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1 - JAVA PLATFORM, ENTERPRISE EDITION
1.1 the state of java EE
The Java EE 6 is the current Java Enterprise Edition specification (as of Oct. 2010). Compared to the previous specification, it introduces several new features:

Profiles, configurations of the Java EE platform targeted at specific classes of applications. Specifically, the Java EE 6 platform introduces a Web Profile targeted at web applications, as well as a Full Profile that contains all Java EE technologies. New technologies, including the following:
• • •

Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform (JSR-299), informally known as Web Beans Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)

• • •

New features for Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJBTM) components New features for servlets New features for JavaServer TM Faces components

1.2 the application model
The application model starts with the Java programming language and the Java Virtual Machine. This combination provides high portability, scalability and developing efficiency. Java EE is designed to support applications that implement enterprise services for customers, employees, suppliers, partners, and others who make demands on or contributions to the enterprise. Such applications are inherently complex, potentially accessing data from a variety of sources and distributing applications to a variety of clients. To better control and manage these applications, the business functions to support these various users are conducted in the middle tier. The middle tier represents an environment that is closely controlled by an enterprise's information technology department. The middle tier is typically run on dedicated server hardware and has access to the full services of the enterprise. The Java EE application model defines an architecture for implementing services as multi-tier applications that deliver the scalability, accessibility, and manageability needed by enterpriselevel applications. This model partitions the work needed to implement a multi-tier service into two parts: the business and presentation logic to be implemented by the developer, and the standard system services provided by the Java EE platform. The developer can rely on the platform to provide solutions for the hard systems-level problems of developing a multi-tier service.

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1.3 distributed multitiered applications
The Java EE platform uses a distributed multitiered application model for enterprise applications. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a Java EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered Java EE environment to which the application component belongs. Figure 1.1 shows generic multitiered Java EE applications divided into the tiers described in the list below. The Java EE application parts shown in figure 1.1 are presented in the Java EE components section.
• • • •

client-tier components run on the client machine. web-tier components run on the Java EE server. business-tier components run on the Java EE server. enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server

Figure 1.1 Distributed multitiered applications
Although a Java EE application can consist of the three or four tiers shown in figure 1.1, Java EE multitiered applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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1.4 java EE components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components:
• • •

Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JavaServer Faces, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology components are web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeansTM (EJB) components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server.

Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and “standard” Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, are verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server.

1.5 java EE Clients
A Java EE client can be a web client or an application client.

1.5.1 Web Clients
A web client consists of two parts: (1) dynamic web pages containing various types of markup language (HTML, XML, and so on), which are generated by web components running in the web tier, and (2) a web browser, which renders the pages received from the server. A web client is sometimes called a thin client. Thin clients usually do not query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications. When you use a thin client, such heavyweight operations are off-loaded to enterprise beans executing on the Java EE server, where they can leverage the security, speed, services, and reliability of Java EE server-side technologies.

1.5.2 Applets
A web page received from the web tier can include an embedded applet. An applet is a small client application written in the Java programming language that executes in the Java virtual machine installed in the web browser. However, client systems will likely need the Java Plug-in and possibly a security policy file in order for the applet to successfully execute in the web browser. Web components are the preferred API for creating a web client program because no plug-ins or security policy files are needed on the client systems. Also, web components enable cleaner and more modular application design because they provide a way to separate applications programming from web page design. Personnel involved in web page design thus do not need to understand Java programming language syntax to do their jobs.

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1 - java platform, enterprise edition 1.5.3 Application Clients
An application client runs on a client machine and provides a way for users to handle tasks that require a richer user interface than can be provided by a markup language. It typically has a graphical user interface (GUI) created from the Swing or the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) API, but a command-line interface is certainly possible. Application clients directly access enterprise beans running in the business tier. However, if application requirements warrant it, an application client can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier. Application clients written in languages other than Java can interact with Java EE 6 servers, enabling the Java EE 6 platform to interoperate with legacy systems, clients, and non-Java languages.

1.5.4 The JavaBeans Component Architecture
The server and client tiers might also include components based on the JavaBeans component architecture (JavaBeans components) to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the Java EE server, or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components are not considered Java EE components by the Java EE specification. JavaBeans components have properties and have get and set methods for accessing the properties. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.

1.5.5 Java EE Server Communications
Figure 1.2 shows the various elements that can make up the client tier. The client communicates with the business tier running on the Java EE server either directly or, as in the case of a client running in a browser, by going through JSP pages or servlets running in the web tier. Your Java EE application uses a thin browser-based client or thick application client. In deciding which one to use, you should be aware of the trade-offs between keeping functionality on the client and close to the user (thick client) and off-loading as much functionality as possible to the server (thin client). The more functionality you off-load to the server, the easier it is to distribute, deploy, and manage the application; however, keeping more functionality on the client can make for a better perceived user experience.

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are not considered web components. like the client tier.2 Server communication 1. like HTML pages. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly but are not considered web components by the Java EE specification. retail. Figure 1. 5 . and sends it back to the client program. and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage.java platform.1 . An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage.3 shows how an enterprise bean receives data from client programs. enterprise edition Figure 1. or finance.6 web components Java EE web components are either servlets or pages created using JSP technology (JSP pages) and/or Java Server Faces technology. might include a JavaBeans component to manage the user input and send that input to enterprise beans running in the business tier for processing. 1. processes it (if necessary).7 business components Business code. Java Server Faces technology builds on servlets and JSP technology and provides a user interface component framework for web applications. The web tier. Server-side utility classes can also be bundled with web components and. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content. processes it (if necessary). is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking.

thin-client multitiered applications are hard to write because they involve many lines of intricate code to handle transaction and state management. mainframe transaction processing.3 Web. enterprise bean. 1. In addition. you are free to concentrate on solving the business problem at hand. enterprise edition Figure 1. Because you do not have to develop these services yourself. the Java EE server provides underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. Before a web. database systems. For example.9. resource pooling.8 enterprise information system tier The enterprise information system tier handles EIS software and includes enterprise infrastructure systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). 1. and other legacy information systems. or application client component can be executed. multithreading.9 java EE Containers Normally.java platform.1 Container Services Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component.1 . Business and EIS Tiers 1. The component-based and platform-independent Java EE architecture makes Java EE applications easy to write because business logic is organized into reusable components. 6 . and other complex low-level details. it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. Java EE application components might need access to enterprise information systems for database connectivity.

and access to the Java EE platform APIs. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. 1. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. and remote connectivity. For example. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services.9. enterprise edition The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. transaction management. After an enterprise bean is created. database connection resource pooling.java platform.1 . Here are some of the highlights: • • • • The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.2 Container Types The deployment process installs Java EE application components in the Java EE containers illustrated in figure 1. data persistence.4. The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. including services such as security. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server. 7 . Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment.

These XML-based standards and protocols are introduced in the following sections. To write web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs. enterprise edition Figure 1. set up schemas to specify which tags can be used in a particular kind of XML document.the runtime portion of a Java EE product.10. and deploy web services and clients that fully interoperate with other web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms. or for document-oriented web services. XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. program files. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools you need to quickly design. XML data.java platform. Another company might read the XML pricing information into an application for processing.10 support for web services Web services are web-based enterprise applications that use open. A partner company might put the XML pricing information through a tool to create a marketing presentation. and companies that receive the price lists and schema can have their own stylesheets to handle the data in a way that best suits their needs. Enterprise beans and their container run on the Java EE server.manages the execution of applets. Consists of a web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together. 1. maps. develop. all you do is pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned. 1. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. 8 . No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. A Java EE server provides EJB and web containers.1 XML XML is a cross-platform. extensible. Application client container . The next section introduces XML and explains how parties doing business can use XML tags and schemas to exchange data in a meaningful way.1 . computeraided design (CAD) documents and the like. or any kind of binary data such as audio.manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for Java EE applications. Web components and their container run on the Java EE server. and use XML stylesheets to manage the display and handling of the data. you send documents containing the service data back and forth. Applet container . Application clients and their container run on the client. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container .manages the execution of application client components. Here are examples: • • • One company might put XML pricing information through a program to translate the XML to HTML so that it can post the price lists to its intranet. text-based standard for representing data. test. the parties are free to create their own tags to describe the data.manages the execution of enterprise beans for Java EE applications. a web service can use XML and a schema to produce price lists. For example. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text. When XML data is exchanged between parties. Web container . video.4 Java EE Server and Containers • • • • • Java EE server .

and SOAP is an XML-based protocol that follows the HTTP request-and-response model. The description includes the name of the service. and the APIs used in Java EE applications.2 SOAP Transport Protocol Client requests and web service responses are transmitted as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages over HTTP to enable a completely interoperable exchange between clients and web services. WSDL service descriptions can be stored in UDDI registries or published on the web (or both). HTTP is a familiar request-and response standard for sending messages over the Internet. Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and ebXML.11 java EE 6 core technologies and APIs Figure 1. 1. The SOAP portion of a transported message handles the following: • • • Defines an XML-based envelope to describe what is in the message and how to process the message Includes XML-based encoding rules to express instances of application-defined data types within the message Defines an XML-based convention for representing the request to the remote service and the resulting response 1. The Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8 provides a tool for generating the WSDL specification of a web service that uses remote procedure calls to communicate with clients.3 WSDL Standard Format The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a standardized XML format for describing network services. enterprise edition 1.10.4 UDDI and ebXML Standard Formats Other XML-based standards.5 illustrates the availability of the Java EE 6 platform APIs in each Java EE container type.1 . such as Universal Description.10. 1. and ways to communicate with the service. make it possible for businesses to publish information on the Internet about their products and web services.10. 9 .java platform. The following sections give a brief summary of the technologies required by the Java EE platform. the location of the service. where the information can be readily and globally accessed by clients who want to do business. all running on different platforms and at various locations on the Internet.

In Java EE 5.11. and XML) and JSP elements. Although servlets can respond to any type of request. A JSP page is a text-based document that contains two types of text: static data (which can be expressed in any text-based format such as HTML. A message-driven bean combines features of a session bean and a message listener. Instead of mixing tags from numerous vendors in your JSP applications. they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers. is a body of code having fields and methods to implement modules of business logic. the session bean and its data are gone. these are Java Message Service (JMS) messages. If the client terminates. you employ a single. You can think of an enterprise bean as a building block that can be used alone or with other enterprise beans to execute business logic on the Java EE server. 1. 1. or if the server shuts down. entity beans have been replaced by Java persistence API entities. 1. the persistence manager ensures that the entity data is saved.11.1 Enterprise JavaBeans Technology An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) component.java platform.1 . This standardization allows you to deploy your applications on any JSP container that supports JSTL and makes it more likely that the 10 . allowing a business component to receive messages asynchronously. enterprise edition Figure 1. When the client finishes executing. There are two kinds of enterprise beans: session beans and message-driven beans.5 Java EE Platform APIs 1.3 JavaServer Pages Technology JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology lets you put snippets of servlet code directly into a textbased document. or enterprise bean. A servlet class extends the capabilities of servers that host applications that are accessed by way of a request-response programming model.11.11. An entity represents persistent data stored in one row of a database table. Commonly.2 Java Servlet Technology Java servlet technology lets you define HTTP-specific servlet classes.4 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library (JSTL) encapsulates core functionality common to many JSP applications. standard set of tags. which determine how the page constructs dynamic content. WML. A session bean represents a transient conversation with a client.

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implementation of the tags is optimized. JSTL has iterator and conditional tags for handling flow control, tags for manipulating XML documents, internationalization tags, tags for accessing databases using SQL, and commonly used functions.

1.11.5 JavaServer Faces
JavaServer Faces technology is a user interface framework for building web applications. The main components of JavaServer Faces technology are as follows:
• •

A GUI component framework. A flexible model for rendering components in different kinds of HTML or different markup languages and technologies. A Renderer object generates the markup to render the component and converts the data stored in a model object to types that can be represented in a view. A standard RenderKit for generating HTML/4.01 markup. Input validation Event handling Data conversion between model objects and components Managed model object creation Page navigation configuration

The following features support the GUI components:
• • • • •

All this functionality is available via standard Java APIs and XML-based configuration files.

1.11.6 Java Message Service API
The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows Java EE application components to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous.

1.11.7 Java Transaction API
The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a standard interface for demarcating transactions. The Java EE architecture provides a default auto commit to handle transaction commits and rollbacks. An auto commit means that any other applications that are viewing data will see the updated data after each database read or write operation. However, if your application performs two separate database access operations that depend on each other, you will want to use the JTA API to demarcate where the entire transaction, including both operations, begins, rolls back, and commits.

1.11.8 JavaMail API
Java EE applications use the JavaMail API to send email notifications. The JavaMail API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to send mail, and a service provider interface. The Java EE platform includes JavaMail with a service provider that allows application components to send Internet mail.

1.11.9 JavaBeans Activation Framework
The JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) is included because JavaMail uses it. JAF provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to

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perform those operations.

1.11.10 Java API for XML Processing
The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), part of the Java SE platform, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML (SAX), and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). JAXP enables applications to parse and transform XML documents independent of a particular XML processing implementation. JAXP also provides namespace support, which lets you work with schemas that might otherwise have naming conflicts. Designed to be flexible, JAXP lets you use any XML-compliant parser or XSL processor from within your application and supports the W3C schema. You can find information on the W3C schema at this URL: http://www.w3.org/XML/Schema.

1.11.11 Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)
The JAX-WS specification provides support for web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects. The JAX-WS specification defines client APIs for accessing web services as well as techniques for implementing web service endpoints. The Web Services for J2EE specification describes the deployment of JAX-WS-based services and clients. The EJB and servlet specifications also describe aspects of such deployment. It must be possible to deploy JAX-WS-based applications using any of these deployment models. The JAX-WS specification describes the support for message handlers that can process message requests and responses. In general, these message handlers execute in the same container and with the same privileges and execution context as the JAX-WS client or endpoint component with which they are associated. These message handlers have access to the same JNDI java:comp/env namespace as their associated component. Custom serializers and deserializers, if supported, are treated in the same way as message handlers.

1.11.12 Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS)
The Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) defines APIs for the development of Web services built according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style. A JAXRS application is a web application that consists of classes that are packaged as a servlet in a WAR file along with required libraries. The JAX-RS API is new to the Java EE 6 platform.

1.11.13 Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB)
The Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) provides a convenient way to bind an XML schema to a representation in Java language programs. JAXB can be used independently or in combination with JAX-WS, where it provides a standard data binding for web service messages. All Java EE application client containers, web containers, and EJB containers support the JAXB API.

1.11.14 SOAP with Attachments API for Java
The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) is a low-level API on which JAX-WS and JAXR depend. SAAJ enables the production and consumption of messages that conform to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments note. Most developers do not use the SAAJ API, instead using the higher-level JAX-WS API.

1.11.15 Java API for XML Registries
The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) lets you access business and general-purpose registries over the web. JAXR supports the ebXML Registry and Repository standards and the

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emerging UDDI specifications. By using JAXR, developers can learn a single API and gain access to both of these important registry technologies. Additionally, businesses can submit material to be shared and search for material that others have submitted. Standards groups have developed schemas for particular kinds of XML documents; two businesses might, for example, agree to use the schema for their industry's standard purchase order form. Because the schema is stored in a standard business registry, both parties can use JAXR to access it.

1.11.16 J2EE Connector Architecture
The J2EE Connector architecture is used by tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged in to any Java EE product. A resource adapter is a software component that allows Java EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager of the EIS. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, typically there is a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system. The J2EE Connector architecture also provides a performance-oriented, secure, scalable, and message-based transactional integration of Java EE-based web services with existing EISs that can be either synchronous or asynchronous. Existing applications and EISs integrated through the J2EE Connector architecture into the Java EE platform can be exposed as XML-based web services by using JAX-WS and Java EE component models. Thus JAX-WS and the J2EE Connector architecture are complementary technologies for enterprise application integration (EAI) and end-to-end business integration.

1.11.17 Java Database Connectivity API
The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API lets you invoke SQL commands from Java programming language methods. You use the JDBC API in an enterprise bean when you have a session bean access the database. You can also use the JDBC API from a servlet or a JSP page to access the database directly without going through an enterprise bean. The JDBC API has two parts: an application-level interface used by the application components to access a database, and a service provider interface to attach a JDBC driver to the Java EE platform.

1.11.18 Java Persistence API
The Java Persistence API is a new all Java standards based solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object oriented model and a relational database. Java Persistence consists of three areas:
• • •

The Java Persistence API The query language Object/relational mapping metadata

1.11.19 Java Naming and Directory Interface
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provides naming and directory functionality, enabling applications to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), NDS (Novell Directory Services), DNS, and NIS (Network Information services). It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a Java EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object, allowing Java EE applications to coexist with many legacy applications and systems.

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Java EE naming services provide application clients, enterprise beans, and web components with access to a JNDI naming environment. A naming environment allows a component to be customized without the need to access or change the component's source code. A container implements the component's environment and provides it to the component as a JNDI naming context. A Java EE component can locate its environment naming context using JNDI interfaces. A component can create a javax.naming.InitialContext object and looks up the environment naming context in InitialContext under the name java:comp/env. A component's naming environment is stored directly in the environment naming context or in any of its direct or indirect subcontexts. A Java EE component can access named system-provided and user-defined objects. The names of system-provided objects, such as JTA UserTransaction objects, are stored in the environment naming context, java:comp/env. The Java EE platform allows a component to name user-defined objects, such as enterprise beans, environment entries, JDBC DataSource objects, and message connections. An object should be named within a subcontext of the naming environment according to the type of the object. For example, enterprise beans are named within the subcontext java:comp/env/ejb, and JDBC DataSource references in the subcontext java:comp/env/jdbc.

1.11.20 Java Authentication and Authorization Service
The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a Java EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. JAAS is a Java programming language version of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework, which extends the Java Platform security architecture to support userbased authorization.

1.11.21 Java Authorization Service Provider Contract for Containers (Java ACC)
The Java ACC specification defines a contract between a Java EE application server and an authorization policy provider. All Java EE containers support this contract. The Java ACC specification defines java.security.Permission classes that satisfy the Java EE authorization model. The specification defines the binding of container access decisions to operations on instances of these permission classes. It defines the semantics of policy providers that employ the new permission classes to address the authorization requirements of the Java EE platform, including the definition and use of roles.

1.11.22 Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC)
The Java Authentication Service Provider Interface for Containers (JASPIC) specification defines a service provider interface (SPI) by which authentication providers that implement message authentication mechanisms may be integrated in client or server message processing containers or runtimes. Authentication providers integrated through this interface operate on network messages provided to them by their calling container. They transform outgoing messages so that the source of the message may be authenticated by the receiving container, and the recipient of the message may be authenticated by the message sender. They authenticate incoming messages and return to their calling container the identity established as a result of the message authentication.

1.11.23 Simplified Systems Integration
The Java EE platform is a platform-independent, full systems integration solution that creates

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No extra coding is needed.1 .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application. or better customer support. such as better performance. a module. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors. and JNDI 1. a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an . JSP page. it is ready to be deployed. or component accordingly. The Java EE 6 APIs enable systems and applications integration through the following: • • • • • • • Unified application model across tiers with enterprise beans Simplified request-and-response mechanism with JSP pages and servlets Reliable security model with JAAS XML-based data interchange integration with JAXP. At runtime. it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. and JAX-WS Simplified interoperability with the J2EE Connector architecture Easy database connectivity with the JDBC API Enterprise application integration with message-driven beans and JMS. Such a marketplace encourages vendors to compete. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble a number of different Java EE applications using some of the same components. better tools. or a component. module. or applet) An optional deployment descriptor that describes its content Once a Java EE unit has been produced. not by trying to lock customers into their technologies but instead by trying to outdo each other in providing products and services that benefit customers.12 java EE application assembly and deployment A Java EE application is packaged into one or more standard units for deployment to any Java EE platform-compliant system. enterprise edition an open marketplace in which every vendor can sell to every customer. 15 .ear extension. SAAJ.java platform. it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. the application is ready to run. Each unit contains: • • A functional component or components (such as an enterprise bean. the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application. JTA. such as a list of local users that can access it and the name of the local database. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative. Deployment typically involves using a platform’s deployment tool to specify location-specific information. servlet. Once deployed on a local platform. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .

which contain servlet class files. such as caching directives.xml and are located in the same META-INF directory as the Java EE deployment descriptor. A runtime deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.6 EAR file structure There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and runtime. The four types of Java EE modules are as follows: • • EJB modules. Web modules. declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. An enterprise bean module deployment descriptor. along with the resource adapter deployment descriptor. Together. supporting class files. Resource adapter modules. Application client modules. for example. Resource adapter modules are packaged as JAR files with an . JSP files. • • 16 . which contain all Java interfaces. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. and Application Server implementation-specific parameters.java platform. these implement the Connector architecture (see J2EE Connector Architecture) for a particular EIS. the Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 runtime deployment descriptor contains information such as the context root of a web application. which contain class files and an application client deployment descriptor. The Application Server runtime deployment descriptors are named sunmoduleType.war (Web ARchive) extension. and a web application deployment descriptor. which contain class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor. A Java EE module consists of one or more Java EE components for the same container type and one component deployment descriptor of that type. enterprise edition Figure 1.1 .jar extension. Application client modules are packaged as JAR files with a . A Java EE module without an application deployment descriptor can be deployed as a stand-alone module. classes. GIF and HTML files.rar (resource adapter archive) extension. native libraries. Web modules are packaged as JAR files with a . EJB modules are packaged as JAR files with a . the mapping of portable names of an application’s resources to the server’s resources. For example.jar extension. and other documentation.

HEAD.org/Protocols . RFC 2616 (06/99)..com/easy/http.apps. check the official HTTP site – www.jmarshall. was the object of several RFCs. but they also have some common structural elements.2 . RFC 2617 (06/99) and RFC 2774 (02/00). Roy Fielding and Henrik Nielsen. For a complete specification of the different HTTP versions.w3. separated by spaces: • • a command (method) name (like GET.2 the structure of http transactions HTTP follows the client – server model. Headern: valuen <optional data block> 2.1.3 the initial request line Contains 3 elements. 2.0 – dates from 05/95 and is the object of RFC 1945 (www.org/rfc/rfc1945. of which we mention RFC 2068 (01/97). As a site for understanding how HTTP works. an initial line 2. . The client sends a request message to the server. HTTP was created by by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN as a mean to store scientific data.HTTP 2 . namely HTTP 1.1 what is http HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol while hypertext means text contatining links to another text... It quickly evolved into the preferred communication protocol over the internet.HTTP 2.) a file specification (path) (the part of the URL after the host name) 17 . The server answers with a response message. so far) version. a blank line (CR/LF) 4. as follows: 1. POST..html). we recommend www. It is authored by Tim Berners-Lee. zero or more header lines 3. The second (and last.ietf. The first oficial version – HTTP 1. an optional message body <initial line> Header1: value1 . These messages may have different contents.

mailing list.2 . The POST method is used to request that the origin server accept the entity enclosed in the request as a new subordinate of the resource identified by the Request-URI in the Request-Line. in the HTTP 1. All the information requested is returned in the header section of the response.5 the GET and POST methods The GET method means retrieve whatever information (in the form of an entity) is identified by the Request-URI. PUT 8. 18 . TRACE Three other commands are listed.Posting a message to a bulletin board.1. GET 2.0 Here is an example of an initial request line: 2. it is the produced data which shall be returned as the entity in the response and not the source text of the process.HTTP • the HTTP version (usually.1 specification.Annotation of existing resources. 2. HTTP/1.0). The only difference is that the response must not have a body. unless that text happens to be the output of the process. OPTIONS 7. POST is designed to allow a uniform method to cover the following functions: . POST 4. If the Request-URI refers to a data-producing process. but lack of support makes them obsolete. as well.4 http commands (methods) As of HTTP 1. HEAD 3. These commands are: • • • LINK UNLINK PATCH The HEAD command is identical to the GET command in all respects but one. CONNECT 5. DELETE 6. Here is their list: 1. . newsgroup.html HTTP/1. GET /path/to/the/file/index. there are 8 HTTP commands (methods) that are widely supported.

” On the other side. or sending E-mail 2. while POST may involve anything. (encoded as multipart/form-data).Providing a block of data. such as the result of submitting a form.Extending a database through an append operation. to a data-handling process. GET attaches this data to the URL of the request. 3.HTTP or similar group of articles.8 the status code A three-digit integer.7 the initial response (status) line Contains 3 elements. The actual function performed by the POST method is determined by the server and is usually dependent on the Request-URI.6 differences between GET and POST 1. 2. 2. where the first digit identifies the general category of response: • 1xx indicates an informational message only 19 . depending on whether or not the response includes an entity that describes the result. When used for form data submission. The action performed by the POST method might not result in a resource that can be identified by a URI. separated by spaces (although the reason phrase may contain spaces. as well): • • • the HTTP version of the response a response status code (a number) a response status reason phrase (a human readable response status) Here is an example of an initial response line: HTTP/1. or a record is subordinate to a database. separated by the character “&” or “. after the “?” character. . like storing or updating data. .0 404 Not Found 2. or in the message body. The method GET is intended for getting (retrieving) data. The posted entity is subordinate to that URI in the same way that a file is subordinate to a directory containing it. In this case. A POST request requires an extra transmission to retrieve the message body. or ordering a product. form data submitted by POST may be encoded either as above (using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type). a news article is subordinate to a newsgroup to which it is posted. as a sequence of “name=value” pairs.2 . either 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) is the appropriate response status. while a GET request allows data sent via the URL to be processed immediately.

that is.10 the message body An HTTP message may have a body of data sent after the header lines. one (Host) is mandatory. none of them mandatory. In particular. file or script output) is returned in the message body. while the HTTP 1.2 .0Gold Last-Modified: Fri. 301 Moved Permanently 302 Moved Temporarily 303 See Other (HTTP 1. the header lines of the message are used to describe the body. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Header lines which begin with spaces or tabs are parts of the previous header line. the Content-Length: header gives the number of bytes in the body. this is where user-entered data or uploaded files are sent to the server. or otherwise can't run correctly.9 header lines A header line consists of two parts. The most common cause is a server-side script that has bad syntax.1 version specifies 46 of them. If an HTTP message includes a body. fails. 500 Server Error . 2.1 only) . and the resulting resource (e. 404 Not Found . The most common use of the message body is in a response. and should be automatically retrieved by the client. 20 . such as text/html or image/jpg. where the requested resource is returned to the client. 2.0 version specifies 16 headers. This is often used by a CGI script to redirect the browser to an existing file. header values are.the request succeeded. In a request.an unexpected server error. out of which. header name and header value.g.1). • • the Content-Type: header gives the MIME-type of the data in the body. The most common status codes are: • • • • • • A complete list of status codes is in the HTTP specification (the URL was mentioned in the firs section of this chapter) (section 9 for HTTP 1. or perhaps explanatory text if there's an error. The HTTP 1.the resource has moved to another URL (given by the Location: response header). Although the header names are not case sensitive. separated a semicolon.the requested resource doesn't exist. A couple of examples of header lines: User-agent: Mozilla/3.0. and section 10 for HTTP 1.HTTP • • • • 2xx indicates success of some kind 3xx redirects the client to another URL 4xx indicates an error on the client's part 5xx indicates an error on the server's part 200 OK .

audio.HTTP 2.html first open a socket to the host web.12 an example of an http transaction To retrieve the file at the URL http://web.0 [blank line here] The server should respond with something like the following.apps.11 mime types/subtypes MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.info. alternative.info.uvt. although the list of admissible subtypes is much longer. digest. send something like the following through the socket: GET /path/file. sent back through the same socket: HTTP/1. with subtypes mixed.0 From: someuser@yahoo. 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT Content-Type: text/html Content-Length: 1354 <html> <body> <h1>Happy birthday!</h1> (more file contents) . with subtypes rfc822. partial.ro.com User-Agent: HTTPTool/1. with subtypes jpeg. Here is the list of the seven types. multipart. video. with subtypes octet-stream. parallel 3.0 200 OK Date: Fri.uvt. together with the subtypes defined in this particular RFC. message.ro/path/file. external-body 4.ietf. text.org/rfc/rfc1521. application. with subtype mpeg 2.html HTTP/1. with subtype basic 7. Each extension consists of a type and a subtype. with subtype plain 2. . Then. gif 6.2 . RFC 1521 (www.html) defines 7 types and several subtypes. postscript 5. 21 . port 80 (use the default port of 80 because none is specified in the URL). 1. image.

</body> </html> After sending the response. the server closes the socket.HTTP . 22 .2 .

using a variety of tags and their related attributes. It is a revision of 4.01 With support for the first 17 planes of ISO 10646 and increased limits for tag and literal lengths etc.com/easy/html .0 introduces the Cascading Style Sheets.02 and is not intended to be backwards compatible.99. From 1999 on. we can afford to have a look at this declaration. Mosaic.w3c. namely HTML 5 was published in January 2008.2 (3. The SGML declaration of the latest version of HTML (4. images and other components are to be displayed in a browser. HTML describes how text.01) can be found at this address: http://www.com/indexdot/html . the specification includes several ideas of the WHAT (Web Hypertext Application Technology) working group. It is a special version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language – an ISO standard (ISO 8879)). appeared in summer 1991 and was supported by the first popular web browser. The newest version of HTML is 4. The first official version – HTML 2.HTML 3 .3 .0 draft was released in 01.htmlgoodies.0.2 language definition HTML is a system for describing documents.0.com/tutors. 3. The first version of HTML. check the official HTML site – www.jmarshall. <!SGML "ISO 8879:1986" -SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version HTML 4. namely HTML 1.html) and was widely supported. Version 4. All markup languages defined in SGML are called SGML applications and are characterized by: 1.html. A newer standard. Originally named Web Applications 1. -CHARSET BASESET "ISO Registration Number 177//CHARSET ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-4 with implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/6" 23 . The XHTML 1.0) dates from 08. The latest version (XHTML 2. An SGML declaration – what characters and delimiters may appear. HTML is part of a new specification – XHTML.org/rfc/rfc1866.org/Markup . It might take several years before the specification reaches final Recommendation status. a working draft for the next major revision. Other helpful sites . www.org/TR/1999/PR-html40-19990824/sgml/sgmldecl.w3.ietf.was approved as a standard in September 1995 (as RFC 1866 (http://www. For a complete specification of the different HTML versions.0 was not widely accepted) appeared a W3C recommendation in January 1997.apps.HTML 3. Since it fits in a couple of pages.01.1 what is html? HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML 3.blooberry.www. However.0 and was accepted in December 1997. As a practical reference site use – www.0 .

SURROGATES -- SGMLREF TOTALCAP GRPCAP ENTCAP SCOPE DOCUMENT SYNTAX SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127 BASESET "ISO 646IRV:1991//CHARSET International Reference Version (IRV)//ESC 2/8 4/2" DESCSET 0 128 0 FUNCTION RE RS SPACE TAB SEPCHAR LCNMSTRT UCNMSTRT LCNMCHAR UCNMCHAR NAMECASE 13 10 32 9 NAMING "" "" ".-_:" GENERAL YES ENTITY NO DELIM GENERAL SGMLREF SHORTREF SGMLREF NAMES SGMLREF QUANTITY SGMLREF ATTCNT 60 -.These are the largest values LITLEN 65536 -.increased -ATTSPLEN 65536 -.-_:" ".Avoid fixed limits in actual PILEN 65536 -.permitted in the declaration NAMELEN 65536 -.implementations of HTML UA's TAGLVL 100 TAGLEN 65536 GRPGTCNT 150 GRPCNT 64 FEATURES MINIMIZE DATATAG OMITTAG RANK SHORTTAG LINK ----- NO YES NO YES 24 .3 .HTML DESCSET 0 9 11 13 14 32 127 128 160 55296 57344 CAPACITY 9 2 2 1 18 95 1 32 55136 2048 1056768 UNUSED 9 UNUSED 13 UNUSED 32 UNUSED UNUSED 160 UNUSED 57344 150000 150000 150000 -.

