age=age. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname.newlastname=newlastname.firstname=firstname.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname. this. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj.age.5 .12.eyecolor) { this.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. this.lastname=new_lastname.firstname=firstname.lastname=lastname.48. this."Rally"."blue").50. like this: myFather=new person("John". Inside the function you need to assign things to this."Doe".lastname.eat=eat. this. Once you have the template. 54 . this. you can create new instances of the object.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this. You can also add some methods to the person object.eyecolor=eyecolor. 5.lastname=lastname. } Notice that the template is just a function.age.

Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.newlastname("Doe"). For example.. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. So. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element.0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event.5 . F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 . 5. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4.". Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when. now you can write: myMother.. We define the events in the HTML tags.

5.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!". Next time the visitor arrives at your page. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.13. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version.2 onFocus. 5.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.13. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.5 .w3schools.13. The name is then stored in a cookie. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. For example.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. If it returns true the form will be submitted. onBlur and onChange The onFocus. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. If the field values are not accepted.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.13.

javaScript event').return false"> <img src="w3schools.5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0.. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs.defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . structure. Right now (oct. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). By October 1998. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core. 2010).defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM . Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it). the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. particularly those used in Web browsers. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. SVG. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. or WebAPI being among them. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification.Html DOM 6 . DOM 2 was issued in November 2000.g. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. However. HTML.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content.6 . In other words. XML.HTML DOM 6.2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. CSS. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. The W3C 58 . and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM . The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. 6. the Document Object Model activity is closed. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. As of January 2008. and style of a document.

Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. 3.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Core.6 . each of which contains required and optional modules. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM. which further enhances the DOM 6. and 6. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. To claim to support a level. Level 2. a new DOM Core specification. 4. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . 2. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. DOM Level 3 Requirements. Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 1. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. DOM Level 3 Validation. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 XPath. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. As of 2005. 6. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. 5. HTML-specific elements are included as well. filtered views and events.

because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). Besides the generic objects listed bellow. 6. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. that is.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML. All HTML elements.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. Opera. along with their containing text and attributes. The Window object represents a browser window. large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. and Safari.x and Netscape 4. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. In order to be cross-browser compatible.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. interoperability problems were numerous. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph. W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. Konqueror. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)).x were still widely used in 2000. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. can be accessed through the 60 . support multiple browsers.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects.6 . By 2005.

HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 . and new elements can be created.Html DOM DOM. It can be used by any programming language like Java. The contents can be modified or deleted.6 . and VBScript. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. JavaScript.

62 . The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node.8. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial". The tree structure is called a node-tree.8. The <html> node has two child nodes. 6. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.6 .Html DOM 6.9. 6. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. <head> and <body>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM. everything in an HTML document is a node. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. However.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. the element node <title>.

using the node relationships. The terms parent. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. child.6 . By navigating the node tree. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.9. • • • • • In a node tree. except the root. By using the getElementById() method 2. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. Their contents can be modified or deleted. the top node is called the root Every node.9.2 node parents.getElementById('main'). and new elements can be created.getElementsByTagName("p"). children. 63 . and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other. and the connections between them.getElementsByTagName("p"). and sibling are used to describe the relationships.Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. Parent nodes have children. Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters).

6 .Html DOM for (i=0.write("<br />"). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.length. Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.i++) { document.4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM).i<x. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 .write(x[i]. • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. document.9. • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only. Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).innerHTML). } 6. each node is an object.

Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element.getElementById("intro"). A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.Html DOM 6.6 .firstChild. txt=x.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.nodeValue.5 example .9. The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification. 6.

including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event. For elements. including window. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. frames. it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field.6 . it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. objects and images. The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . For elements.

This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. Also. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. Mozilla. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. During the event flow. DOMNodeInserted. as of version 1. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. say "click". This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. through a mouse click or a keypress. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). and/or by cancelling the default action for the event.6 .3. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. 6. for instance. also supports these methods. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event. and then bubbled up. an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action.cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer). Fires when an element is activated. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. 67 . When the user clicks on the inner element.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Safari.

etc. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created. Unfortunately.6 . including information about target element. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. preventDefault 68 . mouse button pressed. mouse position. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed.Html DOM 6. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. key pressed. Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated.

For improving sharing of resources. dynamic website. but also to save resources. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. It is not a technology in itself. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. etc. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. fields of forms. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. 69 . 7. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. crunching numbers. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. before the whole page was sent within the network.AJAX 7. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. choices of user. For example.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. using web services or Php scripts.7 . • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. The server does some processing — retrieving data. menus. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side. but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript. 7.AJAX 7 . The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server.

waiting around for the server to do something. Once an interface is loaded. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. but the opposite is true. While the server is doing its thing. Obviously. what’s the user doing? That’s right. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. And at every step in a task. the user waits some more. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. Instead of loading a web page. we wouldn’t make users wait around. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive. the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. waiting. at the start of the session. 70 . The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server.7 . but it doesn’t make for a great user experience.

usually using XML. and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing.7 . loading additional interface code.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. editing data in memory.

. 7. url.5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. GET or POST . 3: answer in process. This object provides two methods: . they call functions associated to elements of the web page. thanks to its methods and attributes.holds a Xml loaded file.AJAX 7. and in this purpose. boolean) . To get data on the server.mode: type of request. . 2: request received.7 .the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. We have to wait for the data to be available to process it. Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml .send: send a request to the server.open: create a connection. 4: finished. These events are user actions.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. 404 if the page is not found . DOM's method allows to extract data.200 is ok.4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.responseXml . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized.url: the location of the file 72 . Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: . onreadystatechange .for a simple text.for a Xml file or . .responseText . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest. It allows the interaction with the servers.returned by the server . 1: connection established.holds loaded data as a string of characters.

for browser compatibility. if (request.xml'.send: with POST only. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") . OK } else { // wait. true for asynchronous. . request.send(null). if (window. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class.null for a GET command 7.7 . http_request. but two options must be tried. // Firefox.fr/somefile. } else if (window. .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }.open('GET'. 73 . The request below reads a document on the server. true).XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.AJAX .xul.open: command GET or POST.. Safari.6 building a request.readyState == 4) { // received.. 'http://www.XMLHTTP").. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created. URL of the document.. the data to send to the server. http_request.

dyn="Error code " + req.status == 200) document. if(window.open("GET".7. else document.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc. else if (window.dyn="Received:" + req.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.7.setRequestHeader("Content-Type". req.getElementsByTagName('root').ajax.xml". "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").XMLHTTP).ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.status.responseXML.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest(). true). req. } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7.responseText. }. "data.AJAX 7.7 .7 examples 7.ajax. req. by this code: var doc = req.item(0).responseText.readyState == 4) if(req.1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.dyn=""Received:" + req.send(null).ajax. req. // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

Others. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions. classes. database connection resource pooling. Servlet. web. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.. entries related to session configuration. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. After an enterprise bean is created. but typical web. like what pages are error.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet.xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.. 3. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes. JSPs and Java Server Faces. MIME types used by the web application. servlet classes. 5.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype.class>com. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely.servlets. data persistence.LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 . For example. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.ccards. welcome pages. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. descriptions). Servlet. 4. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.xml file: <?xml version="1. Here is a small.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. 2. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. like: 1. 8.)> <web-app> <!-.8 . Initialization of parameters for servlets. and access to the Java EE platform APIs.bank11. 6. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.

The "/ccards" part of the URL is. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server. in our case) to execute the invoker servlet. the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues").ccards. for flexibility. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". Unfortunately.xml" file.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. whose name is rather long.servlets". it is the alias of the real servlet class.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.xml". To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.xml" 2.bank11. like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.servlets. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself. This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. Then the "EnrollServlet. In general.ccards.class" and that it is part of the package "com. Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".bank11. Behind a very benign URL. basicly. For example.8 . More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.ccards. This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". 1.bank11. However.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 .xml file of the web application. the name of the web application. Basicly.servlets". the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory.

from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. this is just a work in progress. Technically speaking.SERVLETS 9 . As of oct. has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need.2. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. but through a web container.0 specification.4. but at this point.0 specification is available for public review. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or. more often. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). tjws spec 2. the HttpServlet) class. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . platform independent programs. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. from BEA Systems. which extend the functionality of the web server. 2010. the Java Servlet 3. 9. small footprint.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. 9. modular design 9. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2. in most cases as part of an application server.SERVLETS 9. The current Java Servlet specification is 2.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server .5 and is in final state.9 .4.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small.2. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 .

servlet. IOException. These packages are: • • javax.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .servlet package are protocol independent.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax. the javax.9 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK. from IBM 9. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. while the second one. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories.servlet. public void destroy() throws ServletException. 82 .3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. Enterprise Edition. public void service(ServletRequest req. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server .servlet package.4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException.servlet javax. from Apple Inc. public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects. WebSphere.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. as well.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface. This method has two arguments. The method performs all initialization required. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. More on the servlet life cycle. ServletConfig. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req.9 . This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. 83 . namely the HttpServlet class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. Throwable t) 9. arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. the web container calls its init() method. After instantiating the servlet. respectively.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). in a different section. 9. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.lang.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations.Exception class. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9.ServletException javax.Exception and can be thrown by the init(). namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req. service(). 9. It also extends the java.8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax. HttpServletResponse resp) 9.9 .servlet. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 . HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req.servlet.lang.

or to allow sending data from a servlet to another.SingleThreadModel. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. 9.servlet. which will service all incoming requests. respectively. 85 . There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. The first one is to attach attributes to the request object. After instantiation. etc. DB connection opening. Typically. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet. this method contains JDBC driver loading. If the servlet does not implement the javax. which requires that the service() method be thread safe.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup. JSP or JSF. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name.9 . Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. Typically. Also.

SERVLETS 9. Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. Here are the most important ones: 86 .9 .11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.

15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll. A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.java" file: package com. The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory. import java. Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9.xml file.io.9 . String value) public void addHeader(String headerName.servlets. This is done in server's (container's) server.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status. 87 .bank11.ccards. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9.*.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application.

http. out.getWriter().println("<head>").close(). IOException { resp. } } 88 . import javax.9 . out.println("</head>"). out.SERVLETS import javax. out. out.println("</body>").println("<body>"). // output your page here out.println("<br>"). out.*.servlet.*.println("<html>"). HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. out. out.println("merge"). out.servlet.println("</html>"). PrintWriter out = resp. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.println("<title>Servlet</title>"). } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req.init(config).setContentType(“text/html”).

It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.0.sql package 2.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).0 while the current (4. 1997. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge .sun. as recognized by the DB industry.JDBC 10. 89 . due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. 10. the java. Starting with version 3. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. the javax. The JDBC 4. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.10 . JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls. This solution is inefficient.sql package. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.odbc.1. After that. These drivers fall into four standard categories.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221.JDBC 10 .0 API consists of 2 packages: 1. Type 1.2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API.jdbc.JdbcOdbcDriver .

It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland). which in turn. forwards them to the JDBC driver. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. Type 3. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API.10 . because it eliminates one level of indirection. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. Part Java.JDBC Type 2. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. Type 4. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers.

sql.sql.Timestamp java.sql.sql.sql. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4.sql. defined in the JDBC 3.0 API.SQLException java.Struct java.SQLData java.sql.SQLDataException java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.SQLOutput java.Date java.sql.PreparedStatement java.Blob java.Driver java. java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.ResultSet java.SQLPermission java.SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.sql.sql.Wrapper 91 .sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.sql.DriverManager java. let's remind some of the most important ones.CallableStatement java.SQLWarning java.0).sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.10 .sql.JDBC 10.sql.Types java.Array java.Clob java.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.sql.Time java.sql.Statement java.sql.Connection java.3 the java. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification.

SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java.sql.sql.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.4 interaction schema in the java.Connection java.sql.sql.RowId java.SQLTransientException java.SQLException java.sql.10 .sql.Statement java.sql.ClientinfoStatus java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.ResultSet java.SQLWarning java.sql.Wrapper javax.sql. querying the database 4.sql.sql.sql.SQLOutput java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.0.SQLXML java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.Clob java.sql.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.CommonDataSource javax. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.sql.StatementEvent javax.sql.sql.DatabaseMetaData java. loading a database driver 2.sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.sql.sql.sql package.sql.SQLInput java.RowIdLifeTime java.SQLNonTransientException java.StatementEventListener 10. java.PreparedStatement java.sql.sql.sql.CallableStatement java.sql.NClob java.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.SQLDataException java.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.sql.Types java.Blob java.sql.sql.

The first one is loading a database driver.db2.borland.jdbc.jdbc.sybase.OracleDriver sun.odbc.driver.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.DB2Driver oracle.SybDriver com.10 . A database driver is specified by the driver name.ibm.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .datastore.JDBC 10.jdbc. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.net.DataStoreDriver com.jdbc.jdbc.

try { Class. but let's take it for granted: import java.*. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.bank11. passwd).sql. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.forName("org. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class. 94 .mm. String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager. import java. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL). user.Driver"). by using the connection URL.getConnection(connURL. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons. Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards". String user = "root".printStackTrace().mysql.10 .gjt. as specified by the driver vendor. Since we just used it.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection.newInstance(). subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.*.util. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver.

prp. Properties prp = new Properties().7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax.10 . Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. String user.put("autocommit". but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.JDBC 10.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. java. Connection conn = DriverManager. int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 .put("create".sql package. "true"). 10. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp).Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.getConnection(connURL. int resultSetConcurrency. prp. "true").util. Once we get the hold of a Connection object. we can use it for various purposes. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class.

methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.10 . methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6. Statement. methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. namely.JDBC 10. respectively. prepared statements and stored procedures. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 .8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section.

10. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. stmt.createStatement().. Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution.. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 .sql.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java. Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.executeUpdate(sqlString).ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer .".JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects.10 .

10 ResultSet characteristics By default. and CallableStatement objects. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. 98 . Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. a concurrency of read only.10 . not at 0) or the column name. and cursors are held over commit boundaries.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. as the argument. PreparedStatement. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column. One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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sql.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java. time. mins.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Time java. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax.10 .Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.sql. a factory for creating DB connections. basicly. Basic implementation -.0 optional package. Connection pooling implementation -. This interface is. secs date.Big Decimal Object float 10. There are three types of implementations: 1.math. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java.DataSource object.produces a standard Connection object 2.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2.sql package. The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors.produces a Connection object that will 103 . It is part of the javax.sql.math. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.

theDataSource = (DataSource) env.class.getName()).ccards.sql. javax.JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.http. import import import import import import java.*. javax.*.*. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.io.*. java.naming.servlet. Distributed transaction implementation -.produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling.lookup("java:comp/env"). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. javax.*. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.sql. 104 . } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource.bank11. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext(). throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".servlets. 3.10 . public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. private DataSource theDataSource. javax.servlet.*.getLogger(TestDataSource.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME).

} catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. ServletException { .JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource").. } } 105 . HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.10 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request.

HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req. the servlet code is regenerated.servlet. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container.1 and is related to the 2.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The package javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet. A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).tagext. The javax. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP.JSP 11 .5 Java Servlet specification. namely javax.jsp and javax.servlet.servlet. The JSP specific interfaces.jsp.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags. The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.jsp. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.servlet.servlet. The package javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. 11.2 the java.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The current JSP specification is JSP 2.JSP 11.servlet.jsp. If the JSP is modified.11 .