" (in hexadecimal) .0 Transitional DTD. Overall. An example: <!-. 3. HTML 4. A specification that describes the semantics to be ascribed to the markup and character entity references. There are 91 elements defined in the HTML 4. 4.html for the latest version of the HTML DTD. Check the address http://www. though. VSAPCE are omitted.0 contains an SGML declaration. An example: <IMG SRC=”/images/logo.0 Frameset DTD) and a list of character references. look at these examples: “&lt”.and end at the first occurrence of -->. CONTROLS.3 . “&quot”.the chinese character for water. three DTDs (HTML 4. <><> --> 25 .w3. A Document Type Definition (DTD) – defines the syntax of markup constructs. This specification adds new syntactic restrictions which cannot be defined within the frame of the DTD.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/dtd.0 Strict DTD. BORDER. like ALIGN. HTML 4. This section deals with some of the most common elements. the element <BR> has no content and no end tag. A comment section in an HTML document starts with <!-. …. "&#x6C34.acesta este un comentariu.01 specification. Each instance contains a reference to the DTD to be used to interpret it. The start tag of the element contains the values of the (required or optional) attributes of the element. You get the point. 3. with the required (mandatory) attributes SRC and ALT and the optional attributes HEIGHT and WIDTH. DYNSRC.HTML SIMPLE NO IMPLICIT NO EXPLICIT NO OTHER CONCUR NO SUBDOC NO FORMAL YES APPINFO NONE > 2. Other optional attributes of the <IMG> element. If you wonder what a character reference is.3 html elements An HTML element consists of: • • • a start tag a content an end tag One exception.gif” ALT=”logo” HEIGHT=40 WIDTH=120> declares an image element. Document instances containing data (content) and markup. the specification of HTML 4.

ro/webmail/src/login. etc. indicates the URL to reference the graphic HEIGHT WIDTH 3. specifies the text to be displayed in case source is not found SRC – required.3. NAME.php”>Login to web mail</A> 3.2 The <IMG> element Main attributes: • • • • ALT – required. An HTML document consists of the parts: • • the <HEAD> part the <BODY> part A minimal HTML document example: <HTML> <HEAD>My Page </HEAD> <BODY>Empty Body </BODY> </HTML> 3.3. Main attributes: • • HREF – specifies the absolute or relative URL of the hyperlink NAME – assigns a symbolic name to the enclosed object (text.1 The <A> element Must contain one of the 2 attributes – HREF.HTML 3.uvt.) in order to use it as a destination in a hyperlink or another URL call. image.4 the minimal structure of an html document All HTML documents start with the <HTML> tag and end with the corresponding end tag </HTML>.5 tables 26 .3 .info. Example: <A HREF=”http://web.

the cells in the first row contain are called headers and consist of a brief description of the content of the corresponding column. <THEAD>.6 table related elements The specific elements defining a table.HTML A table is a visual rectangular object consisting of several rows and columns. Here is their description and attributes. the <TABLE> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • BORDER CELLSPACING CELLPADDING WIDTH ALIGN VALIGN TBODY BORDERCOLOR FRAME RULES COLORGROUP BACKGROUND the <THEAD> element attributes: • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF 27 . The intersection of any row and any column is called a cell. headers and cells are <TABLE>. Here is a an example of a table: 3. Usually. columns. <TR>. <TH> and <TD>.3 . its rows.

allowing user input and parameter submittal.7 forms A form is a basic component container.HTML • VALIGN the <TH> element attributes: • • • • • • ABBR AXIS CHAR CHAROFF HEADERS SCOPE the <TR> element attributes: • • • • • ALIGN BGCOLOR CHAR CHAROFF VALIGN the <TD> element attributes: • • • • • • • • • ABBR ALIGN CHAR CHAROFF COLSPAN ROWSPAN SCOPE VALIGN WIDTH 3. specifies the URL of the server side process that will receive the data 28 . The <FORM> element has the following attributes: • ACTION .required.3 .

if specified. Default value: • "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" . since it converts spaces to '+' and non-alphanumerical to '%HH'.8. may have the values GET or POST.required.8. specifies how data will be sent to the server.the default value. "reset". Each of the listed choices is an OPTION element.sends the form values in 2 steps: contacts first the server then the form values are sent in a separate transmission.specifies the encoding type of the of the form content.info. "password".required. "hidden". allows multiple selections from the choice list. "radio". the browser appends the values to the URL. where 'HH' is the hexadecimal ASCII code of the character. Main attributes: • TYPE .HTML • METHOD . "file". "checkbox". either as a drop-down menu or as a list box. • 3.1 the <INPUT> element Defines input fields for the form.& or (sometimes) by semicolon .8 form related elements 3.ro/servlet/MyServlet?a=12&b=25 • ENCTYPE .8.?. 3. "submit".2 the <SELECT> element Used to create a list of choices.uvt.sends the form values in a single transmission. Main attributes: 29 . "GET" . specifies the type of the input which can have one of the following values: "text".3 the <OPTION> element Used inside a <SELECT> element to list the selection choices. "image". SIZE . however. The pairs name=value are separated by ampersand .:. after a quotation mark . Main attributes: • • • NAME MULTIPLE . Possible values for this attribute: • • "POST".required. Other possible values for this attribute: "multipart/form-data" . "text/plain" • • 3.3 .used with forms that contain a file-selection field. Example: http://web.maximum number of options visible to the user. specifies the parameter name. "button". data is sent as a single document with multiple sections. NAME .

3 .HTML • SELECTED Example of a <SELECT> element: <SELECT NAME="action" STYLE="font-family: '@Arial Unicode MS' font-size: 11pt"> <OPTION SELECTED>Select Action <OPTION>Make Payment <OPTION>Transfer a balance <OPTION>Change Mailing Address <OPTION>Change e-mail Address <OPTION>Change User Name/Password <OPTION>View Account Activity </SELECT> 30 .

The java interpreter (as part of the JVM) parses and executes the prog1.) in 08. The current version (as of 10.java 2.90.class file.class 3. pretty much comparable to that of a binary executable. The java compiler is (in general) a command line tool. following the 1.3 java applications 31 . the compilation process occurs.2 version. jit From source to execution.4.94 and was officially announced at Sun World in 05. with the following main options: • • • • -classpath <path> -sourcepath <path> -d <directory> : specifies where to put the . which accounts for a pretty slow execution. The current version (as of 10.2010) of Java Platform Enterprise Edition is Java EE 6 Update 21. javac -classpath .java One example of command line compilation: 4.95. -g : generate all debugging info. Example: Edit the file prog1.1 history The initial name of this language was OAK and was developed as part of the GREEN project at Sun. a Java interpreted program is about 10 times slower than a compiled and linked one.C:\TW\myPackages -g login.C:\TW\mySource.4 . project started in 12. Early versions of Java were released in 12. The first time a class is loaded. The java compiler (javac) translates it to bytecode – prog1.. A java program goes thru the following phases: 1. To overcome this significant shortage.class. The first commercial version was delivered to the first customer (Netscape.java.95.2 java the interpreter. Java source – a file with extension .class file. allows the compilation of the Java source into machine-dependent binary executable.0.JAVA PRIMER 4. 4. The Java interpreter (which is part of the Java Virtual Machine) parses and executes the Java bytecode. Java bytecode – a file with extension . a tool named Just In Time compiler. In terms of execution time. Inc.JAVA PRIMER 4 .2004) of Java 2 Platform Standard Edition is J2SE 5. but next time execution is much faster.

In general.4 . The first type are embedded in web pages – applets.4 object oriented concepts 4. The <APPLET> element has 3 mandatory attributes. or that it extends A). This binary relation is specified in the declaration of the derived class B using the keyword extends. as follows: java [-options] class [args] Where main options are: • • -cp <directories and jar files separated by “.”> : cp = classpath -D <name>=<value> : set a system property To execute a . use the command: java –jar [-options] jarfile [args] 4. or is derived from A.4. A Java class B inherits another class A (or is a subclass of A. An example: 32 . Generally. Exactly one of these classes must implement a method called main().1 encapsulation This is a fancy word for the tendency of hiding the implementation of the methods of some class and exposing only the interface of its public (and to some degree – its protected) methods.4.java. each class is implemented in a source file having the same name as the class itself and whose extension is . A java applet is a java class that extends the standard Applet class. namely: • • • CODE – identifies the (compiled) class file of the applet WIDTH HEIGHT A java application is a collection of java classes. the others are the standalone programs – Java applications. an applet is inserted in a HTML page by an <APPLET> tag or by an <OBJECT> tag. This method is the entry point in the application and must have the following signature: public static void main(String[] args) A compiled java application (class) may be executed from the command line using an executable called java (the java interpreter).2 inheritance Inheritance is a partial order relation in the set of all Java classes.JAVA PRIMER There exist 2 types of programs that can be written in Java.jar file. 4.

Double. and automatically call the method specific to the type (derived class) of the object that the variable references. The derived class B can use (for free) all the methods of the base class. While C++ allows multiple inheritance. a Java class can extend a single base class.4.4. Short. Float. Long. 4. Character. namely: Byte.5 java as programming language integer data types: • • • • byte short int long float double boolean .4 Method overloading A method (which has to be declared in some class (or interface)) is identified by its name and the type sequence of its parameters. this is called method overloading. 4. providing its own implementation. Integer. Therefore.4 . 33 . the forest we mentioned is actually a tree. called Object.Unicode (16 bits) floating point data types: • • other types: • • All basic types have associated classes which extend their functionality. a class can have more than one method with the same name. with the root the class Object. The return type of a method is not part of this signature. In OO jargon.1 bit char . Boolean. all classes in Java are (by default) subclasses of a universal base class. That means that the graph of the direct inheritance relation is a forest (its connected components are trees).JAVA PRIMER public class CaineComunitar extends Caine { … } In this case. Therefore.3 Polymorphism Polymorphism means the ability of a variable of a given (base) type (class) to be used to reference objects of different (derived) types (classes). all variables and methods of the base class A are automatically variables and methods of the derived class B. provided that the types (and order) of its parameters are different. In fact. 4. but it also can override the implementation of any method in the base class.

the default value makes the class visible only to the classes in the same package public .6 access specifiers and modifiers in java The access attributes of a member variable or method of a class are specified by the access specifiers. A final: • • • variable .servlet. The modifiers of the variables and methods of a class specify their range and stability.servlet.JAVA PRIMER Other peculiarities: no pointers (only references).the class is visible from any class. The declaration: abstract class myFirstClass extends javax.does not have any subclasses. no templates. Static variables and methods can be referenced (invoked) using either the name of the class or the name of a class instance. the specifiers for the class itself can be taken from the following list: • • • no specifier . inherited).. • • • • no specifier . A final variable (method. 4.HttpServlet implements Serializable { .http. rather than at class instance.the class is abstract (some of its methods (inherited or specified by some interface) are to be implemented by some of its subclasses) An example.the method implementation cannot be overriden by some subclass.no access from outside the class itself protected .http.HttpServlet and which implements the Serializable interface.4 . method . A static variable or method is one which is implemented at class level.the default value allows access from any class in the same package public .all variables referenced in the function body are static variables. which is visible only to the classes in the same package. has the same value for all class instances.one which is defined at class level. } declares an abstract class.one which is constant method .accessible from any class in the same package an any subclass anywhere While the above specifiers apply to the variables and the methods of a class. anywhere abstract . class ..access from any class anywhere private . Except for the "package" concept. automatic garbage collection. which extends the class javax. 34 . class) is one which cannot be modified (overridden. More precisely: A static (or class): • • variable . they have the same basic meaning as in C++.

an exception is an object which is created when the abnormal situation occurs. Therte are 3 direct subclasses of the class Error . code or data errors .3 RuntimeException Exceptions Usually. 4. due to a variety of execution factors or due to programming errors.2 The Exception class Except for the RuntimeException exceptions. not at execution time.1 The Error class Represent conditions which are not expected to be caught in our code. programmer defined exceptions 4. 4.4 Handling Exceptions There are 2 ways to deal with exceptions: 35 . all then exceptions in this category must be caught in our code.7. these exceptions take place because of serious code errors and they are supposed to be fixed in the coding phase. 4. java errors . standard method exceptions 3. Exception categories: 1. All the standard exceptions are derived from 2 direct subclasses of Throwable. namely class Error and the class Exception. The subclasses of the RuntimeException class.7 exceptions in java An exception signals an abnormal situation or an error in an application.like invalid cast. Linkage Error and VirtualMachineError.JVM execution errors (mostly caused by programming errors). 2.4 .JAVA PRIMER 4.ThreadDeath.7. In Java.7. as defined in the java. All exceptions (even programmer defined) must inherit from the standard class Throwable.7. division by 0.lang package are: • • • • • • • • • • • ArithmeticException IndexOutOfBoundException NegativeArraySizeException NullPointerException ArrayStoreException ClassCastException IllegalArgumentException SecurityException IllegalMonitorStateException IllegalStateException UnsupportedOperationException 4. array index out of bounds.

support for user interface java.support for java archives creation java.support for operations with 2D geometric figures java.awt .sql java.support for event handling java. All other packages must be explicitly imported.security 36 .9 standard Java packages • • • • • • • • • • • • java.sql.zip .net java.. An example: package com.lang .by adding the key word throws. import javax.JAVA PRIMER • • supply then code to deal with the exception inside the method . As a general rule.8. rather) defined in the java source must be stored in a directory called servlets. ignore it (pass it to the code that called the method) . catch.rmi java. therefore.Properties. don't have to import java. In the example above. 4. The name of the package is directly linked to the directory structure in which it is stored.bank11.awt. the default package is used).4 .*. date and time info java. the class (the .8 java packages A Java package is a named collection of classes. the package statement is the first one in a java source file.servlets. import. Each class belongs to a package (even if a package name is not specified.ccards. The names in a package are qualified by the package name.lang (automatically available).java. 4.util.nio java. they have to be unique inside a package. finally construct..io java.awt.this can be done by providing a try.event . followed by a comma separated list of exceptions after the parameter list of the method.default.util . 4. followed by the import statements. is a subdirectory of a directory called bank11).util. The package containing the standard classes is java. string analyzers. which is a subdirectory of ccards (which itself.geom .support for data collections. .1 Package names The default package has no name.class file.

37 .accessibility javax.swing . it must be declared as abstract. static and final.swing GUI components (minimal dependence on native code) java. If a class is declared as implementing an interface but omits some of its methods. An interface is a collection of constants and "abstract" functions. All variables (actually.support for event handling 4. Java classes can implement zero or more interfaces.10 interfaces An interface in Java corresponds to the abstract class concept in C++.event .JAVA PRIMER • • • • java.swing.text javax. All methods declared in an interface are (by default) public and abstract. constants) of an interface are automatically (by default) public. While multiple inheritance is forbidden in Java (a class can be the subclass of a single base class).4 .

A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser .A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element JavaScript can be used to validate data .write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events .5 . • • • • A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript source consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) The initial official name of this language was ECMAscript. like QtScript or ActionScript. The origins of this language date back to 1995. other 38 .load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies . and was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the names Mocha. as JavaScript. Adaptations of the ECMA standard for other applications. This is not always what we want. like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements .2 what can a JavaScript do? • • • • • • • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool . Subsequently.JAVASCRIPT 5.A JavaScript statement like this: document.javaScript 5 . and .3 how and where? JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser.A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. JavaScript was standardized by ECMA in June 1997 under the name ECMAScript. then LiveScript and finally. ECMA stands for European Computer Manufacturers Association and is an organization founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe.depending on the browser . the general public knows it only by the name given by its creator – JavaScript. but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page . like KDE or Adobe Flash bear different names. 5. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads.A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer 5. However.HTML authors are normally not programmers.A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser.1 so what is JavaScript? JavaScript is a scripting language designed to add interactivity to HTML pages.

js file extension.3. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .3. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page. go in the head section.5 .. 5. To simplify this. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. </script> </body> 5..1 scripts in the head section Scripts to be executed when they are called. </script> </head> 5. you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. point to the .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script src="myScript. When you place a script in the head section..javaScript times when a user triggers an event. or when an event is triggered. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. Here is an example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> ...js"> </script> </head> <body> </body> </html> 5..4 javaScript variables and expressions A variable is a "container" for some information whose value can change during the script. 39 . Save the external JavaScript file with a .3 using an external JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. without having to write the same script on every page.3.2 scripts in the body section Scripts which are to be executed when the page loads go in the body section.

4 variable types A variable declaration in JavaScript does not contain a type declaration.. in loop is executed once for each element/property. The code in the body of the for .. 5.4. in and the try . Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed } 40 . 5.1 JavaScript for... namely – if . continue. while() it is worth mentioning the for ..4... 5.1 variable names Rules for variable names: • • Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character 5.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. for().In statement The for. break. catch constructs.5.5 ..4..4..javaScript 5. The type of the variable is determined by any assignment of a value to that variable. This means that the type of the variable can change during the execution of a JavaScript script..5 javaScript flow control Apart from the usual flow control constructs.3 variable assignment A value can be assigned to a variable at declaration time: var strnum = "Morii 771" Or just use a plain assignment: strname = "Morii 771" 5. else.2 variable declaration A variable can be declared or even created with the var statement: var strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". or strnum = "2157 Sunrise Blvd". while(). switch()..

for (x in mycars) { document.2 catching errors When browsing Web pages on the internet..0.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x.. Mozilla 1.5. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) 5. or a property of an object... This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages. mycars[1] = "Volvo".javaScript The variable argument can be a named variable. we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. var mycars = new Array(). and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. Example Using for.5 .3 try.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. } </script> </body> </html> 5.. Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users.5.catch statement (available in IE5+. mycars[0] = "Saab".catch statement The try. mycars[2] = "BMW". There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: • • By using the try. they often leave the Web page. an array element. When users see errors... so you don't lose your audience..write(mycars[x] + "<br />"). Syntax try { // run some code here } catch(err) { 41 . The try block contains the code to be run.

strings can be added (concateneted) using the + operator.javaScript // handle errors here } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"). } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.6 operators The only new one is the comparison operator === (equal values and same type).7 popup boxes 5. } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> 5. alert(txt). the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.\n\n". 5. Also.description + "\n\n".5 . Syntax: 42 . txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n".7. txt+="Error description: " + err.1 alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. When an alert box pops up.

the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. Now. the box returns true.8 functions 5. in the example above had not been written within a function. When a confirm box pops up.js file). Syntax: prompt("sometext". the box returns false. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page.3 prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. When a prompt box pops up.1 function definition A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.. the script is not executed before the user hits the button. If the user clicks "OK". We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked.javaScript alert("sometext") 5. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value.2 confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. Example: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!").5 . in the <head> section. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.7. A function can be called from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . the box returns null. The syntax for creating a function is: 43 ."defaultvalue") 5. Syntax: confirm("sometext") 5. If the user clicks "Cancel".7.8. If the user clicks "Cancel".

5. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.2 the return statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name..length). function functionname() { some code } Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters.9. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. So.. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. 5. var2.. 5. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.1 object oriented programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. and will be stored in the variable called product. and how they are used.write(txt. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!".var2.8. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.9.javaScript function functionname(var1. </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 44 .b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above. etc are variables or values passed into the function. An example is the function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a.. document.2 properties Properties are the values associated with an object.varX) { some code } var1.5 .9 javaScript objects 5.

9. document. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!". 45 .3 methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The first class consists of browser specific objects. </script> 5.5 . which will be specified in the next section.toUpperCase()).javaScript 5. The other class are the language specific objects.10 the hierarchy of javaScript browser objects There are two major classes of built-in javascript objects.write(str.

At its most basic level. as well). Objects are storage containers that have Properties (data values associated with Objects) and Methods (functions associated with Objects) that operate on that data. check the site http://www. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor length prototype Methods Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() Description F Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 F N E 3 3 I Description F A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 1 4 2 2 F N E 4 3 4 I 46 .w3schools. For an exhaustive list of properties and methods of the above objects (and for the built in objects.5 .asp 5. every Link on the page is an Object. you need a way to intercept the message and react to it. Events are special signals or messages which occur when certain pre-defined actions take place within a Web browser. every Image on the page is an Object. Even this Document itself is an Object.11. JavaScript allows you to control the appearance of many of the Objects that make up a Web page as we previously saw. or when the user interacts with a Web page. which are called Objects. N: Netscape. When an event message has been triggered. For example. Objects may also have certain Events that are associated with them.com/jsref/default. This is achieved through the use of Event Handlers.1 the String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Properties FF: Firefox.javaScript We can think of each Web page as a collection of several individual elements.11 javaScript language built in objects 5.

2 the Date object The JavaScript Date object is used to work with dates and times. Properties FF: Firefox. IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method Date() Description Returns today's date and time F F 1 N 2 I E 3 Description Returns a reference to the Date function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 4 3 I E 4 4 47 . N: Netscape.javaScript indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string value. searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string Searches a string for a specified value Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript Extracts a specified number of characters in a string.5 .11. from a start index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 5.

from a Date object Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1. 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1. 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Returns the year. depending on the browser. Use getFullYear() instead !! Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1.5 .javaScript getDate() getDay() 6) getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() getYear() Returns the year. 1970 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 01 1 2 2 3 3 parse() setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 48 . as a four-digit number. as a two-digit or a three/four-digit number.

Properties FF: Firefox.3 the Array object The JavaScript Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. according to local time. to a string. Use setFullYear() instead !! Returns the date portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the date portion Converts a Date object. to a string Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Returns the time portion of a Date object in readable form Converts a Date object.5 .javaScript setUTCDate() setUTCMonth() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() setYear() toDateString() toGMTString() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toSource() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). according to local time. IE: Internet Explorer Property Description F F N I E 49 . to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object. to a string and returns the time portion Converts a Date object.11. 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 2 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 valueOf() 1 2 4 5. according to universal time. according to Greenwich time. according to local time. N: Netscape.

IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor Description Returns a reference to the Number function that created the object F F 1 E 4 I 50 .4 the Number object The Number object is an object wrapper for primitive numeric values.5 4 3 4 .5 4 3 4 2 4 6 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 F N E 4 4 5 I Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns a reference to the array function that created the object 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5.5 3 4 . The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 .11.javaScript constructor index input length prototype Methods Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description F Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. Syntax for creating a new Number object. Properties FF: Firefox.5 .5 4 . var myNum=new Number(number).

5 .5 1 . IE: Internet Explorer Property constructor prototype Methods Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description F Returns the source code of the object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object 1 1 1 4 4 4 F N E 4 4 I Description Returns a reference to the Boolean function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object F F 1 1 N 2 2 I E 4 4 51 .javaScript MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NaN NEGATIVE_INFINIT Y POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype Methods Method toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf() Converts a number into an exponential notation if it has more digits than specified Converts the Number object into a string Returns the value of the Number object 1 .5 5 F E 5 I Represents a value that is greater than MAX_VALUE Allows you to add properties and methods to the object 1 1 4 4 Returns the largest possible value in JavaScript Returns the smallest possible value in JavaScript Represents "Not-a-number" value Represents a value that is less than MIN_VALUE 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5.5 1 1 4 4 5 Description F Converts the value of the object into an exponential notation Formats a number to the specified number of decimals 1 . Properties FF: Firefox.5 the Boolean object The JavaScript Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. N: Netscape.11.

y) pow(x. 0. It includes several mathematical constants and functions. N: Netscape.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 2.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. IE: Internet Explorer Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Methods Method abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y. 2.5 .y) min(x.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx.y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description F Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the angle theta of an (x. 1.y) point as a numeric value between -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of Ex Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F N I E 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 Description Returns Euler's constant (approx.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x.11. 3.6 the Math Object The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. Properties FF: Firefox. 0.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.414) F F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E I 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 52 .434) Returns PI (approx.javaScript 5.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx.

The code above will generate the following output: John 5. work().firstname). document.methodName() There are different ways to create a new object: 5. etc.1 Properties The syntax for accessing a property of an object is: objName. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. personObj. You can call a method with the following syntax: objName. skin tone.firstname="John".age=50.lastname="Doe". 5.javaScript toSource() valueOf() Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object 1 1 4 2 4 5. personObj.age=30. personObj.write(personObj. and eyecolor as follows: personObj. play().12.firstname="John".12. All persons have these properties.12 how to create your own objects An object is just a special kind of data. Objects also have methods. with a collection of properties and methods.eyecolor="blue".eyecolor="blue". age. but the values of those properties will differ from person to person.5 . etc. 53 .propName You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. personObj. lastname.2 Methods An object can also contain methods. age.lastname="Doe". weight. The persons' methods could be eat().you can give it properties named firstname. The persons' properties include name.12.3 create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it: personObj=new Object(). sleep(). personObj. personObj. height. personObj. Properties are the values associated with the object. eye color. Assume that the personObj already exists .

age. this.lastname. myMother=new person("Sally". That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand.5 ."Doe".lastname=new_lastname.48.lastname=lastname.lastname. like this: myFather=new person("John". The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). Once you have the template. 54 . } Note that methods are just functions attached to objects.age. } Notice that the template is just a function.eyecolor=eyecolor. you can create new instances of the object.javaScript Adding a method to the personObj is also simple."blue"). The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj: personObj."green")."Rally". this.firstname=firstname.propertyName.50. 5.4 create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object: function person(firstname.newlastname=newlastname. You can also add some methods to the person object.firstname=firstname. this.eyecolor=eyecolor.lastname=lastname.12.age=age.eyecolor) { this. This is also done inside the template: function person(firstname. this. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function: function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.age=age. this.eat=eat. this.eyecolor) { this. Inside the function you need to assign things to this. this.

and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! Tne following table contains an exhaustive list of events together with the support version of FireFox. So. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button.13 JavaScript Events New to HTML 4. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this. F Loading of an image is interrupted An element loses focus The user changes the content of a field Mouse clicks an object Mouse double-clicks an object An error occurs when loading a document or an image An element gets focus A keyboard key is pressed A keyboard key is pressed or held down A keyboard key is released A page or an image is finished loading F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N E 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 4 2 I 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 55 .0 was the ability to let HTML events trigger actions in the browser.newlastname("Doe").5 . For example. 5. Examples of events: ● ● ● ● ● ● A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form Submitting an HTML form A keystroke Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.". Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions.. Event onabort onblur onchange onclick ondblclick onerror onfocus onkeydown onkeypress onkeyup onload The event occurs when.javaScript } The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. We define the events in the HTML tags. like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an HTML element. now you can write: myMother. Netscape an Internet Explorer for each such event..

onBlur and onChange The onFocus.4 onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.13.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> 5. 5.w3schools.3 onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".13.javaScript onmousedown onmousemove onmouseout onmouseover onmouseup onreset onresize onselect onsubmit onunload A mouse button is pressed The mouse is moved The mouse is moved off an element The mouse is moved over an element A mouse button is released The reset button is clicked A window or frame is resized Text is selected The submit button is clicked The user exits the page 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 5. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.5 .com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver 56 . The name is then stored in a cookie.13. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. the submit should be cancelled. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. If the field values are not accepted. 5.2 onFocus.13. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">.1 onload and onUnload The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. For example. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. If it returns true the form will be submitted. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event.

return false"> <img src="w3schools.javaScript event').5 .gif" width="100" height="30"> </a> 57 .

CSS. Several W3C Working Groups have since taken the lead in maintaining and continuing to develop standard APIs for the Web since then. the DOM is required by JavaScript scripts that wish to inspect or modify a web page dynamically. As of January 2008. or WebAPI being among them.6 . 6. Hence the DOM is likely to be best suited for applications where the document must be accessed repeatedly or out of sequence order. after the completion of the DOM Level 3 Recommendations. the SAX model is likely to be faster and use less memory. and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them. SAX provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. The existing vendor-specific interfaces were dubbed intermediate DOMs. It is a popular alternative to the Document Object Model (DOM). Because the DOM supports navigation in any direction (e. particularly those used in Web browsers. the Document Object Model activity is closed. If the application is strictly sequential and one-pass. the first specification of DOM (DOM 1) was released. 2010). an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).Html DOM 6 .2 history The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the W3C Document Object Model in response to the development of various proprietary models for HTML. XML. and HTML) and different levels (DOM Level 1/2/3): • • • Core DOM .g. the Document Object Model is the way JavaScript sees its containing HTML page and browser state. By October 1998.HTML DOM 6. parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications.1 what is the DOM? The W3C Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content. SVG. However. with specifics on the style sheet object model and style information manipulation.defines a standard set of objects for any structured document XML DOM ..defines a standard set of objects for HTML documents A web browser is not obliged to use DOM in order to render an HTML document. W3C began development of the DOM in the mid-1990s. and style of a document.defines a standard set of objects for XML documents HTML DOM . it was nonetheless a partially documented model and was included in the specification of HTML 4. HTML. SAX (Simple API for XML) is a sequential access parser API for XML. The W3C DOM provides a standard set of objects for HTML and XML documents. The Document Object Model Working Group was closed in the Spring of 2004. Although the W3C never produced a specification for DOM 0. In other words. The W3C 58 . DOM 2 was issued in November 2000. Right now (oct. DOM 3 was released in April 2004 and is the current release of the DOM specification. what drives the DOM Specifications is the WebApps WG. structure. The W3C DOM is separated into different parts (Core.

5.4 specifications • • • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification Level 2 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Views Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Events Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Traversal and Range Specification • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification Level 3 Recommendations: • Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification 59 . Level 1 Navigation of DOM (HTML and XML) document (tree structure) and content manipulation (includes adding elements). Level 1. Level 3 Consists of 6 different specifications: 1. Level 0 The application supports an intermediate DOM. Examples include the DHTML Object Model or the Netscape intermediate DOM.6 . 4.3 levels The W3C DOM specifications are divided into levels. DOM Level 3 Requirements. 2.Html DOM Web Applications Working Group has taken over responsibility for the Document Object Model specifications. HTML-specific elements are included as well. a new DOM Core specification. and potentially any errata on older DOM specifications. Level 2. and 6. Level 0 is not a formal specification published by the W3C but rather a shorthand that refers to what existed before the standardization process. each of which contains required and optional modules. An application may also support vendor-specific extensions which don't conflict with the W3C standards. DOM Level 3 XPath. DOM Level 3 Core. As of 2005. which existed before the creation of DOM Level 1. 6. Level 2 XML namespace support. DOM Level 3 Validation. which further enhances the DOM 6. 3. DOM Level 3 Load and Save. DOM Level 3 Views and Formatting. including a new revision of DOM Level 3 Events. filtered views and events. an application must implement all the requirements of the claimed level and the levels below it. and some modules of Level 3 are W3C Recommendations which means they have reached their final form. To claim to support a level.

The Window object represents a browser window. can be accessed through the 60 . large parts of Dynamic HTML code had to be rewritten for each browser to be supported. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL Navigator Screen History Location 6. along with their containing text and attributes. Web developers are starting to rely mostly or solely on W3C DOM. In order to be cross-browser compatible. large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common JavaScript-enabled Web browsers. and Safari. By 2005. the bulk of the HTML DOM objects are presented in the next paragraph.6 .x and Netscape 4. 6. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.Html DOM Document Object Model (DOM) Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Working Group Notes: • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) • Document Object Model (DOM) Working Draft • Window Object 1. including Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5 (1999) and version 6 (2001)). W3C DOM Level 1 has been a recommendation since 1 October 1998. support multiple browsers. Opera. interoperability problems were numerous.x were still widely used in 2000. Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla and Firefox). Konqueror. Besides the generic objects listed bellow. because non-conformant browsers such as Internet Explorer 4.6 javaScript specific objects In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects. you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript. and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. The standardization effort did not bring forth an immediate change.5 web browsers implementation Earlier. All HTML elements. A common DOM promised substantial simplification of the development of complex Web applications. since it allows browser compatibility with a large audience. that is.7 the HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML.0 • • Level 3 Load and Save Specification Level 3 Validation Specification Level 3 XPath Specification Level 3 Views and Formatting Specification Requirements • • 6. when each Web browser exclusively supported its own intermediate DOM.