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions).JSP • if the URL does not start with / . 111 . It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope.. the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page. attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. include and taglib. %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .. the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName". These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file.11 .6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11..

7. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. this code goes to inside the service() method.JSP 11.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. In Tomcat.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client.7.7. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .11 . A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs. 11.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client. 11. 11.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. Assigns it to available name or id.7 scripting elements 11. 11.

The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . Attributes description: • • • name .10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to a specific value. The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11.the name of a bean instance. you must specify param.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties.Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .11 . property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . and if so. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.

The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page . flush .11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . same format as the <%@include> directive. <jsp:plugin> actions.the URL of the page. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content.11 . An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.13 the forward standard action 114 .12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. converts them to string and displays the output to the client.only the "true" value is supported.name of the property to be retrieved 11. It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . <jsp:forward>. 11.

as well.the type of object the plugin will execute.. as this attribute has no default value.. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . archive="URIToArchive. the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used. when we want to separate the application into different views..the name of a bean instance.11 . If you do not supply a value. name="instanceName" .14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.class extension in the name following code. servlet or to a static resource.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. name .. code="classFileName" . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . 11. You must include the ." . codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP.a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . depending on request.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code. You must specify either bean or applet..a name for the Bean or applet instance. The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute. . It is used mainly.

it represents the buffered version of java. Must be a small nonzero number. not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.lang. The value is a full URL.jsp. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 . page .1" .1. optional port number. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" .represents the servlet context.represents server's response to the request. pageContext . it has java. • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . in pixels.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag. based on the servlet API.JspWriter type and scope page 7. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1. application . of the image the applet or Bean displays.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. config . 1.the amount of space.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page.servlet.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator. writes to the output stream to the client.11 .PrintWriter. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .16 scopes 1.the initial height and width.Object type and scope page 11.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2.it has HttpSession type and session scope 5. with a protocol name.io. it has type PageContext with scope page 4. it has javax. and domain name. to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays. out . response . it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. The default value is 1. request .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3. objects which are automaticly available.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. session . in pixels.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page. iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. request .

jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.ccards.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.init().userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.beans. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. Object value) method 11. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. page .jsp file.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object. application . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key. Object value) method 3.JSP request object.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. if (enrollBean.17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 4. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key. session . the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object.bank11. Object value) method 2.11 .an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object.

18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.18.mapping. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private boolean flag. an int. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors.io.string.examples. private String optional.simple.java: package com.Serializable { private String string. The SimpleBean class is declared public.devsphere.register().jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. a boolean and another String). private int integer. a float. private SimpleSubBean subBean. private float number. private int list[]. SimpleBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.11 . 11. The public constructor could have been omitted. private String colors[]. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .JSP <% } else { enrollBean. a software development and consulting company. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.

} // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this.JSP this.flag. } // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.colors[index].integer.string = value. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.flag = value.11 . } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.number = value. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.number.integer = value.colors.colors = values. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } 119 . } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.

list[index] = value.list = values. String value) { this.colors[index] = value. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.optional = value.JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index.subBean = value. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list. int value) { this. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this.list[index].optional.11 .subBean. } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } } 120 . } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.

// No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.java: package com.Serializable { private String string. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.11 .simple.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float). } } 11.examples.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.number.number = value.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.io. private float number.mapping. SimpleSubBean.18.string.string = value.devsphere.

11 .string subBean.html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.

18.123) }.11 .list]". The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element. the form's name and the processor's name. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities. new Boolean(true) }. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources.java: package com.integer]".ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. There are three error messages.simple. a float. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. the processing order. SimpleBeanResources. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.list]".string]".devsphere. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.mapping.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean. new int[] { 2. a boolean and an int[]. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. "One or more items must be selected" }. error messages.number]". "An option must be selected" }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. 3 } }. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11.examples. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. "One or more colors must be selected" }.util. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.flag]". The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. the list of optional properties. "abc" }. Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java.colors]". It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". new Float(0. new String[] { 123 . The default values are defined for a String. The list of optional properties has a single element.

JSP "optional" } }. "SimpleProc. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. If necessary. "optional". { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]".mapping. } } 11. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "integer". "colors".jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com. SimpleHndl. new String[] { "string".devsphere.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.logging. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java.simple.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. "list". For a better understanding of this example.examples.*. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). The beanToForm() method of com. string values are converted to numbers.11 . a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.18. { "[PROC_NAME]". "subBean" } }. { "[FORM_NAME]". "number".FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).mapping.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.html" }.jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.mapping.util. "flag".devsphere. "SimpleForm.devsphere. com. The formToBean() method of com.devsphere. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.devsphere.jsp" } }.mapping.

getTemplate(new java. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getBeanResources(simpleBean.removeUserErrors(errorTable). int slashIndex = basePath. response). // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.formToBean(formData.getServletPath().trim(). simpleBean.substring(0. // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils.getString("[PROC_NAME]"). // Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). slashIndex+1) : "". basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.io.trim(). logger).getString("[FORM_NAME]").getClass()). 125 .util.File(formPath)). // Construct the base path String basePath = request. if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes.getRealPath(formPath).equals("POST"). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.11 .forward(request.getMethod(). formPath = application. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template. // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request.lastIndexOf('/'). errorTable = HandlerUtils.JSP = HandlerUtils.getDocument(). // Process the valid data bean instance application.getRequestDispatcher(procPath). // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).

for (int i = 0.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean. i < list. strbuf.devsphere.getString() %> <P> subBean.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list. } %> 11. i++) 126 .jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. SimpleProc.string = <%= simpleBean. // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.getSubBean().simple.length == 0) return "".beanToForm(simpleBean.append("{ ").length.examples.getSubBean(). errorTable. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean. document.send(out). // Send the form document document.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. if (list.11 .number = <%= simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.18.mapping.JSP elements logger).

Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 .append(" ").append("}").toString(list[0]). you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.examples.append("{ ").SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(list[i]). The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*. i++) { strbuf. } strbuf.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters. strbuf. In addition.util.18.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file. ComplexHndl. This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages.length. } strbuf. In addition.length == 1) return Integer. return strbuf. default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. for (int i = 0.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.simple.length == 0) return "". Using the framework.append("}"). strbuf.mapping. ComplexForm.jsp files. return strbuf. i < list.append(list[i]). The localization of the Complex*. } %> 11. strbuf.devsphere.toString().toString(). if (list. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.formToBean() call. making the testing and the debugging easier. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form.11 . Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append(" "). A single call to FormUtils.

length. "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Blue" }. String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "Option 3" }. boolean checked = simpleBean. i < integerLabels.length.length. i < colorValues. i++) { boolean checked = false. j++) if (colors[j]. i++) { int value = i+1.11 .getColors(). "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean. for (int i = 0.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". j < colors. for (int i = 0. "Green". "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".getInteger() == value. "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 2". 128 . String colorValues[] = { "red".

simple.length.getSubBean().string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. if (list != null) for (int j = 0. "subBean.SimpleSubBean()). if (list == null) list = new int[0].length. "optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean. "Item 2".JSP break.setSubBean( new com.11 .getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . for (int i = 0. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. j < list.devsphere. String listItems[] = { "Item 1". j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true.getList().mapping. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Item 3" }. boolean selected = false. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. i < listItems.examples. break. i++) { int value = i+1. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.