Html DOM DOM. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. The contents can be modified or deleted. It can be used by any programming language like Java. and VBScript. and new elements can be created. HTML DOM Objects Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element (specifies a default address or a default target for all links on a page) Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element 61 .6 . JavaScript.

In this example: <title>DOM Tutorial</title>.8. The <body> node holds a <h1> and <p> node. "DOM Tutorial" is not the value of the <title> element! However. the text of an element node is stored in a text node. in the HTML DOM the value of the text node can be accessed by the innerHTML property. holds a text node with the value "DOM Tutorial".8. the element node <title>. 6. However. 62 . <head> and <body>. The DOM says: • • • • • The entire document is a document node Every HTML tag is an element node The text in the HTML elements are text nodes Every HTML attribute is an attribute node Comments are comment nodes 6. 6.1 DOM example Look at the following HTML document: <html> <head> <title>DOM Tutorial</title> </head> <body> <h1>DOM Lesson one</h1> <p>Hello world!</p> </body> </html> The root node in the HTML above is <html>. The <head> node holds a <title> node. The tree structure is called a node-tree.9 the HTML DOM Node Tree 6. everything in an HTML document is a node.6 . The <html> node has two child nodes.Html DOM 6.2 text is always stored in text nodes A common error in DOM processing is to expect an element node to contain text.1 the Document Tree The HTML DOM views a HTML document as a tree-structure. All other nodes in the document are contained within <html>.8 DOM nodes According to the DOM.9.

6 . using the node relationships. has exactly one parent node A node can have any number of children A leaf is a node with no children Siblings are nodes with the same parent 6. 63 . Children on the same level are called siblings (brothers or sisters). except the root.3 accessing nodes You can access a node in three ways: 1. • • • • • In a node tree. and the connections between them. Parent nodes have children. child.9. children.9. Their contents can be modified or deleted. and siblings The nodes in the node tree have a hierarchical relationship to each other.getElementsByTagName("p").Html DOM All nodes can be accessed through the tree. and sibling are used to describe the relationships. The node tree below shows the set of nodes. By using the getElementById() method 2. The tree starts at the root node and branches out to the text nodes at the lowest level of the tree: 6.getElementById('main'). The following example returns a nodeList of all <p> elements that are descendants of the element with id="main": document. and new elements can be created. The length property defines the length of a node list (the number of nodes). The terms parent. By navigating the node tree.getElementsByTagName("p").2 node parents. By using the getElementsByTagName() method 3. You can loop through a node list by using the length property: x=document. the top node is called the root Every node.

document.i<x.6 . • • • • • nodeName is read-only nodeName of an element node is the same as the tag name nodeName of an attribute node is the attribute name nodeName of a text node is always #text nodeName of the document node is always #document the nodeValue Property The nodeValue property specifies the value of a node. } 6.length.Html DOM for (i=0.write(x[i].4 Node Properties In the HTML Document Object Model (DOM). that can be accessed and manipulated by JavaScript.innerHTML). Three important HTML DOM node properties are: • • • nodeName nodeValue nodeType the nodeName Property The nodeName property specifies the name of a node.write("<br />"). Objects have methods (functions) and properties (information about the object).i++) { document.9. each node is an object. The most important node types are: Element type Element Attribute Text Comment Document NodeType 1 2 3 8 9 64 . • • • nodeValue for element nodes is undefined nodeValue for text nodes is the text itself nodeValue for attribute nodes is the attribute value the nodeType Property The nodeType property returns the type of node and is read only.

The sequence of these events is: • mousedown • mouseup • click Fires when the pointing device button is double clicked over an element Fires when the pointing device button is pressed over an element Fires when the pointing device button is released over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved onto an element Fires when the pointing device is moved while it is over an element Fires when the pointing device is moved away from an element click onclick dblclick Mouse mousedown mouseup mouseover mousemove mouseout ondblclick onmousedown onmouseup onmouseover onmousemove onmouseout 65 .Html DOM 6.9. Category Type Attribute Description Fires when the pointing device button is clicked over an element. A click is defined as a mousedown and mouseup over the same screen location.nodeValue.firstChild.5 example .6 . 6. txt=x.get the value of an element The following code fragment retrieves the text node value of the first <p> element: x=document.10 HTML events Common/W3C events There is a huge collection of events that can be generated by most element nodes: • • • • • • Mouse events Keyboard events HTML frame/object events HTML form events User interface events Mutation events (notification of any changes to the structure of a document) Note that the event classification above is not exactly the same as W3C's classification.getElementById("intro").

including window. For elements. A keypress is defined as a keydown and keyup on the same key. For elements. frames. but can be applied to any focusable element keypress Keyboard keydown keyup onkeypress onkeydown onkeyup load onload unload HTML frame/object abort onunload onabort error resize scroll select onerror onresize onscroll onselect change HTML form submit reset focus onchange onsubmit onreset onfocus blur User interface DOMFocusIn onblur ondomfocusin 66 . The sequence of these events is: • keydown • keyup • keypress Fires when a key on the keyboard is pressed Fires when a key on the keyboard is released Fires when the user agent finishes loading all content within a document. including input and textarea Fires when a control loses the input focus and its value has been modified since gaining focus Fires when a form is submitted Fires when a form is reset Fires when an element receives focus either via the pointing device or by tab navigation Fires when an element loses focus either via the pointing device or by tabbing navigation Similar to HTML focus event.Html DOM Fires when a key on the keyboard is "clicked". it fires when the target element or any of its content has been removed Fires when an object/image is stopped from loading before completely loaded Fires when an object/image/frame cannot be loaded properly Fires when a document view is resized Fires when a document view is scrolled Fires when a user selects some text in a text field. it fires when the target element and all of its content has finished loading Fires when the user agent removes all content from a window or frame. objects and images.6 .

Trigger the elements from inner to outer (event bubbling).cancelBubble = true for Internet Explorer).stopPropagation() for Mozilla and command event. but Internet Explorer for the Mac does not. Also. say "click". for instance. there are two possible ways to handle it: • • Trigger the elements from outer to inner (event capturing). This model is implemented in Netscape Navigator. Events are first captured until it reaches the target element. through a mouse click or a keypress. During the event flow. and/or by cancelling the default action for the event. DOMNodeRemoved and DOMCharacterDataModified. This model is implemented in Internet Explorer and other browsers. When the user clicks on the inner element.3. Safari. but can be applied to any focusable element Similar to XUL command event. Mozilla also supports the beforeunload event using traditional event registration method (DOM Level 0). an event can be responded to at any element in the path (an observer) in either phase by causing an action. DOMNodeInserted. Both have event handlers registered on the same event type.11 event flow Consider the situation when there are 2 elements nested together. W3C takes a middle position in this struggle. and/or by stopping the event (with method event. Fire when the subtree is modified Fires when a node has been added as a child of another node Fires when a node has been removed from a DOM-tree DOMActivate ondomactivate DOMSubtreeModified DOMNodeInserted DOMNodeRemoved Mutation onsubtreemodified onnodeinserted onnoderemoved NodeInsertedIntoDoc onnodeinsertedinto Fires when a node is being ument document inserted into a document DOMAttrModified onattrmodified Fires when an attribute has been modified DOMCharacterDataM oncharacterdatamo Fires when the character data odified dified has been modified Note that the events whose names start with “DOM” are currently not well supported. 6. Mozilla. Safari and Opera also support readystatechange event for the XMLHttpRequest object. also supports these methods. Mozilla and Opera support DOMAttrModified. Mozilla and Safari also support contextmenu.Html DOM DOMFocusOut ondomfocusout Similar to HTML blur event.6 . 67 . and then bubbled up. as of version 1. Fires when an element is activated.

Used to indicate which phase of event flow is currently being evaluated. meaning that any default action normally taken by the implementation as a result of the event will not occur. To cancel the event if it is cancelable. Used to indicate whether or not an event is a bubbling event. Event properties Type DOMString EventTarget EventTarget unsigned short boolean boolean DOMTimeStamp Name type target currentTarget eventPhase bubbles cancelable timeStamp Description The name of the event (case-insensitive). Used to indicate the EventTarget whose EventListeners are currently being processed. DOMString initEvent boolean boolean eventTypeArg canBubbleArg cancelableArg Specifies the event type. etc. Specifies whether or not the event can bubble. Used to indicate whether or not an event can have its default action prevented. mouse position.12 the Event object The Event object provides a lot of information about a particular event. Hence only the W3C Event object is discussed here. key pressed. Specifies whether or not the event's default action can be prevented. preventDefault 68 . mouse button pressed.6 .Html DOM 6. Event methods Name stopPropagation Argument type Argument name Description To prevent further propagation of an event during event flow. Unfortunately. there are very serious browser incompatibilities in this area. Used to indicate the EventTarget to which the event was originally dispatched. including information about target element. Used to specify the time (in milliseconds relative to the epoch) at which the event was created.

7. and update it without the need to reload the whole document with all images. dynamic website.3 the basic architecture of ajax The classic web application model works like this: most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. and DOM (Document Object Model) to access data inside the page or to access elements of Xml file read on the server (with the getElementByTagName method for example) The XMLHttpRequest class read or send data on the server asynchronously. The processing of web page formerly was only server-side.1 what is ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript And XML. without to wait and to freeze the display of the page.2 why use ajax? Mainly to build a fast. choices of user.7 . but what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications. But Ajax can selectively modify a part of a page displayed by the browser. It is not a technology in itself. • • • • • • • HTML and CSS for presenting. SOAP may be used to dialog with the server. but also to save resources. 69 . may be processed and the result displayed immediately into the same page. The DomParser class may be used PHP or another scripting language may be used on the server. For example. optionally XSL stands for EXtensible Stylesheet Language while XSLT stands for XSL Transformations The "Asynchronous" word. JavaScript (ECMAScript) for local processing. it is better to use the power of all the client computers rather than just an unique server and network. menus. means that the response of the server will be processed when available. crunching numbers. The server does some processing — retrieving data. For improving sharing of resources. using web services or Php scripts. before the whole page was sent within the network. etc. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium.AJAX 7. fields of forms. talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client.AJAX 7 . Ajax allows to perform processing on client computer (in JavaScript) with data taken from the server. 7. XML and XSLT to process the data if returned in Xml form. but rather a collection of existing technologies bound together by JavaScript.

7 . Instead of loading a web page. Obviously. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive.AJAX The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right) This approach makes a lot of technical sense. Once an interface is loaded. we wouldn’t make users wait around. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. While the server is doing its thing. waiting around for the server to do something. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. at the start of the session. why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact. And at every step in a task. what’s the user doing? That’s right. waiting. why should the user see the application go to the server at all? An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. but the opposite is true. the user waits some more. if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications. but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon. 70 . the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame.

and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously. 71 . usually using XML.7 . Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation. editing data in memory. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing. without stalling a user’s interaction with the application. loading additional interface code.AJAX The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom) Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead.

7 . the state of availability of data is given by the readyState attribute of XMLHttpRequest.open: create a connection. These events are user actions. they call functions associated to elements of the web page. boolean) .5 the XMLHttpRequest class Here is a closer look to the XMLHttpRequest class. 404 if the page is not found .url: the location of the file 72 . Take note that a new XMLHttpRequest object has to be created for each new file to load. 4: finished.holds a Xml loaded file.responseText . Attributes readyState status responseText responseXml . DOM allows to link elements of the page with actions and also to extract data from Xml files provided by the server. It allows the interaction with the servers.for a simple text. . 3: answer in process. and in this purpose.responseXml . We have to wait for the data to be available to process it.for a Xml file or .mode: type of request. This object provides two methods: . . DOM's method allows to extract data.returned by the server . 2: request received.the name of the function invoked Methods open(mode. thanks to its methods and attributes.200 is ok.send: send a request to the server. Data furnished by the server will be found in these attributes of the XMLHttpRequest object: .holds loaded data as a string of characters. 1: connection established. 7. Interactivity is achieved with forms and buttons. . onreadystatechange .4 how does it work? Ajax uses a programming model with display and events.the code successively changes value from 0 to 4 that means "ready". GET or POST . the ajax engine uses the XMLHttpRequest object. States of readyState follow (only the last one is really useful): 0: not initialized. To get data on the server.AJAX 7. url.

XMLHTTP").xml'. the data to send to the server. Safari. step by step First step: create an instance This is just a classical instance of class. true for asynchronous.open('GET'. http_request. . // Firefox..ActiveXObject) // ActiveX version { request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.6 building a request. // IE } Second step: wait for the response The response and further processing are included in a function and the return of the function will be assigned to the onreadystatechange attribute of the object previously created.AJAX . The request below reads a document on the server. OK } else { // wait. } Third step: make the request itself Two methods of XMLHttpRequest are used: .send: with POST only.send(null).boolean: true (asynchronous) / false (synchronous) send("string") .. 73 .open: command GET or POST. http_request. URL of the document.. .onreadystatechange = function() { // instructions to process the response }. } else if (window.xul. if (request.XMLHttpRequest) // Object of the current windows { request = new XMLHttpRequest().fr/somefile. if (window.readyState == 4) { // received. request.7 .. but two options must be tried. true).null for a GET command 7. 'http://www. for browser compatibility.

1 How to get a text <html> <head> <script> function submitForm() { var req = null.status.7 examples 7. }.ActiveXObject) req = new ActiveXObject(Microsoft.ajax. req.dyn=""Received:" + req.readyState == 4) if(req.dyn="Received:" + req.item(0). req. by this code: var doc = req.XMLHTTP). else document. true). } </script> </head> <body> <FORM method="POST" name="ajax" action=""> <INPUT type="BUTTON" value="Submit" ONCLICK="submitForm()"> <INPUT type="text" name="dyn" value=""> </FORM> </body> </html> 7. if(window. else if (window.7.2 how to get from xml To get data from a xml file we have just to replace this line: document.send(null).AJAX 7. req.status == 200) document.ajax.XMLHttpRequest) req = new XMLHttpRequest().setRequestHeader("Content-Type". // read the first element with a dom's method 74 .7 . req.7.getElementsByTagName('root'). "data.open("GET".responseXML.dyn="Error code " + req.responseText.xml". "application/x-www-form-urlencoded").responseText.ajax.onreadystatechange = function() { if(req. // assign the Xml file to a var var element = doc.

7 - AJAX
document.ajax.dyn.value= element.firstChild.data; content of the element to the form // assign the

7.7.3 how to post a text
A text is sent to the server and is written into a file. The call to the "open" method changes, the argument is POST, and the "send" method also has now a value for argument. req.open("POST", "ajax-post.xml", true); req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); req.send(document.getElementById("dyn".value));

7.7.4 how to write to body
Now, the text read is put in the body of the page, and not into a textfield. The code below replaces the textfield form object and the second part replaces the assignment into the JavaScript function. <div id="zone"> ... some text to replace ... </div> document.getElementById("zone").innerHTML = "Received:" + xhr.responseText;

7.8 the ajax toolkit framework
It is an Eclipse add-on that provides tools for building IDE for Ajax runtimes, and testing Ajax applications. The AJAX Toolkit Framework (ATF) provides and extensible framework and exemplary tools for building IDEs for the many different AJAX runtime offerings (Dojo, Zimbra, Rico, etc) in the market. Tools built upon these frameworks will initially include: enhanced JavaScript editing features such as edit-time syntax checking; an embedded Mozilla web browser; an embedded DOM browser; and an embedded JavaScript debugger.

7.9 drawbacks of ajax
● ● ● ●

If JavaScript is not activated, Ajax can't work. The user must be asked to set JavaScript from within options of the browser, with the "noscript" tag. Since data to display are loaded dynamically, they are not part of the page, and the keywords inside are not used by search engines. The asynchronous mode may change the page with delays (when the processing on the server take some times), this may be disturbing. The back button may be deactivated (this is not the case in examples provided here).

75

7 - AJAX

7.10 Specifications
Ajax is based on these specifications:
● ● ●

XML 1, HTML 4.0, DOM 2, from W3C ECMAScript 1.5 (standard for JavaScript) from ECMA W3C draft specification for XMLHttpRequest.

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8 - WEB APPLICATIONS

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
8.1 the structure of a web application
A web application is a collection of Java servlets, JSP pages, Java Server Faces, other helper classes and class libraries, other static resources (HTML, images, etc.) and an xml file, the deployment descriptor. A web application consists of 4 parts: 1. a public directory – containing html, jsp files and other public resources. This is the root directory of the application. 2. a WEB-INF/web.xml file – the deployment descriptor. 3. a WEB-INF/classes directory. 4. a WEB-INF/lib directory. Example: Assume that we use a Tomcat web server and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% is set to C:\TW\Tomcat. Then, the root directory of some web application can be: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards and the mandatory directories are: C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\classes C:\TW\Tomcat\webapps\bank11\ccards\WEB-INF\lib

8.2 web containers
A web container is a Java runtime providing implementation of the Java servlet API and some other facilities to the JSP and JSF pages. It responsible for initializing, invoking and managing the life cycle of servlets, JSPs and JSFs. A web container may either implement the basic HTTP services or delegates these services to an external web server. Web containers can be part of an application or web server or a separate runtime. Here is a description of these situations. web container in a J2EE application server. Commercial implementations of the J2EE specifications, like WebLogic, Inprise Application Server or IBM's WebSphere include web containers. web container built into web servers. Most known cases are the Sun's (Oracle's) Java WebServer and the Jakarta Tomcat web server. web container as a separate runtime. Some web servers, like Apache or IIS require a separate runtime to run servlets and a web server plug-in to integrate this Java runtime

• •

77

8 - WEB APPLICATIONS
with the web server. Typical integration scenarios are Tomcat with Apache and JRun (of Allaire) with most of the J2EE application servers.

Web Application

Web Application

Java Servlets

Java Servlets

JSP Pages

JSP Pages

JavaServer Faces

JavaServer Faces

Java Classes

Deployment descriptor

Deployment descriptor

Java EE Web Container

8.3 container services
Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. Before a web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a Java EE module and deployed into its container. The assembly process involves specifying container settings for each component in the Java EE application and for the Java EE application itself. Container settings customize the underlying support provided by the Java EE server, including services such as security, transaction management, Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookups, and remote connectivity. Here are some of the highlights:

The Java EE security model lets you configure a web component or enterprise bean so that system resources are accessed only by authorized users.

78

Servlet. The Java EE remote connectivity model manages low-level communications between clients and enterprise beans. MIME types used by the web application. Initialization of parameters for servlets. JSPs and Java Server Faces mappings.. descriptions). classes. servlet classes. data persistence. precompiled JSP entities are declared (names. Here is a small.servlets. JNDI lookup services provide a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise so that application components can access these services..LoginServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> </web-app> 79 .xml) which allows the customization of the web application at deployment time.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE web-app (View Source for full doctype. The deployment descriptor serves several purposes.Define the Bank 11 ccards Servlets --> <servlet> <servlet-name>Login</servlet-name> <servlet. 3. After an enterprise bean is created.ccards.4 deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor is an xml file (namely. entries related to session configuration. JSPs and Java Server Faces definitions.xml file: <?xml version="1.class>com. Others. 5. 6. an enterprise bean can have security settings that allow it a certain level of access to database data in one production environment and another level of database access in another production environment. 4. welcome pages. 8. application components within the same Java EE application can behave differently based on where they are deployed. a client invokes methods on it as if it were in the same virtual machine. Because the Java EE architecture provides configurable services. 2. web. Servlet. database connection resource pooling. The container also manages nonconfigurable services such as enterprise bean and servlet life cycles.bank11. Security related entries – may specify which pages require login and the roles different users may have. like what pages are error. like: 1. For example. and access to the Java EE platform APIs. but typical web.WEB APPLICATIONS • • • The Java EE transaction model lets you specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit. JSPs and Java Server Faces.8 .)> <web-app> <!-.

xml file of the web application.bank11.class" and that it is part of the package "com.servlets". Basicly.ccards.ccards. the location of the base directory of a web application may be any sub(sub)directory of "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps". like "http://localhost:8080/ccards/servlet/Enroll" there are 3 things which have to be fixed in order to make things work properly.servlets. in an UNIX environment) is set to "C:\TW\Tomcat".bank11.bank11. The "/ccards" part of the URL is. if the base directory of the "/ccards" web application is "%TOMCAT_HOME %\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc". This association between the (short) alias of the servlet and its real (long) name is made in the web. The "/Enroll" part of the URL identifies the servlet. the base directory of an application is a subdirectory of the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps" directory. Unfortunately. it is the alias of the real servlet class. The association between the name of the web application and the location of its base directory is made by a <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.ccards. basicly. Then the "EnrollServlet.WEB APPLICATIONS 8. To make anything work: • de-comment the following section: <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> in the configuration file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web. whose name is rather long.5 practical deployment issues There are several issues with the web applications deployment. Assume that we work with Tomcat and that the environment variable %TOMCAT_HOME% (or $TOMCAT_HOME.8 . in our case) to execute the invoker servlet.xml". However.EnrollServlet </servlet-class> </servlet> 80 . Let's say that this class is "EnrollServlet. 1. for flexibility. For example. More exactly the corresponding <servlet> element should look like: <servlet> <servlet-name>Enroll</servlet-name> <servlet-class>com.xml" file. Behind a very benign URL. the name of the web application. then the corresponding <context> element in the "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\server.class" file must be located in the directory "%TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\vdumitrascu\cc\WEBINF\classes\com. In general.xml" 2. The "/servlet" part of the URL tells the web server (Tomcat.xml" file looks like: <context path="/ccards" docbase="vdumitrascu/cc" /> 3. This subdirectory has (in general) the same name as the application itself.servlets". the lines which deal with this issue are commented out in the latest version of Tomcat (for so-called "security issues"). This association is made in the file "%TOMCAT_HOME%\conf\web.

2. small footprint. Enhydra Winstone supports specification 2.SERVLETS 9 .SERVLETS 9.2 servlet containers The servlet does not communicate directly with the client. Java EE 6 SDK is intended to contain an implementation of the Java Servlet 3. 2010. platform independent programs.1 Noncommercial servlet containers • • • • • • • Apache Tomcat (formerly Jakarta Tomcat) is an open source web container available under the Apache Software License. modular design 9. from BEA Systems.1 the servlets as part of web applications Java servlets – small. which extend the functionality of the web server. The current Java Servlet specification is 2. from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) Java System Web Server . from Sun Microsystems (Oracle) JBoss (open source) JRun. in most cases as part of an application server. maintained by Oracle Java System Application Server . has a focus on minimal configuration and the ability to strip the container down to only what you need. more often. 9. Web containers are implemented by various vendors. Technically speaking. tjws spec 2.5 and is in final state.2 commercial servlet containers • • • • • • • BEA WebLogic Server or Weblogic Express.4. The servlet lives within this container which provides an execution environment for the servlet class. As of oct. Jetty Jaminid contains a higher abstraction than servlets. the HttpServlet) class. 9. now bought by Oracle Borland Enterprise Server GlassFish (open source). The Java Servlet API provides a simple frame for building web applications on web servers.2. but at this point. this is just a work in progress. from Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Allaire Corporation) 81 . but through a web container. a servlet is a Java class that extends the GenericServlet (or.9 . the Java Servlet 3.0 specification.4. Apache Geronimo is a full Java EE implementation by Apache.0 specification is available for public review.

public void destroy() throws ServletException. from IBM 9. namely: • • • • • • • • servlet implementation servlet configuration servlet exceptions request and responses session tracking servlet context servlet collaboration miscellaneous 9. ServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. These packages are: • • javax.http The classes and interfaces defined in the javax.servlet javax. while the second one. IOException.servlet. from Apple Inc.servlet.servlet package. WebSphere.3 servlet packages and classes The Java servlet API consists of 2 packages. from New Atlanta Communications WebObjects.SERVLETS • • • • • • • LiteWebServer (open source) Oracle Application Server .9 .4 the Servlet interface The Servlet interface is part of the javax. The classes and interfaces of the Java servlet API can be divided in several categories. Enterprise Edition.http contains classes and interfaces which are HTTP specific. the javax.servlet package are protocol independent. It declares the following methods: public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException. public void service(ServletRequest req. from IronFlare Caucho's Resin Server ServletExec . public ServletConfig getServletConfig(). from Oracle Corporation Orion Application Server . 82 . which are part of the Java Platform SDK.

The servlet API provides such a specific class. Methods specific to this class: public void init() public void log(String msg) public void log(String msg. in a different section. This abstract class specifies the following methods: public void service(ServletRequest req. namely the HttpServlet class. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req. 83 . All classes extending the GenericServlet class should provide an implementation for the service() method. After instantiating the servlet. the web container calls its init() method. the developer may call ServletConfig methods directly. as well. without having to obtain a ServletConfig object first. public abstract class HttpServlet extends GenericServlet implements Serializable The HttpServlet provides an HTTP specific implementation of the Servlet interface.SERVLETS public String getServletInfo(). arguments which implement the ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces. 9. respectively. The web container calls the service() method in response to any incoming request.5 the GenericServlet class public abstract class GenericServlet implements Servlet. The method performs all initialization required.6 the HttpServlet class It is very likely that the only implementation of the Servlet interface we'll ever use is one that processes an HTTP request. Since this class implements the ServletConfig interface. The servlet specification insures that the init() method is called just once for any given instance of the servlet. before the servlet processes any HTTP request. More on the servlet life cycle. Throwable t) 9. ServletResponse resp) public void service(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. This method has two arguments. ServletConfig.9 . Serializable This class provides a basic implementation of the Servlet interface.

HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req.9 . service().8 servlet exceptions The Java servlet API specifies two servlet specific exceptions: javax.9 the servlet lifecycle Generally.Exception class.ServletException javax.SERVLETS HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doDelete(HttpServletRequest req.lang. 9.7 the ServletConfig interface This interface abstracts configuration information about the servlet. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req. The UnavailableException indicates to the web container that the servlet instance is unavaialble. containing web container information This interface specifies the following methods: public public public public String getInitParameter(String name) Enumeration getInitParameterNames() ServletContext getServletContext() String getServletName() 9. namely: • • • initialization parameters (as name-value pairs) the name of the servlet a ServletContext object. a servlet instance goes through the following stages: 84 .Exception and can be thrown by the init().servlet. doXXX() and destroy() methods of the Servlet interface implementations. HttpServletResponse resp) protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req. HttpServletResponse resp) 9. It also extends the java.lang.servlet.UnavailableException The ServletException class extends java.

The first one is to attach attributes to the request object.10 the ServletRequest interface Here are some of the methods of this interface: public public public public public public public public public public public public Object getAttribute(String name) Object setAttribute(String name. etc. JSP or JSF. 9. which requires that the service() method be thread safe. The other two use the HttpSession and ServletContext objects. or to allow sending data from a servlet to another. The purpose of attributes is to allow the container to provide additional data to a servlet.SERVLETS • • • • • instantiation initialization service destroy unavailable The container creates a servlet instance as first response to an incoming (HTTP) request or at container startup.9 . which will service all incoming requests.servlet. respectively. Typically. this method contains JDBC driver loading. the attributes of the request are attached by the web containers or by the servlets/JSPs/JSFs. There are 3 different ways for attaching and retrieving attributes. After instantiation. Typically. method which performs the initialization of the servlet. If the servlet does not implement the javax.SingleThreadModel. the container calls the init() method of the servlet. The web container makes sure that the init() method of the servlet will be completed before invoking its service() method. Also. 85 . the servlet's destroy() method will be called before the servlet itself is destroyed. Object attr) Enumeration getAttributeNames() int getContentLength() String getContentType() String getParameter(String name) Enumeration getParameterNames() String[] getParameterValues() String getServerName() int getServerPort() String getRemoteAddr() String getRemoteHost() Most of the above methods are self explanatory. the web container creates a single instance of the servlet. DB connection opening. But what is the difference between a parameter and an attribute? While the parameters of the request are part of the request itself. concurrent requests are serviced in more than one service thread.

Here are some of them: public Cookie[] getCookies() public long getDateHeader() public String getHeader(String name) public Enumeration getHeaders(String name) public Enumeration getHeaderNames() public String getContextPath() public String getPathInfo() public String getQueryString() public String getRemoteUser() 9.SERVLETS 9.11 the HttpServletRequest interface public interface HttpServletRequest extends ServletRequest This interface contains HTTP specific methods.12 the ServletResponse interface This interface defines methods for constructing responses to servlet requests. Here are the most important ones: public ServletOutputStream getOutputStream() public PrintWriter getWriter() public void setContentLength(int len) public void setContentType(String type) public void setBufferSize(int size) public int getBufferSize() public void flushBuffer() 9. One has to take in account the structure of an HTTP request when overviewing the most important methods of this interface.13 the HttpServletResponse interface This interface extends the ServletResponse interface and defines methods specific for constructing responses to HTTP requests. Here are the most important ones: 86 .9 .

A reference to an object of this type can be obtained by invoking the getServletContext() method of the HttpServlet object.bank11.14 the ServletContext interface A servlet context defines servlet's view of the web application and provides access to resources common to all servlets of the web application. 87 . The ServletContext interface abstracts the context of a web application.java" file: package com.xml file.SERVLETS public void addCookie(Cookie cookie) public String encodeURL(String url) public void sendError(int status) public void sendError(int status.io.9 . Each servlet context is rooted at a specific path in the web server. String value) public void addHeader(String headerName. String message) public void setHeader(String headerName.html) Here is its abbreviated form (topics which are DB related are postponed) of the "EnrollServlet. Object attr) public String removeAttribute(String name) 9. String value) public void setStatus(int statusCode) 9. The deployment of a web application involves adding an application specific <context> tag which associates the the name of the application with its root directory.servlets.*. import java.15 the Enroll servlet The Enroll servlet services the request sent by the web browser when we submit the Enroll form (file Enroll.ccards. public String getMIMEType(String fileName) public String getResource(String path) public ServletContext getContext(String urlPath) public String getInitParameter(String name) public Enumeration getInitParameterNames() public Object getAttribute(String name) public Enumeration getAttributeNames() public void setAttribute(String name. This is done in server's (container's) server.

out.println("<head>"). out.servlet. out. IOException { resp. out.http.setContentType(“text/html”).servlet. public class EnrollServlet extends HttpServlet { public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.close().println("merge"). // output your page here out. } } 88 .init(config). out.println("<br>").*.9 . PrintWriter out = resp. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException. } public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req. out. import javax. out.*.println("<body>").println("</head>").SERVLETS import javax. out.getWriter().println("<html>").println("</html>"). out.println("<title>Servlet</title>").println("</body>").