Hashtable errorTable. "subBean.Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.mapping.getSubBean(). String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.simple.simple.get(property).devsphere.util.getString() == null || simpleBean. return message.examples.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean.getString().devsphere.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.mapping.setSubBean(simpleSubBean). } %> ComplexHndl.JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.length() == 0) { simpleBean. if (message == null) message = "".equals("POST"). 130 . boolean isPostMethod = request.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java.examples.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com.11 .util.setString("abc").getMethod().

setNumber(0.length() == 0 || flagValue. if (flagValue.123f). "number".length() != 0) simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean.trim().setNumber(new Float(numberValue).setNumber(0. "Must be filled").length == 0) { 131 .floatValue()).getColors() == null || simpleBean.setFlag(flagValue != null). setErrorMessage(errorTable. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean.getColors().JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.11 . if (numberValue != null && numberValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request. "string". } simpleBean.equals("false")) flagValue = null. "An option must be selected").getParameter("number"). "number".123f). //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean.getParameter("flag"). "integer". "Must be a number"). else { simpleBean.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue. setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled").

string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.setOptional(""). setErrorMessage(errorTable. "subBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean.length() != 0) simpleSubBean.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable. 132 . //* subBean.11 .getString(). "colors".string".string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.number".getOptional() == null) simpleBean.getList() == null || simpleBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean. "One or more items must be selected").getString() == null || simpleSubBean.getList(). "Must be filled").getParameter("subBean.setString(""). "list". } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean.setNumber(new Float(numberValue). "One or more colors must be selected").number : text try { String numberValue = request.floatValue()). "Must be } //* subBean. "subBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.number"). else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.

devsphere.simple.11 .devsphere. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.setList(new int[] { 2. message).mapping. simpleBean.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. "Must be a number").xml: SimpleHndl.devsphere.JSP filled").jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm.Hashtable errorTable. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets. 3 }). errorTable.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.SimpleBean.BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl.examples. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java.jsp.mapping. simpleBean.setString("abc").\ 133 . } %> 11.helpers.util.setString(""). } } else { simpleBean.setFlag(true).123f).setOptional(""). That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. simpleBean.helpers. The com. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.18.number". simpleSubBean.jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. String property. simpleBean.put(property.setNumber(0. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.properties or web.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.code=com. "subBean.

devsphere.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. a servlet is identified with its class.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.devsphere.11 .helpers. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.devsphere.properties (or web.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 . you could add a few other lines to servlets.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.simple. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean.AnotherBean. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www.properties: AnotherHndl. In many cases.mapping. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.examples. A servlet can be made bean-independent.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. If you have another bean-form pair.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.xml) file: ServletName.BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.code=com.helpers. If your Web application contains many forms/beans.mapping.host.host.mapping.18.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets.another.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.devsphere.company.examples.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.code=com.mapping.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class. 11.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.host.

11 .JSP 135 .

JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model.12 .2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages. This technology includes: 1. which loads the appropriate view template.JAVASERVER FACES 12. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility.0 supersedes version 1. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. 2. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client. Version 2. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet.0. processes events. builds a component tree. namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 .0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. Version 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views.2 javaServer Faces Technology 2. 12. buttons. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page. like input fields.javaserver faces 12 .1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications.

3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF.4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.2 of the JFS specification.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 .javaserver faces 12.4. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.12 . 12. JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster. As of version 1.

These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. such as alternating row colors. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags. see the column tag documentation. respectively.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . Common formatting techniques. Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets. footers. columns and rows. The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. For more information about columns.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. 12.4.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag.12 .

checkout}" /> 139 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N).12 . If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes.4.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks.total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.4. your options include using plain HTML forms.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15. The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.

username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.</span> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean.4.12 .1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.4. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".user. red for error.user. You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component.5. 12.username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12." /> 12.

The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag.5. 12. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.12 .2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs. For example.

optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.5. A component fires a value change event when its input changes. 12. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered. such as one of the HTML select or text input components.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. validateLength. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file. but only if the new input is validated successfully. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.customer. The body content of this tag must be empty. Without this JavaScript event. the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 .mycompany. can publish value change events.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address.12 .javaserver faces 12.5.

5.javaserver faces 12.12 . for each locale you wish to support.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view. Example: welcome_en. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. myJSFapp 143 . The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction. including images and styles.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. If you have not specified a default locale. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag.mycompany.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12. If your application supports the locale requested by the user.mycompany. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. This allows you to design localized versions of each page.

html.xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven.contains libraries required by the application. mandatory for any JSF application web. Create JSP pages 2. Define navigation rules 3.javaserver faces /ant build.xml web. It has a deployment descriptor.jar. and so on. jsf-api.jar faces-config.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.xml – the JSF configuration file.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.12 . included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. custom tag libraries. Create properties files 144 .jar jsf-api. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class. JSP pages.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl. static resources. Create managed beans 4.jar – files included in the /lib directory. like third party jar files jsf-impl.exadel.

Create an index.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 . Edit JSP pages 6.javaserver faces 5. Now that we have the two JSP pages. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. we just want to go from inputname. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname.xml file. The directory structure already exists. 12. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.12 . we can create a navigation rule. Compile the application 8. These files will act as place holders for now.jsp files in WebContent/pages/.jsp.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7.jsp. In our application. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure. As a diagram.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. You only need to create the JSP files. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.jsp and greeting.7. Deploy and run the application 12.jsp to greeting.jsp is greeting. You just need to create its contents.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later.jsp file 7. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. And that's all there is to this.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.

xml file should look like this: 146 . the second part of faces-config. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.7. You can easily create more complex ones. Inside this myJFSapp folder.7. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.xml Your final faces-config.7.java file.PersonBean.) 12. The next line is the full class name. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page. myJFSapp. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp.1 PersonBean.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps. we will create a PersonBean. a very simple navigation rule. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic.3. To read more about navigation rules.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button.3 creating the Managed Bean Next. request sets the bean scope in the application. This section defines a bean name PersonBean.3 faces-config.7.3. (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean.3. 12.12 .PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. public class PersonBean { String personName. This class is straight-forward.xml Now. 12. of course.javaserver faces This is. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.

1//EN" "http://java.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting. 12.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs. Inc.7.7.properties file in the bundle folder.5.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.1 messages. 12. 12.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1 inputname.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it.sun.12 .4.

One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.12 . look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.sun.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean.button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top. <h:inputText value="#{msg.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now.bundle.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.bundle. Then.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.

jsp page.2 greeting. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.7. Once this page is displayed in a Web browser. Line 6.5. and also print its contents on the page. That's how JSF knows where to go next. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The first three lines are identical to our first page.sun. name! 12..sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF.javaserver faces Line 1. specifically the bean attribute personName.6 creating the index.greeting_text}" />.sun.</h3> tags.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Creates an HTML input text box.bundle.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.12 . Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.jsp file inside the WebContent folder.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg.jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.xml file. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files.7. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt. <h:outputText value="#{personBean. The second line will access a Java bean. 12. It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages. Lines 3-5. Having an index. Line 2.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 . Create the index..

xml file.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. might possibly be different). This is a "login" application. we need to deploy it. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. This is used here. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server. and forwards the user to a success or error page.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality.xml file for the application *. To build the application run the build. 150 .jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.javaserver faces Now. Of course. 12.jsp. 12. you'll notice the file suffix is . Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. verifies the information. When Tomcat is done loading. To do this.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.7. 12.7. 12. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat.8.jsf and not . launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.html .9 Running Next.7. because in the web.jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp. We are almost done with this example.sourceforge.xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12.12 .bat in Tomcat's bin directory). Your setup.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward. which asks an user for an ID and password. though.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container.