This solution is inefficient. Both the JDBC and the JDBCODBC calls are invoked within the client application.sun. the javax. 89 . the java.1 what is jdbc? JDBC stands for Java Data Base Connectivity and is the Java version of ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity).1. 10.10 .2 jdbc drivers Each database vendor offers its own version of DB access API. as recognized by the DB industry. JDBC – ODBC Bridge The driver translates the JDBC calls into equivalent ODBC calls. Starting with version 3. Type 1.sql package 2. JDBC was part of Java Standard Edition (JSE). The first release of the JDBC specification dates back to Feb. After that. due to the multiple layers of indirection involved and to the limitations imposed to the JDBC layer by the ODBC frame. It offers an API for SQL-compliant relational databases access. The JDBC API presents a standard API to access a wide range of underlying data sources or legacy systems.jdbc.odbc. as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1. The JDBC 4.0) JDBC specification is defined in JSR 221. 1997.0 API consists of 2 packages: 1.sql package. A JDBC driver is a middleware layer that translates JDBC calls into vendor specific calls.0 while the current (4. It abstracts the vendor-specific details and offers support for the most common database access functions.JDBC 10. which provides several server-side capabilities The JDBC API provides programmatic access from applications written in the Java programming language to standard SQL.0.JdbcOdbcDriver .JDBC 10 . These drivers fall into four standard categories. The standard JDK includes all classes for this bridge . JSR (Java Specification Request) 54 defines JDBC 3. JDBC evolution is part of the Java Community Process.

Type 4. Part Java. All major vendors provide type 4 JDBC drivers for their Database products. This type of drivers are implemented by several application servers. 90 . The DB returns the result of the call to the API.10 . Part Native Driver The drivers in this category use a combination of Java implementation and vendor specific APIs for DB access. The JDBC API calls are converted to direct network calls using vendor provided protocols. The driver translates JDBC specific calls into vendor specific API calls. because it eliminates one level of indirection. Pure Java Drivers These are the most efficient drivers. Intermediate Database Access Server Type 3 drivers are DataBase servers which act as intermediate tier between multiple clients and multiple Database servers. The client application sends a JDBC call through a JDBC driver to the intermediate Database servers. like WebLogic (of BEA Systems) or Inprise Application Server (of Borland).JDBC Type 2. Type 3. These servers translate the call into a native driver call which handles the actual DB connection. forwards them to the JDBC driver. which in turn. It is much faster than the Type 1 drivers.

sql.Wrapper 91 .Clob java.0).sql.sql.sql. Of the 80+ classes and interfaces defined in this specification. An exhaustive list of the classes and interfaces of this package can be found in the latest JDBC specification (4. let's remind some of the most important ones.Array java.Struct java.SQLPermission java.sql.Time java.sql package This package contains the core JDBC API.sql.3 the java.Driver java.SQLInput java.Timestamp java.Statement java.CallableStatement java.sql.ResultSetMetaData java.SQLData java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.Types java.PreparedStatement java.sql. The document containing this specification is JSR 221 and can be viewed at http://jcp.0 API.SQLOutput java.org/en/jsr/detail?id=221.sql.sql.DriverManager java.sql.sql.SQLWarning java.sql.sql.sql. java.10 .sql.Date java.sql.Connection java.ResultSet java.SQLException java. defined in the JDBC 3.sql.SQLDataException java.Blob java.JDBC 10.sql.

sql. processing the result set 92 .sql.ClientinfoStatus java.sql.StatementEvent javax.RowId java.CommonDataSource javax.SQLException java.SQLOutput java.sql. The main steps in communicating with a database are: 1.SQLDataException java.SQLTransientConnectionException java.sql.sql.sql.SQLFeatureNotSupportedException java.sql.Connection java.Blob java.JDBC The following list contains all of the classes and interfaces new or updated in version 4.10 .SQLWarning java.SQLNonTransientException java.sql.RowIdLifeTime java.sql.sql.sql.sql.SQLTransactionRollbackException java.Statement java.sql.Types java.sql.SQLTimeoutException java.sql.SQLNonTransientConnectionException java.PreparedStatement java.sql.NClob java.sql.SQLXML java.sql.sql.sql.SQLInput java.sql.sql.sql.0.sql.sql.ResultSet java. loading a database driver 2.SQLIntegrityConstraintViolationException java.sql. establishing a database connection 3.sql package.sql.DatabaseMetaData java.SQLInvalidAuthorizationSpecException java. java. querying the database 4.Wrapper javax.SQLSyntaxErrorException java.sql.CallableStatement java.StatementEventListener 10.Clob java.SQLClientInfoException java.sql.SQLTransientException java.sql.sql package The figure below shows the interactions and relationships between the major classes and interfaces of the java.sql.4 interaction schema in the java.sql.sql.

OracleDriver sun.db2.odbc.datastore.SybDriver com.borland.jdbc. A database driver is specified by the driver name. The first one is loading a database driver.jdbc.DataStoreDriver com.5 loading a DB driver connecting to the database There are two main steps in connecting to an existing database.jdbc.jdbc.ibm.net.driver.jdbc.10 .sybase.JdbcOdbcDriver 93 .DB2Driver oracle. Here are some examples of actual database driver names: • • • • • com.JDBC 10.

but let's take it for granted: import java. by using the connection URL. 94 . Here is some sample code which shows how this is done: String connURL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards".newInstance(). user.com:50002/ccards jdbc:oracle:thin:@loclahost:1521:ORCL • • • The second step in connecting to an existing database is to open the connection. String user = "root". try { Class. as specified by the driver vendor. as follows: jdbc:<subprotocol>:subname • • • jdbc is the protocol name (actually.sql.forName("org.getConnection(connURL. subname – the syntax of this field is vendor specific and allows the identification Here are some examples of JDBC driver URLs: jdbc:sybase:localhost:2025 jdbc:db2://db2.mysql.printStackTrace(). passwd). String passwd = "root" Connection conn = DriverManager.*. } catch (Exception e) { // driver not found e. Since we just used it. } The actual location of the database is specified by its URL (also known as connection URL).*. the only protocol allowed in JDBC).10 .bank11.mm. let's have a better look in the next section at the DriverManager class.Driver").JDBC The Java code to load the driver name is somewhat obscure.gjt. The URL has 3 parts separated by colons.util. the sub-protocol is used to identify the JDBC driver. import java.

getConnection(connURL.7 the Connection interface The Connection interface is part of then javax. int resultSetConcurrency) throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType.sql package and offers a common access layer on top of different JDBC drivers. let's see an example of how to use the last of the three forms.util. we can use it for various purposes. The most important methods for creating statements: Statement createStatement() throws SQLException Statement createStatement(int resultSetType. prp). int resultSetHoldability) PreparedStatement prepareStatement(String sql) throws SQLException CallableStatement prepareCall(String sql) throws SQLException 95 . Once we get the hold of a Connection object.Properties info) throws SQLException While the first two forms of getConnection() are pretty straightforward. String passwd) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL. Here they are: public static Connection getConnection(String connURL) throws SQLException public static Connection getConnection(String connURL.JDBC 10.sql package. "true"). java. int resultSetConcurrency. prp. prp.put("create".put("autocommit". String user. There are 3 versions of the getConnection() method of the DriverManager class. 10.10 . Properties prp = new Properties(). Each driver used by the application must be registered (loaded) before the DriverManager class tries to obtain a connection.6 the DriverManager class This class belongs to the javax. Connection conn = DriverManager. but we will restrict ourselves to creating SQL statements. "true").

methods for result set fetch size and direction: • • • • setFetchSize() getFetchSize() setFetchDirection() getFetchDirection() 4. Statement. prepared statements and stored procedures.8 statement interfaces The objects we encountered in the previous section. methods for result set concurrency and type: • • getResultSetConcurrency() getResultSetType() 6.10 .JDBC 10. respectively. methods for batch updates: • • • addBatch() executeBatch() clearBatch() 3. namely. PreparedStatement and CallableStatement abstract regular SQL statements. method to get the current result set: • getResultSet() 5. other methods: • • • • • • setQueryTimeout() getQueryTimeout() setMaxFieldSize() getMaxFieldSize() cancel() getConnection() 96 . The Statement interface has (among others) the following methods: 1. methods for executing statements: • • • execute() executeQuery() executeUpdate() 2.

.ResultSet object which is available to the user and allows access to the data retrieved.createStatement().10 .".. The interface ResultSet is implemented by driver vendors. Methods to retrieve data: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getAsciiStream() getBoolean() getDate() getInt() getShort() getTimeStamp() getBinaryStream() getBytes() getFloat() getObject() getTime() getString() getByte() getDouble() getLong() getBigDecimal() getMetaData() getClob() getWarnings() getBlob() 97 . Objects implementing the Connection interface are mainly used for SQL queries execution. 10.9 the ResultSet interface The result of a query by a Statement object is a java.JDBC The Statement interfaces also support the same methods for transaction support as the Connection objects. stmt. String sqlString = "CREATE TABLE customer . Here is a typical example: Statement stmt = conn.sql.executeUpdate(sqlString).

One can think of a database cursor as an iterator over the collection of rows in the result set.10 . PreparedStatement. These characteristics are configurable through methods that are accessible on Statement. a concurrency of read only. The usage of these retrieval methods assumes the prior knowledge of the type and the index (or name) of a particular column.JDBC Most of these methods require the column index (which in SQL starts at 1. What if we don't have this knowledge? Fortunately. Here are the most important methods specified by the ResultSetMetaData interface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • getCatalogName() getTableName() getSchemaName() getColumnCount() getColumnName() getColumnLabel() getColumnType() getColumnTypeName() getColumnClassName() getColumnDisplaySize() getScale() getPrecision() isNullable() isCurrency() isSearchable() isCaseSensitive() isSigned() isAutoIncrement() isReadOnly() isDefinitelyWritable() 10.10 ResultSet characteristics By default. all this data about the DB schema (or metadata) can be retrieved using the ResultSetMetaData interface. 98 . as the argument. and cursors are held over commit boundaries. all created ResultSets have a type of forward only. not at 0) or the column name. and CallableStatement objects. An exception to this is that WebSphere currently changes the cursor holdability default so that cursors are implicitly closed when committed. A cursor comprises a control structure for the successive traversal (and potential processing) of records in a result set. The invocation of the getMetaData() method of a ResultSet object returns an object of ResultSetMetaData type.

10 - JDBC 10.10.1 ResultSet types
The ResultSet type specifies the following about the ResultSet:
• •

Whether the ResultSet is scrollable. The types of Java (TM) Database Connectivity (JDBC) ResultSets that are defined by constants on the ResultSet interface.

Definitions of these ResultSet types are as follows:

TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY
A cursor that can only be used to process from the beginning of a ResultSet to the end of it. This is the default type.

TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is insensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. It contains rows that satisfy the query when the query was processed or when data is fetched.

TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE
A cursor that can be used to scroll in various ways through a ResultSet. This type of cursor is sensitive to changes made to the database while it is open. Changes to the database have a direct impact on the ResultSet data. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Scrollable cursors were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: The blocking enabled and block size connection properties affect the degree of sensitivity of a TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE cursor. Blocking enhances performance by caching data in the JDBC driver layer itself.

10.10.2 Concurrency
Concurrency determines whether the ResultSet can be updated. The types are again defined by constants in the ResultSet interface. The available concurrency settings are as follows:

CONCUR_READ_ONLY
A ResultSet that can only be used for reading data out of the database. This is the default setting.

CONCUR_UPDATEABLE
A ResultSet that allows you to make changes to it. These changes can be placed into the underlying database. JDBC 1.0 ResultSets are always forward only. Updateable ResultSets were added in JDBC 2.0. Note: According to the JDBC specification, the JDBC driver is allowed to change the ResultSet type of the ResultSet concurrency setting if the values cannot be used together. In such cases, the JDBC driver places a warning on the Connection object. There is one situation where the application specifies a TYPE_SCROLL_INSENSITIVE, CONCUR_UPDATEABLE ResultSet. Insensitivity is implemented in the database engine by making a copy of the data. You are then not allowed to make updates through that copy to the underlying database. If you specify this combination, the driver changes the sensitivity to TYPE_SCROLL_SENSITIVE and create the warning indicating that your request has been changed.

10.10.3 Holdability
The holdability characteristic determines whether calling commit on the Connection object closes the ResultSet. The JDBC API for working with the holdability characteristic is new in version 3.0. However, the native JDBC driver has provided a connection property for several

99

10 - JDBC
releases that allows you to specify that default for all ResultSets created under the connection. The API support overrides any setting for the connection property. Values for the holdability characteristic are defined by ResultSet constants and are as follows:

HOLD_CURSOR_OVER_COMMIT
All open cursors remain open when the commit clause is called. This is the native JDBC default value.

CLOSE_CURSORS_ON_COMMIT
All open cursors are closed when commit clause is called.

10.11 example of data retrieval
// DisplayServlet.java package com.bank11.ccards.servlets; import import import import import java.sql.*; javax.servlet.*; javax.servlet.http.*; java.math.*; java.util.*;

public class DisplayServlet extends HttpServlet { Connection conn; // Initializes the servlet public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); String driverName = "org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"; try { Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } String connURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/ccards"; try { conn=DriverManager.getConnection(connURL,"root","root"); } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } } // Destroys the servlet.

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public void destroy() { } // Processes requests for both HTTP GET and POST methods. protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { String theCode = req.getParameter(“CODE”); String sql = “SELECT FIRST_NAME, LAST_NAME, ACCOUNT_NUM from CUSTOMERS where CNP=”+theCode+”;”; try { Statement stmt = conn.getStatement(); ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sql); while(rs.next()) { String firstName = rs.getString(“FIRST_NAME”); String lastName = rs.getString(“LAST_NAME”); BigDecimal accountNum = rs.getBigDecimal(“ACCOUNT_NUM”); } } catch (SQLException sqle) { sqle.printStackTrace(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } resp.setContentType("text/html"); java.io.PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter(); // output your page here out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head>"); out.println("<title>Servlet</title>"); out.println("</head>"); out.println("<body>"); ... out.println("</body>"); out.println("</html>"); out.close(); } // Handles the HTTP GET method. protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException { processRequest(req, resp); } // Handles the HTTP POST method. protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, java.io.IOException {

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processRequest(req, resp); } // Returns a short description of the servlet. public String getServletInfo() { return "Short description"; } }

10.12 the PreparedStatement interface
If an SQL statement is used several times and its different forms differ only with respect to the data they specify, a better choice is the usage of a PreparedStatement object. Prepared statements are parametrized and each parameter (usually, a field (column) value or name) is represented by a question mark '?'. The following lines of Java code give an example of how to use PreparedStatement objects: Statement stmt = con.createStatement(); PreparedStatement pstmt = con.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO customer VALUES (?, ?, ?)"); stmt.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE customer varchar(32) lastName varchar(24))"); // set parameters for preparedStatement pstmt.setInt(1, 1021); pstmt.setString(2, "Vasile"); pstmt.setString(3, "Dumitrascu"); int count = pstmt.executeUpdate(); (id int, firstName

10.13 jdbc and sql types and their corresponding java classes
JDBC Type ARRAY BIGINT BINARY BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Purpose SQL array 64 bit integer binary value one bit value binary large object char string character large object day, month, year SQL Type ARRAY BIGINT none BIT BLOB CHAR CLOB DATE Java Type java.sql.Array long byte[] boolean java.sql.Blob String java.sql.Clob java.sql.Date

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The DataSource interface is implemented by a driver vendors. the new mechanism uses a centralized JNDI service to locate a javax. the DriverManager interface is replaced by the DataSource interface as main method of obtaining DB connections.10 .Times tamp short byte[] String 16 bit integer SMALLINT short Purpose decimal value distinct double precision double precision 32 bit integer stores Java objects variable length binary value variable length char string null values decimal value db specific types single precision SQL Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER none none none NULL NUMERIC none REAL Java Type java.Big Decimal Object float 10.sql. Basic implementation -. mins.math.14 JDBC Data Sources In the JDBC 2. basicly.JDBC JDBC Type DECIMAL DISTINCT DOUBLE FLOAT INTEGER JAVA_OBJECT LONGVARBINARY LONGVARCHAR NULL NUMERIC OTHER REAL REF SMALLINT STRUCT TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT VARBINARY VARCHAR hrs.Big Decimal none double double int Object byte[] String null java.sql.Time java. Connection pooling implementation -.produces a standard Connection object 2. While the DriverManager interface was used at run time to load explicitly a JDBC driver.DataSource object.sql package.produces a Connection object that will 103 .math. time. It is part of the javax. secs date.0 optional package. nanoseconds 8 bit integer variable length binary value variable length char string TIME TIMESTAMP TINYINT none VARCHAR java. There are three types of implementations: 1.sql. a factory for creating DB connections. This interface is.

public void setDataSource(DataSource dataSource) { theDataSource = dataSource. 104 . } public DataSource getDataSource() { return theDataSource. Distributed transaction implementation -.bank11. javax.*. theDataSource = (DataSource) env.lookup(DATASOURCE_NAME). 3.lookup("java:comp/env").getLogger(TestDataSource. throws public class TestDataSource extends HttpServlet { private final static Logger log = Logger. java. private DataSource theDataSource. import import import import import import java.servlet.servlets. This implementation works with a middle-tier transaction manager and almost always with a connection pooling manager.class.*. javax.http.sql. } public void init() throws ServletException { if (theDataSource == null) { try { Context env = (Context) new InitialContext().produces a Connection object that may be used for distributed transactions and almost always participates in connection pooling. Main methods: public Connection getConnection() throws SQLException public Connection getConnection(String user.ccards. javax. javax.sql.*.naming.10 .*. String pwd) SQLException A servlet example using the DataSource interface: package com.*.*.servlet.io.getName()). This implementation works with a middletier connection pooling manager. private final static String DATASOURCE_NAME = "jdbc/ccards".JDBC automatically participate in connection pooling.

10 ..JDBC if (theDataSource == null) throw new ServletException("`" + DATASOURCE_NAME + "' is an unknown DataSource"). ServletException { . } catch (NamingException e) { throw new ServletException(e).. } } 105 . } } } public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException.

A JSP is loaded by a JSP container and is converted (to servlet code).JSP 11. HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException.HttpJspPage interface has a single method: public void jspService(HttpServletRequest req.1 and is related to the 2.servlet.jsp. The package javax. 11.jsp. The javax.jsp.5 Java Servlet specification.tagext contains classes and interfaces for the definition of JavaServer Pages Tag Libraries. JSR 245 is the official document containing the current specification of JSP. 11.jsp package contains a number of classes and interfaces that describe and define the contracts between a JSP page implementation class and the runtime environment provided for an instance of such a class by a conforming JSP container. IOException The implementation of this method is generated by the web container – never by the developer.servlet.3 the generated servlet – an example 106 . The JSP specific interfaces.jsp defines two interfaces – JspPage and HttpJspPage. The current JSP specification is JSP 2.1 java server pages as part of web applications A Java Server Page (JSP) is a standard HTML or XML file which contains new scripting tags.servlet. the servlet code is regenerated.tagext.2 the java.servlet.JSP 11 . The package javax. If the JSP is modified. namely javax.JspPage interface This interface has 2 methods: public void jspInit() public void jspDestroy() The javax.servlet.servlet. The interface HttpJspPage is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class for the HTTP protocol must satisfy.servlet.11 . The JspPage interface is the interface that a JSP processor-generated class must satisfy.jsp and javax. classes and exceptions are part of two packages.

11 - JSP
Even if we start with a very benign java server page, like the listed “hello world” example below, the generated servlet is still pretty complex. First, the original index.jsp file. <%-Document : index Created on : 08.11.2010, 08:17:39 Author : sm --%> <%@page contentType="text/html" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"> <title>JSP Page</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World!</h1> </body> </html> The generated servlet follows. package org.apache.jsp; import javax.servlet.*; import javax.servlet.http.*; import javax.servlet.jsp.*; public final class index_jsp extends org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase implements org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspSourceDependent { private static final JspFactory _jspxFactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); private static java.util.Vector _jspx_dependants; private org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector _jspx_resourceInjector; public Object getDependants() {

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return _jspx_dependants; } public void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws java.io.IOException, ServletException { PageContext pageContext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; JspWriter _jspx_out = null; PageContext _jspx_page_context = null; try { response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8"); response.setHeader("X-Powered-By", "JSP/2.1"); pageContext = _jspxFactory.getPageContext(this, request, response, null, true, 8192, true); _jspx_page_context = pageContext; application = pageContext.getServletContext(); config = pageContext.getServletConfig(); session = pageContext.getSession(); out = pageContext.getOut(); _jspx_out = out; _jspx_resourceInjector = (org.glassfish.jsp.api.ResourceInjector) application.getAttribute("com.sun.appserv.jsp.resource.injector"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC \"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN\"\n"); out.write(" \"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd\">\n"); out.write("\n"); out.write("<html>\n"); out.write(" <head>\n"); out.write(" <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=UTF-8\">\n"); out.write(" <title>JSP Page</title>\n"); out.write(" </head>\n"); out.write(" <body>\n"); out.write(" <h1>Hello World!</h1>\n"); out.write(" </body>\n"); out.write("</html>\n");

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} catch (Throwable t) { if (!(t instanceof SkipPageException)){ out = _jspx_out; if (out != null && out.getBufferSize() != 0) out.clearBuffer(); if (_jspx_page_context != null) _jspx_page_context.handlePageException(t); else throw new ServletException(t); } } finally { _jspxFactory.releasePageContext(_jspx_page_context); } } } A short comment. The class HttpJspBase is a vendor-implemented class, whose declaration clarifies its relationship with the standard JSP classes and interfaces. public abstract class HttpJspBase extends javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet implements javax.servlet.jsp.HttpJspPage

11.4 ordinary java beans
A java bean is a java class which: implements the java.io.Serializable interface provides a no-argument constructor for each of its properties, provides get and set methods implements a property change mechanism

• • • •

Here is a typical example of a java bean. /* * NewBean.java */ import java.beans.*; import java.io.Serializable; /** * @author sm */ public class NewBean extends Object implements Serializable {

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public static final String PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY = "sampleProperty"; private String sampleProperty; private PropertyChangeSupport propertySupport; public NewBean() { propertySupport = new PropertyChangeSupport(this); } public String getSampleProperty() { return sampleProperty; } public void setSampleProperty(String value) { String oldValue = sampleProperty; sampleProperty = value; propertySupport.firePropertyChange(PROP_SAMPLE_PROPERTY, oldValue, sampleProperty); } public void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.addPropertyChangeListener(listener); } public void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener) { propertySupport.removePropertyChangeListener(listener); } }

11.5 jsp tags
There are 3 categories of JSP tags (elements): 1. directives – affect the structure of the whole jsp 2. scripting elements – java code inserted in the JSP page 3. actions – special tags affecting the run time behaviour of the JSP Rules for JSP tags:
• •

attribute values are always quoted (single or double quotes) URLs follow the servlet conventions

110

. These directives do not produce any client output and affect the whole JSP file. in case of error The include directive instructs the container to include inline the content of the resource specified by "fileName".6 jsp directives The JSP directives are messages sent by the Java Server Page to the JSP container. The format of this directive: <%@include file="fileName" %> The taglib directive allows the usage of custom tags (tag extensions). The general format of a JSP directive is as follows: <%@directive_name attr1="val1" . attrn="valn" %> Ther are three JSP directives: page. 111 . %> attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • language – values: "java" extends – superclass of the generated class import – list of packages classes session – "true" or "false". the buffer is flushed automatically if full isThreadSafe – "true" or "false" isErrorPage – "true" or "false" contentType – MIME type of the response info errorPage – the URL of an error page.JSP • if the URL does not start with / . the implicit session object is available buffer – buffering model for the output stream autoflush – if "true".. It has the following format: <%@taglib uri="tagLibUri" prefix="tagPrefix" %> where the tagPrefix indicates a name scope. The page directive format: <%@page attr1="val1" .. include and taglib. it is interpreted relative to the position of the current JSP 11.11 ..

11. 11.7. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:useBean id="beanName" scope="sName" beandetails /> 112 .1 declarations <%! java vars and method declarations %> Basicly.2 scriptlets <% valid java statements %> Block of java code which is executed during request processing. Assigns it to available name or id. a bloc of java code used to define class-wide variables and methods in the generated servlet.8 the useBean standard action <jsp:useBean> Used to instantiate a Java bean or locate a bean instance. The standard actions are detailed in the next paragraphs.7.3 expressions <%= java expressions to be evaluated %> A scriptlet that sends a value of a Java expression to back to the client.7. 11.JSP 11. A tag can be embedded into a JSP page. It is evaluated at request processing time and the result is converted to a string which is then displayed. In Tomcat.4 standard actions Tags that affect the runtime behaviour of the JSP and the response to the client. 11. this code goes to inside the service() method.7.11 .7 scripting elements 11.

The value can be a String or an Expression • • 11. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:setProperty name="beanName" propertydetails /> where propertydetails is one of the following: • • • • property="*" property="propertyName" property="propertyName" param="parameterName" property="propertyName" value="propertyValue" where propertyValue is a string or a scriptlet.11 .the name of a bean instance.JSP where beandetails is one of the following: • • • • class="className" class="className" type="typeName" beanName="beanName" type="typeName" type="typeName" 11. you must specify param.stores all of the values in the request object parameters (called request parameters) in matching Bean properties. Attributes description: • • • name . already defined in a <jsp:useBean> property – specifies the relationship between request parameters and corresponding bean properties property="*" . The request parameter can have a different name than the Bean property.10 the getProperty standard action <jsp:getProperty> 113 .Sets one Bean property to the value of one request parameter.Sets one Bean property to a specific value.9 the setProperty standard action <jsp:setProperty> Used in conjunction with the <jsp:useBean> action to set the value of the bean properties. and if so. property="propertyName" value="{ string | <%= expression %> }" . The property names in the Bean must match the request parameters property="propertyName" [ param="parameterName" ] .

converts them to string and displays the output to the client. flush . While the <%@include> directive is executed at compile time and has static content.JSP Used to access the properties of a bean. <jsp:forward>.11 the param standard action <jsp:param> Provide other tags with additional information in the form of name:value pairs. An included page has access only to the JspWriter object and cannot set headers or cookies.the URL of the page. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:include page="pageURL" flush="true" /> Attributes description: • • page .13 the forward standard action 114 .the name of a bean instance whose property is to be retrieved property . The syntax for this action is: <jsp:getProperty name="beanName" property="propName" /> Attributes description: • • name . It is used in conjunction with the <jsp:include>.11 .only the "true" value is supported. the <jsp:include> action is executed at request processing time and has static or dynamic content. 11.name of the property to be retrieved 11. same format as the <%@include> directive.12 the include standard action <jsp:include> Used for the inclusion of a static or dynamic resource into the current JSP page at request processing time. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> 11. <jsp:plugin> actions.

the name of a bean instance. It is used mainly.the type of object the plugin will execute... the path of the JSP file that calls <jsp:plugin> is used.JSP <jsp:forward> Used to forward the the request to another JSP. when we want to separate the application into different views.the absolute or relative path to the directory that contains the applet's code.. archive="URIToArchive. as this attribute has no default value. as well." . . name .. You must include the . servlet or to a static resource. depending on request. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:plugin type="bean|applet" code="objCode" codeBase="objCodeBase" align="align" archive="archiveList" height="height" hspace="hSpace" jreversion="jreVersion" name="componentName" vspace="vSpace" width="width" nspluginurl="netscapeURL" iepluginurl="IEURL"> <jsp:params> <jsp:param name="paramName" value="paramValue" /> </jsp:params> </jsp:plugin> Attributes description: • • • . name="instanceName" . If you do not supply a value. codebase="classFileDirectoryName" .a comma-separated list of paths that locate archive files • • • 115 . which makes it possible for applets or Beans called by the same JSP file to communicate with each other.a name for the Bean or applet instance. already defined in a <jsp:useBean> type="bean|applet" . The filename is relative to the directory named in the codebase attribute.class extension in the name following code. The syntax for this action is: <jsp:forward page="pageURL" /> The action may include several <jsp:param> tags.11 .. followed by the execution of the applet or JavaBeans component specified by the tag. code="classFileName" . 11.the name of the Java class file that the plugin will execute.14 the plugin standard action <jsp:plugin> Used in pages to generate client browser specific HTML tags (<OBJECT> or <EMBED>) that result in download of Java plugins(if required). You must specify either bean or applet.

with a protocol name.represents the object that triggered the service() method invokation and has type HttpServletRequest with scope request 2. config . page .15 implicit objects JSP provides several implicit objects. hspace="leftRightPixels" vspace="topBottomPixels" . to the left and right (or top and bottom) of the image the applet or Bean displays.the initial height and width. pageContext . iepluginurl="URLToPlugin" • • • • • 11. it has type ServletContext and scope application 6. session . request .servlet.PrintWriter. The value is a full URL.the version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) the applet or Bean requires. The default value is 1.1" .it has HttpSession type and session scope 5.jsp. writes to the output stream to the client. request . 1. nspluginurl="URLToPlugin" .the amount of space.it is the SevletConfig for the current JSP page.it is an instance of the page's implementation of the servlet class. Must be a small nonzero number.1. it has HttpServletResponse type and page scope 3.JspWriter type and scope page 7. in pixels. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit 116 .it represents the buffered version of java.lang. application . • align="bottom|top|middle|left|right" . it has type PageContext with scope page 4. height="displayPixels" width="displayPixels" . not counting any windows or dialog boxes the applet or Bean brings up.the URL where the user can download the JRE plugin for Netscape Navigator.16 scopes 1.an object with request scope is bound to the HttpServletRequest object. out . objects which are automaticly available.11 .the positioning of the image displayed by the applet or Bean relative to the line in the JSP result page that corresponds to the line in the JSP file containing the <jsp:plugin> tag.io. of the image the applet or Bean displays. jreversion="JREVersionNumber|1.provides a single point of access to attributes and shared data within the page. it is of type ServletConfig and has page scope 8. optional port number. in pixels. based on the servlet API. response .represents the servlet context. it has java. and domain name.JSP to be preloaded with a class loader located in the directory named in codebase.represents server's response to the request.Object type and scope page 11. it has javax.

the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit application object.an object with application scope is bound to the ServletContext object. page . session .17 a short example The following is the Enroll. Object value) method 2.invalidAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 3.registeredAcct()) { %> <jsp:forward page="response.an object with page scope is bound to the PageContext object. application .an object with session scope is bound to the HttpSession object. the object can be accessed by invoking the getAttribute() method on the implicit pageContext object. <%@page contentType="text/html" errorPage="error.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userExists"/> </jsp:forward> 117 . the generated servlet binds the object to HttpSession object using the setAttribute(String key.JSP request object.11 .jsp"%> <jsp:useBean id="enrollBean" scope="session" class="com.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="invalidAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.jsp file. the generated servlet binds the object to the ServletContext object using the setAttribute(String key. the object can be accessed by invoking the getValue() method on the implicit session object. the generated servlet binds the object to HttpServletRequest object using the setAttribute(String key.EnrollBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="enrollBean" property="*" /> <% enrollBean.ccards.bank11.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="registeredAcct"/> </jsp:forward> <% } else if (enrollBean.userExists()) { %> <jsp:forward page="retry. Object value) method 4.beans. the generated servlet binds the object to PageContext object using the setAttribute(String key.init(). if (enrollBean. Object value) method 11.

io. an int. // No-arg constructor public SimpleBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this. private SimpleSubBean subBean.string. a software development and consulting company.mapping. // Simple bean public class SimpleBean implements java. private String optional.JSP <% } else { enrollBean.devsphere. a boolean and another String).Serializable { private String string.11 . } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { 118 .register(). The SimpleBean class is declared public. 11.examples. private boolean flag. %> <jsp:forward page="response. private String colors[]. has a no-arg constructor and provides accessors (get & set methods) for its properties.simple. private int integer. two indexed standard properties (a String[] and an int[]) and another data bean (a SimpleSubBean). since the Java compiler generates one in the absence of any other constructors. private float number. SimpleBean.18. private int list[].1 Data beans SimpleBean is a Java bean that contains several standard properties (a String.jsp"> <jsp:param name="resolution" value="userEnrolled"/> </jsp:forward> <% } %> 11. The public constructor could have been omitted.18 an extended example This example is provided by Devsphere.java: package com. a float.

} // Gets the flag property public boolean getFlag() { return this.flag = value. } // Sets the integer property public void setInteger(int value) { this.colors.number = value. } // Gets the colors property public String[] getColors() { return this. } 119 .colors = values. } // Sets the flag property public void setFlag(boolean value) { this.string = value.number.integer. } // Gets the integer property public int getInteger() { return this.colors[index]. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.integer = value.flag. } // Sets the colors property public void setColors(String values[]) { this. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this. } // Gets an element of the colors property public String getColors(int index) { return this.11 .JSP this.

JSP // Sets an element of the colors property public void setColors(int index. String value) { this. } // Sets the subBean property public void setSubBean(SimpleSubBean value) { this.optional.list[index] = value.subBean.colors[index] = value.list = values. } // Gets the optional property public String getOptional() { return this. } // Sets the list property public void setList(int values[]) { this. } } 120 . } // Gets the subBean property public SimpleSubBean getSubBean() { return this.list[index].subBean = value.optional = value. } // Gets an element of the list property public int getList(int index) { return this. } // Gets the list property public int[] getList() { return this.11 . } // Sets an element of the list property public void setList(int index. } // Sets the optional property public void setOptional(String value) { this.list. int value) { this.

examples.JSP SimpleSubBean contains only two standard properties (a String and a float).simple. } // Sets the string property public void setString(String value) { this. } // Gets the number property public float getNumber() { return this.number.mapping. // Simple sub-bean public class SimpleSubBean implements java.string.number = value.11 . SimpleSubBean. // No-arg constructor public SimpleSubBean() { } // Gets the string property public String getString() { return this.2 the HTML Form The properties of SimpleBean are mapped to the form elements of SimpleForm.devsphere. } } 11.io. } // Sets the number property public void setNumber(float value) { this.string = value. private float number.Serializable { private String string.java: package com.18.html: Name string number integer flag Property type String float int boolean Element type text text radio[] checkbox 121 .

string subBean.JSP colors list optional subBean.number SimpleForm.11 .html: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple form</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD="POST"> <P> String <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" SIZE="20"> <P> Integer <BR> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="1">Option 1 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="2">Option 2 <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="3">Option 3 <P> Flag <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag">Flag <P> Colors <BR> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="red">Red <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="green">Green <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="blue">Blue <P> List <BR> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <OPTION VALUE="1">Item 1</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="2">Item 2</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE="3">Item 3</OPTION> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" SIZE="20"> String[] int[] String String float checkbox[] select text text text 122 .

examples. "One or more items must be selected" }. It has been included here just for demonstrative purposes. "One or more colors must be selected" }.number]". { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. The form's name and the processor's name are used by the JSP handler described in the next section. new Boolean(true) }. No error is signaled if the user doesn't provide a value for this property. The default values are defined for a String. The processing order isn't necessary to this example. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.ListResourceBundle { private static final Object[][] contents = { { "[DEFAULT_VALUE.devsphere. There are three error messages. These two resources aren't accessed by the mapping utilities.number" SIZE="20"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> 11. The default values for the properties of the contained bean could have been defined in another resource bundle called SimpleSubBeanResources. The primitive values must be wrapped by a Float and a Boolean in order to be stored as resources. the form's name and the processor's name.integer]". { "[OPTIONAL_PROPERTIES]". Their role is to help the users to correct the input errors.java: package com. The mapping framework contains default error messages for each type of form element.colors]". new String[] { 123 .string]". new Float(0. "abc" }.flag]". SimpleBeanResources. a float. { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. "An option must be selected" }. error messages.123) }.3 bean resources The SimpleBeanResources class is a resource bundle containing optional information that is useful to the mapping process: default values. new int[] { 2. 3 } }.mapping.list]".18.util.string" SIZE="20"> <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.11 . { "[DEFAULT_VALUE. a boolean and an int[].JSP <P> String (subBean) <BR> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.simple.list]". the processing order. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE. The list of optional properties has a single element. public class SimpleBeanResources extends java. the list of optional properties. { "[ERROR_MESSAGE.

11 .ResourceBundle beanRes 124 .mapping. a later section of this chapter lists two JSPs that perform the mapping and build the HTML form without using the framework.devsphere. If necessary.jsp" } }.mapping. The error messages that occur during the mapping process are stored in a Hashtable. "subBean" } }. a CHECKED attribute for checkboxes and radio buttons that must be selected and a SELECTED attribute for the list items that must be highlighted. public Object[][] getContents() { return contents.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <%@ page import="com.logging. "list".jsp handler is based on a template that was described in a previous chapter.*" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.JSP "optional" } }. "colors". "SimpleProc.devsphere. It inserts a VALUE attribute for text elements.devsphere.examples. { "[FORM_NAME]". SimpleHndl.util.mapping.html" }. new String[] { "string".18.*. For a better understanding of this example. "integer". string values are converted to numbers.FormUtils inserts the bean data and the error messages into the HTML form.devsphere. { "[PROC_NAME]". "SimpleForm.mapping.simple. A boolean property is set to true if the request parameter is present no matter what its value is (except "false"). "flag". "optional".SimpleBean"/> <% // Get the bean resources java. com.devsphere. { "[PROCESSING_ORDER]". "number". The beanToForm() method of com. The formToBean() method of com.4 JSP Handler The SimpleHndl. } } 11.FormUtils sets the bean properties to the values of the request parameters (form data).

// Create a logger that wraps the servlet context ServletLogger logger = new ServletLogger(application). logger). // Determine the HTTP method boolean isPostMethod = request. // Process the valid data bean instance application. formPath = application. // Form-to-bean mapping: request parameters are mapped to bean properties java.getServletPath().formToBean(formData.Hashtable errorTable = FormUtils.getString("[PROC_NAME]").JSP = HandlerUtils. int slashIndex = basePath.trim().removeUserErrors(errorTable).getRealPath(formPath).getTemplate(new java. // Get a new document FormDocument document = template.File(formPath)). if (isPostMethod && errorTable == null) { // Construct the processor's path String procPath = basePath + beanRes. response).lastIndexOf('/').getMethod().getClass()).getBeanResources(simpleBean.forward(request.getRequestDispatcher(procPath).io.equals("POST"). } else { if (!isPostMethod) // Ignore the user errors if the form is requested with GET.getString("[FORM_NAME]"). slashIndex+1) : "". // Get the form template FormTemplate template = FormUtils. errorTable = HandlerUtils. // Wrap the form data FormData formData = new ServletFormData(request).getDocument(). simpleBean. // Construct the form's path String formPath = basePath + beanRes.11 . 125 . // Construct the base path String basePath = request.util.substring(0.trim(). basePath = slashIndex != -1 ? basePath.

for (int i = 0.5 JSP Processor The SimpleProc. // Send the form document document. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer(). i < list. document. SimpleProc.getList()) %> <P> optional = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <P> subBean.number = <%= simpleBean.18.getString() %> <P> subBean. } %> 11.JSP elements logger).simple.getNumber() %> </BODY> </HTML> <%! public static String toString(String list[]) { if (list == null || list.append("{ ").beanToForm(simpleBean.mapping.11 . strbuf.getSubBean().examples. if (list.devsphere.string = <%= simpleBean.jsp: <%@ page language="java"%> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.getColors()) %> <P> list = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 0) return "".getSubBean(). i++) 126 . // Bean-to-form mapping: bean properties are mapped to form FormUtils.jsp processor gets the beans that were validated by the JSP handler and prints the values of their properties.length. errorTable.send(out).SimpleBean"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Simple bean</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Simple Example</H3> <P><B> SimpleBean properties: </B> <P> string = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <P> number = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/> <P> integer = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <P> flag = <jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="flag"/> <P> colors = <%= toString(simpleBean.length == 1 && list[0] != null) return list[0].

making the testing and the debugging easier.util. if (list. beanToForm() handles and logs many types of application errors. The adding/removing of a bean property requires changes in both Complex*.jsp files. for (int i = 0.examples. strbuf. } public static String toString(int list[]) { if (list == null || list.18.6 without using the devsphere framework ComplexForm. return strbuf.append("}"). i++) { strbuf.devsphere. strbuf.length == 0) return "". return strbuf.11 . ComplexForm. you only have to add/remove a form element to/from a pure HTML file.append(list[i]). } %> 11. It uses 120 lines of Java-JSP-HTML mixture to generate a 40 lines HTML form. Using the framework you separate the HTML code from the Java/JSP code.append(list[i]).append("{ ").toString(list[0]). default values and error messages are kept in localizable resource bundles. ComplexHndl. i < list.jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com. Using the framework. StringBuffer strbuf = new StringBuffer().mapping.length.jsp uses 150 lines of Java-JSP mixture to set the properties of a bean object to the values of the request parameters.jsp files to other languages requires a lot of work and could make the maintenance very hard.JSP if (list[i] != null) { strbuf.append("}").toString(). This is the equivalent of a single FormUtils.append(" "). } strbuf.beanToForm() can do the same using a pure HTML file.SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.append(" "). In addition. A single call to FormUtils.Hashtable"/> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Without using the framework</TITLE></HEAD> 127 . } strbuf. In addition.jsp generates the HTML form dynamically and inserts default values and error messages. The localization of the Complex*. strbuf.toString().simple. A later chapter shows how to build internationalized applications using the framework.formToBean() call.length == 1) return Integer.

String colorLabels[] = { "Red". "string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="string" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/>"> <P> Number <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. if (colors != null) for (int j = 0. i++) { boolean checked = false.length. j < colors. "flag") %> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="flag" <%= simpleBean. "Blue" }. j++) if (colors[j].equals(colorValues[i])) { checked = true. i < colorValues. "colors") %> <% String colors[] = simpleBean.getFlag() ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> Flag <P> Colors <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.JSP <BODY> <H3>Equivalent of Simple Example</H3> <FORM METHOD=POST> <P> String <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "green". for (int i = 0. %> <INPUT TYPE="RADIO" NAME="integer" VALUE="<%= value %>" <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= integerLabels[i] %> <% } %> <P> Flag <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "blue" }. 128 . boolean checked = simpleBean. i < integerLabels. "Option 2".11 . for (int i = 0.getInteger() == value. "Green".getColors(). "number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="number" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="number"/>"> <P> Integer <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. "Option 3" }.length. "integer") %> <% String integerLabels[] = { "Option 1".length. i++) { int value = i+1. if (colors == null) colors = new String[0]. String colorValues[] = { "red".

"optional") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="optional" VALUE="<jsp:getProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/>"> <% if (simpleBean.SimpleSubBean()). i < listItems.getList().length.JSP break.mapping. if (list != null) for (int j = 0.getString() %>"> <INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="colors" VALUE="<%= colorValues[i] <%= checked ? "CHECKED" : "" %>> <%= colorLabels[i] %> 129 . String listItems[] = { "Item 1". i++) { int value = i+1. %> <P> String (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.devsphere. j < list.string") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.length.string" VALUE="<%= simpleBean. for (int i = 0. } %> %>" <% } %> <P> List <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.getSubBean(). break. "list") %> <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="3" MULTIPLE> <% int list[] = simpleBean.examples.11 . j++) if (list[j] == value) { selected = true. if (list == null) list = new int[0].setSubBean( new com. boolean selected = false.getSubBean() == null) simpleBean. "subBean.simple. "Item 2". "Item 3" }. } %> <OPTION VALUE = "<%= value %>" <%= selected ? "SELECTED" : "" %>> <%= listItems[i] %> <% } %> </SELECT> <P> Optional <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable.

getString() == null || simpleBean.getNumber() %>"> <P> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Submit"> <INPUT TYPE="RESET" VALUE="Reset"> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> <%! String getErrorMessage(java. if (message == null) message = "".JSP <P> Number (subBean) <BR> <%= getErrorMessage(errorTable. boolean isPostMethod = request.Hashtable errorTable.util.setSubBean(simpleSubBean).mapping. } %> ComplexHndl.getMethod(). "subBean. if (isPostMethod) { //* string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="string"/> <% if (simpleBean. 130 .getSubBean().SimpleSubBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="errorTable" scope="request" class="java.examples.simple.equals("POST").mapping.get(property).Hashtable"/> <% simpleBean.length() == 0) { simpleBean. return message.util.simple.number") %> <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="subBean.number" VALUE="<%= simpleBean.11 .SimpleBean"/> <jsp:useBean id="simpleSubBean" scope="page" class="com. String property) { String message = (String) errorTable.devsphere.examples.getString().devsphere.setString("abc").jsp: <%@ page language="java" %> <jsp:useBean id="simpleBean" scope="request" class="com.

setNumber(new Float(numberValue). setErrorMessage(errorTable.123f). "integer". //* color : checkbox group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="colors"/> <% if (simpleBean. "Must be filled").getParameter("flag").123f).length() != 0) simpleBean.setNumber(0. "string". "Must be filled"). "number".length() == 0 || flagValue. "number".getParameter("number").11 .getColors() == null || simpleBean. "Must be a number"). "An option must be selected").floatValue()).equals("false")) flagValue = null. else { simpleBean.setFlag(flagValue != null). if (numberValue != null && numberValue.JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.length == 0) { 131 . if (flagValue. } //* number : text try { String numberValue = request.setNumber(0. } //* flag : checkbox String flagValue = request.trim(). } simpleBean. } //* integer : radio group %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="integer"/> <% if (simpleBean. } } catch (NumberFormatException e) { simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable. if (flagValue != null) { flagValue = flagValue.getInteger() == 0) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.getColors().

"subBean.setString("").getParameter("subBean. "list".string"/> <% if (simpleSubBean.length == 0) { simpleBean.getString() == null || simpleSubBean. else { setErrorMessage(errorTable.number").getList(). } //* list : select %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="list"/> <% if (simpleBean. setErrorMessage(errorTable.string". if (numberValue != null && numberValue. 132 .number : text try { String numberValue = request.getList() == null || simpleBean.getOptional() == null) simpleBean. } //* optional : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleBean" property="optional"/> <% if (simpleBean.floatValue()). "One or more colors must be selected").setOptional("").setList(new int[] { 2. 3 }).JSP setErrorMessage(errorTable.string : text %> <jsp:setProperty name="simpleSubBean" property="string" param="subBean.11 .setNumber(new Float(numberValue).getString(). "Must be } //* subBean. "subBean. //* subBean.number". setErrorMessage(errorTable. "Must be filled"). "One or more items must be selected").length() != 0) simpleSubBean.length() == 0) { simpleSubBean. "colors".

} } catch (NumberFormatException e) { setErrorMessage(errorTable.setString("").11 . } } else { simpleBean.setList(new int[] { 2.mapping package contains an abstract class called GenericHandler.util.7 using the framework with servlets and JSPs The SimpleHndl. This class is extended by BeanDispatcher. That was a simple and compact way to present a handler. simpleBean. simpleSubBean. The com.18. The Java code could easily be moved to a utility class. String message) { message = "<FONT COLOR=\"#FF0000\">" + message + "</FONT><BR>".setNumber(0.number".helpers.\ 133 .setFlag(true).jsp handler is basically a Java scriptlet. String property. "Must be a number").BeanDispatcher SimpleHndl. 3 }).initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com. errorTable.xml: SimpleHndl.Hashtable errorTable.setOptional("").123f). simpleBean.mapping.put(property.devsphere.properties or web.code=com. simpleBean.simple. message).jsp.isEmpty()) { %> <jsp:forward page="SimpleProc.setString("abc"). } %> 11. The JSP handler can be replaced by only a few lines that are added to servlets.helpers.JSP filled").examples.jsp"/> <% } else { %> <jsp:forward page="ComplexForm. simpleBean.SimpleBean. A more elegant solution is the replacement of the JSP handler with a general Java servlet.devsphere.jsp"/> <% } %> <%! void setErrorMessage(java. which is the bean-independent equivalent of SimpleHndl.mapping.devsphere. } if (isPostMethod && errorTable. "subBean.

A servlet can be made bean-independent.devsphere.JSP BEAN_ID=simpleBean. you could add a few other lines to servlets.code=com.11 . a servlet is identified with its class.devsphere.properties (or web.examples.simple.\ BASE_PATH=/another The two servlets that share the same code could be invoked with something like this http://www. In many cases.properties: AnotherHndl. If you have another bean-form pair.18.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/SimpleHndl http://www.examples.BeanDispatcher AnotherHndl.SimpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_ID</param-name> <param-value>simpleBean</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>BASE_PATH</param-name> <param-value>/simple</param-value> </init-param> </servlet> GenericHandler and BeanDispatcher were presented in a previous chapter.mapping. The previous section showed how to declare a BeanDispatcher servlet. All requests to one of the declared servlets will be serviced by the same instance of the servlet class.host.host.devsphere.helpers. Users invoke the servlet by requesting a URL like this: http://www. you have to provide a JSP handler for each bean. If your Web application contains many forms/beans. A standard servlet engine running on a single JVM will instantiate the servlet class once for each servlet declaration.AnotherBean.mapping.com/AppName/servlet/ServletName The servlet engine associates a servlet to a class in the servlets. You may use the same class to declare one servlet for each bean component.company. 11.another.com/AppName/servlet/AnotherHndl 134 .BeanDispatcher</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>BEAN_NAME</param-name> <paramvalue>com.helpers.xml) file: ServletName.code=com.\ BEAN_ID=anotherBean. you have to declare the bean within a <jsp:useBean> tag.initparams=\ BEAN_NAME=com.\ BASE_PATH=/simple or <servlet> <servlet-name>SimpleHndl</servlet-name> <servletclass>com.devsphere.8 why using servlets? Using a JSP.ClassName There is nothing that can stop you associating many servlets with the same class.mapping.host.

JSP 135 .11 .

2 javaServer Faces Technology 2.1 what are javaServer faces? JavaServer Faces technology is a server-side user interface component framework for Java based web applications. There are five JSF specific tag libraries defined in this specification. and renders the response (typically HTML) to the client.0 supersedes version 1. JSF is a request-driven MVC web framework based on component driven UI design model. processes events. Version 2.12 . namely • • • • • JSF HTML Tag Library JSF Core Tag Library JSTL Core Tag Library JSTL Functions Tag Library JSF Facelets Tag Library 136 . buttons.2 and brings in mandatory support for Facelets as the view technology for JSF pages.javaserver faces 12 . 2. links UI components management events handling input validation error handling page navigation specification support for internationalization and accessibility. Requests are processed by the FacesServlet. A set of APIs for: • • • • • • • representing UI components.0. like input fields.JAVASERVER FACES 12. A JavaServer Pages (JSP) custom tag library for expressing a JavaServer Faces interface within a JSP page.0 is part of the Java Enterprise Edition 6 platform. builds a component tree. 12. built in Ajax support and built in support for bookmarking & page-load actions. This technology includes: 1. Version 2.0 The latest version (as of november 2010) of JavaServer Faces technology is version 2. using XML files called view templates or Facelets views. which loads the appropriate view template. released through the Java Community Process under Java Specification Request (JSR) 314.

4 the html JSF tags This tag library contains JavaServer Faces component tags for all UIComponent + HTML RenderKit Renderer combinations defined in the JavaServer Faces specification.3 facelets Facelet is a view technology for Java Server Faces (JSF) that allows building composite views more quickly and easily than with JSP which is the default view technology for JSF. there are 25 HTML JSF tags. 12. Facelets can make changes to pages immediately so developing JSF applications with Facelets is simply faster.javaserver faces 12.2 of the JFS specification. here is an exhaustive list of the JSF HTML tags: • • • • • • • • • • • • • column commandButton commandLink dataTable form graphicImage inputHidden inputSecret inputText inputTextArea message messages outputFormat 137 . JSP pages are compiled into servlets but it’s not the case with Facelets because Facelet pages are XML compliant and its framework uses a fast SAXbased compiler to build views. As of version 1.1 the list of JSF HTML Tags For reference. The HTML tags can be grouped in the following categories: • • • • • • • inputs outputs commands selections layouts data table errors and messages 12.4.12 .

Example: <h:dataTable id="table1" value="#{shoppingCartBean. respectively.12 . The dataTable tag typically contains one or more column tags that define the columns of the table. can be accomplished quite easily with this tag. The table can be customized extensively using cascading stylesheet (CSS) classes and definitions to enhance the appearance of the table's headers.items}" var="item"> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Your Shopping Cart" /> </f:facet> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Item Description" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item. footers. such as alternating row colors.2 h:dataTable The dataTable tag renders an HTML 4. see the column tag documentation. 12. A dataTable tag can also contain header and footer facets.01 compliant table element that can be associated with a backing bean to obtain its data as well as for event handling purposes.4. These are rendered as a single "th" element in a row at the top of the table and as a single "td" element in a row at the bottom of the table. columns and rows.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • outputLabel outputLink outputText panelGrid pnelGroup selectBooleanCheckbox selectManyCheckbox selectManyListbox selectManyMenu selectOneListbox selectOneMenu selectOneRadio In the next paragraphs. For more information about columns. Common formatting techniques.description}" /> </h:column> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Price" /> 138 . A column component is rendered as a single "td" element. we'll have a closer look at some of these tags.

total}" /> </f:facet> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="table1"> <thead> <tr><th scope="colgroup" colspan="2">Your Shopping Cart</th></tr> <tr><th>Item Description</th><th>Price</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Delicious Apple</td><td>$5.4 h:commandButton The commandButton tag renders an HTML submit button that can be associated with a backing bean or ActionListener class for event handling purposes. binding request parameters to backing bean properties.checkoutLabel}" action="#{shoppingCartBean.00</td></tr> </tbody> <tfoot> <tr><td colspan="2">Total: $15.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Juicy Orange</td><td>$5. JSF forms use the "post-back" technique to submit form data back to the page that contains the form.price}" /> </h:column> <f:facet name="footer"> <h:outputText value="Total: #{shoppingCartBean.javaserver faces </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item.checkout}" /> 139 .3 h:form The form tag renders an HTML form element. Example: <h:form id="form1"></h:form> HTML Output <form id="form1" name="form1" method="post" action="/demo/form.4.4. and using the outputLink tag to generate dynamic hyperlinks. your options include using plain HTML forms.00</td></tr> <tr><td>Tasty Melon</td><td>$5.12 . The use of the POST method is also required and it is not possible to use the GET method for forms generated by this tag.jsp" enctype="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"></form> 12.00</td></tr> </tfoot> </table> 12. If your application requires the use of the GET method for form submission. The display value of the button can also be obtained from a message bundle to support internationalization (I18N). Example: <h:commandButton id="button1" value="#{bundle.

1 the list of JSF Core Tags Here is an exhaustive list of the JSF core tags: • • • • • • actionListener attribute convertDateTime converter convertNumber facet 140 .user.5. green for information) as well as the detail level of the message itself.4.5 h:inputText The inputText tag renders an HTML input element of the type "text".5 the core JSF tags The core JavaServer Faces tags define custom actions that are independent of any particular RenderKit.12 . You can also customize the standard error messages by overriding specific JSF properties in your message bundle.4.6 message Tag The message tag renders a message for a specific component. Example: <h:inputText id="username" required="#{true}" value="#{userBean.user. 12.javaserver faces HTML Output <input id="form:button1" name="form:button1" type="submit" value="Check Out" onclick="someEvent().username}" /> HTML Output <input id="form:username" name="form:username" type="text" /> 12. Example: <h:inputText id="username" value="#{userBean. red for error.</span> 12." /> 12.username}" errorStyle="color:red"/> <h:message for="username" /> HTML Output <input type="text" id="form:username" name="form:username" value=""/> <span style="color:red">"username": Value is required. You can customize the message generated by this component by applying different CSS styles to the message depending on its severity (eg.

12. Example: <h:dataTable id="reportTable" value="#{reportBean.javaserver faces • • • • • • • • • • • • loadBundle param selectItem selectItems subview validateDoubleRange validateLength validateLongRange validator valueChangeListener verbatim view Some of these tags will be detailed in the next paragraphs.dailyReport}" var="item"> <h:column> <f:facet name="header"> <h:outputText value="Daily Report" /> </f:facet> <h:outputText value="#{item}" /> </h:column> </h:dataTable> HTML Output <table id="reportTable"> <thead> <tr><th>Daily Report</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr><td>Item 1</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Item 3</td></tr> </tbody> </table> 141 . For example.12 . The Facet tag registers a named facet on the component associated with the enclosing tag. you can create a header and a footer facet for a dataTable component.5.2 f:facet A facet represents a named section within a container component The JSF facets specify the requirements and constraints that apply to a JSF project.

the user must manually submit the form to invoke the ValueChangeListener. but only if the new input is validated successfully. Example: <h:inputText id="emailAddress" value="#{customerBean. This tag accepts one value matching the validator ID you assigned to your validator class in your Faces configuration file.5.12 .mycompany. A component fires a value change event when its input changes.4 f:valueChangeListener The ValueChangeListener tag registers a ValueChangeListener instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag. The body content of this tag must be empty. Without this JavaScript event. The ValueChangeListener interface should be implemented by classes that you want to register with components that publish value change events. and validateLongRange tags) but the Validator interface can be implemented by classes that provide custom validation for your application. such as one of the HTML select or text input components. An alternative to this tag is to use a method-binding expression pointing at a value change listener method of a backing bean on the component tag itself.3 f:validator The Validator tag registers a named Validator instance on the component associated with the enclosing tag.javaserver faces 12.optionList}" /> <f:valueChangeListener type="com.emailAddress}"> <f:validator validatorId="emailAddressValidator" /> </h:inputText> <h:message for="emailAddress" /> HTML Output <input id="form:emailAddress" name="form:emailAddress" type="text" value="fake@email"/> Invalid email address. validateLength. You can register several ValueChangeListeners with a component and they will be invoked in the order that they are registered.MyValueChangeListenerImpl" /> </h:selectOneMenu> HTML Output <select name="form:optionMenu" size="1" onchange="submit()"> <option value="1">Option 1</option> <option value="2">Option 2</option> <option value="3">Option 3</option> </select> 142 . 12.selectedOption}" onchange="submit()"> <f:selectItems value="#{optionBean. Any component that receives user input. Example: <h:selectOneMenu id="optionMenu" value="#{optionBean. Notice in the example below the use of the JavaScript onchange() event to trigger form submission when the list selection changes.5. can publish value change events.customer. The JavaServer Faces framework includes three standard validators (see the validateDoubleRange.

This information could later be stored in a cookie and/or a database to identify which locale is preferred by your user. This tag is useful for internationalization (I18N) purposes.mycompany. The locale attribute accepts a value-binding expression that could resolve to the desired locale. You can also specify the locale for which the view is to be rendered by explicitly setting the locale attribute of the view tag. Example: welcome_en. You can wrap the root element of the structured markup language used in your document with this tag to ensure that all child tags are part of the same view.jsp (French) Bienvenue à notre site! 12.12 . for each locale you wish to support. JSF will set that locale for the view and will display the messages for that locale defined in the locale's message bundle. If you have not specified a default locale.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle. JSF will use the default locale for the Java Virtual Machine serving your application.javaserver faces 12. It provides you with several options for presenting your user with localized views of your application. myJSFapp 143 .welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> HTML Output welcome_en. This allows you to design localized versions of each page. If your application supports the locale requested by the user. By default the JSF framework will attempt to select the best view for your user based on the Accept-Language header sent to the server from the user's browser as part of the HTTP request for your page. Another option is to obtain the locale dynamically through user interaction.jsp (French) <f:view locale="fr"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.5 f:view The View tag is the container for all JavaServer Faces component tags used on a page.jsp (English) Welcome to our site! welcome_fr.MessageBundle" var="bundle" /> <h:outputText value="#{bundle.welcomeMessage}" /> </f:view> welcome_fr.mycompany. The directory myJSFapp is the base directory of the application.5. If the locale requested by the user is not supported by your application. the JSF framework will use the default locale specified in your Faces configuration file. including images and styles.jsp (English) <f:view locale="en"> <f:loadBundle basename="com.6 the structure of a JSF application Here is a typical directory structure for a JSP application.

included in the /WEB-INF directory faces-config. JSP pages.7 how does JSF work? a first example Example taken from http://www. Create JSP pages 2.html.xml web.javaserver faces /ant build. What makes it different is that a JSF application is event-driven. static resources.exadel.xml – the JSF configuration file.12 .xml /pages Comments on this structure: • • • • • • • • • • • myJSFapp – application base directory with application name /ant – directory containing Ant build scripts with a default build.jar jsf-api. jsf-api. Define navigation rules 3. like third party jar files jsf-impl.jar faces-config. Let's have a look at the steps needed to build a JSF application: 1. The way the application behaves is controlled by an event listener class.xml – the deployment descriptor of the application.contains libraries required by the application.jar – files included in the /lib directory. Create properties files 144 . It has a deployment descriptor.xml file /JavaSource – application specific java source classes and properties files /WebContent – contains the Web application files used by the application server or by the web container /WEB-INF – contains files used as part of the runtime Web application /classes – compiled Java classes and properties files copied from the /JavaSource directory /lib . and so on. mandatory for any JSF application web.com/tutorial/jsf/jsftutorial-kickstart. custom tag libraries.xml /JavaSource /WebContent /WEB-INF /classes /lib jsf-impl.jar. Create managed beans 4. A JSF application is nothing else but a servlet/JSP application. included in the /WEB-INF directory /pages – directory containing JSP and HTML presentation pages 12.

You only need to create the JSP files. Edit JSP pages 6. we can create a navigation rule.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.7. As a diagram.jsp files in WebContent/pages/. We will complete the content of the files a little bit later. These files will act as place holders for now. You just need to create its contents. Deploy and run the application 12. Compile the application 8. if the "outcome" of executing inputname. In our application. 12. <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname. And that's all there is to this.1 creating JSP Pages Create the inputname. This file already exists in the skeleton directory structure.jsp file 7. The navigation rule for this application is described in the faces-config. The directory structure already exists.jsp go to the view (page) greeting.jsp is greeting.javaserver faces 5.xml file. Now that we have the two JSP pages. The rule says that from the view (page) inputname. Create an index.jsp.jsp and greeting. it would look something like this: Image from Exadel Studio Pro The navigation rule shown in the picture is defined below.7.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> 145 .jsp. we just want to go from inputname.jsp to greeting.2 navigation Navigation is the heart of JavaServer Faces.12 .