The New Project wizard appears.. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-. 7. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. click Next. Select Java Project.. 3. click Next d. see Installing & Uninstalling. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled..src | +-. Select the Amateras node. 9. 10. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot. From the menu bar select File/New/Project. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder.12 . in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. 12. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. in the wizard that appears. 2. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. click Yes through messages that appear. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login). Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node.webroot | +-. select the Source tab. Enter project name.. click Next. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project.. 6. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot.. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. name the folder webroot 5.xml Editor (see faces-config.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. name the folder pages. jsf-login.. click Finish 4. 1. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot.. a. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. c. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder. click Add Folder. say. in the Add JSF Support page.WEB-INF 151 . make sure all checkboxes are checked. and set up folders for a web application.8. from the menubar select File/New/Other. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. your mileage may vary. and to add JSF libraries to the project.

enter login.java package login.12 .xml.lib | +-. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. b. in the Name field enter LoginManager. The Java code editor opens.javaserver faces | | | +-.xml editor opens. In Package Explorer select the src folder.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. } public String loginAction() { String action = null. if ( _uid. private String _pwd = "". in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd. 3.pages 12. Click Finish.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process. for scope select 152 . from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. click Add. a. c.xml Editor. } return action. input widgets appear d. from its context menu select New/Class. 2. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "".LoginManager. for class enter login.8. click Managed Bean. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs. In the Package field. The faces-config. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. We then configure it to be a managed bean. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. 1. } 4. The New Java Class wizard appears. for name enter mgr. else action = "loginFail".equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".

jsp: create this file similarly to index. the JSP Editor opens. then close the editor 12.webroot/pages/success.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.8. from its context menu select New/File. index.jsp.jsp). <!-. b.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login. Enter the following code: <!-.jsp and error. Create success. Create index. for File name enter index. Enter the following code: <!-. enter the following code. the New File wizard appears. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page. click Finish. in Package Explorer select webroot. so we create them first.12 . but in webroot/pages. success. Then we create login. but in webroot/pages.jsp.webroot/pages/error. All pages except login. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. e.jsp).4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. c. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities.jsp is placed directly in webroot.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3.jsp: a.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp. and 3 content pages (login. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages. save the file and close the editor.javaserver faces session. 1.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Create error. </body> Please try 153 .jsp using a FacesIDE wizard.jsp. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot.webroot/index. again. from the menubar select File/Save.

select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. 154 . <%@ page contentType="text/html.javaserver faces </html> 4. click Finish. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. for File name enter login. a code-completion window pops up.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. b.jsp: a. now we want to add attributes to this element. as shown below.sun. and the JSP Editor can help with code. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element.. and choose default for Template. To see this in action.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.12 . from its context menu select New/Other. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. etc.. with the following template code. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. Open the JSF palette.jsp. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette. place your cursor in one of these lines. the New wizard appears. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries.completion. and uses them for code completion as well. Create login. enter jsf-login e. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. d.sun. (See Show View Dialog) f.. g. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. and dock it along the right. click Next c. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.

in the code-completion window scroll down to value. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr.loginAction} The final code. with the barest presentational formatting.) j.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 .sun. insert another <h:inputText> element. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.javaserver faces h. complete the expression with the closing { k. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. with bean properties available in mgr. is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html.12 . this inserts value="" at the cursor. a code-completion window pops up. select userID from the code-completion window. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. enter #{mgr. and hit Enter. i.password}" l.sun. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. insert a <h:commandButton> element. set its value to Login..

from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view.password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.xml Editor. Open faces-config. it should open in the faces-config. 2. click on Page. then click inside the editor window.12 .userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr.xml. 156 .loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. This is shown below. Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong. Select the Navigation tab 3. using a FacesIDE editor.8. this inserts a page icon into the editor. 1.

6. in the Properties view. and set them to /pages/login. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages. 5. /pages/success.jsp 4.jsp and /pages/error. then click first on the icon for login. notice that the warning triangle disappears.jsp. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette. and is represented by an arrow.jsp. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. change the value of path to /index.jsp. select Navigation Case. from the palette at left. This is shown below: 157 . add 3 more pages.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).12 . Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages.jsp and then on the icon for success. Its properties appear in the Properties view.

12.jsp to error. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. Once deployed browse to index. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.xml. and you should be automatically forwarded to login.jsp.jsp.8. since we have such a trivial application. 1. and extension-based mapping is turned on. any other id/password should send you to the error page. We'll set some properties in web. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application. or leave it as-is. We want virtual path-based mapping. open web. The application is now complete. so uncomment it.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.xml for the specifics of our application. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass.12 . Use UserID/Password of foo/bar.Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. As it turns out. Similarly add a forward-action from login. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram).javaserver faces 7.jsp.6 Editing web.xml Here we edit web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. all we need do in web.xml. and you should be sent to the success page. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 . by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out.

html javax. start Tomcat.model javax.component javax..8.webapp 12.faces javax.faces. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.javaserver faces 12.12 . leave XML Configuration File URL blank. click Deploy 3.faces.faces.faces.lifecycle javax. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.faces.faces.faces.render javax. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.faces. as file:///.10 the javax.. For a given factory class name. the Manager application should reload.faces.validator javax.faces.. 12. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory.el javax. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot. Click on its link to launch the application. scroll down to Deploy.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. open its Manager application in a browser.faces.context javax.faces.CONFIG_FILES 159 .application javax.event javax.convert javax. that factory is used. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs.0 1.component.

12. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application.directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file).faces. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used.11 the javax.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager. A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. If none of the above steps yield a match. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.represents a single validation (or other) message. ViewHandler . Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . StateManager . • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths. This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. ViewHandlerWrapper . with the last one taking precedence.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. StateManagerWrapper . with the last one taking precedence. FacesMessage .used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.application package Contains the following classes: • Application .12 .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. defining page navigation. and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance. FacesMessage. handling events and input validation. • • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. those factories are used. ApplicationFactory .Severity .

extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource. • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value. including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource .FacesContext. • • 161 . ValueHolder .a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which. ActionSource2 .implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager. • ViewExpiredException . UIComponentBase . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.12 the javax. ContextCallBack . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding.faces. UICommand . EditableValueHolder .component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. triggers an application specific "command" or "action".an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents. NamingContainer . The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance. String. Here they are: • • UIColumn . as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. a menu item. when activated by the user.12 .context.faces. including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. StateHolder . String) results in failure on postback.restoreView(javax. 12. UIComponent . or a hyperlink. Such a component is typically rendered as a push button.a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent.

The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user.a UIComponent that has a value. UIGraphic . Optionally.12 .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.13 the java. This component has no rendering. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes. The user can modify the selected value. UIMessages .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded. UISelectOne . optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIInput .This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. by storing it as the value property of the component.html package 162 . The user cannot manipulate this component. UIPanel . that is displayed to the user. identified by a clientId. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property.a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox.a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component. Optionally.javaserver faces • UIData .a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. UISelectBoolean . it is for display purposes only. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIParameter . UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. UINamingContainer . which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). it is for display purposes only.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user.faces. it just serves as the root of the component tree. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. UIForm . UIViewRoot . UISelectItem . The user can modify the selected values. UIOutput . UIMessage .the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components.

12 . or not.faces. but the application wishes to render more than one.by default. HtmlMessages . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button.represents an HTML label element. HtmlCommandButton . The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlPanelGrid .Message". HtmlInputSecret . If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.represents an HTML img element. optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlColumn . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlForm . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. HtmlMessage . used to retrieve and render a graphical image. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled. HtmlOutputText . HtmlInputText .represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. This component must be placed inside a form.faces.renders the component value as text.represents an HTML input element of type password.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method. On a redisplay. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. HtmlPanelGroup . HtmlOutputLabel . and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 . HtmlOutputFormat . any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML textarea element. HtmlCommandLink .represents an HTML form element. HtmlDataTable .javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlInputTextarea . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present.represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset. and renders the result.represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element.renders child components in a table. The checkbox will be rendered as checked. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.represents an HTML input element of type text. HtmlOutputLink .by default.

convert package 164 .provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectOneMenu .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. ResponseWriter . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox .faces.faces. • • • • • • 12. showing a single available option at a time. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects. showing a single available option at a time. ResponseWriterWrapper . ResponseStream .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. It is passed to. HtmlSelectOneListbox . • • • • 12.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContextFactory .contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. HtmlSelectManyMenu . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. and the rendering of the corresponding response.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.15 the java.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment.javaserver faces property.context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext .12 . each phase of the request processing lifecycle. and potentially modified by. HtmlSelectOneRadio . FacesContext .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox .14 the java.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio. In particular.