3 creating the Managed Bean Next. visit the JSP Navigation Example forum item.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> 12. /** * @return Person Name */ public String getPersonName() { return personName.3. a very simple navigation rule.xml Your final faces-config. we will create a PersonBean.) 12.xml file should look like this: 146 . 12. This section defines a bean name PersonBean. request sets the bean scope in the application. public class PersonBean { String personName.1 PersonBean. You can easily create more complex ones. <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. of course.7.3 faces-config. } /** * @param Person Name */ public void setPersonName(String name) { personName = name.javaserver faces This is.3.12 . (Please note that the field name in the JSP file must exactly match the attribute name in the bean. myJFSapp. 12.2 declaring the Bean in faces-config. It's a simple Java bean with one attribute and setter/getter methods. To read more about navigation rules.7. The next line is the full class name.7. the second part of faces-config. The bean simply captures the name entered by a user after the user clicks the submit button. we will create a myJFSapp folder inside the JavaSource folder.xml Now.java file. This class is straight-forward. This way the bean provides a bridge between the JSP page and the application logic. Inside this myJFSapp folder. } } Later you will see how to "connect" this bean with the JSP page.java Put this code in the file: package myJFSapp.xml describes our Java bean that we created in the previous steps.PersonBean.7.3.

dtd"> <faces-config> <navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/pages/inputname.PersonBean</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean> </faces-config> 12.1//EN" "http://java.1 inputname.javaserver faces <?xml version="1.1 messages. 12. Keeping the messages separate from the JSP page allows us to quickly modify the messages without editing the JSP page. this properties file will be copied to the classes folder where the runtime can find it. 12.7. Inc.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> <managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>personBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>myJFSapp. Let's create a bundle folder in the JavaSource/myJFSapp folder and then a messages.properties file in the bundle folder.sun. We use the messages stored in the properties file in our JSP pages.properties Put this text in the properties file: inputname_header=JSF KickStart prompt=Tell us your name: greeting_text=Welcome to JSF button_text=Say Hello sign=! We now have everything to create the JSP pages.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>greeting</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/pages/greeting.4.5 editing the JSP Pages Two pages should already have been created in myJFSapp/WebContent/pages.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> 147 .12 .com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. 12.0"?> <!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems. We need to place it in the JavaSource folder so that during project compilation.5.7.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_1.sun.sun.4 creating a Properties File (Resource Bundle) A properties file is just a file with param=value pairs.jsp Put the following coding into this file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.7.7.

button_text}" /> 7 </h:form> 148 . Then.inputname_header}" required=”true”> This tag simply tells us to look in the resource bundle that we defined at the top of the page.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The third line loads our properties file (resource bundle) that holds messages that we want to display in our JSP page. 1 <h:form id="helloForm"> 2 <h:outputText value="#{msg.personName}" required=”true”> 4 <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> 5 </h:inputText> 6 <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg. look up the value for inputname_header in that file and print it here.button_text}" /> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> Now. The required attribute of the h:inputText tag insures that an empty name will not be sent. let's explain the important sections in this file after displaying the code for each section starting from the top.bundle.sun. One can also add a line like <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> to make sure that the length of this field is reasonable long. <h:inputText value="#{msg.sun.bundle.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>enter your name page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h1> <h:outputText value="#{msg.prompt}"/> <h:inputText value="#{personBean.12 .messages" var="msg"/> The first line of these three is a directive that tells us where to find JSF tags that define HTML elements and the second directive tells us where to find JSF tags that define core JSF elements.personName}" required=”true”> <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="10"/> </h:inputText> <h:commandButton action="greeting" value="#{msg.javaserver faces <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.prompt}"/> 3 <h:inputText value="#{personBean. <%@ taglib uri="http://java.inputname_header}"/> </h1> <h:form id="helloForm"> <h:outputText value="#{msg.

It uses a JSP tag to "forward" to the inputname. Create the index..jsp File We will now create a third JSP file that doesn't actually function as a presentation page.personName}" /> <h:outputText value="#{msg. Line 2. Lines 3-5.javaserver faces Line 1.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <f:loadBundle basename="myJFSapp.7.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. The first line will take a message from the resource bundle and print it on the page. Line 6.6 creating the index. Note that this file is not created in the pages folder like the previous JSP files. That's how JSF knows where to go next. Prints a message from the properties file using the value of prompt.jsp file will allow us to start the application like this: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp/ 149 .7. <h:outputText value="#{personBean.. In the value attribute we connect (bind) this field to the managed bean attribute that we created before. you will see something like this: Welcome to JSF. and also print its contents on the page. JSF tags for the HTML form's submit button. name! 12. Theses lines import JSF tag libraries and our properties file (resource bundle) with the messages.jsp file inside the WebContent folder. The second line will access a Java bean. The button's value is being retrieved from the properties file. The first three lines are identical to our first page.</h3> tags.12 . Once this page is displayed in a Web browser.sign}" /> </h3> </f:view> </body> </html> This page is very simple.5. While the button's action attribute is set to greeting which matches the navigation-outcome in faces-config.bundle. Creates an HTML input text box. specifically the bean attribute personName.sun. 12.2 greeting.jsp Put this coding inside the second JSP file: <%@ taglib uri="http://java. Creates an HTML form using JSF tags.greeting_text}" />.sun.xml file.messages" var="msg"/> <html> <head> <title>greeting page</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h3> <h:outputText value="#{msg. The main code of interest to us is between the <h3>.jsp page. Having an index.

12. We are almost done with this example.12 . This is used here.7 Compiling An Ant build script is provided for you.jsf" /> </body> </html> If you look at the path for the forward.7.7. which asks an user for an ID and password. might possibly be different).xml script from the ant folder: ant build 12. To do this.jsf is the URL pattern used to signal that the forwarded page should be handled by the JavaServer Faces servlet within Tomcat.8 creating a JSF application in eclipse with the facesIDE plugin Example taken from http://amateras. 150 .jp/docs/FacesIDE/SampleJSFApp.xml file. Path_to_WebContent needs to be replaced with the exact path on your system to the WebContent folder inside the myJFSapp folder (for example. (Port 8080 is the default port in Tomcat. start the Tomcat server (probably using the script startup.jsf and not .7. We will use null (link) deployment to deploy the application in-place. though. C:/examples/myJFSapp/WebContent). 12. When Tomcat is done loading.8 Deploying Before you can run this application within the servlet container. insert this code: <Context debug="0" docBase="Path_to_WebContent" path="/myJFSapp" reloadable="true"/> near the end of the server. This is a "login" application.1 Overview This is a tutorial in which we create a simple JSF application to demonstrate FacesIDE's functionality. verifies the information. 12.8. put this coding into the file: <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="/pages/inputname. 12. Of course.sourceforge. To build the application run the build.9 Running Next.xml file within the Host element just before the closing </Host> tag.html . we need to deploy it. because in the web. launch a web browser and enter: http://localhost:8080/myJFSapp.javaserver faces Now.xml file for the application *. and forwards the user to a success or error page.jsp. To do this we need to register a context in Tomcat's {TomcatHome}\conf\server.bat in Tomcat's bin directory). you'll notice the file suffix is . Your setup.

click Next d. a. 6. 7. in the dialog that appears create a folder named src directly under the project folder (jsf-login).2 Creating A Project Here we create an Eclipse project. 9. click OK to dismiss the properties dialog. From the menu bar select File/New/Project.xml Editor) As a prerequisite for the tutorial. and to add JSF libraries to the project. click Finish 4. name the folder webroot 5.WEB-INF 151 . 2. jsf-login. and from its context menu select File/New/Folder.. click Next. Use FacesIDE to add JSF support: we use a FacesIDE wizard to create J2EEprescribed folders and files in webroot.javaserver faces The application will use a few JSP pages with JSF elements. note that Root: has automatically been set to /webroot. From the menubar open Project/Properties 8. make sure HTML validation and DTD/XSD validation are enabled. and a session-scoped managed bean to coordinate their interactions. Create the web root folder: in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project. click Next... in the Add JSF Support page.12 . Select Java Project. select Amateras/JSF/Add JSF Support. your mileage may vary. say. enter jsflogin/webroot/WEB-INF/classes.. The New Project wizard appears. and set up folders for a web application. see Installing & Uninstalling...src | +-. Enter project name.xml Editor (see faces-config. Create the source folder: select the Java Build Path node. and from the menubar select File/New/Folder. We don't assume that a J2EE server-specific plugin. for Web Application Root enter /jsflogin/webroot. Your folder structure should now be as follows: jsf-login | +-.8. click Add Folder. select the Source tab. c. Select the Amateras node. Along the way we'll use the following FacesIDE functionality: • • • • add JSF support to a project use the New JSF/JSP file wizard use the JSP Editor (see HTML/JSP/XML Editor) use the faces-config. from the menubar select File/New/Other.Set the output folder: in the Default output folder textbox at the bottom. 12. 1. 3.webroot | +-. name the folder pages. click Yes through messages that appear. in Package Explorer select the jsf-login project b. make sure FacesIDE and required plugins have been installed. Create the web pages folder: in Package Explorer select the webroot folder. such as the Sysdeo Tomcat plugin has been installed. This folder will contain all "functional" pages.. 10. make sure all checkboxes are checked.. in the wizard that appears. The folder structure created is simply one that works for this author.

} public String loginAction() { String action = null.3 Creating & Configuring Managed Beans Here we create a class called LoginManager which will be used as a backing bean for the login process.xml Editor. c. input widgets appear d. along the bottom of the editor there are 3 tabs.equalsIgnoreCase("bar") ) action = "loginPass".lib | +-. } void setPassword(String pwd) { _pwd = pwd. private String _pwd = "". Click Finish. from its context menu select New/Class. 2. for class enter login. The New Java Class wizard appears. 3. else action = "loginFail". Use FacesIDE to configure the bean: we use a FacesIDE editor to configure LoginManager as a session-scoped managed bean.classes (not shown in Java perspective) | | | +-. Enter and save the following code for the LoginManager class: // LoginManager.8. a. public public public public String getUserID() { return _uid. We then configure it to be a managed bean. 1.12 .LoginManager. The Java code editor opens. b. In Package Explorer select the src folder. click Managed Bean.equalsIgnoreCase("foo") && _pwd.xml editor opens.javaserver faces | | | +-.java package login. in Package Explorer select jsf-login/webroot/WEB-INF/facesconfig. for scope select 152 . in the Name field enter LoginManager. In the Package field. if ( _uid. The faces-config. } void setUserID(String uid) { _uid = uid. from its context menu select Open With/faces-config. } String getPassword() { return _pwd. enter login. public class LoginManager { private String _uid = "". } 4.xml. } return action. click Add.pages 12. for name enter mgr.

e. Content pages are placed in webroot/pages.jsp and error.jsp using a FacesIDE wizard. and 3 content pages (login. b. in Package Explorer select webroot.jsp --> <html> <body> <jsp:forward page="faces/pages/login.webroot/pages/success.12 . Create success.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Error!</h2> The user-id and or password were invalid.jsp: create this file similarly to index. make sure that the parent folder is set to /jsflogin/webroot. 1.8. using the Workbench's standard file-creation facilities. index. We will have 4 pages: a start page (index. Create error.jsp.webroot/pages/error. so we create them first. again. from its context menu select New/File.jsp). Enter the following code: <!-. All pages except login.jsp --> <html> <head> <title>jsf-login</title> </head> <body> <h2>Success!</h2> </body> </html> 3. but in webroot/pages. but in webroot/pages. the JSP Editor opens.jsp are simple pages with static content.jsp: create this file similarly to index. Then we create login.jsp. then close the editor 12. from the menubar select File/Save.jsp).jsp is placed directly in webroot. </body> Please try 153 . enter the following code.webroot/index.jsp" /> </body> </html> 2. Enter the following code: <!-. the New File wizard appears. for File name enter index. click Finish. success.jsp. c.4 Creating JSP Pages Here we create the JSP pages that make up the application's user interface. save the file and close the editor.jsp. and its sole function is to forward users to the login page.javaserver faces session. Create index.jsp: a. <!-.

To see this in action. and uses them for code completion as well. create a few blank lines between the <h:form> elements. this inserts the corresponding JSF element at the cursor location. Thus if you were to type <h: and hit CTRL + Spacebar. now we want to add attributes to this element. and dock it along the right. a code-completion window pops up. <%@ page contentType="text/html. place the cursor inside the <h:inputText> element. and hit CTRL + Spacebar.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java..javaserver faces </html> 4. as shown below.sun. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. the New wizard appears.jsp. click Next c. etc.jsp: a. click Finish. Create login. Note: the JSP editor is aware of referenced tag libraries. expand the JSF HTML panel in the palette.. Open the JSF palette. in Package Explorer select webroot/pages. you would get a popup window of JSF HTML elements. charset=Cp1252"/> <title></title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> We will now edit this page to contain our input widgets. enter jsf-login e. d. b. make sure that Container is set to /jsflogin/webroot/pages. the FacesIDE JSP Editor opens. place the cursor between the <title></title> elements. and click on the icon for <h:inputText>. and choose default for Template. (See Show View Dialog) f. for File name enter login. 154 . and the JSP Editor can help with code.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html.sun. from its context menu select New/Other. and that Use MyFaces Tomahawk components and Use MyFaces SandBox components are unchecked.completion.12 .. place your cursor in one of these lines. with the following template code. select Amateras/JSF/Faces JSP File. g.

is shown below: <%@ page contentType="text/html. enter #{mgr. and hit CTRL + Spacebar. set its value binding expression to value="#{mgr.password}" l.javaserver faces h.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. place the cursor between the quotes in value="".) j.sun. and its action to the value binding expression #{mgr. This is shown below: (Recall that we configured LoginManager as a managed bean called mgr. with bean properties available in mgr. this inserts value="" at the cursor. FacesIDE can provide code completion here as well. in the code-completion window scroll down to value.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %> <html> 155 . i. select userID from the code-completion window. and hit Enter. complete the expression with the closing { k. charset=Cp1252" %> <%@ taglib uri="http://java. set its value to Login.12 . a code-completion window pops up.. with the barest presentational formatting. We will now bind this to the userID property of LoginManager. insert a <h:commandButton> element.loginAction} The final code.sun. insert another <h:inputText> element.

password}"/> <br/><h:commandButton value="Login" action="#{mgr.xml. 2. click on Page. 1.xml Editor. this inserts a page icon into the editor. Open faces-config.userID}"/> <br/>Password: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. Select the Navigation tab 3.8.javaserver faces <head> <title>jsf-title</title> </head> <body> <f:view> <h:form> UserID: <h:inputText value="#{mgr. using a FacesIDE editor. it should open in the faces-config.loginAction}"/> </h:form> </f:view> </body> </html> 12. then click inside the editor window. 156 .5 Creating Navigation Rules Here we create navigation rules among pages. and the page's properties appear in the Workbech's Properties view. This is shown below. from the Navigation panel in the palette at left.12 . Note that the icon has a small triangle overlay--this indicates that something is wrong.

jsp. Arrange them as shown below: Now we'll add navigation rules among the pages. add 3 more pages. "Decharge" the mouse pointer by clicking on the pointer icon in the palette.javaserver faces specifically that FacesIDE could not locate a page at path /page1. in the Properties view. and set them to /pages/login. change the value of path to /index.jsp and /pages/error. This is shown below: 157 . You can also change it on the diagram directly (select the page and click once more).jsp and then on the icon for success. notice that the warning triangle disappears. and is represented by an arrow.jsp. 5. from the palette at left. then click on the newly-added forward-action icon to select it.jsp. Its properties appear in the Properties view. /pages/success. then click first on the icon for login. 6.jsp. This inserts a forward-action between the two pages.12 . select Navigation Case.jsp 4.

and you should be able to deploy it to your server of choice.jsp to error.jsp.jsp. Use UserID/Password of foo/bar. Once deployed browse to index. 12. Similarly add a forward-action from login. You may comment out the entry for extension-based mapping.xml is indicate the Faces Servlet mapping.xml. and you should be automatically forwarded to login. any other id/password should send you to the error page. Deployment to some servers is described below: 158 .Faces Servlet Mapping --> 2. all we need do in web.javaserver faces 7. open web. scroll to the bottom and look for the comment <!-. in the Properties view (or direct editing on the diagram). We want virtual path-based mapping.12 . We'll set some properties in web.xml. since we have such a trivial application. or leave it as-is.8. and extension-based mapping is turned on. You can also change values by direct-editing (select once and re-click) in the diagram 8. by default virtual path-based mapping is commented out. As it turns out. Recall that this is the success-value returned by LoginManager's loginAction method. and you should be sent to the success page.xml for the specifics of our application. and set its fromoutcome to loginFail We're done with setting up navigation rules.xml Here we edit web. 1.jsp. change the value of fromoutcome to loginPass. The application is now complete. so uncomment it. and we'll then be ready to deploy the application.6 Editing web.

CONFIG_FILES 159 .render javax.convert javax.application javax.faces package Contains 2 classes – FactoryFinder and FacesException public final class FactoryFinder extends Object FactoryFinder implements the standard discovery algorithm for all factory objects specified in the JavaServer Faces APIs. for WAR or Directory URL enter the path to webroot.9 packges in the JavaServer Faces API The classes and interfaces of the JavaServer Faces API are grouped in several packages. for Context path enter /jsf-login.faces.faces.faces.faces javax.validator javax. For a given factory class name. a corresponding implementation class is searched for based on the following algorithm.component javax.12 . leave XML Configuration File URL blank.8. we'll deploy our app by providing its directory..javaserver faces 12. If the JavaServer Faces configuration files named by the javax.event javax.faces. scroll down to Deploy.faces.faces.faces. Items are listed in order of decreasing search precedence: • • If the JavaServer Faces configuration file bundled into the WEB-INF directory of the webapp contains a factory entry of the given factory class name.webapp 12.faces.model javax.0 1.faces. the Manager application should reload. 12.context javax.faces. that factory is used.faces.10 the javax. and you should see /jsf-login in the list of running applications.faces. namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • javax.el javax. as file:///.7 Deploying To Tomcat 5.. the default URL for this is http://localhost:8080/manager/html 2.lifecycle javax. open its Manager application in a browser. Click on its link to launch the application.. start Tomcat. click Deploy 3.component.faces.html javax.

• • public class FacesException extends RuntimeException This class encapsulates general JavaServer Faces exceptions. If a META-INF/services/{factory-class-name} resource is visible to the web application class loader for the calling application (typically as a result of being present in the manifest of a JAR file). A FacesMessage instance may be created based on a specific messageId. with the last one taking precedence. the JavaServer Faces implementation specific class is used.used to represent message severity levels in a typesafe enumeration.Provides a simple implementation of StateManager that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing StateManager instance.11 the javax. and supporting internationalization and accessibility. ApplicationFactory . This allows for implementations to support different response generation technologies. • If there are any JavaServer Faces configuration files bundled into the META-INF directory of any jars on the ServletContext's resource paths.represents a single validation (or other) message.A set of APIs for representing UI components and managing their state. 12. ViewHandler .the pluggablity mechanism for allowing implementations of or applications using the JavaServer Faces specification to provide their own handling of the activities in the Render Response and Restore View phases of the request processing lifecycle. FacesMessage . StateManager .javaserver faces ServletContext init parameter contain any factory entries of the given factory class name. defining page navigation.a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Application instances.12 . those factories are used. FacesMessage.Provides a simple implementation of ViewHandler that can be • • • • • • • • 160 . with the last one taking precedence. ViewHandlerWrapper . The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped StateManager.Severity . handling events and input validation. If none of the above steps yield a match. NavigationHandler – An object of this type is passed the outcome string returned by an application action invoked for this application. which is typically associated with a particular component in the view.application package Contains the following classes: • Application . and will use this (along with related state information) to choose the view to be displayed next. the factory entries of the given factory class name in those files are used. StateManagerWrapper .directs the process of saving and restoring the view between requests. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of Application.faces. its first line is read and assumed to be the name of the factory implementation class to use. as well as alternative strategies for saving and restoring the state of each view.

a convenience base class that implements the default concrete behavior of all methods defined by UIComponent. UIComponentBase . Such a component is typically rendered as a push button. StateHolder .A simple callback interace that enables taking action on a specific UIComponent (either facet or child) in the view while preserving any contextual state for that component instance in the view.12 the javax.interface implemented by classes that need to save their state between requests. triggers an application specific "command" or "action". 12.component package Defines both a set of interfaces and classes.12 . • ViewExpiredException . including ValueChangeEvents and Validators. as well as access data in the model tier via a value binding expression. ValueHolder . ContextCallBack . String.extends ActionSource and provides a JavaBeans property analogous to the "action" property on ActionSource.a UIComponent that represents a single column of data within a parent UIData component. EditableValueHolder . This allows the ActionSource concept to leverage the new Unified EL API. NamingContainer . • • 161 . UIComponent . • • • • • • The classes in this package are all UI related. ActionSource2 . The interfaces defined in this package are: • ActionSource . The difference is the type of this property is a MethodExpression rather than a MethodBinding. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ViewHandler. when activated by the user. or a hyperlink. and support conversion between String and the model tier data's native data type.faces. The set of UIComponent instances associated with a particular request and response are organized into a component tree under a UIViewRoot that represents the entire content of the request or response.context.a UIComponent that represents a user interface component which.javaserver faces subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ViewHandler instance.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to be a source of ActionEvents.FacesContext. Here they are: • • UIColumn .restoreView(javax.the base class for all user interface components in JavaServer Faces. a menu item. UICommand . including the ability to invoke application actions via the default ActionListener mechanism.an interface that may be implemented by any concrete UIComponent that wishes to support a local value.implementations must throw this FacesException when attempting to restore the view StateManager.an interface that must be implemented by any UIComponent that wants to be a naming container. String) results in failure on postback.faces.an extension of ValueHolder that describes additional features supported by editable components.

it is for display purposes only.12 .a convenience base class for components that wish to implement NamingContainer functionality. the object for the current row is exposed as a request attribute under the key specified by the var property. The user cannot manipulate this component. by storing it as the value property of the component. optionally retrieved from a model tier bean via a value binding expression. identified by a clientId.a UIComponent that has a value.faces.13 the java. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.the UIComponent that represents the root of the UIComponent tree. it just serves as the root of the component tree. UISelectMany .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of a zero or more items from among a discrete set of available options. which is the current value of this component itself (typically established via a ValueBinding). The user can modify the selected value.a component that may be nested inside a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component. it is for display purposes only. UIMessage . the component can be preconfigured with zero or more currently selected items. the component can be preconfigured with a currently selected item. UINamingContainer . The user can modify the selected values. The user cannot directly modify the rendered value. During iterative processing over the rows of data in the data model.This component is responsible for displaying messages for a specific UIComponent. by storing them as an array in the value property of the component.a UIComponent that represents a single boolean (true or false) value. UIParameter . UIInput .a UIComponent that supports data binding to a collection of data objects represented by a DataModel instance. This component has no rendering. UISelectItem . UIPanel .a UIComponent that represents an input form to be presented to the user.a UIComponent that manages the layout of its child components. UIForm .component. and causes the addition of a SelectItem instance to the list of available options for the parent component. It is most commonly rendered as a checkbox. that is displayed to the user.This component is generally rendered as a select box or a group of checkboxes.a UIComponent that represents a component that both displays output to the user (like UIOutput components do) and processes request parameters on the subsequent request that need to be decoded.html package 162 . UISelectBoolean .The renderer for this component is responsible for obtaining the messages from the FacesContext and displaying them to the user. and whose child components represent (among other things) the input fields to be included when the form is submitted. UIMessages . UIOutput .a UIComponent that represents the user's choice of zero or one items from among a discrete set of available options.a UIComponent that displays a graphical image to the user. UIGraphic . Optionally. Optionally.javaserver faces • UIData . UIViewRoot . UISelectOne .a UIComponent that represents an optionally named configuration parameter for a parent component.

represents a component that looks up a localized message in a resource bundle. optionally uses it as a MessageFormat pattern string and substitutes in parameter values from nested UIParameter components.represents an HTML a element for a hyperlink that acts like a submit button. and requires JavaScript to be enabled in the client.javaserver faces Contains HTML related classes. HtmlGraphicImage . HtmlOutputText . HtmlDataTable . render a span element and pass them through as attributes on the span. HtmlPanelGroup . This is useful in scenarios where a parent component is expecting a single component to be present. On a redisplay. HtmlOutputFormat .represents a set of repeating data (segregated into columns by child UIColumn components) that will be rendered in an HTML table element. and renders the result. any previously entered value will not be rendered (for security reasons) unless the redisplay property is set to true.represents an HTML form element.renders the component value as text. HtmlColumn . or not. the rendererType property must be set to "javax. This component must be placed inside a form. based on the value of the value • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 163 .renders child components in a table. Child input components will be submitted unless they have been disabled.causes all child components of this component to be rendered. The label text is specified by the component value. HtmlMessages . HtmlSelectBooleanCheckbox .represents an HTML input element for a button of type submit or reset.represents an HTML textarea element.represents an HTML input element of type checkbox.Message". used to retrieve and render a graphical image. HtmlInputText .represents an HTML input element of type password. HtmlInputHidden .represents an HTML input element of type hidden. HtmlInputSecret . optionally wrapping in a span element if CSS styles or style classes are specified.represents an HTML input element of type text. but the application wishes to render more than one. HtmlOutputLabel . HtmlPanelGrid .faces. HtmlCommandButton .by default.faces.12 . HtmlForm . the rendererType property must be set to "javax. used to define an accessible label for a corresponding input element. HtmlCommandLink . starting a new row after the specified number of columns. HtmlMessage .represents an HTML label element.by default.represents an HTML a (hyperlink) element that may be used to link to an arbitrary URL defined by the value property. HtmlInputTextarea . HtmlOutputLink . This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.Messages" This value can be changed by calling the setRendererType() method.represents a column that will be rendered in an HTML table element. The checkbox will be rendered as checked.represents an HTML img element. If the "dir" or "lang" attributes are present.

each phase of the request processing lifecycle. showing either all available options or the specified number of options.convert package 164 .represents a single-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of typeradio.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. showing a single available option at a time.allows the Faces API to be unaware of the nature of its containing application environment. It is passed to. • • • • • • 12.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. HtmlSelectManyListbox . ResponseWriter . FacesContextFactory .an interface describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for binary output. HtmlSelectManyMenu . ResponseWriterWrapper . • • HtmlSelectManyCheckbox . HtmlSelectOneListbox . and the rendering of the corresponding response. this class allows JavaServer Faces based applications to run in either a Servlet or a Portlet environment. HtmlSelectOneMenu .an abstract class describing an adapter to an underlying output mechanism for character-based output. and potentially modified by. The default implementation of all methods is to call through to the wrapped ResponseWriter. initialized for the processing of the specified request and response objects.faces.contains all of the per-request state information related to the processing of a single JavaServer Faces request. ResponseStream .a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns new FacesContext instances. • • • • 12.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element.15 the java.provides a simple implementation of ResponseWriter that can be subclassed by developers wishing to provide specialized behavior to an existing ResponseWriter instance. HtmlSelectOneRadio . showing a single available option at a time.represents a multiple-selection component that is rendered as a set of HTML input elements of type checkbox.represents a single-selection component that is rendered as an HTML select element. FacesContext .context package Contains the following classes: ExternalContext . showing either all available options or the specified number of options.14 the java.faces.12 .javaserver faces property. In particular.

VariableResolver .an exception thrown by the getAsObject() or getAsText() method of a Converter. to indicate that the requested conversion cannot be performed. 12.represents a pluggable mechanism for accessing a "property" of an underlying Java object instance. ValueBinding . • • • • 165 .1 the interface Converter Converter is an interface describing a Java class that can perform Object-to-String and Stringto-Object conversions between model data objects and a String representation of those objects that is suitable for rendering. on an instance that is acquired by evaluatng the leading portion of a method binding expression via a ValueBinding.12 .represents a pluggable mechanism for resolving a top-level variable reference at evaluation time.an object that can be used to access the property represented by an action or value binding expression. The classes implementing this interface within this package are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • BigDecimalConverter BigIntegerConverter BooleanConverter ByteConverter CharacterConverter DateTimeConverter DoubleConverter EnumConverter FLoatConverter IntegerConverter LongConverter NumberConverter ShortConverter The package also contains one exception: • ConverterException .javaserver faces 12. PropertyResolver .15.el package Contains classes and interfaces for evaluating and processing reference expressions.16 the java.faces.an object that can be used to call an arbitrary public method. Classes: MethodBinding .

a generic base interface for event listeners for various types of FacesEvents. ValueChangeListener . PhaseListener . • • • • Classes: ActionEvent .represents the beginning or ending of processing for a particular phase of the request processing lifecycle. FacesEvent . • • • • • One exception .thrown by event listeners to terminate the processing of the current event. FacesListener .the base class for user interface and application events that can be fired by UIComponents.javaserver faces Exceptions: EvaluationException . MethodNotFoundException .typesafe enumeration of the legal values that may be returned by the getPhaseId() method of the FacesEvent interface.represents the activation of a user interface component (such as a UICommand).interface implemented by objects that wish to be notified at the beginning and ending of processing for each standard phase of the request processing lifecycle.12 .an exception caused by a method name that cannot be resolved against a base object.listener interface for receiving ValueChangeEvents. PhaseId .an exception reporting a syntax error in a method binding expression or value binding expression. ValueChangeEvent . PropertyNotFoundException .listener interface for receiving ActionEvents. • • • • 12.faces. for the request encapsulated by the specified FacesContext. and event implementation classes. Interfaces: ActionListener .a notification that the local value of the source component has been change as a result of user interface activity.AbortProcessingException . ReferenceSyntaxException .17 the java. PhaseEvent .event package Contains interfaces describing events and event listeners.an exception reporting an error that occurred during the evaluation of an expression in a MethodBinding or ValueBinding. 166 .an exception caused by a property name that cannot be resolved against a base object.

Renderer . ListDataModel . DataModelEvent .javaserver faces 12.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an individual Java object.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a JSTL Result object. The LifecycleFactory class is a factory object that creates (if needed) and returns Lifecycle instances.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps a ResultSet of Java objects.faces. The Lifecycle class manages the processing of the entire lifecycle of a particular JavaServer Faces request.a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an array of Java objects.lifecycle package This package contains 2 classes.a subclass of SelectItem that identifies a set of options that will be made available as a subordinate "submenu" or "options list". SelectItem .20 the java. typically representing the results of executing an SQL query via JSTL tags. ResultSetDataModel .model package Contains the interface DataModelListener and several classes providing standard model data beans for JavaServer Faces.faces. DataModel . • • • • • • • • • 12. Classes: ArrayDataModel . Note that the specified ResultSet MUST be scrollable.faces.represents a single item in the list of supported items associated with a UISelectMany or UISelectOne component.converts the internal representation of UIComponents into the output stream • 167 .render package Contains classes defining the rendering model. 12. depending upon the requirements of the UISelectMany or UISelectOne renderer that is actually used. ScalarDataModel . ResultDataModel .a convenience implementation of DataModel that wraps an List of Java objects.represents an event of interest to registered listeners that occurred on the specified DataModel.18 the java.12 .an abstraction around arbitrary data binding technologies that can be used to adapt a variety of data sources for use by JavaServer Faces components that support per-row processing for their child components (such as UIData).19 the java. SelectItemGroup .

and advertises a set of render-dependent attributes that it recognizes for each supported UIComponent.validator package Interface defining the validator model. which perform the actual rendering process for each component. markup language. A ValidatorException is an exception thrown by the validate() method of a Validator to indicate that validation failed.faces. Implementation classes: • • • DoubleRangeVlidator . The package contains an exception.webapp package Contains classes required for integration of JavaServer Faces into web applications. Typically.represents a collection of Renderer instances that. RenderKits are specialized for some combination of client device type. and/or user Locale. A Validator implementation is a class that can perform validation (correctness checks) on a EditableValueHolder.12 . AttributeTag . and concrete tag implementations for core tags. LongRangeValidator .the helper class to StateManager that knows the specific rendering technology being used to generate the response. • RenderKit . RenderKitFactory . base classes for JSP custom component tags. if the component does not already contain an attribute with the same name.a factory object that registers and returns RenderKit instances. Implementations of JavaServer Faces must provide at least a default implementation of RenderKit.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values.faces. ConverterTag . as well.a Validator that checks the value of the corresponding component against specified minimum and maximum values LengthValidator .a Validator that checks the number of characters in the String representation of the value of the associated component. A RenderKit also acts as a Factory for associated Renderer instances. ResponseStateManager . and concrete validator implementation classes.Tag implementation that adds an attribute with a specified name and String value to the component whose tag it is nested inside. including a standard servlet.22 the java.javaserver faces (or writer) associated with the response we are creating for a particular request. 12.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Converter instance on the ValueHolder associated with our most immediate • • 168 .21 the java. know how to render JavaServer Faces UIComponent instances for a specific client. Each Renderer knows how to render one or more UIComponent types (or classes). • • 12. together.

but basically. the JSF life cycle must ensure that the view is correct before rendering the view. When the model is updated. When a web server receives a request.a servlet that manages the request processing lifecycle for web applications that are utilizing JavaServer Faces to construct the user interface. related to a UIComponent. Several kinds of request/response cycles can occur in a JSF-enabled application. the process includes a few more components or pages. UIComponentTag .the JSP mechanism for denoting a UIComponent is to be added as a facet to the component associated with its parent. the presentation of data (the view) is separate from its representation in the system (the model). JSP pages have a relatively simple life cycle. telling the view to update its presentation. that request is passed to the container. the controller sends a message to the model. the controller is the 169 . ValidatorTag . UIComponentBodyTag . In MVC. that need to process their tag bodies.a base class for all JSP custom actions.the base class for all JSP custom actions that correspond to user interface components in a page that is rendered by JavaServer Faces. When using JSF. In JSF. each request/response flow that involves JSF follows a certain life cycle. When the user takes some action with the presentation. the JSF system includes a phase for validating inputs and another for updating the model only after all inputs pass validation. 12.javaserver faces surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. The delivery of user actions or page events is delayed until a new connection is established. User actions in JSF-generated views take place in a client that does not have a permanent connection to the server. servlets. Also. We are concerned with these three request/response pairs: • • • Non-JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates JSF response JSF request generates non-JSF response Of course. the controller sends a message to the view. you can also have a non-JSF request that generates a non-JSF response. a small set of classes processes a request and sends back a response. which passes the request to the page class. You can have a request that comes from a previously rendered JSF page (a JSF request) and a request that comes from a non-JSF page (a non-JSF request). The page class processes the request and then writes the response back to the client. FacetTag . telling the model to update its data.12 . you can have a JSF response or a non-JSF response. the life cycle is more complicated. When other pages are included or the request is forwarded. Because this does not involve JSF in any way. The JSF life cycle must handle this delay between event and event processing. • • • • • FacesServlet .23 the JSF lifecycle Regardless of whether you are using JSF with JSP pages. To ensure that the business state is never invalid. or when an exception occurs. which has several implications. the JSF life cycle does not apply.a base class for all JSP custom actions that create and register a Validator instance on the EditableValueHolder associated with our most immediate surrounding instance of a tag whose implementation class is a subclass of UIComponentTag. A JSP page source is compiled into a page implementation class. or some other web technology. Likewise. This is because the core of JSF is the MVC pattern. the model is composed of business objects that are usually implemented as JavaBeans.