Classes: MethodBinding .an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method.represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.javaserver faces 12. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions. VariableResolver .an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression.1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering.an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. • • • • 165 . The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .12 . PropertyResolver .15.16 the java.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding. 12. ValueBinding .faces.

an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. Interfaces: ActionListener . • • • • • One exception . PhaseEvent . FacesEvent .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.faces.typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface. ReferenceSyntaxException . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. ValueChangeEvent . PhaseId .a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. FacesListener .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event.an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity. PropertyNotFoundException .represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand). PhaseListener . • • • • 12.17 the java. ValueChangeListener .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents.12 . MethodNotFoundException .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle.AbortProcessingException . for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext.an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. 166 .javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . and event implementation classes.interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.

an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.18 the java.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.faces. ListDataModel . ResultSetDataModel . 12. ScalarDataModel . ResultDataModel . The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances. DataModelEvent .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.faces.20 the java.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. Classes: ArrayDataModel .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list".lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.19 the java.12 . typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags.javaserver faces 12.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. • • • • • • • • • 12. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 . SelectItem . Renderer . SelectItemGroup .faces.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object. Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable. DataModel .

ResponseStateManager . 12. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator .faces. • • 12. and concrete tag implementations for core tags. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. • RenderKit .javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request.represents a collection of Renderer instances that.12 . Typically.22 the java.a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component.21 the java.validator package Interface defining the validator model. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator . ConverterTag . if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values. as well. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed. RenderKitFactory . Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes).faces. The package contains an exception. AttributeTag . and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent. and/or user Locale. including a standard servlet. base classes for JSP custom component tags. LongRangeValidator . and concrete validator implementation classes. together. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. markup language.

that need to process their tag bodies. the process includes a few more components or pages. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. telling the model to update its data. 12. When a web server receives a request. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern.the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. that request is passed to the container. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. • • • • • FacesServlet . servlets. Likewise.a base class for all JSP custom actions.23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. When using JSF. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. the controller is the 169 . You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). or some other web technology.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. FacetTag . the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. related to a UIComponent. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. Also. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. In JSF. but basically. the controller sends a message to the view. In MVC. the life cycle is more complicated. telling the view to update its presentation.12 . the controller sends a message to the model. ValidatorTag . the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans. which passes the request to the page class. UIComponentBodyTag . When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF life cycle does not apply.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. or when an exception occurs. To ensure that the business state is never invalid.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. When the model is updated. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. UIComponentTag . which has several implications.

the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. Data for some components. If this is a subsequent request. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. or from request headers. and the response is sent to the client. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. These objects update their state with the data values. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. Data can come from input fields in a web form. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. such as components that create HTML input fields. • Invoke Application: During this phase. 170 . the conversion occurs in this phase. and the UI components are the view. the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). In addition. the JSF implementation must create the view.javaserver faces JSF implementation. is validated at this time. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests. and what happens during the processing and response. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. this does not yet update the business objects in the application. and a piece of data failed validation. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. not every request will flow through all six phases. The components are stored in a component tree. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. depending on the request. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. It updates only the UI components with the new data. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. it creates UI objects for each view component. any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. However. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. As with the previous phase. converting a String to a Date object). For a JSF-enabled application.12 . In addition.

you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. 171 . skipping any remaining phases. if errors occur during any of the phases. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. Also. if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.javaserver faces In the above figure. the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. For example. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.12 . information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase.

For example. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type. 172 . A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. 13. the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. NDS. such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/").1 names To look up an object in a naming system. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name.2.5).1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language.13 . For example. For example. possibly multiple. The DNS entry Wiz. for example. It enables applications to access different.48. and NIS(YP). When using almost any computer program or system. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. relative to the DNS entry Wiz. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www. A file system maps a filename (for example. or objects typically used by computer programs. you are always naming one object or another.sun.Wiz. To access a file in the computer. when you use an electronic mail system. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. which is located in the root of the file system.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. In addition. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. you must supply its name.9.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. The UNIX pathname. such as LDAP. naming and directory services using a common API. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". c:\bin\autoexec.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. /usr/hello. identifiers. you supply it the name of the object. such as addresses.JNDI 13 . JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation. Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API."). names a file hello in the file directory usr. DNS. in turn.JNDI 13. 13. Thus the DNS name sales.bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention.COM. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.COM. Using JNDI.

Using the reference. might contain the state of the printer. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry. such as its print server name and printing protocol. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. o=Sun. is a context. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. in the DNS domain Sun. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. By contrast. and its flight number and departure time. Typically. such as /usr. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. for example. is a context. that is. For example. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. For example. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. relative to the entry o=Sun. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. 13.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. is accessed using a file reference. and fuel and instrument status. in the an LDAP entry o=sun. The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). unbinding names. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. such as COM. a DNS domain. such as c=us. For example.c=us. a file directory. in a file directory /usr/bin. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. Instead. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. while the object itself might contain more state information. also called a file handle.COM.2. 13. A printer object. some objects cannot be stored directly. 173 . an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. might contain only information on how to reach the printer.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. on the other hand. and listing bound names. that is."). For simplicity.2. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. A file object. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. A printer object reference. Finally. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. A reference is information about how to access an object. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. its flight plan. they must be stored by reference. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. delimited by the comma character (". A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext. Every context has an associated naming convention. is relative to c=us. a file name is bound to a file. 13. for example. That is. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names.2. in the UNIX file system is a context. an LDAP entry.13 . For example. For example. In another example. which in turn.

resolution. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. a name is unique 13. 13. one context can be viewed. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. For example. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. because we can. and color. a computer. Thus. 13. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A directory object can be used. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. for example. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. The computer's directory service is much more powerful. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. An example is the telephone company's directory service. a person. For example. various telephone numbers. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources). An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.2. For example. And it kind of makes sense. two different computer 174 . to some extent. however. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. and computer account information.13 . a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. and even the computer itself and other computers. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories.3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree).JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. postal mail address. or a network. to represent a printer. programs. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. For example.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses.3. For example. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter.

adding. like any other program running on the network. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. and users. For example. Alternatively. When directory objects are arranged in this way. Similarly.113. 13. For example. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. for example. "mail" is the attribute identifier. When you search.3. By using a directory service. many directories.50". removing. the ability to access directory services will become essential.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. 13. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings. The query is called a search filter. 175 . Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. an organization object. 13.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. for example. printers. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute.3. for example. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. that is. support the notion of searches. The service is accessed through its own interface. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information.smith@somewhere.13 . 13.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services.3. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects. called a directory information tree (DIT). such as that relating to machines. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. 13. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets. such as those based on the LDAP. A Java mail client program.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. can use the directory in the traditional way. networks. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. such as the file and print services.4. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. Within the DIT. Many examples of directory services are possible.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. The email address. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years.com".

v1. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.13 .naming javax. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.4.1 and the Java 2 SDK. that is to store and retrieve Java objects.naming. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers. and even the network. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI). The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently.5. It extends the v1. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming. more coherent and manageable. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects. For example. 13.event javax.directory javax.5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language. 13.ldap 176 .2.1 and Java 2 SDK. The Java 2 SDK. 13. emerging. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.5.3 and later releases.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory. When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. 13.naming.2. v1. v1. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing.1 and v1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services. Thus a variety of directories--new. v1. To use the JNDI. For example.

Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class.6. the name of the object's class.6.lookup("treekiller"). a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name . 13. it is potentially a much more expensive operation. for some objects in the directory.6 the naming package The javax. The overloads that accept java. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object.6. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. list() is similar to listBindings(). a 177 .13 . list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects. You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up. comparing components.String name argument represents a composite name.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways. and the object itself.naming package defines a Context interface. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed.print(report). except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services.lang. and so on.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. binding/unbinding. that is.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. and it returns the object bound to that name. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. For example.spi 13. printer. 13.lang. 13.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.naming. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. 13.String name.6. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. The most commonly used operation is lookup() . which is the core interface for looking up. However.JNDI • javax. For the methods in the Context interface.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java. composing them.lang. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.1 context The javax. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form. Furthermore. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. In this case. A java.

which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.7 directory package The javax. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. 13.naming. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects.6. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. 13. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context.7. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object. 13.7. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface. they should catch NamingException.13 .6. Once you have an initial context. Otherwise. 13. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. There are no absolute roots. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. replace. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. In the simplest and most common form of usage. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name). InitialContext.directory package extends the javax. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. For example.2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 178 . Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). You can add. 13.

there need not be a response control for each request control sent. such as "object changed. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events.naming. For example. 13. 13.9.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services. controls.9. the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . 13.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control . Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired.8 event package The javax.naming. For example. that is. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. such as information about the object before and after the change. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event. To receive event notifications.directory package.9.naming. and vice versa." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change. 13. such as "object added. In fact. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers.JNDI 13. These operations are called "extended" operations. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. Once registered. the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server. called controls ." and those that do not.naming. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax.ldap package at all. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext.ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax.naming.9 LDAP package The javax.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server.13 . the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service. or unsolicited notifications.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail.

For example.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. 13. 13.spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI. create a file named Lookup.Context.10.naming.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.2 java object support The javax. It uses a service provider for the file system.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request. implementors of Context. 13.naming package.spi package supports implementors of Context. That is. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument. This support is provided in the form of object factories.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename.naming.10. 13.naming. 13. import javax. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. This support is provided in the form of state factories. In the process of completing an operation. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.13 . You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point. 180 . This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service.10.1 plug-In architecture The javax.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer. 13.9.java. sending request controls.naming.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.11.10 service provider package The javax. 13. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. if you look up a printer name from the directory. and receiving response controls.

See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers.13 . try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env). you compile the source file using the Java compiler.out.err. Object obj = ctx. env. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi. // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If the compilation succeeds.lookup(name).3. import javax. "com.naming.5 compiling the program Next.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi. If the compilation fails.jndi. v1.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.RefFSContextFactory"). then the JNDI classes are already included. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. you must have access to the JNDI classes. Otherwise.NamingException.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.naming. 181 . How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail.11.java). 13.fscontext. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). For this reason. create an initial context.lookup(name).4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). } 13. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause.put(Context.InitialContext. 13.11. If you are still having problems.11. // Print it System.println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e). use Context. as follows.JNDI import javax. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.jar as an installed extension.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. using the capitalization shown. 13. To compile to program.3 looking up an Object Next.11. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup. } catch (NamingException e) { System.lookup() to look up an object.sun.

"ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial").Context. then you will see something like the following. v1. the file system service provider. javax.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable.directory. you need access to the JNDI classes.put(Context.ldap.java.NamingException. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.12.jar and providerutil. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().put(Context. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program. Finally. 13.fscontext.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object.3. env. javax. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com.JNDI 13. To run the program.naming. javax.class).directory packages.DirContext. Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK.sun. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. "com. create an initial directory context. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example.6 running the program To run the program.naming and javax.bat If you supply a file directory.naming.directory.naming.naming. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. create a file named Getattr.11. 13.Attributes.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.12.LdapCtxFactory").sun. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. env.jndi. except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext.jndi. include the directory that contains your Lookup.directory. import import import import import javax.jar). To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.13 .naming. javax.naming. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes. 182 .PROVIDER_URL. supply the name of a file in your file system. and your example class (Lookup.InitialDirContext.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service.

the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. } catch (NamingException e) { System. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately.12. For this reason. Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. Similar to the naming example. 183 . The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.get("sn").get() and then from that attribute get its value. to do this you need access to the JNDI classes.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.get(). If the compilation fails. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.13 . 13.get("sn"). // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx.get() on it to get its value: attrs.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). compile the source file using the Java compiler. ou=People").12.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e).12.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException. ou=People"). For now. } 13. 13. using the capitalization shown. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.java).err.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes.out. then the compiler creates a file named Getattr.6 compiling the program Next. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here. Attributes. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). then see the Common Problems lesson for help. If the compilation succeeds. Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson.get()). then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. As with the naming example. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.12. 13.println("sn: " + attrs. If you are still having problems.

v1. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. then these classes are already included.jar and providerutil. Getattr.jar).class. 184 .put(Context.13 . then see the Common Problems lesson. (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. ou=People". you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class.7 running the program As with the naming example.12. With this configuration. env.JNDI 13. Once it has the attributes. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn").) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel. If you have any trouble running this example. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates.3. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.PROVIDER_URL. You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.

JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. JMS is a part of the Java Platform.14 .a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. JMS queue . the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. • 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients. Here. unless it has established a durable 185 . As the name queue suggests. Enterprise Edition. JMS client .a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. In this model. JMS message . Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic.an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. JMS producer . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic.a JMS client that receives messages. JMS consumer . The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . JMS topic . A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. the messages are delivered in the order sent. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue.

JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. In that case. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects.4. 14. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. Using Java. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.3 the JMS API programming model 14. Depending on the type of message.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription.jms. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. 186 . On the receiving side. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.14 . 14.4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax. and then use populate and send or publish the messages.

Depending on the connection type.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). For example. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. and users discover them using JNDI.close(). you must call the connection's start() method. Before an application completes. When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you call the stop() method.14 . a connection to a JMS provider can be created. It receives messages sent to a destination.lookup("jms/MyTopic").JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. The JMS administrator creates these objects.4.createConnection(). connection. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). It is either a queue or a topic. Like the connection factory. In a J2EE application. you must close any connections that you have created.4. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 . For example. Connections implement the Connection interface. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx.4.lookup("jms/MyQueue"). Before your application can consume messages. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. 14. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. 14. ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. which is where messages are delivered and consumed. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. 14.

14. (Remember always to call the start() method. it becomes active. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. In the onMessage() method.createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. MessageConsumer consumer = session. if it needs to reply to messages. which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. For example.4.receive().) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.) When message delivery begins. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().14 . Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. For example. and you can use it to receive messages. 188 . (If you call start() before you register the message listener.createConsumer(myQueue). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. onMessage(). usually expect a specific message type and format. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message. This object implements the MessageListener interface. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You use the Session. however. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection.setMessageListener(myListener). you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives.start(). After you register the message listener. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type. you are likely to miss messages. After you have created a message consumer.start(). a message listener object may be used. which contains one method. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.createConsumer(myTopic). consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. Message m = consumer.receive(1000). Moreover.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. connection. A message listener does. Message m = consumer. if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface.

A message has three main parts: 1. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. With an unidentified producer. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer. map message. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. You must first create the messages. MessageProducer producer = session. message). that is.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination.4. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m.send(message).createProducer(null). At the consuming end. // msg_text is a String producer. After you have created a message producer.createTextMessage(). message. bytes message. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. 3. A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. 189 .createProducer(myTopic). The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents.createProducer(myQueue).send(myQueue. to create and send a TextMessage. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).send(message). and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. anon_prod. stream message. For example. if you created an unidentified producer. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users. you do not specify a destination until you send a message. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents.14 . 14. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer. The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. from one application to another. Here. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14.receive(). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. and object message).setText(msg_text). The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer.4.