• Apply Request Values: Any data that was sent as part of the request is passed to the appropriate UI objects that compose the view. depending on the request. the thread of execution for a request/response cycle can flow through each phase. the model would be partially updated and in an invalid state. If this is a subsequent request. These objects update their state with the data values. Data for some components. Conversion is needed when the data type of a property is not a String or a Java primitive. As with the previous phase. Data can come from input fields in a web form. and a piece of data failed validation. The components are stored in a component tree. in the order listed here and as shown in the figure below. and the state of the UI view is saved for subsequent requests.javaserver faces JSF implementation. The state of the UI components is saved so that the component tree can be restored when the client sends another request. not every request will flow through all six phases. the JSF implementation must create the view. However. the conversion occurs in this phase. is validated at this time. the action method of any command button or link that was activated is called. • Render Response: The response UI components are rendered. and the UI components are the view. For a JSF-enabled application. In addition. and the response is sent to the client. If this is the client’s first visit to a page. it creates UI objects for each view component.12 . any events that were generated during previous phases and that have not yet been handled are passed to the web application so that it can complete any other processing of the request that is required. such as components that create HTML input fields. the business objects that make up the application are updated with the validated data from the request. This is because if the JSF implementation began to update the business objects as data was validated. 170 . and what happens during the processing and response. or from request headers. In addition. if any of the data needs to be converted to a different format to update the model (for example. converting a String to a Date object). this does not yet update the business objects in the application. from cookies sent as part of the request. • Process Validations: The data that was submitted with the form is validated (if it was not validated in the previous phase). the saved UI view is retrieved for the processing of the current request. When a JSF implementation creates and renders a JSFenabled page. Note that this does not yet update the business objects that compose the model. the JSF implementation restores the objects and data structures that represent the view of the request. The JSF life cycle has six phases as defined by the JSF specification: • Restore View: In this phase. • Invoke Application: During this phase. • Update Model Values: After all validations are complete. It updates only the UI components with the new data.

if at any point in the life cycle the request processing is complete and a non-JSF response is to be sent to the client.javaserver faces In the above figure. if errors occur during any of the phases.12 . the flow of execution transfers immediately to the Render Response phase. If data fails validation in either the Apply Request Values or Process Validations phase. you can see a number of optional paths through the life cycle. 171 . the flow of execution can exit the life cycle without completing further phases. skipping any remaining phases. information about the error is saved and processing proceeds directly to the Render Response phase. For example. Also. One way this might occur is if input data is incorrect or invalid.

relative to the DNS entry Wiz. 13. This syntax is sometimes called the naming system's naming convention. the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) maps machine names (such as www.5). 172 . NDS. as well as enabling the applications to coexist with legacy software and systems. 13.com) to IP addresses (such as 192. JNDI is also defined independent of any specific naming or directory service implementation.COM. names a file hello in the file directory usr. It enables applications to access different.1 names To look up an object in a naming system. DNS. such as LDAP.JNDI 13. you supply it the name of the object.COM names a DNS entry with the name sales. in turn. Thus the DNS name sales. which is located in the root of the file system. you are always naming one object or another.COM.1 what is JNDI? JNDI is an API specified in Java technology that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written in the Java programming language. For example.9. This enables Java technology-based applications to take advantage of information in a variety of existing naming and directory services. For example. JNDI provides methods for performing standard directory operations. The DNS entry Wiz. you must provide the name of the recipient to whom you want to send mail. To access a file in the computer. possibly multiple.2 naming concepts A fundamental facility in any computing system is the naming service--the means by which names are associated with objects and and objects are found based on their names. you must supply its name.48. c:\bin\autoexec. and NIS(YP).bat) to a file handle that a program can use to access the contents of the file. A file system maps a filename (for example.sun. For example.Wiz. naming and directory services using a common API. The UNIX pathname. names an entry with the name Wiz in the COM entry.JNDI 13 . or objects typically used by computer programs. The DNS naming convention calls for components in the DNS name to be ordered from right to left and delimited by the dot character (". such as addresses. These two examples also illustrate the wide range of scale at which naming services exist--from naming an object on the Internet to naming a file on the local file system.2. A naming service allows you to look up an object given its name. A naming service's primary function is to map people-friendly names to objects. The naming system determines the syntax that the name must follow. Using JNDI. for example. /usr/hello. In addition.13 . Different naming and directory service providers can be plugged in seamlessly behind this common API. when you use an electronic mail system. applications based on Java technology can store and retrieve named Java objects of any type."). the UNIXTM file system's naming convention is that a file is named from its path relative to the root of the file system. identifiers. When using almost any computer program or system. with each component in the path separated from left to right using the forward slash character ("/"). such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. It is designed especially for the Java platform using Java's object model.

might contain the state of the printer. Typically. for example. Using the reference. Thus the LDAP name cn=Rosanna Lee. The DNS contains bindings that map machine names to IP addresses. A printer object. A name in one context object can be bound to another context object (called a subcontext) that has the same naming convention. unbinding names. A file object. Although in general a reference can contain any arbitrary information. In another example. Every context has an associated naming convention. and listing bound names. in the UNIX file system is a context. it is a much more compact representation that can be used to communicate with the object. and its flight number and departure time. The reference is a much more compact representation of information about the airplane object and can be used to obtain additional information. A file directory named relative to another file directory is a subcontext (some UNIX users refer to this as a subdirectory). 13. such as c=us. also called a file handle.COM. this tutorial uses "object" to refer to both objects and object references when a distinction between the two is not required. while the object itself might contain more state information. For example. and fuel and instrument status. some objects cannot be stored directly. For example. that is. in the DNS domain Sun. For example. an airplane object might contain a list of the airplane's passengers and crew. Instead. A DNS domain named relative to another DNS domain is a subcontext.13 . The LDAP has the further rule that each component of the name must be a name/value pair with the name and value separated by an equals character ("="). is a context. for example. on the other hand.2. For example. An LDAP entry named relative to another LDAP entry is a subcontext. a DNS domain. relative to the entry o=Sun. a copy of the object cannot be placed inside the naming service. such as its print server name and printing protocol.2. is a context. By contrast. c=US names an LDAP entry cn=Rosanna Lee. the entry o=sun is a subcontext of c=us. such as its current queue and the amount of paper in the paper tray. 13. is accessed using a file reference. is relative to c=us. delimited by the comma character (". in the an LDAP entry o=sun.2 bindings The association of a name with an object is called a binding. A context provides a lookup (resolution) operation that returns the object and may provide operations such as those for binding names. 13. An LDAP name is bound to an LDAP entry."). they must be stored by reference. which in turn. A reference is information about how to access an object. For simplicity. such as /usr. you can contact the object and obtain more information about the object. Finally.4 context A context is a set of name-to-object bindings. o=Sun. the directory bin is a subcontext of usr. an LDAP entry.c=us. in a file directory /usr/bin. For example.2. such as COM. an airplane object reference might contain only its flight number and departure time. that is. That is.3 references and addresses Depending on the naming service. it is useful to refer to its contents as addresses (or communication end points): specific information about how to access the object. its flight plan. might contain only information on how to reach the printer. a pointer or reference to the object is placed inside the naming service. A printer object reference. 173 . a file name is bound to a file.JNDI The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) naming convention orders components from right to left. the DNS domain Sun is a subcontext of COM. a file directory.

3 directory services Many naming services are extended with a directory service. A computer's directory service is very much like a telephone company's directory service in that both can be used to store information such as telephone numbers and addresses. Going now back to the rationality of this chapter. postal mail address. a system that implements the DNS is a naming system. A directory object can be used. for example. A file system offers a naming service that maps filenames to files and directories. because it is available online and can be used to store a variety of information that can be utilized by users. The DNS namespace contains names of DNS domains and entries. It maps a subscriber's name to his address and phone number. to represent a printer.13 . The computer's directory service is much more powerful.3. An attribute identifier is a token that identifies an attribute independent of its values. This association between a name Which leads to a list of constraints: • within a given context. For example. various telephone numbers. a computer. a printer might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes its speed.1 attributes A directory object can have attributes. An example is the telephone company's directory service. A system that communicates using the LDAP is a naming system. A naming system provides a naming service to its customers for performing naming-related operations. two different computer 174 . and color. to some extent. however. the UNIX file system has a namespace consisting of all of the names of files and directories in that file system. and even the computer itself and other computers. you not only can look up an object by its name but also get the object's attributes or search for the object based on its attributes. A namespace is the set of names in a naming system.5 naming systems and namespaces A naming system is a connected set of contexts of the same type (they have the same naming convention) and provides a common set of operations. The LDAP offers a naming service that maps LDAP names to LDAP entries. and computer account information. 13. And it kind of makes sense. Thus. For example. A user might be represented by a directory object that has as attributes the user's e-mail address. The LDAP namespace contains names of LDAP entries. A naming service is accessed through its own interface. A directory service associates names with objects and also allows such objects to have attributes. A directory object represents an object in a computing environment. For example. resolution. For example. An attribute has an attribute identifier and a set of attribute values. one context can be viewed. the DNS offers a naming service that maps machine names to IP addresses. because we can. or a network. in a first and raw approximation as a node in one of these trees.JNDI If we imagine all the resources available for us as a collection of rooted trees. programs. a person. 13. a name is unique 13. identify a web application with its root directory (a node in the file system directory tree). For example.2. A directory object contains attributes that describe the object that it represents. remember that a naming serviced associates names with real objects (resources).

113. The query is called a search filter. 13. an organization object.com".smith@somewhere. Similarly. that is. Directory-enabled Java applications and applets.3. for example. printers. can use the directory as an address book for retrieving the addresses of mail recipients. This style of searching is sometimes called reverse lookup or content-based searching. The service is accessed through its own interface.3 searches and search filters You can look up a directory object by supplying its name to the directory service. 13. they play the role of naming contexts in addition to that of containers of attributes.JNDI accounts might have a "mail" attribute. A Java mail client program. For example. When directory objects are arranged in this way. The SunONE Directory Server is a general-purpose directory service based on the Internet standard LDAP. and users. you can simplify applications and their administration by centralizing the storage of shared information. For example. Many examples of directory services are possible.13 . removing. you can supply not a name but a query consisting of a logical expression in which you specify the attributes that the object or objects must have. The Novell Directory Service (NDS) is a directory service from Novell that provides information about many networking services. A directory service is a service that provides operations for creating. A Java mail transfer agent program can use it to retrieve mail routing information. might contain group objects that might in turn contain person objects. And a Java calendar program can use it to retrieve user preference settings.3.3. such as those based on the LDAP. the LDAP arranges all directory objects in a tree. The email address. like any other program running on the network. As the use of the Java programming language to write practical applications in a network environment increases. adding. support the notion of searches. The directory service searches for and returns the objects that satisfy the search filter. 13.4. 13. you can query the directory service to find all users that have the attribute "age" greater than 40 years. "mail" is the attribute identifier. such as that relating to machines. When you search.1 traditional use of the directory A directory-enabled application is an application that uses a naming or directory service. Within the DIT.4 directory-enabled java applications Directory service is a vital component of network computing. By using a directory service. you can query it to find all machines whose IP address starts with "192. Network Information Service (NIS) is a directory service available on the Solaris operating system for storing system-related information. such as the file and print services. networks. can use the directory in the traditional way. for example. for example. called a directory information tree (DIT).50". 175 . Alternatively. many directories. 13. might have an attribute identifier of "mail" and the attribute value of "john. An attribute value is the contents of the attribute. to store and retrieve attributes of directory objects.2 directories and directory services A directory is a connected set of directory objects. the ability to access directory services will become essential.4 combining naming and directory services Directories often arrange their objects in a hierarchy. and modifying the attributes associated with objects in a directory.

When using the JNDI as a Standard Extension on the JDK 1. printer configuration and mail routing information can be stored in the directory so that it can be replicated and distributed for use by all printer-related and mailrelated applications and services.naming.3 includes three service providers for the following naming/directory services: • • • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Common Object Services (COS) name service Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry Other service providers can be downloaded from the JNDI Web site or obtained from other vendors.3 and later releases. The JNDI is divided into five packages: • • • • javax. For example. The SPI enables a variety of naming and directory services to be plugged in transparently. you must first download the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5. a Java print client program should be able to look up a printer object from the directory and send a data stream to the printer object for printing. thereby allowing the Java application using the JNDI API to access their services. Java applications use the JNDI API to access a variety of naming and directory services.1 and the Java 2 SDK. you must have the JNDI classes and one or more service providers.5. Thus a variety of directories--new.2 the directory as an object store In addition to using the directory in the traditional way.naming. It is defined to be independent of any specific directory service implementation.1 architecture The JNDI architecture consists of an API and a service provider interface (SPI).5 the JNDI API The Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) is an application programming interface (API) that provides naming and directory functionality to applications written using the Java TM programming language.naming. It extends the v1.directory javax. 13.1 and v1. more coherent and manageable.naming javax. emerging. v1. that is to store and retrieve Java objects. 13. v1.JNDI Applications can share the common infrastructure provided by the directory.2. This sharing makes applications that are deployed across the system.event javax.2 packaging The JNDI is included in the Java 2 SDK. 13. v1. and already deployed--can be accessed in a common way.4. v1.ldap 176 .2.1 and Java 2 SDK. To use the JNDI.13 . 13. For example. and even the network. The Java 2 SDK. It is also available as a Java Standard Extension for use with the JDK 1.2 platforms to provide naming and directory functionality. Java applications can also use it as a repository for Java objects.

13. Each binding is represented by an instance of the Binding class. comparing components. the name of the object's class.6. a Name argument that is an instance of CompositeName represents a composite name .JNDI • javax. it is potentially a much more expensive operation.String names are likely to be more useful for simple applications. such as those that simply read in a name and look up the corresponding object. Printer printer = (Printer)ctx. A binding is a tuple containing the name of the bound object.4 references Objects are stored in naming and directory services in different ways.lang.6.lang. Java programs are but one group of applications that access them.3 bindings listBindings() returns an enumeration of name-to-object bindings. printer. However. the following code fragment looks up a printer and sends a document to the printer object to be printed. The overloads that accept java.print(report). In this case. some naming and directory services do not support the storing of Java objects. Although listBindings() provides all of the same information. (Names are covered in the Beyond the Basics trail. composing them.) The overloads that accept Name are useful for applications that need to manipulate names. which is the core interface for looking up. NameClassPair contains an object's name and the name of the object's class. For example.spi 13.naming.String name argument represents a composite name. that is. except that it returns an enumeration of NameClassPair.6. Name is an interface that represents a generic name--an ordered sequence of zero or more components.6. A Name argument of any other type represents a compound name. A service that supports storing Java objects might support storing an object in its serialized form.6 the naming package The javax. 13. list() is useful for applications such as browsers that want to discover information about the objects bound within a context but that don't need all of the actual objects.lookup("treekiller"). You supply lookup() the name of the object you want to look up.1 context The javax.String name. and the object itself. Furthermore.lang. For the methods in the Context interface. list() is similar to listBindings(). and it returns the object bound to that name. 13.naming package defines a Context interface. so you can name an object using a name that spans multiple namespaces. and so on. a 177 . 13. for some objects in the directory. renaming objects and creating and destroying subcontexts. binding/unbinding.2 names Every naming method in the Context interface has two overloads: one that accepts a Name argument and one that accepts a java.13 . A java.naming package contains classes and interfaces for accessing naming services. The most commonly used operation is lookup() .

13 . For example.1 the directory context The DirContext interface represents a directory context. 13. all naming and directory operations are performed relative to a context. which provides a starting point for naming and directory operations. a directory object for a person might contain attributes about that person as well as provide a context for naming objects. you can use it to look up other contexts and objects. The JNDI will attempt to turn references looked up from the directory into the Java objects that they represent so that JNDI clients have the illusion that what is stored in the directory are Java objects. Other overloaded forms of search() support more sophisticated search filters. This means that any directory object can also provide a naming context. A reference might be a very compact representation of an object. A reference contains information on how to construct a copy of the object.6. 178 . 13. the application specifies a set of attributes--possibly with specific values--to match and submits this attribute set to the search() method. whereas its serialized form might contain a lot more state (see the Naming Concepts lesson). It defines methods for examining and updating attributes associated with a directory object.5 the Initial context In the JNDI.6. The JNDI defines the Reference class to represent a reference. Programs interested in dealing with a particular exception can catch the corresponding subclass of the exception. There are no absolute roots. The root of this class hierarchy is NamingException.naming.JNDI serialized Java object might not be the most appropriate representation. or remove attributes and/or attribute values using this operation.7. 13.7. In the simplest and most common form of usage. DirContext also behaves as a naming context by extending the Context interface.directory package extends the javax. InitialContext. they should catch NamingException. replace.naming package to provide functionality for accessing directory services in addition to naming services. 13. You use getAttributes() to retrieve the attributes associated with a directory object (for which you supply the name).2 searches DirContext contains methods for performing content-based searching of the directory. This package allows applications to retrieve attributes associated with objects stored in the directory and to search for objects using specified attributes. such as the person's printers and file system relative to that person directory object. You can add.6 exceptions The JNDI defines a class hierarchy for exceptions that can be thrown in the course of performing naming and directory operations. 13.7 directory package The javax. Attributes are modified using modifyAttributes(). Otherwise. Once you have an initial context. Therefore the JNDI defines an initial context.

the LDAP v3 also specifies unsolicited notifications--messages that are sent from the server to the 179 . the LDAP v3 (RFC 2251) specifies a way to transmit yet-to-be defined operations between the LDAP client and the server.3 unsolicited notifications In addition to the normal request/response style of interaction between the client and server. Listeners A NamingListener is an object that listens for NamingEvents. that is. Request controls and response controls are not necessarily paired. This package is primarily for those applications that need to use "extended" operations.13 .naming.8 event package The javax." A NamingEvent also contains other information about the change." and those that do not. and vice versa. 13.naming. such as "object added. A control sent with a request is a request control and a control sent with a response is a response control .ldap package contains classes and interfaces for using features that are specific to the LDAP v3 that are not already covered by the more generic javax. This package defines classes for the Start TLS extension. An "extended" operation may be defined by a standards organization such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) or by a vendor. Once registered. most JNDI applications that use the LDAP will find the javax. the listener will receive event notifications when the corresponding changes occur in the naming/directory service.1 "extended" operation In addition to specifying well-defined operations such as search and modify. 13. These operations are called "extended" operations. 13.ldap package at all.9 LDAP package The javax. In fact. For example. or unsolicited notifications. Events A NamingEvent represents an event that is generated by a naming/directory service.9.naming. For example.directory package sufficient and will not need to use the javax. such as information about the object before and after the change. controls. To receive event notifications. A control may be defined by a standards organization such as the IETF or by a vendor.2 controls The LDAP v3 allows any request or response to be augmented by yet-to-be defined modifiers. The event contains a type that identifies the type of event.directory package.JNDI 13.9. called controls .naming. event types are categorized into those that affect the namespace. there need not be a response control for each request control sent.9. 13. Event notification is described in detail in the Beyond the Basics trail. Each category of event type has a corresponding type of NamingListener. a listener must be registered with either an EventContext or an EventDirContext. a NamespaceChangeListener represents a listener interested in namespace change events and an ObjectChangeListener represents a listener interested in object change events. such as "object changed.event package contains classes and interfaces for supporting event notification in naming and directory services.naming.

That is. for example to pass on the operation to be continued in the next naming system. You do not need to understand details about the service provider at this point.1 plug-In architecture The javax.10. This package also provides support for doing the reverse. create a file named Lookup. These implementations include those for the initial context and for contexts that can be reached from the initial context. one service provider might need to interact with another service provider. In the process of completing an operation. sending request controls. if you look up a printer name from the directory. Therefore the name that you supply to the program must be a filename. 180 .spi package provides the means by which developers of different naming/directory service providers can develop and hook up their implementations so that the corresponding services are accessible from applications that use the JNDI.bind() and related methods can accept Java objects and store the objects in a format acceptable to the underlying naming/directory service. 13. 13. 13.3 multiple naming systems (federation) JNDI operations allow applications to supply names that span multiple naming systems. import javax.lookup() and related methods to return Java objects that are natural and intuitive for the Java programmer.naming package. 13. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.naming.JNDI client asynchronously and not in response to any client request.4 the LDAP context The LdapContext interface represents a context for performing "extended" operations.spi package supports implementors of Context.naming. 13. and receiving response controls.11. then you likely would expect to get back a printer object on which to operate.9.13 .Context. Examples of how to use these features are described in the Controls and Extensions lesson.java.10. This support is provided in the form of object factories.1 importing the JNDI classes Using your favorite text editor.naming. This package provides support for different providers to cooperate to complete JNDI operations. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces.2 java object support The javax. This support is provided in the form of state factories.spi package allows different implementations to be plugged in dynamically. 13.10 service provider package The javax.naming.11 naming example This example shows you how to write a program that looks up an object whose name is passed in as a command-line argument.10. 13. It uses a service provider for the file system. implementors of Context. For example.

java). v1. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause.println(name + " is bound to: " + obj). See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. 13.sun. create an initial context.11. Object obj = ctx. For this reason. The following code looks up the object bound to the name supplied in the command line. then the compiler will create a file named Lookup.RefFSContextFactory").put(Context.naming. Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).3 looking up an Object Next.3.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.out.NamingException.class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Lookup.jar that you downloaded from the JNDI Web site or by installing jndi.lookup() to look up an object. import javax. env.11.2 creating an initial context In the main() method of the program. then the JNDI classes are already included. using the capitalization shown. as follows. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.11.err. Otherwise.jndi. If the compilation succeeds.lookup(name). If you are using the Java 2 SDK. "com.11. Hashtable env = new Hashtable().13 . // Look up an object Object obj = ctx. 13.fscontext. you must have access to the JNDI classes. To compile to program. If the compilation fails.InitialContext.jar as an installed extension. // Print it System. you need to enclose these calls inside a try/catch clause. How to set up the parameters for this constructor is explained in more detail in The Basics trail. then see the Common Problems lesson for help. try { // Create the initial context Context ctx = new InitialContext(env).println("Problem looking up " + name + ":" + e).lookup(name). use Context.naming. Indicate that you're using the file system service provider by setting the environment properties parameter (represented by a Hashtable class) to the InitialContext constructor. 181 . If you are still having problems. } catch (NamingException e) { System. you compile the source file using the Java compiler.4 catching NamingException The creation of the initial context and the lookup() method can throw a NamingException.JNDI import javax. } 13. you can include the classes either by setting the CLASSPATH variable to include the jndi.5 compiling the program Next. 13.

naming. env. See the compilation step for instructions on including access to the JNDI classes.jndi. javax.ldap. as follows: # java Lookup /tmp Or as follows: # java Lookup \autoexec.RefFSContext@1dae083f If the name that you supplied is a file.bat If you supply a file directory. Hashtable env = new Hashtable(). the file system service provider.sun. javax.naming and javax.naming.2 creating an initial directory context In the main() method of the program.12.12 directory example This example shows you how to write a program that retrieves attributes from a directory object. 13.11. include the directory that contains your Lookup. You can import either the entire package or only individual classes and interfaces. you need access to the JNDI classes.DirContext.sun.jar). Finally.Attributes.naming.directory. and your example class (Lookup.jar and providerutil. env. then you will see something like the following.NamingException. create an initial directory context. javax.class file in your the CLASSPATH variable. then you will see something like this: /tmp/f is bound to: //tmp/f 13. v1.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY.put(Context. To run the program. This is similar to creating an initial context in the previous naming example. 13.12.fscontext. 182 . except that you use the constructor for InitialDirContext. # java Lookup /tmp /tmp is bound to: com. "com.InitialDirContext.directory.LdapCtxFactory").put(Context.jndi. See the Preparations lesson for details on how to install the JNDI classes and service providers. either include them in your CLASSPATH variable or install them as extensions.1 importing the JNDI directory classes Using your favorite text editor.class).6 running the program To run the program. It uses an LDAP service provider to access an LDAP service. supply the name of a file in your file system.naming. To include the file system service provider classes (fscontext.PROVIDER_URL.3.Context.directory packages. create a file named Getattr.java. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). Note that these archive files are not included with the Java 2 SDK. import import import import import javax.JNDI 13. javax.naming.directory.naming. The following code imports each class that is used from the javax.13 .

13. If you are still having problems.4 extracting the desired attribute From a set of attributes. 183 . For this reason.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel. 13.13 . to do this you need access to the JNDI classes. you indicate that you're using the LDAP service provider by setting the Hashtable parameter to the InitialDirContext constructor appropriately. ou=People"). Details on how to set up the parameters for this constructor are given in The Basics trail. Attributes.java).class in the same directory (folder) as the Java source file (Getattr. try { // Create the initial directory context DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env).get() and then from that attribute get its value.get(). then the compiler creates a file named Getattr. // Ask for all attributes of the object Attributes attrs = ctx. If your LDAP server is located on another machine or is using another port.12. If the compilation succeeds. then see the Common Problems lesson for help.out. you can ask for a particular attribute by using Attributes. For now.println("sn: " + attrs. If the compilation fails.get("sn").getAttributes("cn=Ted Geisel.JNDI DirContext ctx = new InitialDirContext(env). you need to wrap these calls inside a try/catch clause. then you need to edit the LDAP URL ("ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial") accordingly.12. Here's the code fragment repeated with the try/catch clause. } catch (NamingException e) { System. } 13.println("Problem getting attribute:" + e). As with the naming example.err. using the capitalization shown. use getAttributes() to get an object's attributes.12. The following code retrieves all of the attributes associated with the object bound to the name "cn=Ted Geisel.12. 13. the only thing to understand is that the program by default identifies an LDAP server on the local machine. ou=People": Attributes attrs = ctx. The following line first gets the surname attribute "sn" and then invokes Attribute. then make sure that you typed in and named the program exactly as shown here.3 getting a directory Object's attributes Next.get()). Instructions for setting up a sample LDAP server for this tutorial are given in the Preparations lesson. // Find the surname attribute ("sn") and print it System.5 catching NamingException The method calls shown so far can throw a NamingException.6 compiling the program Next. Similar to the naming example. compile the source file using the Java compiler. ou=People").get() on it to get its value: attrs.

7 running the program As with the naming example.put(Context.jar). You also need access to the LDAP service provider classes (ldap.13 . Getattr.jar and providerutil.class. If you have any trouble running this example. Once it has the attributes. "ldap://localhost:389/o=JNDITutorial"). then see the Common Problems lesson. it extracts the surname attribute ("sn"). (See the Preparations lesson for details on this configuration step. you need access to both the JNDI classes and your example class. serving the "o=JNDITutorial" namespace.12. # java Getattr sn: Geisel Recall that the program was configured with the following property. this command queries the LDAP server on machine localhost that is listening on port 389. If you are using the Java 2 SDK. With this configuration. Here's an example of a command line for running Getattr and the output it generates. env.JNDI 13.) It asks for the attributes of the entry "cn=Ted Geisel.3. 184 .PROVIDER_URL. v1. then these classes are already included. ou=People".

an object that contains the data being transferred between JMS clients. It is characterized by following: • • • Only one consumer will get the message The producer does not have to be running at the time the consumer consumes the message. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages. JMS consumer . JMS topic . nor does the consumer need to be running at the time the message is sent Every message successfully processed is acknowledged by the consumer The publish/subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message topic. A message is removed from the queue once it has been read. JMS client . Here. the producer knows the destination of the message and posts the message directly to the consumer's queue. JMS is a part of the Java Platform. a producer posts messages to a particular queue and a consumer reads messages from the queue. Enterprise Edition. A good metaphor for it is anonymous bulletin board. The following are characteristics of this model: • • Multiple consumers can get the message There is a timing dependency between publishers and subscribers. and is defined by a specification developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 914.a staging area that contains messages that have been sent and are waiting to be read. neither the publisher nor the subscriber know about each other. Zero or more subscribers may register interest in receiving messages on a particular message topic. JMS producer .1 JMS elements The Java Message Service (JMS) API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) API for sending messages between two or more clients.a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.a JMS client that creates and sends messages. the messages are delivered in the order sent.An implementation of the JMS interface for a Message Oriented Middleware (MOM). The following are JMS elements: • • • • • • JMS provider . JMS message . JMS queue .JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. The publisher has to create a subscription in order for clients to be able to subscribe. • 14. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM.2 JMS models The JMS API supports two models: • • point-to-point or queuing model publish and subscribe model In the point-to-point or queuing model.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14 .an application or process that produces and/or consumes messages.a JMS client that receives messages.14 . In this model. unless it has established a durable 185 . As the name queue suggests.