} else { // Handle error } 14. use the following code: Session session = connection. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed.println("Reading message: " + message. After you create a Connection object. Sessions implement the Session interface. The first argument means that the session is not transacted.getText()). and message consumers to receive messages. Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions. then delivers the messages. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation.out. To create a transacted session.4. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Here. 0). If the user selects transaction support. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized.8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages.createSession(true. the first argument means that the session is transacted.14 .createSession(false. 190 . Before committing the transaction. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions.

logging. server which provides an execution environment for containers. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server. container which offers services to the component. What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file. bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 .jar file into the application server. Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain .0. The component lives inside a container.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components.consistent error handling framework .1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence . Version 1.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component.transaction management can be complex.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling .no developer coding. message-driven beans The 2.15 . component recovery scalability portability 191 . the container lives (in general) in an application server. On the other side. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .object oriented representation of data in a DB.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server). bundled into a single unit.0.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . 15. improved performance security . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods.DB interaction transactions .

3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the home interface of the bean 3. as follows: 1.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. which is an xml file. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. the remote interface of the bean 4. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). called ejb-jar.xml 15. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.15 . the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the deployment descriptor.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15.

} 15. While the Remote interface declares no methods.javax.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean. The developer does not implement this interface.*. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans.ejb.rmi. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException.ejb. import java. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.15 .*. import java.RemoteException. RemoteException. import. String lastName. } 193 . public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.javax.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.RemoteException. import. public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException.rmi.

ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. prop. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext(). This object acts like a factory for EJBs. Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). "localhost:1099").INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.15 . this can be done (for example) through SSL.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application. } 194 .put(Context. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.NamingContextFactory". In the case of an web application. creating them for the client application. how to create or find the bean 2.PROVIDER_URL. what methods to use (know its interface) 3. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor.jnp. prop. "org. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process.interfaces. if the client executes outside the container. we need to know: 1.put(Context.

rmi. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx. do implements the java. This is done through the javax.e.. Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup.class). Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. that is part of CORBA standards. • if the client executes outside the container.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean").PortableRemoteObject class and. in fact. Problem is. create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx. using the narrow() method. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Some languages. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.Remote interface). and this means that there are some limitations.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject. to the appropriate type. 195 . The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. the client should use the narrow() method of javax.lookup("MyBean"). but for generic languages. more specifically. IIOP has not been designed for Java. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. do not have the concept of casting. in fact.15 .narrow(homeRef. It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container. the client has a stub). the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for. MyBeanHome. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object.rmi. Why? For EJB.

"Vasile". public class MyBean implements javax. Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. 15.processEntry("Dumitrascu". the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. remove the bean instance myObject.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome.ejb. import javax.15 .. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . 1102).ejb. int custId) { // method implementation . set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .ccards..ejbeans..remove().SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods.. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.SessionContext. Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. as well).create(). String lastName. call business methods on the bean myObject.bank11.

10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15. 15. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. namely stateful and stateless beans. it can evict stateful session beans from memory. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.15 . 197 . When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. 15. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. A stateless bean does not. the object is activated. a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. that is. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses.8 session beans There are two types of session beans.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface.

you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method. 15. calls the bean's ejbActivate method. (Typically.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage.15 . is inside the bean class. At the end of the life cycle. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the client invokes the remove method.11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. 198 . The ejbCreate method. for example. the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. or passivate. Figure 15.1 are invoked by the EJB container. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. and then moves it to the ready stage. the EJB container activates the bean.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. All other methods in Figure 15. the EJB container may decide to deactivate. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. For example. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client.

container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2.12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually. support for concurrent access 3. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. stored in a Database).15 . The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. equals() 199 . This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. maintaining a cache between transactions 4. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15.

an instance of that bean is created. Update and Delete.bank11. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create. On the other side. in the same order. This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients.lang. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate().ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. as the parameters in the original create() method. 200 . CreateException. all throwing RemoteException.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. state data is stored into data store (usually.14. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database).ccards. methods which have the same parameters. 15. when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface. Read.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key.15 . We can have more create() methods.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java.1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface.

15. the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method. not null.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). it's business methods can be invoked. On the first path. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. After instantiation. Second. in BMP. left empty most of the time in CMP. for BMP. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. for BMPs. While in the pooled stage. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. 15. the programmer will create actual SQL code.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP.14. but the developer returns null for CMP. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15. it is empty. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. On the second path. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. All instances in the pool are identical. the client invokes the create method. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. but in general. causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key.14. After the EJB container creates the instance. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. actual SQL update code. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean.15 .14. First. a client can invoke the remove method. 201 .3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case).

but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . 15. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. another enterprise bean. Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. or a Web component . 202 .an application client.15 . It acts as a JMS message listener. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. In the pooled state. the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. the values of the instance variables are not needed. With bean-managed persistence. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. it does not automatically set the primary key.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. If the primary key is incorrect. In the pooled state. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology. Therefore.getPrimaryKey().

16. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. If message processing is rolled back. an open database connection. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.15 .2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. but not asynchronously. max-beans-infree-pool. When a message arrives.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.16. The onMessage method may call helper methods. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. the message will be redelivered.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . message-driven bean can be used. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. 15. 15.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.for example. Previously. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. Unlike a session or entity bean. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. If this element is set to more than one. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.16. To ensure concurrency. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component. a JMS API connection. For more information on this element see. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. In several respects.16. 15. To avoid tying up server resources. 203 . or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. the container will spawn as many threads as specified. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.

6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.16.. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. 15.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message. As with other EJB types. or create a new one.} // onMessage() is required. and it must not // accept parameters.Message MessageName) {. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception.}. // An EJB constructor is required. finalize{}.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. public void onMessage(javax. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2. 2. and must take a single parameter of // type javax. 15.Message.. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static.. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. Obtain a new bean instance. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage(). as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior. 3. methods.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters.15 .jms.16.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context.. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract. Note: These instances can be pooled.0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class.0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax.ejb. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.0 specification..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.. Classes. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2. The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.16. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic.jms. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 . public void ejbRemove() {.

whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().onMessage() for more information.This is not a client context.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. See javax. from the client perspective the EJB still exists. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. 15. getRollbackOnly() .11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. However.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance. 15.8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. even in onMessage(). Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.16. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException.16.MessageListener. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. the client context is not passed along with the JMS message.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. 15.16. getUserTransaction(). because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example. 15. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). For example. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context.jms.15 . if the EJB throws a runtime exception).16. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. If any method throws such an exception. passing the full JMS message object as an argument.

WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits.16. 15.14 deployment elements The EJB 2. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. as described in the EJB 2. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . In either case.xml. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server.16.15 . beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions). WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.0 specification.0 specification. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions. as required by the EJB 2. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.16.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15.

</enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. 15. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1. subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances.15 . It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples.0 specification. as described in the EJB 2. • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.. For each instance.xml elements.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15.xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.jms.ejb20.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . 207 ..ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax..xml deployment file. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance.. 2. </message-driven> . the weblogic-ejb-jar. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.message.

the remote interface name 8. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2.15 . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. environment properties 6. attributes .like transaction.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. security 208 . EJB class name 5. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. access control entries .18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. a message-driven bean is never passivated. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the home interface name 7. control descriptors . bean home name . isolation level. session specific elements 9.specifies control attributes for transactions 4. 15. entity specific elements 10. the container calls the ejbRemove method.security issues.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean. At the end of the life cycle.

ccards.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.bank11.bank11.bank11.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.ejb.ejb.ejb.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.bank11.bank11.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.15 .Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.ccards.ccards.ccards.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.ccards.ejb.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.bank11.lang.ccards.

15 .5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java..Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .lang.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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