4 the JMS API The JMS API is provided in the Java package javax.jms. Depending on the type of message. and then use populate and send or publish the messages. users will use either a queue connection factory or topic connection factory.4. In that case. JMS clients access the connection factory through portable interfaces so the code does not need to be changed if the underlying implementation changes. 186 .14 . Using Java.3 the JMS API programming model 14. 14. messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. On the receiving side.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE subscription. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data. 14.1 the ConnectionFactory interface An administered object that a client uses to create a connection to the JMS provider. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic. Administrators configure the connection factory in the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) namespace so that JMS clients can look them up. the clients then receive or subscribe to the messages. The same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the JNDI information for the desired provider.

lookup("jms/MyQueue"). It is either a queue or a topic. Connections implement the Connection interface.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE At the beginning of a JMS client program. the following line of code performs a JNDI lookup of the previously created topic jms/MyTopic and casts and assigns it to a Destination object: Destination myDest = (Destination) ctx. For example. JMS administered objects are normally placed in the jms naming subcontext.3 the Destination interface An administered object that encapsulates the identity of a message destination. Like the connection factory. Before an application completes. For example.2 the Connection interface Once a connection factory is obtained. It receives messages sent to a destination. In a J2EE application. connection. a connection to a JMS provider can be created. A connection represents a communication link between the application and the messaging server. Failure to close a connection can cause resources not to be released by the JMS provider. 14. The JMS administrator creates these objects. Then it assigns it to a ConnectionFactory object: Context ctx = new InitialContext(). ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (ConnectionFactory) ctx. 14. and users discover them using JNDI. The consumer can receive messages synchronously (blocking) or asynchronously (non-blocking) for both queue and 187 .close(). When you have a ConnectionFactory object. you usually perform a JNDI lookup of a connection factory.createConnection(). you must call the connection's start() method. The following line of code looks up a queue named jms/MyQueue and casts and assigns it to a Queue object: Queue myQueue = (Queue) ctx. you call the stop() method.4.4.4 the MessageConsumer interface An object created by a session.14 . 14. If you want to stop message delivery temporarily without closing the connection. then cast and assign it to a ConnectionFactory object. you must close any connections that you have created.4. Before your application can consume messages. Depending on the connection type. the administrator can create two types of destinations: queues for Point-to-Point and topics for Publish/Subscribe.lookup("jms/ConnectionFactory"). which is where messages are delivered and consumed. connections allow users to create sessions for sending and receiving messages from a queue or topic. the following code fragment obtains an InitialContext object and uses it to look up a ConnectionFactory by name. you can use it to create a Connection: Connection connection = connectionFactory. Closing a connection also closes its sessions and their message producers and message consumers.lookup("jms/MyTopic").

setMessageListener(myListener).createConsumer(myTopic). depending on the type of destination for which the message consumer was created.start(). if you define a class named Listener that implements the MessageListener interface. Message m = consumer.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE topic-type messaging. usually expect a specific message type and format. Message delivery does not begin until you start the connection you created by calling its start() method. In the onMessage() method. Message m = consumer. You can use the close() method for a MessageConsumer to make the message consumer inactive. 188 . MessageConsumer consumer = session.start(). which your implementation of the method can cast to any of the other message types. however.createConsumer(myQueue). if it needs to reply to messages. The same listener can obtain messages from either a queue or a topic.14 . A message listener is not specific to a particular destination type. (Remember always to call the start() method. // time out after a second To consume a message asynchronously. You can use this method at any time after you call the start method: connection. you can register the message listener as follows: Listener myListener = new Listener().createDurableSubscriber() method to create a durable topic subscriber. which contains one method. (If you call start() before you register the message listener. forgetting to start the connection is one of the most common JMS programming errors. You register the message listener with a specific MessageConsumer by using the setMessageListener() method. The onMessage() method takes one argument of type Message.4. you use a Session to create a MessageConsumer for either a queue or a topic: MessageConsumer consumer = session. onMessage(). and you can use it to receive messages. 14.5 the MessageListener interface A message listener is an object that acts as an asynchronous event handler for messages. a message listener must either assume a particular destination type or obtain the destination type of the message and create a producer for that destination type.receive().receive(1000). you call the start() method on the Connection to begin message delivery. This method is valid only if you are using a topic. After you have created a message consumer. For example. a message listener object may be used. you define the actions to be taken when a message arrives. This object implements the MessageListener interface. connection. you are likely to miss messages. You use the Session. Moreover. For example. consumer.) You use the receive method to consume a message synchronously.) When message delivery begins. the JMS provider automatically calls the message listener's onMessage() method whenever a message is delivered. it becomes active. A message listener does. After you register the message listener.

The user can create a sender to a specific destination or create a generic sender that specifies the destination at the time the message is sent. With an unidentified producer. // msg_text is a String producer.14 .send(message).createProducer(myQueue). from one application to another.setText(msg_text). message. You must first create the messages. The following code fragment uses the getText method: Message m = consumer. Here. message). map message.4. stream message. a message arrives as a generic Message object and must be cast to the appropriate message type. you might use the following statements: TextMessage message = session. you do not specify a destination until you send a message.send(myQueue.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE 14. You can use one or more getter methods to extract the message contents. For example: MessageProducer anon_prod = session. A set of message properties (optional): Contains additional properties to support compatibility with other providers or users.createProducer(myTopic). A message body (optional): Allows users to create five types of messages (text message. if (m instanceof TextMessage) { TextMessage message = (TextMessage) m. The JMS API provides methods for creating messages of each type and for filling in their contents. A message has three main parts: 1. A message header (required): Contains operational settings to identify and route messages 2. use an overloaded send method that specifies the destination as the first parameter. and the second for the destination myTopic: MessageProducer producer = session. You use a Session to create a MessageProducer for a destination. the first example creates a producer for the destination myQueue. You can create an unidentified producer by specifying null as the argument to createProducer.createTextMessage(). The message interface is extremely flexible and provides numerous ways to customize the contents of a message. MessageProducer producer = session. and object message). 3. 14. that is. After you have created a message producer.7 the Message interface An object that is sent between consumers and producers. For example.receive(). if you created an unidentified producer. bytes message. anon_prod. 189 .4. It can be used to create custom fields or filters (selectors).createProducer(null).send(message). At the consuming end. you can use it to send messages by using the send method: producer.6 the MessageProducer interface An object created by a session that sends messages to a destination. to create and send a TextMessage.

8 the Session interface Represents a single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. A session is singlethreaded so that messages are serialized. the second indicates that message acknowledgment is not specified for transacted sessions. you use it to create a Session: Session session = connection.out. } else { // Handle error } 14.JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE System. the session context holds a group of messages until the transaction is committed. If the user selects transaction support. To create a transacted session. and message consumers to receive messages. 0).14 . Before committing the transaction. 190 . use the following code: Session session = connection. A session allows users to create message producers to send messages. Sessions implement the Session interface. then delivers the messages.getText()).createSession(false. The benefit of a session is that it supports transactions.createSession(true. the user can cancel the messages using a rollback operation. Session. the first argument means that the session is transacted. The first argument means that the session is not transacted. Here. the second means that the session automatically acknowledges messages when they have been received successfully. meaning that messages are received one-by-one in the order sent.println("Reading message: " + message. After you create a Connection object.4.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE).

What are Enterprise Java Beans? A collection of Java classes together with an xml file.intended to be used by a single client (client extension on the server).logging.jar file into the application server.0.1 enterprise java beans versus (ordinary) java beans (Ordinary) Java beans provide a format for general-purpose components. The Java classes must follow certain rules and must offer certain callback methods. server which provides an execution environment for containers. 15. the container lives (in general) in an application server.DB interaction transactions . On the other side.15 . Entity beans have been superseded by the Java Persistence API in EJB 3. message-driven beans The 2.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15 . It provides annotations for every type of metadata previously addressed by deployment descriptors.1 of EJB specification provides two EJB types: • • session beans . Novelties in this specification try to make the development of EJBs easier. while the EJB (Enterprise Java Beans) architecture provides a format for highly specialized business logic components. The EJBs will run in an EJB container which is part of an application server.EJB access can be stated without extra coding error handling . bundled into a single unit.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15.no developer coding. These services are: • • • • • • • persistence .transaction management can be complex. Version 1.0. The main reason for using EJBs is to take advantage of the services provided by the container. improved performance security .object oriented representation of data in a DB.0 EJB specification adds another bean type: • The current EJB specification is 3.2 the ejb container and its services The EJB container provides an execution environment for a component. especially if we have more databases and more access components data caching .consistent error handling framework . bean's life span can be no longer than client's entity beans . container which offers services to the component. multiple clients can access it simultaneously while its life-span is the same as the data it represents. so no XML descriptor is needed and beans deployment can be done just through a plain . component recovery scalability portability 191 . The component lives inside a container.

15 . It provides methods named create() with application specific arguments.3 enterprise java beans architecture An EJB consists of (at least) 3 classes and an xml file. returning the remote interface and throwing CreateException and RemoteException. the remote interface of the bean 4.xml 15.4 the home interface The home interface of an ejb is an interface that extends the EJBHome interface. The methods specified by the EJBHome interface (not implemented (in general) by the programmer) are the following: public void remove(Handle han) throws RemoteException. It uses only argument types allowed by the RMI standard. It is bean's programmer task to create them (at least). which is an xml file. as follows: 1. the bean itself (the class that contains the business logic ) 2. the home interface of the bean 3.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • manageability 15. RemoveException public EJBMetaData getEJBMetaData() throws RemoteException public HomeHandle getHomeHandle() throws RemoteException 192 . Handle – abstraction for a network reference to an EJB. the deployment descriptor. RemoveException public void remove(Object primaryKey) throws RemoteException. called ejb-jar.

The developer does not implement this interface.ejb. } 15. called MyBeanHome: package myBeans. RemoveException Code example for a remote interface called MyBeanObject: package myBeans.5 the remote interface The remote interface of a bean is a standard Java interface that extends the EJBObject and Remote interfaces and declares the business logic methods of the bean.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Code example for the a home interface.javax.*.*.rmi. void deleteEntry(int custId) throws RemoteException. import.ejb.15 . public interface MyBeanHome extends EJBHome { MyBeanObject create() throws CreateException.RemoteException. int custId) throws RemoteException. RemoteException. import java. String lastName.javax. } 193 . public interface MyBeanObject extends EJBObject { // assume that we have two business logic methods void processEntry(String firstName.RemoteException. the EJBObject declares the following ones: public EJBHome getEJBHome() throws RemoteException public Object getPrimaryKey() throws RemoteException public Handle getHandle() throws RemoteException public boolean isIdentical(EJBObject obj) throws RemoteException public void remove() throws RemoteException. While the Remote interface declares no methods. import.rmi. import java.

put(Context. } 194 .jnp. getting the InitialContext requires the usage of some server-side properties. how to release its resources The client is able to create an EJB through an object implementing the EJBHome interface. getting an initial context if the client is another EJB executing in the same container and the bean to be used is declared as a resource in the deployment descriptor. Here is an example: • try { Properties prop = new Properties(). creating them for the client application.interfaces. how to create or find the bean 2. "localhost:1099"). Context ctx = new InitialContext(prop). implemented by an object built by the EJB host in the deployment process. The client gains access to the EJB through a remote interface.put(Context. we need to know: 1. what methods to use (know its interface) 3.NamingContextFactory".15 . This object acts like a factory for EJBs. prop. prop.6 client programmer's viewpoint For an EJB client application.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. Here are the main parts of the client code: authentication Client's authentication is done in a way which is server specific. this can be done (for example) through SSL.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY. the InitialContext is already available: • Context ctx = new InitialContext().PROVIDER_URL. if the client executes outside the container. "org. In the case of an web application.

This is done through the javax. the method will return you an Object that needs to be casted to the home interface we've asked for.Remote interface).15 . create an instance of the bean The instance of the bean is created on the server. 195 . the client should use the narrow() method of javax. more specifically.lookup("MyBean").e. do implements the java. Problem is. using the narrow() method. but for generic languages. the code may look like: • Object homeRef = ctx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/MyBean"). It is normally used to describe this communication system using the Java RMI over IIOP. • if the client executes outside the container. The underlying protocol that it is used for the communication is IIOP (Internet Inter ORB Protocol). Java RMI-IIOP provides a mechanism to narrow the the Object you have received from your lookup. the bean can be associated to any name in the JNDI name space. cast the home interface reference To make sure that the client works with the underlying communication protocol. that is part of CORBA standards.narrow(homeRef.rmi.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS find the home interface of the bean for a client executing inside the container.rmi. the client has a stub). do not have the concept of casting. and this means that there are some limitations. in fact.class). IIOP has not been designed for Java. Some languages. when we perform a lookup() on a Context object. in fact.rmi. Why? For EJB. It is JNDI's task to identify the resource associated to the name provided: Object homeRef = ctx.PortableRemoteObject class and. this cannot be done using the normal/explicit casting: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)returnedObject The reason has to do with CORBA. to the appropriate type. The client only has a remote interface to this instance (i. Why do we have to use the narrow() method? Usually. the communication between the server and the client is based on RMI (both remote and local interfaces.PortableRemoteObject: MyBeanHome myHome = (MyBeanHome)PortableRemoteObject.. MyBeanHome.

ejb.ccards. int custId) { // method implementation . Assuming that our bean (called MyBean) is a session bean. set which is specific to each major type of beans (session or entity). 15.7 bean programmer's viewpoint Since the home interface and the remote interface have been detailed in the previous sections. as well).bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Here is the code: MyBeanObject myObject = myHome. we concentrate now on the bean class itself.remove(). the bean class must implement (although the implementation itself may be empty) a certain set of methods..ejbeans.15 .. the code implementing this class may look like this: package com. call business methods on the bean myObject.SessionContext.processEntry("Dumitrascu"... 1102). Besides the implementation of the business methods (which were declared in the remote interface. public class MyBean implements javax.SessionBean { public void processEntry(String firstName. "Vasile". import javax. } public void deleteEntry(int custId) { // method implementation .create(). String lastName. } // mandatory methods for session beans // method implementations may be empty public void ejbCreate() {} public void ejbRemove() {} public void ejbActivate() {} 196 . remove the bean instance myObject.ejb.

it can evict stateful session beans from memory.10 the life cycle of a stateful session bean Figure 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS public void ejbPassivate() {} public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) {} } The deployment descriptor of the bean will be detailed in another section. that is. A stateful session bean preserves data between client accesses. When an EJB server needs to conserve its resources. When a client invokes a method on the EJB object. 15. public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void ejbCreate() public void ejbRemove() public void setSessionContext(SessionContext ctx) The first two methods will never be called for stateless session beans.15 . A stateless bean does not. 15. the bean's state is serialized to a secondary storage.1 illustrates the stages that a session bean passes through during its lifetime.8 session beans There are two types of session beans. The client initiates the life cycle by invoking the create method. the object is activated.9 container callbacks for session beans There are 5 mandatory callbacks for classes implementing the SessionBean interface. The EJB container instantiates the bean and then invokes the setSessionContext and ejbCreate methods in the session bean. This reduces the number of instances maintained by the server. 197 . a new stateful instance is instantiated and populated from the passivated storage. because the container will never activate a stateless session bean. The bean is now ready to have its business methods invoked. 15. namely stateful and stateless beans. To passivate the bean and preserve its conversational state.

the bean by moving it from memory to secondary storage. (Typically. At the end of the life cycle. If a client invokes a business method on the bean while it is in the passive stage. the EJB container uses a least-recentlyused algorithm to select a bean for passivation.1 are invoked by the EJB container. the client invokes the remove method. for example. The bean's instance is ready for garbage collection. Figure 15.) The EJB container invokes the bean's ejbPassivate method immediately before passivating it. its life cycle has only two stages: nonexistent and ready for the invocation of business methods. the EJB container may decide to deactivate.1 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean While in the ready stage. calls the bean's ejbActivate method.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. and then moves it to the ready stage. 15. and the EJB container calls the bean's ejbRemove method. 198 .11 the life cycle of a stateless session bean Because a stateless session bean is never passivated. is inside the bean class. or passivate. All other methods in Figure 15. For example. Your code controls the invocation of only two life-cycle methods: the create and remove methods in the client. The ejbCreate method. the EJB container activates the bean. allowing you to perform certain operations right after the bean is instantiated.2 illustrates the stages of a stateless session bean. you might wish to connect to a database in the ejbCreate method.15 .

maintaining a cache between transactions 4. providing all the persistence management code (no SQL code necessary) There are 2 main types of entity beans.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15.13 primary keys Every entity bean has a primary key. equals() 199 .12 entity beans Entity beans represent actual data (usually.2 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 15. container callbacks to manage caching within a transaction 2. stored in a Database). • • CMPs (Container Managed Persistence) BMPs (Bean Managed Persistence) for which the bean developer provides the actual persistence (SQL) code 15. The EJB container provides the developer several persistence services: 1. support for concurrent access 3. The requirements that must be satisfied by the primary key are different for the two main types of entity beans.15 . For BMPs: • • the primary key can be any legal RMI/IIOP type it must provide suitable implementations for hashCode(). This primary key must be represented by a primary key class.

when a client calls create() on an entity bean's home interface.14. On the other side. an instance of that bean is created.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • must have a unique value among beans of a particular type For CMPs: • • the container must be able to create a primary key the key class must have a no argument constructor The fully qualified name of the primary key is always specified in the deployment descriptor (except when it is not known until deployment) An example: <prim-key-class>com. state data is stored into data store (usually. a Database) (we actually insert a record in a database). Each create() method from the Home interface of the bean has 2 correspondent methods in the bean implementation class. the field is specified: <prim-key-field>sportsTeamID</prim-key-field> 15.String</prim-key-class> In the case of CMP using a simple type as primary key. namely ejbCreate() and ejbPostCreate(). all throwing RemoteException.lang. Update and Delete. 15. as the parameters in the original create() method. an entity bean must implement (although this implementation may be left empty) the following methods: public void ejbActivate() public void ejbPassivate() public void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx) public void unsetEntityContext() CRUD translates through Create.CustomerID</prim-key-class> or <prim-key-class>java. We can have more create() methods. in the same order.15 . This is transactional data that is accessible to multiple clients. Read.ccards.14 mandatory callbacks for entity beans Besides the CRUD callbacks which are discusses later in this section. CreateException. 200 .1 create When a client calls a create() method on a session bean's home interface. These methods are mandatory for entity beans. methods which have the same parameters.

causing the EJB container to call the ejbCreate and ejbPostCreate methods. actual SQL update code. it's business methods can be invoked.15 the life cycle of an entity bean Figure 15. for BMPs. The EJB container assigns an identity to an instance when moving it to the ready stage. The setEntityContext method passes the entity context to the bean. 15. but in general. After the EJB container creates the instance. Second. While an entity bean is in the ready stage. 201 . but needs actual SQL code in BMP the bean's persistence implementation may choose to defer loading until it is used ejbLoad() may contain processing code 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS • • the return type of the ejbCreate() is the same as the primary key. the client invokes the create method.14. While in the pooled stage. the method can be used for preprocessing data to be stored. which causes the EJB container to call the ejbRemove method. the updated data is to be stored immediately 15. the instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity.15 . the EJB container invokes the ejbActivate method.14.3 shows the stages that an entity bean passes through during its lifetime.4 delete • • the corresponding method in the bean implementation class is ejbRemove() data is deleted from DB (in the CMP case). a client can invoke the remove method. the programmer will create actual SQL code. but the developer returns null for CMP. not null. the entity bean moves to a pool of available instances. ejbCreate() must have insertion SQL code and returns an instance of the primary key. for BMP. On the first path. After instantiation. All instances in the pool are identical.14. it calls the setEntityContext method of the entity bean class. On the second path. There are two paths from the pooled stage to the ready stage. There are also two paths from the ready stage to the pooled stage. left empty most of the time in CMP. the EJB container can invoke the ejbPassivate method. 15.2 read • • • ejbLoad(). First.3 update • • ejbStore() in CMP. it is empty. in BMP.

or a Web component .3 Life Cycle of an Entity Bean At the end of the life cycle. Therefore. In the pooled state. In the pooled state.16 message-driven beans A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows J2EE applications to process messages asynchronously.an application client.or by a JMS application or system that does not use J2EE technology.getPrimaryKey(). the EJB container removes the instance from the pool and invokes the unsetEntityContext method.15 . another enterprise bean. it does not automatically set the primary key. the ejbCreate and ejbActivate methods must assign a value to the primary key. You can make these instance variables eligible for garbage collection by setting them to null in the ejbPassivate method. when the EJB container moves an instance from the pooled state to the ready state. which is similar to an event listener except that it receives messages instead of events. 202 . With bean-managed persistence. It acts as a JMS message listener.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. the values of the instance variables are not needed. an instance is not associated with any particular EJB object identity. The ejbActivate method sets the primary key (id) as follows: id = (String)context. 15. If the primary key is incorrect. the ejbLoad and ejbStore methods cannot synchronize the instance variables with the database. The messages may be sent by any J2EE component . Message-driven beans currently process only JMS messages. but in the future they may be used to process other kinds of messages.

message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: • • message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15. 15. or an object reference to an enterprise bean object. If message processing is rolled back. the container calls the message-driven bean's onMessage method to process the message. allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. When a message arrives.16. and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. message-driven bean can be used. message-driven beans have no home or remote interface. A message may be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context. If this element is set to more than one. The onMessage method may call helper methods.3 differences between message-driven beans and stateless session EJBs Although the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances. by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. • • • a message-driven bean's instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client. To receive messages in an asynchronous manner. only concurrent processing for Queues was supported. a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean. For more information on this element see. In several respects. you may prefer not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component.16.16. Previously.for example. or it may invoke a session or entity bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database. but not asynchronously.16. a message-driven bean has only a bean class. 15. change the weblogic-ejb-jar. To ensure concurrency. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently. 15.2 differences between message-driven beans and the other ejb's The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session and entity beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces.xml deployment descriptor maxbeans-in-free-pool setting to >1. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application's business logic. all instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent.4 concurrent support for message-driven beans Message-driven Beans support concurrent processing for both topics and queues. a single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly. The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages . 203 . the container will spawn as many threads as specified. so that all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction.1 when to use message-driven beans Session beans and entity beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously. an open database connection. rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls.15 . the message will be redelivered. max-beans-infree-pool. To avoid tying up server resources. Unlike a session or entity bean. a JMS API connection.

0 specification provides detailed guidelines for defining the methods in a messagedriven bean class. you must follow certain conventions described in the JavaSoft EJB 2.16.15 . The bean can utilize elements of this context as described in Using the Message-Driven Bean Context.}.. 15. // The throws clause (if used) must not include an application //exception. finalize{}. as well as observe several general practices that result in proper bean behavior.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 15..0 specification: { public class MessageTraderBean implements javax. and must take a single parameter of // type javax.7 bean class requirements The EJB 2. Obtain a new bean instance... call the bean's setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the instance with a container context. Call the bean's onMessage() method to perform business logic. public void onMessage(javax. or create a new one. onMessage() must not be // declared as final or static. If the bean cannot be located in the pool and a new one must be created. // The EJB class cannot define a finalize() method } Creating and Removing Bean Instances The WebLogic Server container calls the message-driven bean's ejbCreate() and ejbRemove() methods when creating or removing an instance of the bean class. The throws clause (if used) must not // include an application exception.0 specification.} // ejbRemove() is required and must not accept parameters. // An EJB constructor is required.6 developing message-driven beans To create message-driven EJBs. See Implementing Business Logic with onMessage().16.} // onMessage() is required. 2. 15. ejbRemove() must not be declared as final or static. and it must not // accept parameters.. the ejbCreate() method in the bean class should prepare any resources that are 204 .16. and method declarations in bold are required as part of the EJB 2.Message.jms. methods. The following output shows the basic components of a message-driven bean class. Obtain a new bean instance from the connection pool if one already exists. Note: These instances can be pooled.5 invoking a message-driven bean When a JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.jms.Message MessageName) {.MessageDrivenBean public MessageTraderBean() {. 3. See Creating and Removing Bean Instances. Classes.ejb. As with other EJB types. public void ejbRemove() {. The constructor must not be declared as // final or abstract.. use WebLogic Server to call an associated message-driven bean as follows: 1.

the client context is not passed along with the JMS message. although individual onMessage() calls to a given messagedriven bean instance are serialized. 15. WebLogic Server provides the EJB with a container context. because future messages are forwarded to a new instance that WebLogic Server creates.16. If any method throws such an exception.11 transaction services for message-driven beans As with other EJB types. Calling getEJBHome() from within a message-driven EJB instance yields an IllegalStateException. 15. However. message-driven EJBs do not have a home interface. message-driven beans can demarcate transaction boundaries either on their own (using bean-managed transactions). passing the full JMS message object as an argument. Make sure that the business logic accounts for asynchronous message processing. or by having the WebLogic Server container 205 . getUserTransaction(). 15.15 .8 using the message-driven bean context WebLogic Server calls setMessageDrivenContext() to associate the message-driven bean instance with a container context. Instance pooling within the container means that messages are not received or processed in a sequential order. 15.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS required for the bean's operation.16. Note: Although getEJBHome() is also inherited as part of the MessageDrivenContext interface. so that they are freed before WebLogic Server removes the instance.MessageListener.10 handling exceptions Message-driven bean methods should not throw an application exception or a RemoteException. if the EJB throws a runtime exception). WebLogic Server calls onMessage() when the EJB's associated JMS Queue or Topic receives a message.This is not a client context. It is the messagedriven EJB's responsibility to parse the message and perform the necessary business logic in onMessage(). from the client perspective the EJB still exists.16.9 implementing business logic with onMessage() The message-driven bean's onMessage() method performs all of the business logic for the EJB. The ejbRemove() method should release those resources. Message-driven beans should also perform some form of regular clean-up routine outside of the ejbRemove() method. even in onMessage().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. it cannot be assumed that the EJB receives messages in the order they were sent by the client. because the beans cannot rely on ejbRemove() being called under all circumstances (for example.The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes containermanaged transaction demarcation. whose properties can be accessed from within the instance by using the following methods from the MessageDrivenContext interface: • • • • • getCallerPrincipal() isCallerInRole() setRollbackOnly().The EJB can use this method only if it utilizes beanmanaged transaction demarcation.16. For example. WebLogic Server immediately removes the EJB instance without calling ejbRemove(). getRollbackOnly() . See javax.jms.onMessage() for more information.

WebLogic Server always calls a bean's onMessage() method by using the transaction context specified in the bean's deployment descriptor.12 message receipts The receipt of a JMS message that triggers a call to an EJB's onMessage() method is not generally included in the scope of a transaction. Because no client provides a transaction context for calls to a message-driven bean.xml as follows: <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>MyMessageDrivenBeanQueueTx</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> 15. a message-driven bean does not receive a transaction context from the client that sends a message.16. beans that use container-managed transactions must be deployed using the Required or NotSupported transaction attribute in ejb-jar. WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges a message when the EJB transaction commits. Transaction attributes are defined in ejb-jar.xml. For EJBs that use bean-managed transactions.0 specification. as required by the EJB 2.15 . WebLogic Server automatically acknowledges messages for EJBs with bean-managed transactions. you edit the XML file to create the deployment descriptors that associate the EJB with a configured JMS destination.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS manage transactions (container-managed transactions).0 specification adds the following new XML deployment elements for deploying 206 . as described in the EJB 2. 15. the message receipt is always outside the scope of the bean's transaction.16.14 deployment elements The EJB 2.16. both the receipt and the acknowledgment of a message occur outside of the EJB transaction context. WebLogic Server includes the message receipt as part of the bean's transaction only if the bean's transaction attribute is set to Required.0 specification. If the EJB uses bean-managed transactions. but the deployer can configure acknowledgment semantics using the jms-acknowledge-mode deployment parameter.13 message acknowledgment For message-driven beans that use container-managed transaction demarcation. In either case. For EJBs that use container-managed transaction demarcation. Deploying Message-Driven Beans in WebLogic Server To deploy a message-driven bean on WebLogic Server. Deployment Descriptors The deployment descriptor for a message-driven bean also specifies: • • • • Whether the EJB is associated with a JMS Topic or Queue Whether an associated Topic is durable or non-durable Transaction attributes for the EJB JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transactions 15.

For each instance. It calls the instance's ejbCreate method. </message-driven> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS message-driven beans. This element has two possible values: AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE (the default) or DUPS_OK_ACKNOWLEDGE.MessageTraderBean</ejb-class> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> <message-driven-destination> <jms-destination-type> javax. the EJB container instantiates the bean and performs these tasks: 1.. the weblogic-ejb-jar.ejb20. The EJB container usually creates a pool of message-driven bean instances. 207 . • • These elements are defined in the ejb-jar.jms.17 the life cycle of a message-driven bean Figure 15. </enterprise-beans> In addition to the new ejb-jar. 2.0 specification. jms-acknowledge-mode specifies the JMS acknowledgment semantics to use for beans that demarcate their own transaction boundaries..4 illustrates the stages in the life cycle of a message-driven bean.xml elements.. as described in the EJB 2.Topic </jms-destination-type> </message-driven-destination> . The following excerpt shows a sample XML stanza for defining a message-driven bean: <enterprise-beans> <message-driven> <ejb-name>exampleMessageDriven1</ejb-name> <ejb-class>examples. 15. It calls the setMessageDrivenContext method to pass the context object to the instance. • message-driven-destination specifies whether the EJB should be associated with a JMS Queue or Topic destination.15 . subscription-durability specifies whether or not an associated Topic should be durable.message..xml file includes a new message-driven-descriptor stanza to associate the message-driven bean with an actual destination in WebLogic Server.xml deployment file.

like transaction. This information can be divided into two main categories: • • structural information related to a particular EJB. and it has only two states: nonexistent and ready to receive messages.security issues. isolation level.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Figure 15. control descriptors . security 208 . EJB class name 5. access control entries . session specific elements 9. the container calls the ejbRemove method.specifies control attributes for transactions 4.18 the deployment descriptor The deployment descriptor of an EJB contains information about the bean in relation to the application it belongs to. bean home name . environment properties 6. attributes . application assembly information Although not an exhaustive one. the remote interface name 8.name under which the bean is registered under JNDI 3. a message-driven bean is never passivated. The bean's instance is then ready for garbage collection. At the end of the life cycle.15 . 15. which users can access a bean or a particular method of a bean 2. here is a typical list of entries (elements) in a deployment descriptor: 1. entity specific elements 10. the home interface name 7.4 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean Like a stateless session bean.

ejb.CCEnrollObject</remote> <ejb-class>com.Account</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.ccards.lang. here is how the deployment descriptor may look like: <?xnm version="1.bank11.bank11.ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS Keeping in mind that the application assembler is to follow.15 .ccards.bank11.ejb.ejb.ccards.bank11.bank11.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.1"?> <ejb-jar> <entrprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <home>com.ccards.ccards.AccountObj</remote> </ejb-ref> <security-role-ref> <description> This role relates to cash advances from ATMs </description> <role-name>CashAdvATM</role-name> <security-role-ref> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Account</ejb-name> <home>com.AccountHome</home> <remote>com.Accountbject</remote> <ejb-class>com.ccards.bank11.bank11.ccards.CCEnrollHome</home> <remote>com.ejb.ccards.Integer</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-field> <field-name>accountNumber</field-name> 209 .bank11.CCEnroll</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container<transaction-type> <ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/CCAccount</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Entity</ejb-ref-type> <home>com.

. Here is a very lean one: </ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>userName</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>customerID</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <prim-key-field>accountNumber</prim-key-field> </cmp-field> <env-entry> <env-entry-name>env/minPaymentPerc</env-entry-name> <env-entry-type>java.Float</env-entry-type> <env-entry-value>2.5</env-entry-value> </env-entry> </entity> </enterprise-beans> </ejb-jar> The assembly descriptor combines EJBs into a deployable application.15 .. </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>CCEnroll</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar> 210 .lang.

15 .ENTERPRISE JAVA BEANS 211 .

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